of 'K' =lJ
a]
weighs
[MOLE]
..
1 g.
b]
22400 x 1
11200
WT.
g. mol. wt.
At. wt ..
Atomicity =
2 [calculated]
1 [given]
= 2 [g. mol.
=2
:. Atomicity of 'X'
=2
wt.]
 Ans.
6. 0.48g of a gas forms 100cm3 of vapours at s.t.p. Calculate the gram molecular wt of the gas.
Solution:
:. (22.4 x
1000)cm3
7.
will occupy
'
[MOLE]
22400 x 0.48
100
b]
..
22,400 cc.
at s.t.p.
[VOLUME]
100 c.c.
occupies
at s.t.p.
[VOLUME]
WEIGHT
Calculate the weight of a substance X which in gaseous fonn occupies 10 litres at 270C and 700 mm
pressure. The molecular weight of X is 60.
Solution:
Initial conditions
PI = 700 mm ofHg
VI = 10 litres
TI = 27+273 = 300 K
Using the gas equation
PlVI
TI
Substituting the values:
PzVz
Tz
700 x 10
300
760 x X
273
:. V 2
= 700 x 10 x 273
= 8.38 litres
[vol. at s.t.p.]
300 x 760
8.
9.
t
ram a oms
[of oxygen]
8
Mass in grams
=
Relative atomic mass [At. Wt.]
16
= 0.5 g. atoms
 Ans.
Mass in grams
Relative molecular
[ofwater]
mass [Mol. Wt.]
81
expressed
45

18
in grams.
= 2.5 g. molecules
 Ans.
ii]
24x80
64
molecules
Gram molecules
of 502
x 0.64 = ~molecules
100
64 x 0.5
of S02 Ans.
32 g. of S02 Ans.
11. Calculate i] the number of moles ii] the total number of molecules iii] the total number of atoms
iv] the number of hydrogen atoms  in 294 g. of sulphuric acid. [H = 1, S = 32, 0 = 16]
Solution:
i]
_1_
[MOLE]
of H2504 weighs
98
contains
[G. MOL. WT.]
[MOLE]
of H2504 weighs
= 2 + 32 + 16 x 4 = 98
23
6.023 x 10
molecules
[AVOG. NO.]
1 x 294
98
98g.
contains
294 g.
contains
3 moles of H2S04
Ans.
molecules
= 3 x 6.023 X
23
6.023 x 10 x 294
98
1023molecules  Ans,
12. If gases 'A', 'B', 'C' are arranged in increasing in order of their relative molecular mass & the mass of
each gas is 10g. at s.t.p. State which gas will contain the least number of molecules & which the most.
1 Mole of gas' A' weighs
'x' g.
and contains.
6.023
1023
molecules.
6.023
contains
10 g. of gas' A'
1023 x 10 molecules.
'X'
5ince gases' A', 'B' and 'C' are in increasing order of relative molecular mass we assume the relative
molecular mass of gas 'B' as '2X' and gas'C' as '3X'. Hence
23
10 g. of gas 'B contains 6.023 x 1023x 10 molecules & 10 g. of gas
contains 6023 x 10 x 10 molecules.
2X
3X
c
Gas'C'
82
13. Calculate the number of moles of zinc [Zn2+J ions and chloride [CIl] ions which will be obtained from
272 g. of ZnCI2. [Zn = 65, Cl = 35.5J
Solution:
1
of ZnCl weighs
[MOLE]
2
..
= 65 + 35.5 x 2 =
136 g.
136 g.
of ZnCl2
[G. MOL. WT.]
i.e.
1 x 272
136
2 moles
LAW  PROBLEMS
14. If 100 cc of a gas A contains Y molecules. How many molecules of gas B will be present in 50 cc of B
and of gas C in 25 cc. of C. The gases A, B, & C are under the same conditions of temperature & pressure.
According to Avogadro's Law  Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of
all gases contain the same number of molecules.
:. If 100 cc of gas A contains Y molecules then 100 cc of gas B and gas C also contains
Y molecules.
:. 50 cc of gas B contains
15. Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure 021 CI21S021 CO2 contain the same number
of molecules represented by 'Y'. The molecules of oxygen gas occupy V litres and have a mass of 16g.
Under the same conditions, state the volume occupied by  i] Y molecules of chlorine ii] 3Y molecules
of S02 iii] State the mass of CO2 it} grams.
According to Avogadro's Law  under the same conditions of temperature
:~r.
,occupies
22.4lits. at s.t.p.
:. 16g. of 02
occupies
? i.e
. [G.
WT.]
2;24
16
11.2 lits.
If 16 g. of oxygen occupies 11.2lits at s.t.p. :. the volume of Cl2' S02 and CO2 is also 11.2lits at s.t.p.
44g.
[G. MOL. WT.]
. /'
I
:)'"
:.
? g. of CO2
x 11.2 = 22 g. 0 f CO 2 A ns.
= 44 22.4
250~ = 4
:. Molecular Weight
= 2 x Vapour Density = 2 x 4 = 8 g.
5~00 = 10
:. Molecular Weight
= 2 x Vapour Density
83
=2x
io
= 20 g.
17. A gas cylinder can hold 1kg of hydrogen at room temperature and pressure. Calculate
a} The weight of carbon dioxide it can hold under similar conditions of temperature and pressure,
b} If the number of molecules of hydrogen in the cylinder is X. State the number of molecules of
carbon dioxide in the culinder. [C=12, 0=16, H=l}
Solution:
Molecular
weight
44
Vapour Density =
2 x Vapour Density
2 x VD.'
12 + 32
= 44
:. V.D. of CO2 =
44
2
= 22
:. 22
= ? [wt:
of carbon dioxide]
1
= 22
a]
b]
The number of molecules of CO2 in the cylinder is X (Avogadro's Law  under the same conditions
of temperature & pressure equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules)  Ans.
