Transport Planning Around Conservation Forest Area at Supiori as a New Expanding Regency of Biak Island

R. Didin Kusdian Civil Engineering Departement Faculty of Engineering University of Sangga Buana YPKP E-mail:

Supiori was appearing as new regency on west side of Biak Island in Papua Province, Eastern of Indonesia. As a new autonomic administrative area Supiori Regency has some vision, mission, objectives, and goals, to improve the community live in all sectors by development programs. This is a unique point to be discussed, because before legitimated as one autonomic regency separated from Biak Numfor regency, the area of Supiori is dominated by conservation forest area. The first activity to reach this regency vision is arrange the area land use planning which still keep the boundary of conservation forest area. So this is interesting problem to arrange the development planning to increase the quality of community live in all sectors and at the same time the green area which covered by the law as the conservation forest must be kept at it boundary lines. After area land use planning arranged and reviewed, the second step must be arranged as a derivation of it, is transportation system planning. In the fact Supiori regency has only limited transportation infrastructure, with low quantity of dimension and low quality of structure. This study will explore the quantitative and qualitative aspects of transport planning analysis of Supiori regency in Biak Island. Data collecting is done in January, 2009 including land use planning review, traffic and existing transport infrastructure investigation, and social economics data. The data is got from the site as primary data and also from local government office in the form of statistical printed data and also maps as secondary data. For quantitative analysis of planning this study use the most known model of Four Step Transport Planning Model, especially the three steps including Trip Generation, Trip Distribution and Modal Split. The models were derived in form of mathematical model which can be processed in numerical data and output with use computer. Trip generation was estimated from population and number of household data, and trip distribution calibrated with use primary traffic data which transform to be prior origindestination matrix and distance matrix which transform to be cost matrix with negative exponential function, processed with gravity model and multi regression calibration to determine cost function parameter. The result using the model is quantity estimating of person and freight movement demand in Supiori Regency area in the form of future origin destination matrix which describes the movement from zone to zone inside this regency. From estimating results the transport planning and future program policy in transportation for this regency was stated. The resume of this are: port infrastructure, road and bridges and terminals planning for connecting each districts and separated little islands. All of these infrastructures prepared and controlled to be kept out of forest conservation area. Keywords: conservation forest boundary, new regency development, person and movement estimation model, transport planning, future policy program 1. INTRODUCTION viewed both between transportation network and land use, also between nodes inside transportation network it self. Geography The geographical basic principle mean that transportation network system development must be consider geographical capacity limit. Geographical capacity limit act the role as determination factor of shape, configuration, quantity and quality of network systems to be develope. Several aspects of these principles are: morphology, hydrology, natural disaster, and conservation forest.

The development planning of Supiori Regency transportation network is derived from land use planning and policy, which arranged with basic principle of development as follows: • Hierarchies Transportation network is develop with consider the hierarchies of a nodes as acitivity centers which is already stated in land use planning. This can be told that transportation network must be planned in order to make work or estabish the nodes hierarchies stated in land use planning. In this case system base of analisys must be held as the principle of qualitative and quantitative analysis process. Systemic relationship must be

Economy The economy basic principle issues a declaration that transportation system arrangement for one region must consider the economic system behaviour of it. This economic system behaviour will be key factor of the role and function of transportation network inside region system that being developed. For the region with progressive economic system the role and function of transportation network is to supply the demand of peoples and freights movements derived from progressive economic activity, this agree with the philosopy as well known as “ ships follow the trade”. But for developing region the role and function of taransportation network accidentally is to generate the economy progress of the region. And for most new regency region, this role of transportation network is, of course, more appropriate, especially according with the acceleration of East Indonesia development. But in this case the carefully attention must be held in the transportation planning, because of many regions are play the role as the conservation area, and have the important tropical forest as the part of pneumonia of the earth. This role is very important for the sustainability of it region development and for whole people in the world whose live now even next generation that will be born. [1]




