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# 5. Calculate the atomicity of a gas 'X', if 1g. of 'X' occupies 11,200 cc at s.t.p. [at wt.

of 'K' =lJ

1

a]

weighs

[MOLE]

..

1 g.

b]

22400 x 1

## occupies 11,200 cc. at s.t.p. =

11200

WT.

g. mol. wt.
At. wt ..

Atomicity =

2 [calculated]
1 [given]

= 2 [g. mol.
=2

:. Atomicity of 'X'

=2

wt.]

- Ans.

6. 0.48g of a gas forms 100cm3 of vapours at s.t.p. Calculate the gram molecular wt of the gas.
Solution:

a]

c

:. (22.4 x

1000)cm3

7.

will occupy

'

[MOLE]

22400 x 0.48
100

b]

## [G. MOL. WT.]

0.48 g.

..

22,400 cc.

at s.t.p.

[VOLUME]
100 c.c.

occupies

at s.t.p.

[VOLUME]

WEIGHT

Calculate the weight of a substance X which in gaseous fonn occupies 10 litres at 270C and 700 mm
pressure. The molecular weight of X is 60.
Solution:

## Convert the volume to s.t.p. using the gas equation

Initial conditions
PI = 700 mm ofHg
VI = 10 litres
TI = 27+273 = 300 K
Using the gas equation

## Final Conditions (s.t.p.)

Pz = 760 mm ofHg
Vz = X litres [volume at s.t.p.]
Tz = 273K

PlVI

TI
Substituting the values:

PzVz
Tz

700 x 10
300

760 x X
273

:. V 2

= 700 x 10 x 273

= 8.38 litres

[vol. at s.t.p.]

300 x 760

## 19. mol. wt. of the gas occupies 22.4lits. at s.t.p. a]

1
60 g.
22.4 lits. at s.t.p.
occupies
:. 60 g of gas X occupies
22.4 litres at s.t.p.
[G. MOL. WT.]
? g of gas X occupied by 8.38 litres at s.t.p.
[MOLE]
? g.
occupied by 8.38 lits. at s.t.p.
b]
..
ie. 8.38 x 60 = 22.45 g
[calculated above]
WEIGHT
22.4
:. The weight of the substance X is 22.45 g. - Ans.

8.

## Calculate the gram atoms present in 8 g of oxygen [0=16J.

Gram atom is the relative atomic mass of an element expressed in grams.
G

9.

t
ram a oms

[of oxygen]
8
Mass in grams
=
Relative atomic mass [At. Wt.]
16

= 0.5 g. atoms

- Ans.

## Calculate the gram molecules present in 45 g of water. [H=l, 0=16J

Gram molecule is the relative molecular mass of a substance
Gram molecules

Mass in grams
Relative molecular

[ofwater]
mass [Mol. Wt.]

81

expressed
45
-

18

in grams.

= 2.5 g. molecules

- Ans.

ii]

## 64 g. of 502 occupies 24lits. at room temperature

:.80 g. of 502 occupies?

24x80
64

## iii] 64 g. of 502 contains N molecules of 502

:.0.64 g. of 502 contains?
iv]

molecules

Gram molecules

of 502

## Mass in grams of 502

Mol. wt. of 502
?
=
64

x 0.64 = ~molecules
100

64 x 0.5

of S02 Ans.

32 g. of S02 Ans.

11. Calculate i] the number of moles ii] the total number of molecules iii] the total number of atoms
iv] the number of hydrogen atoms - in 294 g. of sulphuric acid. [H = 1, S = 32, 0 = 16]
Solution:
i]

_1_
[MOLE]

of H2504 weighs

98
contains
[G. MOL. WT.]

## :. ? moles of H2SO4 will weigh 294 g.

ii]

[MOLE]

of H2504 weighs

= 2 + 32 + 16 x 4 = 98
23

6.023 x 10
molecules
[AVOG. NO.]

1 x 294

98

98g.

contains

294 g.

contains

3 moles of H2S04

Ans.

## 6;023 x 1023 molecules

?

molecules
= 3 x 6.023 X

23
6.023 x 10 x 294
98
1023molecules - Ans,

## iii] 1 molecule of H2504 contains 7 atoms. [2(H) + 1(5) + 4(0) = 7]

:. 3 x 6.023 x 1023 molecules of H2504 contains 7 x 3 x 6.023 X 1023 = 21 x 6.023 x 1023 atoms - Ans.
iv]

## 1 molecule of H2504 contains 2 atoms of hydrogen .

.'. 3 x 6.023 x 1023molecules of H2504 contains 2 x 3 x 6.023 X 1023= 6 x 6.023x 1023atoms of hydrogen - Ans.

12. If gases 'A', 'B', 'C' are arranged in increasing in order of their relative molecular mass & the mass of
each gas is 10g. at s.t.p. State which gas will contain the least number of molecules & which the most.
1 Mole of gas' A' weighs

'x' g.

and contains.

6.023

1023

molecules.

## [REL. MOL. MASS]

6.023

contains

10 g. of gas' A'

1023 x 10 molecules.
'X'

5ince gases' A', 'B' and 'C' are in increasing order of relative molecular mass we assume the relative
molecular mass of gas 'B' as '2X' and gas'C' as '3X'. Hence
23
10 g. of gas 'B contains 6.023 x 1023x 10 molecules & 10 g. of gas
contains 6023 x 10 x 10 molecules.
2X
3X

-c

Gas'C'

82

## no. of molecules. - Ans.

13. Calculate the number of moles of zinc [Zn2+J ions and chloride [CIl-] ions which will be obtained from
272 g. of ZnCI2. [Zn = 65, Cl = 35.5J
Solution:

## Relative molecular mass of ZnCl2

1
of ZnCl weighs
[MOLE]
2

..

= 65 + 35.5 x 2 =

136 g.

136 g.
of ZnCl2
[G. MOL. WT.]

i.e.

1 x 272

136

2 moles

## .. ZnCl2 -7 Zn2+ + 2Cll1 mole 1 mole 2 mole

:. 2 mole 2 mole 4 mole
:.372 g. of ZnCl2 furnishes 2 moles of Zn2+ ions & 4 moles of Cl1- ions - Ans.

LAW - PROBLEMS

14. If 100 cc of a gas A contains Y molecules. How many molecules of gas B will be present in 50 cc of B
and of gas C in 25 cc. of C. The gases A, B, & C are under the same conditions of temperature & pressure.

According to Avogadro's Law - Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of
all gases contain the same number of molecules.
:. If 100 cc of gas A contains Y molecules then 100 cc of gas B and gas C also contains

Y molecules.

## Y/z. molecules and 25 cc of gas C contains Y/4 molecules - Ans.

:. 50 cc of gas B contains

15. Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure 021 CI21S021 CO2 contain the same number

of molecules represented by 'Y'. The molecules of oxygen gas occupy V litres and have a mass of 16g.
Under the same conditions, state the volume occupied by - i] Y molecules of chlorine ii] 3Y molecules
of S02 iii] State the mass of CO2 it} grams.
According to Avogadro's Law - under the same conditions of temperature

## all gases contain the same number of molecules.

., If gases under the same conditions have same no. of molecules, then they must have the same volume.
Hence if : 'Y' molecules of 02 occupy V litres, 'Y' molecules of all gases must occupy the same vol. i.e. 'V' litres.
i) Y' molecules of Cl2 also occupies V litres - Ans.
iii] 1 mole of 02 weighs

## ii] 3'Y' molecules of S02 occupies 3V litres - Ans.

:~r.

,occupies

22.4lits. at s.t.p.

:. 16g. of 02

occupies

? i.e

. [G.

WT.]

2;24

16

11.2 lits.

If 16 g. of oxygen occupies 11.2lits at s.t.p. :. the volume of Cl2' S02 and CO2 is also 11.2lits at s.t.p.
44g.
[G. MOL. WT.]

. /'
I

:)'"

:.

? g. of CO2

## occupies 22.4lits. at s.t.p.

occupy 11 .2 lit
1 s. a t s..t p.

x 11.2 = 22 g. 0 f CO 2- A ns.
= 44 22.4

## ~VAPOUR DENSITY & MOLECULAR WEIGHT.- PROBLEMS

16. A gas culinder filled with hydrogen holds 50 g of the gas. The same cylinder holds 200 g of a gas A
and 500 g of gas B. Considering the same conditions of temperature and pressure in the cylinder,

VAPOUR DENSITY
of a gas

## wt. of a certain volume of a gas or Weight of 1 litre of gas Same conditions

Wt. of an equal volume of H2
Weight 1 litre of H2 of temp. & press.

## For Gas A: Vapour Density

250~ = 4

:. Molecular Weight

= 2 x Vapour Density = 2 x 4 = 8 g.

## For Gas B: Vapour Density

5~00 = 10

:. Molecular Weight

= 2 x Vapour Density

## The relative molecular mass of gas A is 8 g and gas B is 20 g. - Ans.

83

=2x

io

= 20 g.