18. A gas occupies .700 ml at a pressure of 700 mm of Hg and a temperature of 5'JOC.If at s.t.p. the mass
of the gas is 1.5g find the vapour density and the molecular weight of the gas.
(Given 1 litre of hydrogen weighs 0.09 g at s.t.p.)
Solution:
Initial conditions
PI =
700mmofHg
VI = 700 ml
TI
57+273
..
330 K
PIVI
TI
330
Bl
273 K
. V .. 2 
P2V2
T2
700 x 700
Ti =
760 x
273
533.37 ml.
[v6.f.,.at s.t.p.]
Calculate the vapour density and the molecular weight of the gas.
533.37 ml. [vol. at s.t.p. calculated above] of the gas at s.t.p. weighs 1.5 g. [given in the problem]
:. 1000 ml of the gas weighs 1.5 x 1000
= 2.8123 g.
533.37
2.8123
VAPOUR DENSITY = Wt. of 1000 ml [1 litre] of the gas at s.t.p.
= 31.25
=
0.09
Wt. of 1000 ml [1 litre] of H2 at s.t.p.
:. Molecular weight
= 2 x VD.
= 2 x 31.25 = 62.5 g.
Vapour density of the gas is 31.25 and molecular weight is 62.5 g.  Ans.
19. KMn04decomposesonheatingaccordingtotheequation2KMn04 ~
KzMn04 + Mn02 + 02
[K2Mn04 &; Mn02 are the solid residues}. On heating KMn04' 1litre of oxygen was collected at room
temp. & it was found the test tube had undergone a loss in mass of 1.32 g. If one litre of hydrogen under the
same conditions of temp. & press. has a mass of 0.0825g. Calculate the relative molecular mass of oxygen.
Solution:
.'
1.32
0.0825
mass of oxygen
= 2 x Vapour
84
16
Density
= 32 g. 
Ans.
Gay Lussac's Law  When gases react they do so in volumes which bear a simple whole number ratio to one another and to the volumes of the products, if gaseous provided the temperature and pressure of the reacting gases and their products remain constant.
Avogadro's
Law  Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.
Relative atomic mass [Atomic weight]  Relative atomic mass of an element is thenumber of times one atom of an element is heavier than 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon [C12].
. Gram atomic mass [gram atom]  The relative atomic mass of an element expressed ingrams is known as  gram atomic mass or gram atom of that element.
. Relative molecular mass [Molecular weight]  Relative molecular mass of an element or compound is the number of times one molecule of the substance is heavier than 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon [C12].
Gram molecular mass  [gram molecule]  The relative molecular mass of a substance expressed in grams is known as  gram molecular mass or gram molecule of that element.
Avogadro's
Vapour density  Is the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of gas or vapour to the mass of the same volume of hydrogen [volumes measured under same condition of temp. & press.].
Mole  Is the amount of substance which contains the same number of units as the number of atoms in 12.000 g of carbon  12 [6C12].
Atomicity
Molar volume
Number
 It is the no. of atoms present in  one molecule of that element. e.g. He [mono atomic]
 It is the volume occupied by  1 gm. molecular weight of a gas at s.t.p.
ADDITIONAL
PROBLEMS
Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to give ammonia. Calculate the volume of the ammonia gas formed
when nitrogen reacts with 6 litres of hydrogen. All volumes' measured at s.t.p.
[4lts.]
2.
2500 cc of oxygen was burnt with 600 cc of ethane [C2H6]. Calculate the volume of unused oxygen
and the volume of carbon dioxide formed.
[400 cc, 1200 cc]
3.
20 ml. each of oxygen and hydrogen and 10 ml. of carbon monoxide are exploded in an enclosure.
What will be the volume and composition of the mixture of the gases when they are cooled to room
temperature.
[Oz 5 ml, COz 10 ml]
4.
224 cm3 of ammonia undergoes catalytic oxidation in presenc;:e of Pt to give nitric oxide and water
vapour. Calculate the volume of oxygen required for the reaction. All volumes measured at room
temperature and pressure.
[Ans. 280 cc. of 0z]
5.
Acetylene [C2H2] burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water vapour. Calculate the volume of air
required to completely burn 50cm3 of acetylene. [Assume air contains 20% oxygen]. [Ans. 625cm3]
6.
On igniting a mixture of acetylene [C2H2] & oxygen, 200 cm3 of CO2 is collected at s.t.p. Calculate the
vol. of acetylene & 02 at s.t.p. in the original mixture. [Ans. Acetylene = 100 cm3; Oxygen = 250 cm3]
7.
Ammonia is formed from the reactants nitrogen and hydrogen in presence of a catalyst under suitable
conditions+Assuming all volumes are measured in litres at s.t.p. Calculate the volume of ammonia
. formed if only 10% conversion has taken place. [Ans. 0.2 litres or 20% or 1/5th of vol. of Nz & Hz]
8.
100 cc. each of water gas and oxygen are ignited and the resultant mixture of gases cooled to room
temp. Calculate the composition of the resultant mixture. [Water gas contains. CO & H2 in equal ratio]
.
[Ans. :. 50 cc. of 0z + 50 cc. of COz]
85
LAW  AVOGADRO'S
NUMBER
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
[Ans.
7.
8.
9.
[Ans.
= 16.87 lit.]
= 3 x 6.023 x 1023]
[Ans.
[Ans.
= 23 g. of sodium]
= 3 x 6.023 X 1023atom]
[Ans.
[Ans.
= 0.75 g. molecules]
= 3 x 6.023 X 1023atoms]
[Ans. = 3 moles]
= 16]
[Ans. = 2.76lits.]
[Ans.