17. A gas cylinder can hold 1kg of hydrogen at room temperature and pressure. Calculate
a} The weight of carbon dioxide it can hold under similar conditions of temperature and pressure,
b} If the number of molecules of hydrogen in the cylinder is X. State the number of molecules of
carbon dioxide in the culinder. [C=12, 0=16, H=l}
Solution:

## Molecular weight of carbon dioxide

Molecular

weight

44
Vapour Density =

2 x Vapour Density

2 x VD.'

12 + 32

= 44

:. V.D. of CO2 =

## Wt. of a certain volume of gas [i.e. C02]

Wt. of the same volume of H2 [same conditions]

44
2

= 22

:. 22

= ? [wt:

of carbon dioxide]
1

= 22

a]

## Weight of carbon dioxide is 22 kg. - Ans.

b]

The number of molecules of CO2 in the cylinder is X (Avogadro's Law - under the same conditions
of temperature & pressure equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules) - Ans.

18. A gas occupies .700 ml at a pressure of 700 mm of Hg and a temperature of 5'JOC.If at s.t.p. the mass
of the gas is 1.5g find the vapour density and the molecular weight of the gas.
(Given 1 litre of hydrogen weighs 0.09 g at s.t.p.)
Solution:

## A} Convert the volume to s.t.p. using the gas equation

Initial conditions
PI =
700mmofHg
VI = 700 ml
TI

57+273

..

## Final Conditions (s.t.p.)

P2 =
760mmofHg
V2 = X ml [volume at s.t.p.}

330 K
PIVI
TI

330

Bl

273 K

. V .. 2 -

760 x 330

P2V2
T2

700 x 700

## Substituting the values :

Ti =

760 x

273

533.37 ml.
[v6.f.,.at s.t.p.]

Calculate the vapour density and the molecular weight of the gas.

533.37 ml. [vol. at s.t.p. calculated above] of the gas at s.t.p. weighs 1.5 g. [given in the problem]
:. 1000 ml of the gas weighs 1.5 x 1000
= 2.8123 g.
533.37
2.8123
VAPOUR DENSITY = Wt. of 1000 ml [1 litre] of the gas at s.t.p.
= 31.25
=
0.09
Wt. of 1000 ml [1 litre] of H2 at s.t.p.
:. Molecular weight

= 2 x VD.

= 2 x 31.25 = 62.5 g.

Vapour density of the gas is 31.25 and molecular weight is 62.5 g. - Ans.

19. KMn04decomposesonheatingaccordingtotheequation2KMn04 ~
KzMn04 + Mn02 + 02
[K2Mn04 &; Mn02 are the solid residues}. On heating KMn04' 1litre of oxygen was collected at room
temp. & it was found the test tube had undergone a loss in mass of 1.32 g. If one litre of hydrogen under the
same conditions of temp. & press. has a mass of 0.0825g. Calculate the relative molecular mass of oxygen.
Solution:

.'

## VAPOUR DENSITY - of oxygen

Weight of 1 litre of oxygen
Vapour Density of oxygen
Relative molecular

## Weight of 1 litre of gas [02]

Weight of 1 litre of H2

1.32
0.0825

mass of oxygen

= 2 x Vapour
84

## under the same conditions of

temperature & pressure

16
Density

= 32 g. -

Ans.

/

## \ LAWS & TERMS

Gay Lussac's Law - When gases react they do so in volumes which bear a simple whole number ratio to one another and to the volumes of the products, if gaseous provided the temperature and pressure of the reacting gases and their products remain constant.

Law - Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Relative atomic mass [Atomic weight] - Relative atomic mass of an element is thenumber of times one atom of an element is heavier than 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon [C12].

. Gram atomic mass [gram atom] - The relative atomic mass of an element expressed ingrams is known as - gram atomic mass or gram atom of that element.
. Relative molecular mass [Molecular weight] - Relative molecular mass of an element or compound is the number of times one molecule of the substance is heavier than 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon [C12].

Gram molecular mass - [gram molecule] - The relative molecular mass of a substance expressed in grams is known as - gram molecular mass or gram molecule of that element.

Vapour density - Is the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of gas or vapour to the mass of the same volume of hydrogen [volumes measured under same condition of temp. & press.].

Mole - Is the amount of substance which contains the same number of units as the number of atoms in 12.000 g of carbon - 12 [6C12].

Atomicity

Molar volume

Number

## - The number of atoms - present in 12 g [gram atomic wt.] of carbon 6C12.

- It is the no. of atoms present in - one molecule of that element. e.g. He [mono atomic]
- It is the volume occupied by - 1 gm. molecular weight of a gas at s.t.p.

PROBLEMS

## Q.l LUSSAC'S LAW

1.

Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to give ammonia. Calculate the volume of the ammonia gas formed
when nitrogen reacts with 6 litres of hydrogen. All volumes' measured at s.t.p.
[4lts.]

2.

2500 cc of oxygen was burnt with 600 cc of ethane [C2H6]. Calculate the volume of unused oxygen
and the volume of carbon dioxide formed.
[400 cc, 1200 cc]

3.

20 ml. each of oxygen and hydrogen and 10 ml. of carbon monoxide are exploded in an enclosure.
What will be the volume and composition of the mixture of the gases when they are cooled to room
temperature.
[Oz 5 ml, COz 10 ml]

4.

224 cm3 of ammonia undergoes catalytic oxidation in presenc;:e of Pt to give nitric oxide and water
vapour. Calculate the volume of oxygen required for the reaction. All volumes measured at room
temperature and pressure.
[Ans. 280 cc. of 0z]

5.

Acetylene [C2H2] burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water vapour. Calculate the volume of air
required to completely burn 50cm3 of acetylene. [Assume air contains 20% oxygen]. [Ans. 625cm3]

6.

On igniting a mixture of acetylene [C2H2] & oxygen, 200 cm3 of CO2 is collected at s.t.p. Calculate the
vol. of acetylene & 02 at s.t.p. in the original mixture. [Ans. Acetylene = 100 cm3; Oxygen = 250 cm3]

7.

Ammonia is formed from the reactants nitrogen and hydrogen in presence of a catalyst under suitable
conditions+Assuming all volumes are measured in litres at s.t.p. Calculate the volume of ammonia
. formed if only 10% conversion has taken place. [Ans. 0.2 litres or 20% or 1/5th of vol. of Nz & Hz]

8.

100 cc. each of water gas and oxygen are ignited and the resultant mixture of gases cooled to room
temp. Calculate the composition of the resultant mixture. [Water gas contains. CO & H2 in equal ratio]
.
[Ans. :. 50 cc. of 0z + 50 cc. of COz]

85

NUMBER

1.

2.

## The mass of 2.8 litres of CO2, [C = 12, = 16]

The volume occupied by 53.5 g. of C12.[Cl = 35.5]

3.

4.
5.

## The number of i] molecules [5 = 32]

[Ans.
il] atoms in 1929. of sulphur. [Ss]
The mass of Na which will contain 6.023 x 1023atoms. [Na = 23]

6.

[Ans.

7.

## The no. of moles & molecules in 19.86 g. of Pb(N03h

[Pb = 207, N = 14, 0=16]

8.

## [Ans. = 0:06 moles &

0.06 x 6:023 x 1023 molecules]
[Ans. = 33.53 x 10-23g.]

9.

## The no. of molecules in 1Yz.litres of water.

[Ans.
[density of water 1.0 g./ cc. - :. mass of water = vol. x density]

[Ans.

= 16.87 lit.]

= 3 x 6.023 x 1023]

[Ans.

## [6 x 6.023 x 1023 atoms]

[Ans.

= 23 g. of sodium]

= 3 x 6.023 X 1023atom]

= 2.5 g. atoms]

[Ans.

## 11. The no. of hydrogen atoms in 0.25 mole of H2S04.

12. The gram molecules in 21 g. of nitrogen [N = 14]

[Ans.

## 13. The number of atoms in 10 litres of ammonia [N = 14, H = 1]

14. The number of atoms in 60 g. of neon [Ne = 20]

[Ans.

= 0.75 g. molecules]

## = 1.786x 6.023x 1023 atoms]

= 3 x 6.023 X 1023atoms]
[Ans. = 3 moles]
= 16]
[Ans. = 2.76lits.]

[Ans.

## 15. The number of moles of 'X' atoms in 93 g. of 'X' [X is phosphorus = 31]

16. The volume occupied by 3.5 g. of 02 gas at 27C & 740 mm. press. [0

17. The moles of sodium hydroxide contained in 160 g of it. [Na=23, 0=16, He I],

[Ans. 4 moles]

## 18. The weight in g. of 2.5 moles of ethane [C2H6]. [C=12, He l]

[Ans. 75 g.]
19. The molecular weight of 2.6 g of a gas which occupies 2.24lits. at OOC& 760 mm press.[Ans. 26 g.]
20. The gram atoms in 46 g of sodium [Na=23]

[Ans. 2 g. atoms]

21. The no. of moles of KCl03 that will be required to give 6 moles of oxygen.

[Ans. 4 moles]

22. The weight of the substance if it's molecular weight is 70 and in the gaseous form occupies 10 lits.
at 27C and 700 mm pressure.
[Ans. 26.18 g.]

## State which of the following:

23. Has higher no. of moles: 5 g. of N20 or 5 g. of NO
24. Has a higher mass: 1 mole of CO2 or 1 mole of CO
25. Has a higher no. of atoms: 1 g. of 02 or 1 g. of Cl2

## Q.3 VAPOUR DENSITY AND MOLECULAR

= 16]
[C = 12, = 16]

[Ans. = NO]

[N = 14,

[Ans. = CO~

[0 = 16, Cl = 35.5]

[Ans.

= O~

WEIGHT

1.

500 rnl. of a gas 'X' at s.t.p. weighs 0.50 g. Calculate the vapour density and molecular weight of the
gas. [1 lit. of H2 at s.t.p. weighs 0.09 g].
[Ans. 11.1, 22.2g.]

2.

A gas cylinder holds 85 g of a gas 'X'. The same cylinder when filled with hydrogen holds 8.5 g of
hydrogen under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
Calculate the molecular weight of 'X'.
[Ans. 20]

3.

Calculate the relative molecular mass [molecular weight] of 290 ml. of a gas' A' at 17C and 1520mm
pressure which weighs 2.73 gat s.t.p. [1 litre of hydrogen at s.t.p. weighs 0.09 g.] [Ans. 111.11g.]

4.

5.

## Calculate the atomicity

relative atomic mass.

6.

Calculate the relative molecular mass and vapour density of methyl alcohol [CH30H] if 160 g. of the
alcohol on vaporization has a volume of 112 litres at s.t.p.
. [Ans. 32 g., i6]

## of a gas X [at. no. 35.5] whose

86

vapour

density

[Ans.56lits.]
is equal to its
[Ans.2]

/'

Part B - STOICHIOMETRY

P/ENTAGE

## COMPOSITION EMPIRICAL & MOLECULAR FORMULA

CHEMICAL EQUATION CALCULATIONS

1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITIONv

Percentage
Percentage

composition
composition

[% composition

is also the

## Wt. of the element in one molecule of the compound

Gram molecular weight of the compound

x 100

## % by mass of atoms of an element present in one mole of the compound.]

PEl}CENTAGE COMPOSITION

- PROBLEMS

V[K=39,
Calculate the percentage by weight of the following : a] Potassium in potassium dichromate
b) Phosphorus in calcium phosphate [CalPO,J2] [Ca=40, P=31, 0=16]
Cr=52, 0=16]
a]

dichromate

## 294 g of potassium dichromate contains 78 g of potassium.

:. 100 g of K2Cr207 contains
b]

294

## Molecular weight of calcium phosphate

310 g of calciuo:; phosphate

[Ca3(P04}z] = 3 x 40 + 62 + 8 x 16 = 310

contains 62 g of phosphorus

2.

- Ans.

## 62 x 100 = 20% of phosphorus

310

- Ans.

Calculate the mass of nitrogen supplied to the soil by 5 kg of urea. [CO(NHZ}JJ[N=14, C=12,0=16, H=1]
Molecular weight of urea [CO(NH2}z] = 12 + 16 + 28 + 4'= 60 g
60 g of urea contains
28 g of nitrogen
28 x 5 x 1000
.. 5 x 1000 g of urea contains ?
60

3.

## Calculate the percentage of water

.[ Na=23, C=12, 0=16, H=1].
Molecular weight of Na2C03.10H20

..
4.

286 g of Na2C03.10H20

contains

100 g of Na2C03.10H20

contains

of crystallisation

in washing

- Ans .

soda Na2C03.10H2O

## = 23 x 2 + 12 + 16 x 3 (t) 10 (18) = 286

180 g of water of crystallisation
180 x 100
?
= 62.94% ofwaterofcrystallisation-Ans.
286

Calculate the percentage of pure iron in 10 kg. of iron [Ill] oxide [F.e20~ of 80% purity. [ Fe=56, 0=16].
Molecular weight of Fe20~ = 56 x 2 + 16 x 3 = 160
160 g. of pure Fe203 contains
112 g of pure iron.
112 x 8000
.. 8000 g. of pure Fe203 contains
?
160

..
5.

= 2333.3 g. of nitrogen

:::!

5600g. or 5.6 kg .

~'g

I

## Calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallisation in copper sulphate crystals, if 10 g. of

hydrous copper sulphate crystals gives 6.4 g. of anhydrous Cu504 on heating. [Cu=64, 5=32, 0=16]
Mass of CuS04.XH20 = 10 g.;
Mass of anhydrous CuS04 = 6.4 g.; .'. Mass of XH20 = 3.6 g.
Mol. wt. of Cu504 = 64 + 32 + 16 x 4 = 160; Mol. wt. of H20 = 18

..

Mass of water
Mass of anhydrous CuS04

18x
160

3.6
6.4
R7

:. X =

3.6 x 160
6.4 x 18

= 5 molecules - Ans.

## Empirical formula - is the formula of a compound which shows the..

.simplest.uihol: p
ratio between the alom~ of the elements in the compound.
MOLECULAR
FORMULA
C6H1206
C6H6

COMPOUND
Glucose'
Benzene

WHOLE NUMBERS
1

SIMPLEST RATIO bF
EMPIRICAL FORMULA
CHzO
CH
/

## DETERMINATION OFEMPIRICAL FORMULA OF A COMPOUND

To determine the empirical
the percentage composition
Step I

Write down the percentage composition [wt.] and theatomic weight of each element present in the given compound
% Composition

Element
Sodium
Sulphur
Oxygen
StepIl

## formula of a compound of sodium, sulphur and oxygen having

Na=29.11 %, 5=40.51 %, 0=30.38% [Na=23, 5=32, 0=16]

At. Wt.

29.11
40.51

23
32
"16

30.38

## Divide the % composition

[wt.] of each element by its atomic weight The ratio gives the number of atoms of each element or relative number of atoms
in the compound [ego for element sodium % comp. (29.11) + At. wt. (23)]
Element

% Composition

At. Wt.

## Relative No. of atoms

Sodium

29.11

23

Sulphur

40.51

32

30.38

16

29.11
23
40.51
32
30.38
16

Oxygen
,.

Step III

1.266

1.266

1.898

aJ

Select the smallest ratio - amongst the relative no. of atoms & divide the.
remaining ratios by it to give the simplest ratio of atoms present in thecompound,
[eg. the smallest ratio amongst 1.266, 1.266 and 1.898 is 1.266,
hence divide each ratio by 1.266] .

bJ

If the simplest ratio is not a whole number - multiply each ratio by the
smallest suitable integer so that a whole number ratio is obtained.

c]

Write the empirical formula - showing the atoms [elements J in the proper
simple ratio of whole numbers.

Element

% Composition

At. Wt.

Sodium

29.11

23

Sulphur

40.51

32

Oxygen

30.38

16

29.11 =
23
40.51 =
32
30.38 =
16

--

1.266
1.266
1.898

Simplest Ratio
1.266
1.266
1.266
1.266
1.898
1.266

lx2

=2

1x2

=2

1.5x2=3

88

## 2b] MOLECULAR FORMULA

Molecular formula - is the chemical formula which represents the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound.
COMPOUND

MOLECULAR
FORMULA

## ACTUAL NUMBER OF ATOMS

PRESENT IN A COMPOUND

Glucose

Sulphuric acid

## Example : To determine the molecular formula of a compound having the percentage

composition
C=26.59%, H=2.22%, 0=71.19%. Vapour
compound = 45. [C=12, H=l, 0=16J
The empirical formula of the compound
Step I

formula.

## was calculated to be CH02.

12 +

1 + 16 x 2

[C]

[H]

45

[2 (0)]

Record the molecular weight [or calculate it from the V.D. of the compound]
. Molecular weight from vapour density.
V. D. is given

Step III

Determine

= 45

## .'. molecular weight

= 2 x V. D. = 2 x 45 = 90

or , n =
90
:. n = 45

StepN

of the

## Empirical formula of above compound

Step Il

is determined

density

Molecular weight
Empirical formula weight
=2

## Calculate the molecular

Molecular formula

## formula by applying the formula

[Empirical formulaj.,

ie.

## Hence molecular formula

[CH02h

= C2H204

89

EMPIRICAL
1.

& MOLECULAR

FORMULA

A compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is found to contain 40% of carbon, 6.7% of hydrogen and
53.3% of oxygen. Calculate its empirical formula. If its vapours density is 30, calculate the molecular
formula. [C=12, u-t, 0=16J
Element

% Composition

At. Wt.