17. The moles of sodium hydroxide contained in 160 g of it. [Na=23, 0=16, He I],
[Ans. 4 moles]
[Ans. 2 g. atoms]
21. The no. of moles of KCl03 that will be required to give 6 moles of oxygen.
[Ans. 4 moles]
22. The weight of the substance if it's molecular weight is 70 and in the gaseous form occupies 10 lits.
at 27C and 700 mm pressure.
[Ans. 26.18 g.]
= 16]
[C = 12, = 16]
[Ans. = NO]
[N = 14,
[Ans. = CO~
[0 = 16, Cl = 35.5]
[Ans.
= O~
WEIGHT
1.
500 rnl. of a gas 'X' at s.t.p. weighs 0.50 g. Calculate the vapour density and molecular weight of the
gas. [1 lit. of H2 at s.t.p. weighs 0.09 g].
[Ans. 11.1, 22.2g.]
2.
A gas cylinder holds 85 g of a gas 'X'. The same cylinder when filled with hydrogen holds 8.5 g of
hydrogen under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
Calculate the molecular weight of 'X'.
[Ans. 20]
3.
Calculate the relative molecular mass [molecular weight] of 290 ml. of a gas' A' at 17C and 1520mm
pressure which weighs 2.73 gat s.t.p. [1 litre of hydrogen at s.t.p. weighs 0.09 g.] [Ans. 111.11g.]
4.
5.
6.
Calculate the relative molecular mass and vapour density of methyl alcohol [CH30H] if 160 g. of the
alcohol on vaporization has a volume of 112 litres at s.t.p.
. [Ans. 32 g., i6]
86
vapour
density
[Ans.56lits.]
is equal to its
[Ans.2]
/'
Part B  STOICHIOMETRY
P/ENTAGE
1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITIONv
Percentage
Percentage
composition
composition
[% composition
is also the
x 100
PEl}CENTAGE COMPOSITION
 PROBLEMS
V[K=39,
Calculate the percentage by weight of the following : a] Potassium in potassium dichromate
b) Phosphorus in calcium phosphate [CalPO,J2] [Ca=40, P=31, 0=16]
Cr=52, 0=16]
a]
dichromate
[Ca3(P04}z] = 3 x 40 + 62 + 8 x 16 = 310
contains 62 g of phosphorus
 Ans.
 Ans.
Calculate the mass of nitrogen supplied to the soil by 5 kg of urea. [CO(NHZ}JJ[N=14, C=12,0=16, H=1]
Molecular weight of urea [CO(NH2}z] = 12 + 16 + 28 + 4'= 60 g
60 g of urea contains
28 g of nitrogen
28 x 5 x 1000
.. 5 x 1000 g of urea contains ?
60
3.
..
4.
286 g of Na2C03.10H20
contains
100 g of Na2C03.10H20
contains
of crystallisation
in washing
 Ans .
soda Na2C03.10H2O
Calculate the percentage of pure iron in 10 kg. of iron [Ill] oxide [F.e20~ of 80% purity. [ Fe=56, 0=16].
Molecular weight of Fe20~ = 56 x 2 + 16 x 3 = 160
160 g. of pure Fe203 contains
112 g of pure iron.
112 x 8000
.. 8000 g. of pure Fe203 contains
?
160
..
5.
= 2333.3 g. of nitrogen
:::!
5600g. or 5.6 kg .
~'g
..
Mass of water
Mass of anhydrous CuS04
18x
160
3.6
6.4
R7
:. X =
3.6 x 160
6.4 x 18
= 5 molecules  Ans.
COMPOUND
Glucose'
Benzene
WHOLE NUMBERS
1
SIMPLEST RATIO bF
EMPIRICAL FORMULA
CHzO
CH
/
Write down the percentage composition [wt.] and theatomic weight of each element present in the given compound
% Composition
Element
Sodium
Sulphur
Oxygen
StepIl
At. Wt.
29.11
40.51
23
32
"16
30.38
% Composition
At. Wt.
Sodium
29.11
23
Sulphur
40.51
32
30.38
16
29.11
23
40.51
32
30.38
16
Oxygen
,.
Step III
1.266
1.266
1.898
aJ
Select the smallest ratio  amongst the relative no. of atoms & divide the.
remaining ratios by it to give the simplest ratio of atoms present in thecompound,
[eg. the smallest ratio amongst 1.266, 1.266 and 1.898 is 1.266,
hence divide each ratio by 1.266] .
bJ
If the simplest ratio is not a whole number  multiply each ratio by the
smallest suitable integer so that a whole number ratio is obtained.
c]
Write the empirical formula  showing the atoms [elements J in the proper
simple ratio of whole numbers.
Element
% Composition
At. Wt.
Sodium
29.11
23
Sulphur
40.51
32
Oxygen
30.38
16

1.266
1.266
1.898
Simplest Ratio
1.266
1.266
1.266
1.266
1.898
1.266
lx2
=2
1x2
=2
1.5x2=3
88
MOLECULAR
FORMULA
Glucose
Sulphuric acid
formula.
12 +
1 + 16 x 2
[C]
[H]
45
[2 (0)]
Record the molecular weight [or calculate it from the V.D. of the compound]
. Molecular weight from vapour density.
V. D. is given
Step III
Determine
= 45
= 2 x V. D. = 2 x 45 = 90
StepN
of the
as explained already.
Step Il
is determined
density
Molecular weight
Empirical formula weight
=2
[Empirical formulaj.,
ie.
[CH02h
= C2H204
89
EMPIRICAL
1.
& MOLECULAR
FORMULA
A compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is found to contain 40% of carbon, 6.7% of hydrogen and
53.3% of oxygen. Calculate its empirical formula. If its vapours density is 30, calculate the molecular
formula. [C=12, ut, 0=16J
Element
% Composition
At. Wt.