[At Ratio]

Carbon

40%

12

40
12

3.33

3.33
3.33

Hydrogen

6.70%

6.70
I

6.70

6.70
-3.33

Oxygen

53.3%

16

53.3
16

3.33

3.33
3.33

= CH20

## Hence the Empirical formula of the compound

Molecular Weight
Empirical Formula Weight

Molecular

Molecular

formula =

.-----------------~--------~I

## Molecular formula = Empirical formula x n

[n is an integer]

60

Simplest Ratio of
whole numbers

- Ans .

## Molecular weight = 2 x VD. = 2 x 30 = 60

Empirical formula weight = 12 + 2 + 16 = 30

2.

- PROBLEMS

30

Molecular Weight

[or 2 x V.D.]

CH20x2

C2H402

## formula of the compound

= CzH402 -

Ans.

A chemical reaction showed that 10.47 g. of the compound contained 6.21 g. of metal 'X' and the rest
of a non-metal 'Y'. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound formed between 'X' and 'Y'.
[At. wt. of X = 207, Y = 35.5J
Solution:
Calculate the
a]

## 10.47 g. of the compound

:. 100 g. of the compound

b]

## 10.47 g. of the compound

:. 100 g. of the compound

contains

contains
contains

## x 100 = 59.31 % of metal 'X'

6.21
10.47

4.26 g. of non-metal
4.26

contains

'Y'

[10.47 - 6.21

= 4.26 g.]

10.47
Element

% Composition

At. wt.

Atomic Ratio

59.31%

207

~~#1

0.286

0.286
0.286

, 40.69%

35.5

~~:~9

= 1.146

1.146
0.286

## :. The empirical formula of the compound

in XY4- Ans.

90

3. A compound has the following percentage composition: Na = 18.60%, S = 25.80%, H = 4.03% and
o = 51.58%. Calculate the molecular formula of the crystalline salt assuming that all the hydrogen
in the compound is in combination with the oxygen as water of crystallisation. Molecular weight of
the compound is 248. [Na = 23, S = 32, H = 1, 0 = 16J
At. wt.

23

18.60 = 0.80
23

0.80 = 1
0.80

25.80%

32

25.80 = 0.80
32

0.80 = 1
0.80

Hydrogen

4.03%

Oxygen

51.58%

16

4.03 = 4.03
1
51.58 = 3.22
16

4.03 = 5
0.80
3.22 = 4
0.80

Element

% Composition

Sodium

18.60%

Sulphur

= NaSHsO 4

..

n

Molecular Weight

248

## Empirical Formula Weight

..

Molecular formula =
=

= 2

124

## Empirical formula x n [n is an integer]

NaSHs04 x 2

Na2S2HIOOg

Since all the hydrogen in the compound is in combination with the oxygen as water of crystallisation.

4.

..

..

The molecular

## formula of the compound

is NaZSZ03.5HzO

- Ans.

Empirical formula of a compound is XY2 If its empirical formula weight is equal to its vapour
density, calculate the molecular formula of the compound.
Molecular formula = Empirical formula x n ie. [XY2x n]
..

n =

Molecular Weight

## Empirical Formula Weight

2xV.D.
Empirical Formula Weight

..

n=2

## :. Molecular Formula = XY2 x 2 = X2Y4

:.

Molecular

formula

of the compound

= X2Y4- Ans.

5. State the empirical formula of each compound whose molecular formula is - a] C.sHI0 b] H2C02
a]

## Molecular formula = CSHlO

:. Ratio of C & H is 5 : 10

b]
:. Simplest ratio is 1 : 2

6.

## Molecular formula = H2C02

:. Ratio of H, C and
is 2 : 1 : 2

## :. Empirical Formula = H2C02

Ans.

Calculate the empirical formula of a compound whose molecular formula is C8H60 4 and empirical
formula weight is 83. [C=12, H=l, 0=16]
Molecular weight of CgH604 is = 96 + 6 + 64 = 166
..

n=

Molecular Weight
Empirical Formula Weight

166
83

=2

## But molecular formula = Empirical formula x n

ie. CgH604 = empirical formula x n [n=2]

91

= C4H302- Ans.

## 3 'CALCULATIONS BASED ON - CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

. Chemical equation - is the balanced chemical transition reaction.
In a chemical reaction a rearrangement of particles results in changes in the properties of the substances thereby the properties of the product formed are entirely different from those of the reactants.
All reactants and products in a chemical equation are represented by a set of formula thus giving the identity of each element taking part in the reaction either as the reactant or as the product.

## Information from chemical equation

A chemical equation gives the information regarding:
a] The molecular proportion b] The relative mass c] The relative volumes [if gaseous]
of the reactant and the products taking part in the chemical reaction.

## PROCEDURE INVOL VED FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS

ON CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

Example

Calculate the weight and volume of oxygen at s. t.p. which will be evolved on
electrolysis of 18g of water. [Hel, 0=16J

Step I

equation

of the reaction.

2H20 ~ 2H2 + 02

Step II

a]

## Find the molecular weight of each substance

which is obtained by
adding the weight of all the atoms in the molecules [neglect the molecular
,

b]

The product of the number of molecules and the molecular weight of each
substance is written below each formula.
2H20

-7

2H2 +

2 [1 x 2 + 16]
2 [18]

Step III

a]
b]

SteplV

02
[2 x 16]

= 36 g

32g

## 36 g. of water liberates 32 g. of oxygen.

:. 18 g of water liberates 32 x 18
36

= 16 g.

## The volume of the gaseous product is calculated by multiplying the number

of molecules of the gaseous substance with 22.4 litres [1 mole of a gas occupies
22.4 litres at s.t.p.].
2H20

. ~

2H2 +

36g

a]
b]

02
32 g = 1 mole of 02= 22.4 litres at s.t.p.

## 36 g. of water liberates 22.4 litres of 02 at s.t.p.

:. 18 g of water liberates 22.4 x 18
36

92

= 11.2 litres

of 02 at s.t.p.

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

- PROBLEMS

## Problems based on a] Weight-Weight relationship, b] Weight-Volume relationship.

1. Calculate the weight of potassium nitrite formed by thermal decomposition of 15.15 g of potassium
nitrate. [K=39, N=14, 0=16].
! .. ",

Solution:
The chemical equation for the reaction is
2KN03

/!,.

2[39 + 14 :t 3 x 16]

2KN02

----=-7

2KN03

2 [g]

a]

2x101 g.
[mol. wt.]

2KN02

"+

02

2x85 g.
[mol. wt.]

2[39 + 14 + 2 x 16]

2 x 101
2[85]
:. 2 x 101 gms of KN03 yield 2 x 85 gms of KN02.

? g.

15.15 g.

b]

[wt.]

[wt.]

## 15.15 x 85 x 2 = 12.75 g of KN02.

101 x2
: .. Weight of potassium nitrite formed is 12.75 g. - Ans.

2. .Copper on reacting with cone. Hz504 produces copper sulphate. If 1.28 gm of copper is to be
converted to copper sulphate. Find i] the weight of the copper sulphate formed and ii] the weight of
the acid required. [Cu=64, 5=32, 0=16].
Solution:
The chemical equation for the reaction is

Cu

a]

## Cu + 2H2S04 ---7 CuS04 + 2H20 + S02 a]

64 g
[64 + 32 + 4 x 16 = 160 g]
64 g of Cu yields 160 g of CuS04

64g.
[wt.]

..

## 1.28 g of Cu will yield 160 x 1.28

64
Wt. of CuS04 formed =.3.2 g of CuS04 - Ans.

[wt.]

b]

..

2H2504

160 g.
[mol. wt.]

2 [98] = 1969.
[mol. wt.]

1.28 g.

b]

? g.

? g.
[wt.]

[wt.]

## Cu + 2H2S04 ----7 CuS04 + 2H20 + S02

64 g
2[2x1 + 1x32 + 4x16]
2[98] = 196
196 g of H2S04 are required to react with 64 g of Cu

## Hence ? g of H2S04 are required to react with 1.28 g ?f Cu

The weight of acid required = 1.28 x 196 = 3.92 g. of H2~04 - Ans.
64
3.

From the equation CaC03 + 2HCI-) CaClz + HzO +COz' Calculate the weight ofCaClz obtained from
10g. of CaC03 and the volume at s.t.p. of COz obtained at a same time. [Ca=40, C=12, 0=16, CI=35.5]
Solution:
+ 2HCI -) CaCl2 + H20 + CO2
[40+12+48]
[40+71] 1 mole
. a]
100 g
111 g 22.4ltrs. at s.t.p.

CaC03

a]

CaC03
100g.

[mol. wt.]

111 g.
[mol. wt.]

10 g.

? g.

b]

b]

+ 2HCl ~

100
of CaCl2 -Ans .
.Similarly

[wt.]

## 100 g of CaC03 liberate 22.4 litres of CO2 at s.t.p.

:. 10 g of CaC03 liberate 22.4 x 10 = 2.24 litres of CO2 - Ans.
100

[wt.]

22.4 Iits. [
]
-;::;-;-;--:-- s.t.p.
[Vol.]
? Iits,
[Iits.]

4.

Combustion of butane takes place as follows: 2C4H10 + 130z 7 8COz + 10HzO. Calculate a] the
number of moles of oxygen needed for complete combustion of 58g of butane, bJ the volume of carbon
dioxide formed at s.t.p. at the same time. [H=l, C=,.1_2-=--J.
---,I.
2C4H1O

Solution:
2C4H1O

+ 132
13 moles
2[48+10]

b)

58 g.

b]

## 22.4 x 8 litres at s.t.p.

116 g
a]

8 moles

132

--

8 x 22.4 lits.
[Vol.]

moles

--

[wt.]

+ 10H2O

8C02

13 moles
[moles]

a] 2 x 58 = 116 g.
[mol. wt.]

+ iOH2O

8C02

--

[s.t.p.]

lits.

[lits.]

[moles]

..

## 58 g of C4H10 needs 13 x 58 = 6.5 moles of 02 - Ans.

116

Similarly
116 g of C4H10 liberates 8 x 22.4 litres of CO2 at s.t.p.
:. 58 g of C4H10 liberates 22.4 x 8 x 58 = 89.6 litres at s.t.p. of CO2 - Ans.
116

5.

Thermal decomposition of calcium nitrate takes place as follows: 2Ca(NO:;)z 7 2CaO +4NOz + O2,
If the relative molecular mass of calcium nitrate is 164. aJ Calculate the volume of nitrogen dioxide
obtained at s.t.p. and bJ the weight of calcium oxide obtained when 16.4 g of calcium nitrate is heated
to constant weight. [Ca=40, 0=16, N=14J.
7

2Ca(~03)2

Solution:
2Ca(N03h

a]

2CaO

2[164]

+ 4N02
2[40+16] 4 moles

328 g

112g

2CaO

[mol. wt.]
[mol. wt.]
16.4 g.

b]

--

-[wt]

[wt.]

g.

4~02
4 x 22.4 lits.
[Vol.]
?

-[lits.]

2
[s.t.p.]

lUs.

## 328 g of Ca(N03h liberates 4 x 22.4lits. of N02 at s.t.p.

b) : ..16.4 g of Ca(N03h liberates 4 x 22.4 x 16.4 = 4.48 litres of N02 at s.t.p. - Ans.
328
Similarly
328 g of Ca(N03h gives 112 g of CaO
:.16.4 g of Ca(N03h gives 112 x 16.4 = 5.6 g of CaO - Ans.
328
a]

6.

2.12 g. of an impure mixture containing anhydrous sodium sulphate is dissolved in water. An excess
of barium chloride solution is added when 1.74 g. of barium sulphate is obtained as a dry precipitate.
Calculate the percentage purity of the impure sample. [Na = 23, S = 32,
= 16, Ba = 137].

Solution:
Na2S04

+ BaCl27

+ 2NaCI

BaS04

[2 x 23 + 32 + 4 x 16]

[137 + 32 + 64]

142 g.

233g.

a]
b]

142g.
[mol. wt.]

233 g.
[mol. wt.]

? g.
[wt.]

1.74 g.

[wt.]

a]

## 233 g. of BaS04 is obtained from 142 g. of Na2S04

b]

:. 1.74 g. of Ba SO 4 is obtained from 142 x 1.74 = 1.06 g. - mass of pure Na2S04 in2.12g. of impure mixture.
233
:. % purity of the impure sample = 1.06 x 100 = 50%.
2.12
:. % purity of the impure sample

50% - Ans.
94

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION
EMPIRICAL & MOLECULAR FORMULA
CHEMICAL EQUATION CALCULATIONS

Percentage

composition

## - Is the percentage by weight of - each element present in the compound.

Empirical formula - Is the formula of a compound which shows the simplest whole number ratio between the atoms of the elements in the compound.
Molecular

formula

Q.l PERCENTAGE

PROBLEMS

COMPOSITION

1.

## Calculate the percentage by weight of: a] C in carbon dioxide, b] Na in sodium carbonate, c] Al in

aluminium nitride. [ C=12, 0=16,
Na=23, AI=27~ N=14 ][Ans.27.3%of C, 43.4%ofNa, 65.85%of Al]

2.

## Calculate the percentage of iron in K3Fe(CN)6' [K=39, Fe=56; C=12, N=14]

3.

Calculate which of the following - calcium nitrate or ammonium sulphate has a higher % of nitrogen.
[Ca=40,0= 16,S = 32,N = 14] [Ans.(NH4)2S04 % ofN =21.21% more than Ca(N03)Z %ofN =17.07%]

4.

## Calculate the percentage of pure aluminium

[AI = 27, = 16]

5.

State which of the following are better fertilizersi] Potassium phosphate [K3P04] or potassium
nitrate [KN03] ii] Urea [NH2CONH2] or ammonium phosphate [(NH4)3P04]
.
[K=39,P~31,0=
16,N =14,H= 1] [Ans.K3POC % ofK=55.18% morethanKN03%
ofK=38.61%]

n-i.

[Ans.47.64%]

## [Ans. Urea % of N = 46.67% more than (NH4hP04

% of N = 28.19%]

6.

Calculate the percentage of carbon in a 55% pure sample of carbon carbonate. [Ca = 40, C = 12, = 16]
[Ans. Carbon content = 6.6%]

7.

## Calculate the percentage of water of crystallisation

[Cu = 63.5, S = 32, = 16, H = 1]

8.

Hydrated
calcium sulphate
[CaS04.xH20]
contains
21 % of water of crystallisation.
Calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallisation i.e. 'X' in the hydrated compound.
[Ca = 40, S = 32, = 16, H = 1]
[Ans. CaS04.2H20]

in hydrated
.

## copper sulphate [CuS04.5H20].

[Ans. 36.07%]

Q.2 EMPIRICAL

& MOLECULAR

FORMULA

1.

A compound gave the following data: C=57.82%, 0=38.58% and the rest hydrogen. Its vapour
density is 83. Find its empirical and molecular formula. [C=12, 0=16, H=l ][Ans. C4H30Z & C8H60~

2.

Four g of a metallic chloride contains 1.89 g of the metal 'X' . Calculate the empirical formula of the
metallic chloride. [At. wt. of 'X' = 64, Cl = 35.5 ]
[Ans. XCI2]

3.

## Calculate the molecular formula of a compound

density is 30.

4.

A compound has the following percentage composition. Al = 0.2675 g.; P = 0.3505 g.; = 0.682 g. If
the molecular weight of the compound is 122 and its original weight which on analysis gave the above
results 1.30 g. Calculate the molecular formula of the compound. [AI=27, P=31, 0=16] [Ans. AIP04]

5.

Two organic compounds 'X' and 'Y' containing carbon and hydrogen only have vapour densities 13
and 39 respectively. State the molecular formula of 'X' and 'Y'. [C = 12, H = 1] [Ans. C2HZ; C6H6]

6.

A compound has the following % composition. Zn = 22.65%; S = 11.15%; = 61.32% and H = 4.88%.
Its relative molecular mass is 287 g. Calculate its molecular formula assuming that all the hydrogen
in the compound is present in combination with oxygen as water of crystallization.
[Zn = 65, S = 32, = 16, H = 1]
[Ans. ZnS04.7H20]

## whose empirical formula is CH20 and vapour

[Ans. C2H40zl

7.

A hydrocarbon contains 82.8% of carbon. Find its molecular formula if its vapour density is 29.
[H = 1, C = 12]
[Ans. C4H10]

8.

An organic compound on analysis gave H = 6.48% and 0= 51.42%. Determine its empirical formula
if the compound contains 12 atoms of carbon. [C = 12, H = 1, = 16]
[Ans. C12H240d

9.

## A hydrated salt contains Cu =25.50%, S = 12.90%,

= 25.60% and the remaining % is water of '
crystallization. Calculate the empirical formula of the salt. [Cu = 64, S = 32,
= 16, H = 1]
..
[Ans. CuS04.5H20]
10. A gaseous hydrocarbon weighs 0.70 g. and contains 0.60 g. of carbon. Find the molecular formula of
the compound if its molecular weight is 70. [C = 12, H = 1]
[Ans. CSH10]

11. A salt has the following % composition:- Al = 10.50%, K= 15.1%,S = 24.8% and the remaining oxygen.
Calculate the empirical formula of the salt. [AI = 27, K = 39, S = 32, = 16]
[Ans. AIK(S04h]

Q.3 CHEMICAL

EQUATIONS

1.

What mass of silver chloride will be obtained by adding an excess of hydrochloric acid to a solution
of 0.34 g of silver nitrate. [Cl=35.5, Ag=108, N=14,. 0=16, H=l ]
[Ans. 0.287 g]

2.