Carbon
40%
12
40
12
3.33
3.33
3.33
Hydrogen
6.70%
6.70
I
6.70
6.70
3.33
Oxygen
53.3%
16
53.3
16
3.33
3.33
3.33
= CH20
Molecular Weight
Empirical Formula Weight
Molecular
Molecular
formula =
.~~I
60
Simplest Ratio of
whole numbers
 Ans .
2.
 PROBLEMS
30
Molecular Weight
[or 2 x V.D.]
CH20x2
C2H402
= CzH402 
Ans.
A chemical reaction showed that 10.47 g. of the compound contained 6.21 g. of metal 'X' and the rest
of a nonmetal 'Y'. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound formed between 'X' and 'Y'.
[At. wt. of X = 207, Y = 35.5J
Solution:
Calculate the
a]
b]
contains
contains
contains
6.21
10.47
4.26 g. of nonmetal
4.26
contains
'Y'
[10.47  6.21
= 4.26 g.]
10.47
Element
% Composition
At. wt.
Atomic Ratio
59.31%
207
~~#1
0.286
0.286
0.286
, 40.69%
35.5
~~:~9
= 1.146
1.146
0.286
in XY4 Ans.
90
3. A compound has the following percentage composition: Na = 18.60%, S = 25.80%, H = 4.03% and
o = 51.58%. Calculate the molecular formula of the crystalline salt assuming that all the hydrogen
in the compound is in combination with the oxygen as water of crystallisation. Molecular weight of
the compound is 248. [Na = 23, S = 32, H = 1, 0 = 16J
At. wt.
23
18.60 = 0.80
23
0.80 = 1
0.80
25.80%
32
25.80 = 0.80
32
0.80 = 1
0.80
Hydrogen
4.03%
Oxygen
51.58%
16
4.03 = 4.03
1
51.58 = 3.22
16
4.03 = 5
0.80
3.22 = 4
0.80
Element
% Composition
Sodium
18.60%
Sulphur
= NaSHsO 4
Molecular Weight
248
Molecular formula =
=
= 2
124
Na2S2HIOOg
Since all the hydrogen in the compound is in combination with the oxygen as water of crystallisation.
4.
..
..
The molecular
is NaZSZ03.5HzO
 Ans.
Empirical formula of a compound is XY2 If its empirical formula weight is equal to its vapour
density, calculate the molecular formula of the compound.
Molecular formula = Empirical formula x n ie. [XY2x n]
..
n =
Molecular Weight
2xV.D.
Empirical Formula Weight
n=2
:.
Molecular
formula
of the compound
= X2Y4 Ans.
5. State the empirical formula of each compound whose molecular formula is  a] C.sHI0 b] H2C02
a]
b]
:. Simplest ratio is 1 : 2
Ans.
Calculate the empirical formula of a compound whose molecular formula is C8H60 4 and empirical
formula weight is 83. [C=12, H=l, 0=16]
Molecular weight of CgH604 is = 96 + 6 + 64 = 166
..
n=
Molecular Weight
Empirical Formula Weight
166
83
=2
91
= C4H302 Ans.
ON CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Example
Calculate the weight and volume of oxygen at s. t.p. which will be evolved on
electrolysis of 18g of water. [Hel, 0=16J
Step I
equation
of the reaction.
2H20 ~ 2H2 + 02
Step II
a]
b]
The product of the number of molecules and the molecular weight of each
substance is written below each formula.
2H20
7
2H2 +
2 [1 x 2 + 16]
2 [18]
Step III
a]
b]
SteplV
02
[2 x 16]
= 36 g
32g
= 16 g.
. ~
2H2 +
36g
a]
b]
02
32 g = 1 mole of 02= 22.4 litres at s.t.p.
92
= 11.2 litres
of 02 at s.t.p.
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
 PROBLEMS
Solution:
The chemical equation for the reaction is
2KN03
/!,.
2[39 + 14 :t 3 x 16]
2KN02
=7
2KN03
2 [g]
a]
2x101 g.
[mol. wt.]
2KN02
"+
02
2x85 g.
[mol. wt.]
2[39 + 14 + 2 x 16]
2 x 101
2[85]
:. 2 x 101 gms of KN03 yield 2 x 85 gms of KN02.
? g.
15.15 g.
b]
[wt.]
[wt.]
2. .Copper on reacting with cone. Hz504 produces copper sulphate. If 1.28 gm of copper is to be
converted to copper sulphate. Find i] the weight of the copper sulphate formed and ii] the weight of
the acid required. [Cu=64, 5=32, 0=16].
Solution:
The chemical equation for the reaction is
Cu
a]
64g.
[wt.]
..
[wt.]
b]
..
2H2504
160 g.
[mol. wt.]
2 [98] = 1969.
[mol. wt.]
1.28 g.
b]
? g.
? g.
[wt.]
[wt.]
From the equation CaC03 + 2HCI) CaClz + HzO +COz' Calculate the weight ofCaClz obtained from
10g. of CaC03 and the volume at s.t.p. of COz obtained at a same time. [Ca=40, C=12, 0=16, CI=35.5]
Solution:
+ 2HCI ) CaCl2 + H20 + CO2
[40+12+48]
[40+71] 1 mole
. a]
100 g
111 g 22.4ltrs. at s.t.p.
CaC03
a]
CaC03
100g.
[mol. wt.]
111 g.
[mol. wt.]
10 g.
? g.
b]
b]
+ 2HCl ~
[wt.]
[wt.]
22.4 Iits. [
]
;::;;;: s.t.p.
[Vol.]
? Iits,
[Iits.]
4.
Combustion of butane takes place as follows: 2C4H10 + 130z 7 8COz + 10HzO. Calculate a] the
number of moles of oxygen needed for complete combustion of 58g of butane, bJ the volume of carbon
dioxide formed at s.t.p. at the same time. [H=l, C=,.1_2=J.