## What volume of. oxygen at s.t.p. will be obtained

[K=39, CI=35.5, 0=16]

3.

(i)

## by the action of heat on 20 g. of -KCl03.

[Ans. 5.486 Its.]

## + 4HzO + 2NO. Calculate

the mass of copper needed to react with 63 g of nitric acid

[Ans. 24 g,]

(ii) the volume of nitric oxide collected at the same time. [Cu=64, H=l, 0=16, N=14][Ans. 5.61ts.]
4.

a]
b]

## the number of moles of sulphur dioxide liberated by 776 g of ZnS and

[Ans. 8 moles]
The weight of ZnS required to produce 22.4lits of SOz at s.t.p. [S=32, Zn=65, 0= 16] [Ans. 97 g.]

5.

Ammonia reacts with sulphuric acid to give the fertilizer ammonium sulphate. Calculate the volume
of ammonia [at s.t.p.] used to form 59 g of ammonium sulphate.
[Ans. 20.021ts.]
[N=14, H=l, S=32, 0=16 ].

6.

Heat on lead nitrate gives yellow lead [Il] oxide, nitrogen dioxide & oxygen. Calculate the total volume
of NOz' & 0z produced
on heating 8.5 of lead nitrate. [Pb = 207, N = 14,
= 16].
[Ans. 1.15 of N02 & 0.287 of 02 (1.4371ts.)]

7.

2KCl03
) 2KCI + 30z; C + 0z
.) COz' Calculate the amount of KCl03 which on thermal
decomposition gives 'X' vol. of 0z, which is the volume required for combustion of 24 g. of carbon.
[K = 39, Cl = 35.5, = 16, C = 12].
[Ans. 163.33 g.]

8.

a]

## Required for reacting with sulphuric acid to give 78 g. of fertilizer ammonium

sulphate.

b]

Obtained when 32.6 g. of ammonium chloride reacts with calcium hydroxide during the
laboratory preparation of ammonia. [2NH4Cl + Ca(OHh
) CaClz + 2HzO + 2NH3]
[N = 14, H = 1, = 16, S = 32, Cl = 35.5].
[Ans. a) 20.09 g. b) 10.36 g.]

9.

Sodium carbonate reacts with dil. HZS04 to give the respective salt, water and carbon dioxide.
Calculate the mass of pure salt formed when 300 g. of NaZC03 of 80% purity reacts with dil. HZS04.
[Na = 23, C = 12, = 16, H = 1, S = 32].
[Ans. 321.51 g.]

10. Sulphur burns in oxygen to give sulphur dioxide. If 16 g. of sulphur burns in 'x' cc. of oxygen,
calculate the amount of potassium nitrate which must be heated to produce 'x' cc. of oxygen.
[S = 32, K = 39, N =14, = 16].
[Ans. 101 g.]

11: Sample of impure magnesium is reacted with dilute sulphuric acid to give the respective salt and
hydrogen. If 1 g. of the impure sample gave 298.6 cc. of hydrogen at s.t.p. Calculate the % purity of
the sample. [Mg = 24, H = 1].
[Ans.31.99%]

96

## SUMMARY - Types of Problems

A. PROBLEMS BASED ON - LUSSAC'S LAW

PROBLEM:

4000cc. of 0z was burnt with 300 cc. of ethane. Calculate the vol. of unused 0z and COzfarmed.
WRITE TIlE BALANCED EQUA TION- As per instructions in the calculations, with volumes below-

300 cc.

2 C2H6

4000 cc.

72
7 vols.

2 vols.

4C02 + 6H2O
4 vols.

6 vols.

. REPRESENT THE EQUATION AS PER LUSSAC'S LAW - When gases react, they do so in vols.

which bear a simple whole no. ratio to one another and to the products [temp., press., constant].
4000 cc.

300 cc.

2C2H6

2 vols.

2 X 150
i.e.

72
7 vols.'

4C02

+ 6H2O

4 vols.

6 vols.

= 300 cc.

2X150
:
7X150
:
4X150 : 6X150
[1050 c.c.]
[600 c.c.]

## Ans. : 600 cc. of CO2 is formed

: 2950 cc. of unused oxygen remains [4000 cc. (original) -1050 cc. (used)]

PROBLEM:

## Calculations based on iJ The number of moles iiJ The mass

vJ The gram molecular weight.
a]

MOLE weighs

## 22,400 cc., contains 6.023 X 1023MOLECULES

[atoms/ ions]
[VOLUME AT S.T.P.]
[AVOG. NO.]

GRAMS occupies22.4lits.or

-[MOLE]

WEIGHT [mass]

VOLUME

b]

NO. OF MOLES

## iul The number of molecules

?
[atoms/
NO. OF MOLECULES. ions]

## C. PROBLEMS BASED ON - MOLE CONCEPT & 1\VOGADRO'S LAW

PROBLEM:

If 30 lits. of 0z contains iX' no. of molecules, state the no. of molecules in 10 lits. of H2I
60 lits. of Clz and 5lits. of NH3 All gases collected under the same conditions of temp. & press.
As per Ayogadro's Law - Under the same conditions of temperature
contain the same number of molecules.
@30

## and pressure equal volume of all gases

tits. 2X molecules

65

## D. PROBLEMS BASED ON - VAPOUR DENSITY & MOLECULAR WEIGHT

a]

VAPOUR DENSITY = Weight of a certain vol. of gas or 1000 ml. [1 litre] of gas
OFAGAS
Weight of an equal vol. of H2 i.e. 1000 ml. [1 litre] of H2

b]

MOLECULAR WEIGHT =

2 X vapour density

97

[Same conditions
of temp. & press.]

## SUMMARY - Types of Problems [Contd.]

E. PROBLEMS BASED ON - PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION
PROBLEM:
Calculate the percentage of boron [BJ in borax - Na2B40710H20 [Hel, B::=11,
0=16, Na=23j
PERCENTAGE
COMPOSITION

## Wt. of element [or substance] in 1 molecule of the compound

Gram molecular weight of the compound

= 11 X 4 = 44
= 23 X 2 + 11 X 4 + 16 X 7 + 10 [2 + 16] = 382

## Weight of element [boron] in molecule of the compound

Gram mol. wt. of compound
PERCENTAGE

x 100

[borax]

COMPOSITION

44
382

100

[borax]

<'

11.5% Ans.

## F. PROBLEMS BASED ON;... EMPIRICAL FORMULA & MOLECULAR FORMULA

PROBLEM:
A compound has the following % Composition: C = 40%, H = 6.7%, 0= 53.3%, the vapour
density of the compound is 30, calculate its molecular formula [C = 12, H = 1, = 16J.

Element

Element

% Comp. At. Wt

Carbon

40

12

## Atomic ratio . = % Composition

At. weight
[rel. no. of atoms]

Hydrogen

6.7

Simplest ratio
= Each at. ratio
of whole numbers Smallest at. ratio

Oxygen

53.3

16

At. Wt.

## - Write the at. wts. of the elements

At. ratio

Simplest
ratio

Empirical formula
Molecular formula

Molecular formula

G. PROBLEMS

=
=

## At. ratio Simplest ratic

of whole nos.
40 = 3.33 3.33 =1
12
3.33
6.7 = 6.70 6.70 =2
1
3.33
53.3 = 3.33 3.33 =1
16
3.33

Cl H2 01 i.e. CH20
Empirical formula X n [integar]

CH20

## Molecular wt. or 2 X VD.

Empirical formula weight

2XVD.
CH20
C2H402

X 2

2X30
12+2+16

I
60
30

## BASED ON - CHEMICAL EQUATioNS

PROBLEM:
Copper reacts with dilute nitric acid to give copper nitrate, water and nitric oxide. Calculate
il the mass of copper needed to react with 126g. of HN03
ii] vol. of nitric oxide obtained at the same time [Cu = 64, H = 1,0 = 16, N = 14J.
WRITE THE BALANCED EQUATION - Complete the corresponding

3Cu
a]

3 X 64 = 192

+
g.

8HN03

) 3Cu (N03h+

8 [1 + 14 + 48] = 504

columns a] and b]

4H20 +

2NO

mo e-

g.

22.4lits]

b]

g.

126

g.

## i] 504 g. of HN03 reacts with 192 g. of Cu

.
192
126 g. of HN03 reacts with -X 126 = 48
504
of u

e'

lits.

44.8lits. of NO

## 126 g. of HN03 liberates 44.8 X 126 = 11.2 lits

504
of NO

98

For OB]ECTNE and ICSE BOARD TYPE QUESTIONS - Refer Dr. Viraf

J. Dalal's

## 'OBJECTIVE WORKBOOK FOR SIMPLIFIED I C S E CHEMISTRY' FOR STD. X &

'SIMPLIFIED ICSE CHEMISTRY - SOLVABLE QUESTION BANK & 25 TEST PAPERS' FOR STD. X

QUESTIONS"",.
A. PROBLEMS BASED ON - LUSSAC'S LAW
1999 1.
2001 1.
2.
2003 1.
2006 1.
2009 1.

4NH3 + S02 -7 4NO + 6H20 - If 27 litres of reactants are consumed, what volume of nitrogen
monoxide is produced at the same temperature and pressure.
[12 lits.]
4N20 + CH4 -7 C0...J, + 2H,0 + 4N2 If all volumes are measured at the same temp. & press. Calculate
the volume of N2U required to give ISO cm3 of steam.
[300 cc.]
What volume of oxygen would be required for the complete combustion of 100 litres of ethane
according to the following equation. 2C2H6 + 702 -7 4C02 + 6H20
[3S0 lits.]
What vol?-me of 02 is required to burn completely a mixture of 22.4 dm ' of CH4 & 11.2 dm3 of ~2;
The reactions are: CH4 + 202 -7 CO2 + 2H20; 2H2 + 02 -7 2H20 [All vols. at s.t.p.]
[SO.4lits.]
S60 ml. of carbon monoxide is mixed with SOOml of oxygen and ignited. Calculate the volume of
oxygen used and carbon dioxide formed in the above reaction.
[280 ml., S60 ml.]
200 cm3 of acetylene is formed from a certain mass of calcium carbide. Find the volume of oxygen
required and carbon dioxide formed during its complete combustion. The combustion reaction can
be represented as: 2C2H2[g] + S02[g] -;. 4C02[g] + 2H20[g]
[SOOcm-' of 2,400 cm3 of CO2]
10 litres of a mixture of propane [C3HS] [60%] and butane [C4HlO][40%] is burnt. Calculate the
total volume of carbon dioxide formed. Combustion reactions of the mixture are represented as C3HS(g) + S02(g) -7 3C02(g) + 4H20(g) ; 2C4H10(g) + 1302(g) -7 8C02(g) + 10H20(g) [34 lits.]
State Cay-Lussac's Law.

2010 1.

. 2011 1.

## B.PROBLEMS BASED ON MOLE CONCEPT -AVOGADRO'S

2004

1.

2.
2005

1.

2006

1.

2008

1.

2009

1.

2010

2.
1.

2011

1.
2.

NUMBER

A flask contains 3.2 g. of sulphur dioxide. Calculate the following:i] The moles of sulphur dioxide present in the flask.
!O.OSmoles]
ii
The number of molecules of S02 present in the flask.
[O.OSx 6.023 x 102 molecules]
iii] The volume occupied by 3.2 g. of sulphur dioxide at s.t.p. [S = 32, = 16]
[1.12 litres]
2KMn04 -7 K2Mn04 + Mn02 + 02 Given that the molecular mass of KMn04 is lS8, what volume
of oxygen [measured at room temp.] would be obtained by the complete decomposition of
lS.8 g. of potassium permanganate. [Molar volume at room temperature is 24 litres.] [1.2 litres]
The volumes of gases A, B, C & D are in the ratio, 1:2:2:4 under the same conditions of temp. & press.
i] Which sample of gas contains the maximum number of molecules.
[D]
ii] If the temperature and the pressure of gas A are kept constant, then what will happen to the
volume of A when the number ofmolecules is doubled.
[Doubles]
iii] If this ratio of gas vols. refers to reactants & products of reaction - gas law observed is_. [pg. 71 J
iv] If the volume of' A' is actually S.6 dm3 at s.t.p., calculate the number of molecules in the actual
volume of 'D' at s.t.p. [Avogadro's number is 6 x 1023). Using your answer, state the mass of
'D' if the gas is dinitrogen oxide [N20]. [N = 14, = 16]
[6 x 1023;44 g.]
Calculate the number of moles and the number of molecules present in 1.4 g. of ethylene gas [C2H4].
What is the vol. occupied by the same amount of ethylene. [O.OSmoles, 3x1022 molecules, 1.12 lit.]
What is the vapour density of ethylene. [Avogadro's Number = 6 x 1023;
Atomic weight of C = 12, B = 1; Molar volume = 22.4 litres at s.t.p.]
[14]
The equation for the burning of octane is: 2 CsHlS + 2S 02 -7 16 CO2 + 18 H20
i] How many moles of carbon dioxide are produced when one mole of octane burns. [8 moles]
ii] What volume, at s.t.p. is occupied by the number of moles determined in 1. i]. [179.2lits.]
iii] If the relative molecular mass of carbon dioxide is 44, what is the mass of
[704 g.]
carbon dioxide produced by burning two moles of octane.
Define the term - Mole. A gas cylinder contains 24 x 1024molecules of nitrogen gas. If Avogadro's
number is 6 x 1023 and the relative atomic mass of nitrogen is 14, calculate:
[i] Mass of nitrogen gas in the cylinder.
[ii] Volume of nitrogen at STP in dm3 [1120 g., 896 dm-']
3
Gas 'X' occupies a volume of 100 cm at S. T. P. and weighs 0.5 g. find its relative molecular mass. [112 g.]
Dilute hydrochloric acid [HCl] is reacted with 4.5 moles of calcium carbonate. Give the equation for the
said reaction. Calculate i] The mass of 4.5 moles of CaC03 ii] The volume of CO?, liberated at stp.
iii] The mass of CaClz formed. iv] The number of moles of the acid HCl used in the reaction
[relative molecular mass of CaC0 is 100 and of CaC~ is 111].
[4S0 g., 100.8lits., 499.5 g., 9 moles]
Calculate the mass of - i] 1022 atoms of sulphur.
ii] 0.1 mole of carbon dioxide.
[S=32, C=12 and 0=16 & Avogadro's number = 6 x 1023]
[0.533 g., 4.4 g.]
Calculate the volume of 320 g of S02 at stp. [S = 32 and 0= 16].
[112 lits.]

99

## C. PROBLEMS BASED ON - MOLE CONCEPT -AVOGADRO'S

1996

1.

1999

1.

2001

1.

2002

1.

2005
2008

1.
1.

2009

1.

LAW

Under the same conditions of temp. and press. you collect 2 litres of CO2, 3 litres of Cl2' 5 litres of
H2' 4 litres of N2 and 1 litre of S02' In which gas sample will there be the greatest number of molecules
[pg. 74, H2' SO~
A vessel contains N molecules of oxygen at a certain temperature & pressure. How many molecules
of sulphur dioxide can the vessel accommodate at the same temperature & pressure. [N molecules]
The gases chlorine, nitrogen, ammonia and sulphur dioxide are collected under the same conditions
of temperature and pressure. If 20 litres of nitrogen contain 'X' no. of molecules state the no. of
molecules in 10 litres of chlorine, 20 litres of ammonia & 5 litres of sulphur dioxide. [x/2, x, x/4]
Samples of 02' N2, CO and CO~nder the same conditions of temp. & press. contain the same number
of molecules represented by X. The molecules of oxygen occupy V litres and have a mass of 8g. Under
the same conditions of temp. & press., what is the volume occupied by: i] X molecules of N2;
ii] 3X molecules of CO. iii] What is the mass of CO2 in grams.
[V litres]; [3V litres][l1 g.J
iv] In answering the above questions, whose law has been used. [C = 12, N = 14, = 16] [pg.74]
Define the term' atomic weight'.
~
[pg.75]
The gas law which relates the volume of a gas to the number.of molecules of the gas is
[A]
A: Avogadro's Law B: Gay-Lussac's Law C: Boyle's Law D: Charles'Law
Correct the following statement - Equal masses of all gases under identical conditions contain the
same number of molecules.
[pg.74]

## D. PROBLEMS BASED ON - VAPOUR DENSITY AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT

1996

1.

2001

1.

2004

1.

2009

1.

Find the relative molecular mass of a gas, 0.546 g of which occupies 360 cm3 at 87C and 380 mm
Hg pressure. [1 litre of hydrogen at s.t.p. weighs 0.09g]
[88.89 g]
Mention the term defined by the following :- The mass of a given volume of gas compared to the
mass of an equal volume of hydrogen.
[pg.78]
2KMn04 -7 K2Mn04 + Mn02 + 02
[K2.Mn04. + Mn02 is the solid residue]
Some potassium permanganate was heated in a test tube. Atter collecting one litre of oxygen at room
temperature, it was found that the test tube had undergone a loss in mass of 1.32 g. If one litre of
hydrogen under the same conditions of temperature and pressure has a mass of 0.0825 g.
Calculate the relative molecular mass of oxygen.
.
[32g.]
A gas cylinder of capacity of 20 dm3 is filled with gas X the mas.s of which is 10 g. When the same
cylinder is filled with hydrogen gas at the same temperature and pressure the mass of the hydrogen
is 2 g., hence the relative molecular mass of the gas is : A] 5
B] 10
C] 15
D] 20
[10]

## E. PROBLEMS BASED ON - PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION

1996 1. Find the total percentage of oxygen in magnesium nitrate crystals: Mg(N03h. 6H20.
1997
1998
1999

1.
1.
1.