,I.
2C4H1O
Solution:
2C4H1O
+ 132
13 moles
2[48+10]
b)
58 g.
b]
116 g
a]
8 moles
132

8 x 22.4 lits.
[Vol.]
moles

[wt.]
+ 10H2O
8C02
13 moles
[moles]
a] 2 x 58 = 116 g.
[mol. wt.]
+ iOH2O
8C02

[s.t.p.]
lits.
[lits.]
[moles]
Similarly
116 g of C4H10 liberates 8 x 22.4 litres of CO2 at s.t.p.
:. 58 g of C4H10 liberates 22.4 x 8 x 58 = 89.6 litres at s.t.p. of CO2  Ans.
116
5.
Thermal decomposition of calcium nitrate takes place as follows: 2Ca(NO:;)z 7 2CaO +4NOz + O2,
If the relative molecular mass of calcium nitrate is 164. aJ Calculate the volume of nitrogen dioxide
obtained at s.t.p. and bJ the weight of calcium oxide obtained when 16.4 g of calcium nitrate is heated
to constant weight. [Ca=40, 0=16, N=14J.
7
2Ca(~03)2
Solution:
2Ca(N03h
a]
2CaO
2[164]
+ 4N02
2[40+16] 4 moles
328 g
112g
2CaO
b]

[wt]
[wt.]
g.
4~02
4 x 22.4 lits.
[Vol.]
?
[lits.]
2
[s.t.p.]
lUs.
6.
2.12 g. of an impure mixture containing anhydrous sodium sulphate is dissolved in water. An excess
of barium chloride solution is added when 1.74 g. of barium sulphate is obtained as a dry precipitate.
Calculate the percentage purity of the impure sample. [Na = 23, S = 32,
= 16, Ba = 137].
Solution:
Na2S04
+ BaCl27
+ 2NaCI
BaS04
[2 x 23 + 32 + 4 x 16]
[137 + 32 + 64]
142 g.
233g.
a]
b]
142g.
[mol. wt.]
233 g.
[mol. wt.]
? g.
[wt.]
1.74 g.
[wt.]
a]
b]
:. 1.74 g. of Ba SO 4 is obtained from 142 x 1.74 = 1.06 g.  mass of pure Na2S04 in2.12g. of impure mixture.
233
:. % purity of the impure sample = 1.06 x 100 = 50%.
2.12
:. % purity of the impure sample
50%  Ans.
94
PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION
EMPIRICAL & MOLECULAR FORMULA
CHEMICAL EQUATION CALCULATIONS
composition
Empirical formula  Is the formula of a compound which shows the simplest whole number ratio between the atoms of the elements in the compound.
Molecular
formula
ADDITIONAL
Q.l PERCENTAGE
PROBLEMS
COMPOSITION
1.
2.
3.
Calculate which of the following  calcium nitrate or ammonium sulphate has a higher % of nitrogen.
[Ca=40,0= 16,S = 32,N = 14] [Ans.(NH4)2S04 % ofN =21.21% more than Ca(N03)Z %ofN =17.07%]
4.
5.
State which of the following are better fertilizersi] Potassium phosphate [K3P04] or potassium
nitrate [KN03] ii] Urea [NH2CONH2] or ammonium phosphate [(NH4)3P04]
.
[K=39,P~31,0=
16,N =14,H= 1] [Ans.K3POC % ofK=55.18% morethanKN03%
ofK=38.61%]
ni.
% of N = 28.19%]
6.
Calculate the percentage of carbon in a 55% pure sample of carbon carbonate. [Ca = 40, C = 12, = 16]
[Ans. Carbon content = 6.6%]
7.
8.
Hydrated
calcium sulphate
[CaS04.xH20]
contains
21 % of water of crystallisation.
Calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallisation i.e. 'X' in the hydrated compound.
[Ca = 40, S = 32, = 16, H = 1]
[Ans. CaS04.2H20]
in hydrated
.
Q.2 EMPIRICAL
& MOLECULAR
FORMULA
1.
A compound gave the following data: C=57.82%, 0=38.58% and the rest hydrogen. Its vapour
density is 83. Find its empirical and molecular formula. [C=12, 0=16, H=l ][Ans. C4H30Z & C8H60~
2.
Four g of a metallic chloride contains 1.89 g of the metal 'X' . Calculate the empirical formula of the
metallic chloride. [At. wt. of 'X' = 64, Cl = 35.5 ]
[Ans. XCI2]
3.
4.
A compound has the following percentage composition. Al = 0.2675 g.; P = 0.3505 g.; = 0.682 g. If
the molecular weight of the compound is 122 and its original weight which on analysis gave the above
results 1.30 g. Calculate the molecular formula of the compound. [AI=27, P=31, 0=16] [Ans. AIP04]
5.
Two organic compounds 'X' and 'Y' containing carbon and hydrogen only have vapour densities 13
and 39 respectively. State the molecular formula of 'X' and 'Y'. [C = 12, H = 1] [Ans. C2HZ; C6H6]
6.
A compound has the following % composition. Zn = 22.65%; S = 11.15%; = 61.32% and H = 4.88%.
Its relative molecular mass is 287 g. Calculate its molecular formula assuming that all the hydrogen
in the compound is present in combination with oxygen as water of crystallization.
[Zn = 65, S = 32, = 16, H = 1]
[Ans. ZnS04.7H20]
7.
A hydrocarbon contains 82.8% of carbon. Find its molecular formula if its vapour density is 29.
[H = 1, C = 12]
[Ans. C4H10]
8.
An organic compound on analysis gave H = 6.48% and 0= 51.42%. Determine its empirical formula
if the compound contains 12 atoms of carbon. [C = 12, H = 1, = 16]
[Ans. C12H240d
9.