2001

1.

2002

1.

2005
2006

1.
1.

2007
2010

1.
1.

## [0 = 16, N = 14, H = 1, Mg = 24]

[75 %]
What is the mass of nitrogen in 1000 kg of urea [CO(NH2}z]. [C=12] [Answer to nearest kg.][467 kg.]
Calculate the % of boron [B] in borax Na2B407.10H20. [H = I, B = 11, = 16, Na = 23].
[11.5%]
If a crop of wheat removes 20 kg of nitrogen per hectare of soil, what mass in kg. of the
fertilizer calcium nitrate would be required to replace the nitrogen in a 10 hectare field.
[N=14; 0=16; Ca=40].
[1171 kg.]
Calculate the percentage of phosphorus in the fertilizer superphosphate Ca(H2P04}z. [correctto Idp]
[H = 1; = 16; P = 31; Ca = 40]
[26.5%]
Calculate the percentage of platinum in ammonium chloroplatinate (NH4)2.PtCl6.. .-.
[Give your answer correct to the nearest whole number]. [N = 14, H = I, Cl = ::>5.5,l't = 195] [44%]
Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in aluminium nitride. [AI = 27, N = 14]
[34.15%]
Calculate the percentage of sodium in sodium aluminium fluoride [Na3AIF6] correct to the nearest
whole number. [F = 19; Na = 23; Al = 27]
[33%]
Determine the percentage 0' oxygen in ammonium nitrate [0 = 16]
[60%]
If the relative molecular mass of ammonium nitrate is 80, calculate the percentage of nitrogen
and oxygen in ammonium nitrate. [N = 14, H = I,
= 16]
.
. [35%, 60%]

F.PROBLEMSBASEDON-EMPIRICALFORMULAANDMOLECULARFORMULA
2000

1.'

2001

1.

2002

1.

2004

1.

Determine the empirical formula of the compound whose composition by. mass is: 42% nitrogen,
48% oxygen and 9% hydrogen. [H = 1; N = 14; = 16].
[NOH3]
A metal M forms a volatile chloride containing 65.5% chlorine. If the density of the chloride relative
to hydrogen [i.e.YD.] is 162.5, find the molecular formula of the chloride. [M=56; C1=35.5][M2Cl6]
The percentage composition of sodium phosphate as determined by analysis is 42.1 % sodium,
18.9% phosphorus and 39% oxygen. Find the empirical formula of the compound [work to two
decimal places]. [Na = 23, P = 31, 0= 16]
.
[Na3P04]
An experiment showed that in a lead chloride solution, 6.21g. of lead combined with 4.26 g. of
chlorine. What is the empirical formula of this chloride. [Pb = 207; Cl = 35.5]
[PbCI4]

100

2006 1.
2007 1.
2008 1.
2.

2009

1.

2011

1.

Determine the empirical formula of a compound containing 47.9% potassium, 5.5% beryllium and
46.6% fluorine by mass. [At. weight of Be = 9; F = 19; K = 39] Work to one decimal place. [K2BeF4]
A compound X consists of 4.8% carbon and 95.2% bromine by mass. i] Determine the empirical
formula of this compound working correct to one decimal place. ii] If the vapour density of the
compound is 252, what is the molecular formula of the compound. [C = 12; Br = 80][CBr3, C2Br6]
What is the empirical formula of octane. [CSHlS]
[C4H9]
A compound contains - Carbon 14.4%, hydrogen 1.2% and chlorine 84.5 %. Determine the empirical
formula of this compound. Work correct to 1 decimal place. The relative molecular mass of this
compound is 168, so what is its molecular formula. [C = 12; H = 1; Cl = 35.5] [CHCl2, C2H2C14]
A gaseous compound of nitrogen and hydrogen contains 12.5% hydrogen by mass. Find the
molecular formula of the compound if its relative molecular mass is 37. [N = 14, H = 1] [N2H4]
An organic compound has vapour density 94. It contains C = 12.67%, H = 2.13%, and Br = 85.11 %.
Find the molecular formula of the organic compound. [C = 12, H = I, Br = 80]
[C2H4Br2]

1999

1.

## P + 5HN03 ~ H3P04 + H20 + 5N02

i] What mass of phosphoric acid can be prepared from 6.2 g of phosphorus.
[19.6 g]
ii] What mass of nitric acid will be consumed at the same time.
[63 g]
iii] What would be the volume of steam produced at the same time if measured at s.t.p.
[H = 1; N = l4;
= 16; P = 31]
[4.48lits.]
Washing soda has the formula Na2C03.lOH2~' What mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate is left
when all the water of crystallization is expelled by heating 57.2 g of washing soda.
[21.2 g]
Na2S04 + Pb(N03}z ~ PbS04 + 2NaN03. When excess lead nitrate solution was added to a solution
of sodium sulphate, 15.15 g of lead sulphate were precipitated. What mass of sodium sulphate was
present in the original solution. [H = 1; C = 12; = 16; Na = 23; 5 = 32; Pb = 207]
[7.1 g]
From the equation :- (l'{H4~ Cr207 ~ Cr203 + 4H20 + N2
Calculate:
i] the vol. of nitrogen at STP, evolved when 63g. of ammonium dichromate is heated. [5.6lits.]
ii] the mass of Cr203 formed at the same time. [N = 14, H = I, Cr = 52, = 16].
[38 g.]
10 g. of a mixture of sodium chloride and anhydrous sodium sulphate is dissolved in water. An
excess of barium chloride solution is added and 6.99 g. of barium sulphate is precipitated according
to the equation'- Na2S04 + BaCl2 ~ BaS04 + 2NaCl. Calculate the percentage of sodium sulphate
in the original mixture. [0 = 16; Na = 23; S = 32; Ba = 137]
[42.6%]
The reaction of potassium permanganate
with acidified iron [Il] sulphate is given below:2KMn04 + 10FeS04 + 8H2S04 -7 K2S04 + 2MnS04 + 5 Fe2(S04h + 8H.,,0.
If 15.8 g. of potassium permanganate was used in the reaction, calculate the mass of iron [I1]sulphate
used in the above reaction. [K = 39, Mn = 55, Fe = 56, 5 = 32, 0= 16]
[76 g.]
The equations given below relate to the manufacture of sodium carbonate [Mol. wt. of Na2C03 = 106]
i] NaCl + NH3 + CO~ + H20 ~ NaHC03 + NH4Cl
ii] 2NaHC03 ~ NaZC03 + H20 + CO2
Questions (a) and (b) are based on the production of 21.2 g. of sodium carbonate .
. (a) What mass of sodium hydrogen carbonate must be heated to give 21.2 g. of sodium
carbonate [Molecular weight of NaHC03 = 84].
[33.6 g.]
(b) To produce the mass of sodium hydrogen carbonate calculated in (a), what volume of
carbon dioxide, measured at s.t.p., would be required.
[8.96 lit.]
Given that the relative molecular mass [molecular weight] of copper oxide is 80, what volume of
ammonia [measured at s.t.p.] is required to completely reduce 120 g. of copper oxide.
The equation for the reaction is: 3CuO + 2NH3 ~ 3Cu + 3H20 + N2.
[22.4 lit.]
A sample of ammonium nitrate when heated yields 8.96 litres of steam (measured at stp).
NH4N03 -- N20 + 2H20 i] What volume of dinitrogen oxide is produced at the same time
as 8.96 litres of steam. ii] What mass of ammonium nitrate should be heated to produce
8.96 litres of steam [Relative molecular mass of NH4N03 is 80]
[4.48 litres., 16 g.]
From the equation: C + 2H250 4 ~ CO2 + 2H20 + 2502 .
Calculate:
i] The mass of carbon oxidized by 49 g. of sulphuric acid [C = 12; rel. mol. mass of H2504 = 98].
ii] The volume of sulphur
dioxide measured
at s.t.p., liberated
at the same time.
[Volume occupied by 1 mole of a gas at s.t.p. is 22.4 dm3].
[3 g., 11.2 dm ']
Commercial sodium hydroxide weighing 30 g. has some sodium chloride in it. The mixture on
dissolving in water and subsequent treatment with excess silver nitrate solution formed a precipitate
weighing 14.3 g. What is the percentage of sodium chloride in the commercial sample of sodium
hydroxide. The equation for the reaction is
NaCl + AgN03 -- AgCl + NaN03.
[Relative molecular mass of NaCl = 58; AgCl = 143] [19.33%]
Calculate the volume of oxygen required for the complete combustion of 8.8 g of propane [C3HS]'
[C = 12, = 16, H = I, Molar Volume = 22.4 dm-' at stp]
[22.4lits.]

2000 1.
2.

2001 1.

2003 1.

2004 1.

2005 1.

2006

1.

2007

1.

2008

1.

2009

1.

2011

101