11. A salt has the following % composition: Al = 10.50%, K= 15.1%,S = 24.8% and the remaining oxygen.
Calculate the empirical formula of the salt. [AI = 27, K = 39, S = 32, = 16]
[Ans. AIK(S04h]
Q.3 CHEMICAL
EQUATIONS
1.
What mass of silver chloride will be obtained by adding an excess of hydrochloric acid to a solution
of 0.34 g of silver nitrate. [Cl=35.5, Ag=108, N=14,. 0=16, H=l ]
[Ans. 0.287 g]
2.
3.
[Ans. 24 g,]
(ii) the volume of nitric oxide collected at the same time. [Cu=64, H=l, 0=16, N=14][Ans. 5.61ts.]
4.
5.
Ammonia reacts with sulphuric acid to give the fertilizer ammonium sulphate. Calculate the volume
of ammonia [at s.t.p.] used to form 59 g of ammonium sulphate.
[Ans. 20.021ts.]
[N=14, H=l, S=32, 0=16 ].
6.
Heat on lead nitrate gives yellow lead [Il] oxide, nitrogen dioxide & oxygen. Calculate the total volume
of NOz' & 0z produced
on heating 8.5 of lead nitrate. [Pb = 207, N = 14,
= 16].
[Ans. 1.15 of N02 & 0.287 of 02 (1.4371ts.)]
7.
2KCl03
) 2KCI + 30z; C + 0z
.) COz' Calculate the amount of KCl03 which on thermal
decomposition gives 'X' vol. of 0z, which is the volume required for combustion of 24 g. of carbon.
[K = 39, Cl = 35.5, = 16, C = 12].
[Ans. 163.33 g.]
8.
sulphate.
b]
Obtained when 32.6 g. of ammonium chloride reacts with calcium hydroxide during the
laboratory preparation of ammonia. [2NH4Cl + Ca(OHh
) CaClz + 2HzO + 2NH3]
[N = 14, H = 1, = 16, S = 32, Cl = 35.5].
[Ans. a) 20.09 g. b) 10.36 g.]
9.
Sodium carbonate reacts with dil. HZS04 to give the respective salt, water and carbon dioxide.
Calculate the mass of pure salt formed when 300 g. of NaZC03 of 80% purity reacts with dil. HZS04.
[Na = 23, C = 12, = 16, H = 1, S = 32].
[Ans. 321.51 g.]
10. Sulphur burns in oxygen to give sulphur dioxide. If 16 g. of sulphur burns in 'x' cc. of oxygen,
calculate the amount of potassium nitrate which must be heated to produce 'x' cc. of oxygen.
[S = 32, K = 39, N =14, = 16].
[Ans. 101 g.]
11: Sample of impure magnesium is reacted with dilute sulphuric acid to give the respective salt and
hydrogen. If 1 g. of the impure sample gave 298.6 cc. of hydrogen at s.t.p. Calculate the % purity of
the sample. [Mg = 24, H = 1].
[Ans.31.99%]
96
PROBLEM:
4000cc. of 0z was burnt with 300 cc. of ethane. Calculate the vol. of unused 0z and COzfarmed.
WRITE TIlE BALANCED EQUA TION As per instructions in the calculations, with volumes below
300 cc.
2 C2H6
4000 cc.
72
7 vols.
2 vols.
4C02 + 6H2O
4 vols.
6 vols.
. REPRESENT THE EQUATION AS PER LUSSAC'S LAW  When gases react, they do so in vols.
which bear a simple whole no. ratio to one another and to the products [temp., press., constant].
4000 cc.
300 cc.
2C2H6
2 vols.
2 X 150
i.e.
72
7 vols.'
4C02
+ 6H2O
4 vols.
6 vols.
= 300 cc.
MOLE weighs
GRAMS occupies22.4lits.or
[MOLE]
WEIGHT [mass]
VOLUME
b]
NO. OF MOLES
?
[atoms/
NO. OF MOLECULES. ions]
If 30 lits. of 0z contains iX' no. of molecules, state the no. of molecules in 10 lits. of H2I
60 lits. of Clz and 5lits. of NH3 All gases collected under the same conditions of temp. & press.
As per Ayogadro's Law  Under the same conditions of temperature
contain the same number of molecules.
@30
tits. 2X molecules
65
VAPOUR DENSITY = Weight of a certain vol. of gas or 1000 ml. [1 litre] of gas
OFAGAS
Weight of an equal vol. of H2 i.e. 1000 ml. [1 litre] of H2
b]
MOLECULAR WEIGHT =
2 X vapour density
97
[Same conditions
of temp. & press.]
= 11 X 4 = 44
= 23 X 2 + 11 X 4 + 16 X 7 + 10 [2 + 16] = 382
x 100
[borax]
COMPOSITION
44
382
100
[borax]
<'
11.5% Ans.
Element
Element
% Comp. At. Wt
40
12
Hydrogen
6.7
Simplest ratio
= Each at. ratio
of whole numbers Smallest at. ratio
Oxygen
53.3
16
At. Wt.
At. ratio
Simplest
ratio
Empirical formula
Molecular formula
Molecular formula
G. PROBLEMS
=
=
Cl H2 01 i.e. CH20
Empirical formula X n [integar]
CH20
2XVD.
CH20
C2H402
X 2
2X30
12+2+16
I
60
30
PROBLEM:
Copper reacts with dilute nitric acid to give copper nitrate, water and nitric oxide. Calculate
il the mass of copper needed to react with 126g. of HN03
ii] vol. of nitric oxide obtained at the same time [Cu = 64, H = 1,0 = 16, N = 14J.
WRITE THE BALANCED EQUATION  Complete the corresponding
3Cu
a]
3 X 64 = 192
+
g.
8HN03
) 3Cu (N03h+
8 [1 + 14 + 48] = 504
columns a] and b]
4H20 +
2NO
g.
22.4lits]
b]
g.
126
g.
e'
lits.
44.8lits. of NO
98
For OB]ECTNE and ICSE BOARD TYPE QUESTIONS  Refer Dr. Viraf
J. Dalal's
QUESTIONS"",.
A. PROBLEMS BASED ON  LUSSAC'S LAW
1999 1.
2001 1.
2.
2003 1.
2006 1.
2009 1.
4NH3 + S02 7 4NO + 6H20  If 27 litres of reactants are consumed, what volume of nitrogen
monoxide is produced at the same temperature and pressure.
[12 lits.]
4N20 + CH4 7 C0...J, + 2H,0 + 4N2 If all volumes are measured at the same temp. & press. Calculate
the volume of N2U required to give ISO cm3 of steam.
[300 cc.]
What volume of oxygen would be required for the complete combustion of 100 litres of ethane
according to the following equation. 2C2H6 + 702 7 4C02 + 6H20
[3S0 lits.]
What vol?me of 02 is required to burn completely a mixture of 22.4 dm ' of CH4 & 11.2 dm3 of ~2;
The reactions are: CH4 + 202 7 CO2 + 2H20; 2H2 + 02 7 2H20 [All vols. at s.t.p.]
[SO.4lits.]
S60 ml. of carbon monoxide is mixed with SOOml of oxygen and ignited. Calculate the volume of
oxygen used and carbon dioxide formed in the above reaction.
[280 ml., S60 ml.]
200 cm3 of acetylene is formed from a certain mass of calcium carbide. Find the volume of oxygen
required and carbon dioxide formed during its complete combustion. The combustion reaction can
be represented as: 2C2H2[g] + S02[g] ;. 4C02[g] + 2H20[g]
[SOOcm' of 2,400 cm3 of CO2]
10 litres of a mixture of propane [C3HS] [60%] and butane [C4HlO][40%] is burnt. Calculate the
total volume of carbon dioxide formed. Combustion reactions of the mixture are represented as C3HS(g) + S02(g) 7 3C02(g) + 4H20(g) ; 2C4H10(g) + 1302(g) 7 8C02(g) + 10H20(g) [34 lits.]
State CayLussac's Law.
2010 1.
. 2011 1.
1.
2.
2005
1.
2006
1.
2008
1.
2009
1.
2010
2.
1.
2011
1.
2.
NUMBER
A flask contains 3.2 g. of sulphur dioxide. Calculate the following:i] The moles of sulphur dioxide present in the flask.
!O.OSmoles]
ii
The number of molecules of S02 present in the flask.
[O.OSx 6.023 x 102 molecules]
iii] The volume occupied by 3.2 g. of sulphur dioxide at s.t.p. [S = 32, = 16]
[1.12 litres]
2KMn04 7 K2Mn04 + Mn02 + 02 Given that the molecular mass of KMn04 is lS8, what volume
of oxygen [measured at room temp.] would be obtained by the complete decomposition of
lS.8 g. of potassium permanganate. [Molar volume at room temperature is 24 litres.] [1.2 litres]
The volumes of gases A, B, C & D are in the ratio, 1:2:2:4 under the same conditions of temp. & press.
i] Which sample of gas contains the maximum number of molecules.
[D]
ii] If the temperature and the pressure of gas A are kept constant, then what will happen to the
volume of A when the number ofmolecules is doubled.
[Doubles]
iii] If this ratio of gas vols. refers to reactants & products of reaction  gas law observed is_. [pg. 71 J
iv] If the volume of' A' is actually S.6 dm3 at s.t.p., calculate the number of molecules in the actual
volume of 'D' at s.t.p. [Avogadro's number is 6 x 1023). Using your answer, state the mass of
'D' if the gas is dinitrogen oxide [N20]. [N = 14, = 16]
[6 x 1023;44 g.]
Calculate the number of moles and the number of molecules present in 1.4 g. of ethylene gas [C2H4].
What is the vol. occupied by the same amount of ethylene. [O.OSmoles, 3x1022 molecules, 1.12 lit.]
What is the vapour density of ethylene. [Avogadro's Number = 6 x 1023;
Atomic weight of C = 12, B = 1; Molar volume = 22.4 litres at s.t.p.]
[14]
The equation for the burning of octane is: 2 CsHlS + 2S 02 7 16 CO2 + 18 H20
i] How many moles of carbon dioxide are produced when one mole of octane burns. [8 moles]
ii] What volume, at s.t.p. is occupied by the number of moles determined in 1. i]. [179.2lits.]
iii] If the relative molecular mass of carbon dioxide is 44, what is the mass of
[704 g.]
carbon dioxide produced by burning two moles of octane.
Define the term  Mole. A gas cylinder contains 24 x 1024molecules of nitrogen gas. If Avogadro's
number is 6 x 1023 and the relative atomic mass of nitrogen is 14, calculate:
[i] Mass of nitrogen gas in the cylinder.
[ii] Volume of nitrogen at STP in dm3 [1120 g., 896 dm']
3
Gas 'X' occupies a volume of 100 cm at S. T. P. and weighs 0.5 g. find its relative molecular mass. [112 g.]
Dilute hydrochloric acid [HCl] is reacted with 4.5 moles of calcium carbonate. Give the equation for the
said reaction. Calculate i] The mass of 4.5 moles of CaC03 ii] The volume of CO?, liberated at stp.
iii] The mass of CaClz formed. iv] The number of moles of the acid HCl used in the reaction
[relative molecular mass of CaC0 is 100 and of CaC~ is 111].
[4S0 g., 100.8lits., 499.5 g., 9 moles]
Calculate the mass of  i] 1022 atoms of sulphur.
ii] 0.1 mole of carbon dioxide.
[S=32, C=12 and 0=16 & Avogadro's number = 6 x 1023]
[0.533 g., 4.4 g.]
Calculate the volume of 320 g of S02 at stp. [S = 32 and 0= 16].
[112 lits.]
99
1.
1999
1.
2001
1.
2002
1.
2005
2008
1.
1.
2009
1.
LAW
Under the same conditions of temp. and press. you collect 2 litres of CO2, 3 litres of Cl2' 5 litres of
H2' 4 litres of N2 and 1 litre of S02' In which gas sample will there be the greatest number of molecules
and the least number of molecules. Justify your answer.
[pg. 74, H2' SO~
A vessel contains N molecules of oxygen at a certain temperature & pressure. How many molecules
of sulphur dioxide can the vessel accommodate at the same temperature & pressure. [N molecules]
The gases chlorine, nitrogen, ammonia and sulphur dioxide are collected under the same conditions
of temperature and pressure. If 20 litres of nitrogen contain 'X' no. of molecules state the no. of
molecules in 10 litres of chlorine, 20 litres of ammonia & 5 litres of sulphur dioxide. [x/2, x, x/4]
Samples of 02' N2, CO and CO~nder the same conditions of temp. & press. contain the same number
of molecules represented by X. The molecules of oxygen occupy V litres and have a mass of 8g. Under
the same conditions of temp. & press., what is the volume occupied by: i] X molecules of N2;
ii] 3X molecules of CO. iii] What is the mass of CO2 in grams.
[V litres]; [3V litres][l1 g.J
iv] In answering the above questions, whose law has been used. [C = 12, N = 14, = 16] [pg.74]
Define the term' atomic weight'.
~
[pg.75]
The gas law which relates the volume of a gas to the number.of molecules of the gas is
[A]
A: Avogadro's Law B: GayLussac's Law C: Boyle's Law D: Charles'Law
Correct the following statement  Equal masses of all gases under identical conditions contain the
same number of molecules.
[pg.74]
1.
2001
1.
2004
1.
2009
1.
Find the relative molecular mass of a gas, 0.546 g of which occupies 360 cm3 at 87C and 380 mm
Hg pressure. [1 litre of hydrogen at s.t.p. weighs 0.09g]
[88.89 g]
Mention the term defined by the following : The mass of a given volume of gas compared to the
mass of an equal volume of hydrogen.
[pg.78]
2KMn04 7 K2Mn04 + Mn02 + 02
[K2.Mn04. + Mn02 is the solid residue]
Some potassium permanganate was heated in a test tube. Atter collecting one litre of oxygen at room
temperature, it was found that the test tube had undergone a loss in mass of 1.32 g. If one litre of
hydrogen under the same conditions of temperature and pressure has a mass of 0.0825 g.
Calculate the relative molecular mass of oxygen.
.
[32g.]
A gas cylinder of capacity of 20 dm3 is filled with gas X the mas.s of which is 10 g. When the same
cylinder is filled with hydrogen gas at the same temperature and pressure the mass of the hydrogen
is 2 g., hence the relative molecular mass of the gas is : A] 5
B] 10
C] 15
D] 20
[10]
1.
1.
1.
2001
1.
2002
1.
2005
2006
1.
1.
2007
2010
1.
1.
F.PROBLEMSBASEDONEMPIRICALFORMULAANDMOLECULARFORMULA
2000
1.'
2001
1.
2002
1.
2004
1.
Determine the empirical formula of the compound whose composition by. mass is: 42% nitrogen,
48% oxygen and 9% hydrogen. [H = 1; N = 14; = 16].
[NOH3]
A metal M forms a volatile chloride containing 65.5% chlorine. If the density of the chloride relative
to hydrogen [i.e.YD.] is 162.5, find the molecular formula of the chloride. [M=56; C1=35.5][M2Cl6]
The percentage composition of sodium phosphate as determined by analysis is 42.1 % sodium,
18.9% phosphorus and 39% oxygen. Find the empirical formula of the compound [work to two
decimal places]. [Na = 23, P = 31, 0= 16]
.
[Na3P04]
An experiment showed that in a lead chloride solution, 6.21g. of lead combined with 4.26 g. of
chlorine. What is the empirical formula of this chloride. [Pb = 207; Cl = 35.5]
[PbCI4]
100
2006 1.
2007 1.
2008 1.
2.
2009
1.
2011
1.
Determine the empirical formula of a compound containing 47.9% potassium, 5.5% beryllium and
46.6% fluorine by mass. [At. weight of Be = 9; F = 19; K = 39] Work to one decimal place. [K2BeF4]
A compound X consists of 4.8% carbon and 95.2% bromine by mass. i] Determine the empirical
formula of this compound working correct to one decimal place. ii] If the vapour density of the
compound is 252, what is the molecular formula of the compound. [C = 12; Br = 80][CBr3, C2Br6]
What is the empirical formula of octane. [CSHlS]
[C4H9]
A compound contains  Carbon 14.4%, hydrogen 1.2% and chlorine 84.5 %. Determine the empirical
formula of this compound. Work correct to 1 decimal place. The relative molecular mass of this
compound is 168, so what is its molecular formula. [C = 12; H = 1; Cl = 35.5] [CHCl2, C2H2C14]
A gaseous compound of nitrogen and hydrogen contains 12.5% hydrogen by mass. Find the
molecular formula of the compound if its relative molecular mass is 37. [N = 14, H = 1] [N2H4]
An organic compound has vapour density 94. It contains C = 12.67%, H = 2.13%, and Br = 85.11 %.
Find the molecular formula of the organic compound. [C = 12, H = I, Br = 80]
[C2H4Br2]
1.
2000 1.
2.
2001 1.
2003 1.
2004 1.
2005 1.
2006
1.
2007
1.
2008
1.
2009
1.
2011
101