According to bacis principles above, the first and important step of transportation planning for Supiori Regency is to identify and state center points of regional planning. The analysis done for determine hierarchy pattern of activity system of those center points and derive it to identify support patern in the shape of transportation system configuration. In determination of activity centers, the main reference is strartegic policy of local government which is already state and legalited. Due to basic thinking above, there is conclusion as follows: 1. Because of Supiori Regency’s administrative area boundary is new transport boundary system which just begin to growth, the estimation of transport demand used the method of scenario. 2. The calculation of travel pattern base on origin-destination zone (according activity center as a center point of zone) inside the region. 3. Transport demand estimation calculated with use four step method. [6] 4. The meanning of transport demand estimation, in this case, is included the direction of above scenarios. With refer to The RTRW of Supiori Regency that has established in It local government policy, the activity center point which in modelling act as the center point of zone an in model calculation mean as nodes, identify according to following Criterias : A. Hierarchy of cities system which satated in RTRW B. Transportation system policy stated in RTRW C. Distribution of center of district D. Distribution of recidence centers at recidenced islands outside main island of Supiori (Biak). E. Already act as existing transportation nodes. The result of analysis is as shown in Table 1. And the transport system component established in each nodes is identified as shown in Table 2. Map of Supiori Regency is shown in figure 1.

To Support The Region Development The basic principle of region development issue the declaration that the arrangement of transportation network must take attention and support to the development of the region according with the concept and development planning of region space and it land use. With refer to Regency’s RTRW (Indonesian: Recana Tata Ruang Wilayah, that mean is Regional Land Use Planning), the transportation network development will more clear, optimal and harmonic with the direction of future it regency land use and activity. The purpose of transportation network development planning is not allowed to make opposite with space and land use planning, and also it regency’s economic characteristic. It must be in one coordinating view, legality, and also integrated with future ecological sustainability thinking. [2][3][4][5]

Table 1 Transportation Nodes In Supiori Regency Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Nodes Sorendiweri Korido Sabar Meokre Yenggarbun Sowek Rani Aruri Mapia Befondi A O O O O B O O O O O C O O O O O O O O D E O O O O



Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Nodes Sorendiweri Korido Sabar Meokre Yenggarbun Sowek Rani Aruri Mapia Befondi

Table 2 Transportation Fasility Components At Each Nodes Surface Transportation Crossing Over Transportation Supporting Fasility Supporting Fasility Regency Terminal Pier District Terminal Pier District Terminal Pier Pier District Terminal Pier Pier Pier Pier Pier

Source : Communication Office of Supiori Regency

Figure 1 Map of Supiori Regency

2.1 Estimated Person Transport Demand of Supiori Regency Calculation and analysis result from secondary data, which use atraction and production index, is derived numerical estimation of production and atraction of transport demand as described in Table 3. Accelerated with the recent policy that establised Supiori as a new regency, the amount of population increased and growth fast enought, as shown in Table 4. Population growth than adopted as the growth factor for production and atraction of person transport transport demand in next the year of 2014, and 2024, as shown in Table 5 and Table 6, respectively. This simple estimation give the description that transportation demand in Supiori Regency will be continuous increase in next 20 years until the year of 2024.

movement, this can be draw the estimating amount of Table 3 Production and Attraction of People Movement in Supiori Regency 2009
Center of activity
INTERNAL Sorendiweri Korido Yenggarbun Sabarmiokre Sowek Befondi Mapia Rani Aruri EXTERNAL: Biak Numfor District

Population Family
(Home) 3918 2589 1020 1874 4912 845 533 296 357 1046


Index of

10 7 5 7 9 0.17 0.17 0.37 0.17 0.17

Index of Attraction 0.52 0.21 0.52 0.52 0.52

Production Attraction
(People/day) (People/day) 654 432 378 313 820 164 163 159 145 3227 557 440 551 531 186 545 178 155 189 158 2932 581

Supriori Timur Supriori Selatan Supriori Utara Supriori Barat Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri


Source:Analysis result Table 4 Population Growth of Supiori Regency
Year 2005 2006 2007 Population 12201 12410 14313 0.01713 0.173101 1.71 % 17.31 % 8.66 % Growth i i per year

Source : Center of Statistic Berau ( Indonesia: Biro Pusat Statistik, BPS)

Table 5 Estimated Person Transport Demand of Supiori Regency In The Year of 2014
Activity Center INTERNAL Sorendiweri Korido Yenggarbun Sabarmiokre Sowek Befondi Mapia Rani Aruri EXTERNAL Biak Source:Analysis result 810 880 Supriori Timur Supriori Selatan Supriori Utara Supriori Barat Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri 990 654 573 474 1242 248 247 241 220 666 654 804 282 825 270 235 286 239 District Production (person/day) Attraction (person/day)

Table 6 Estimated Person Transport Demand of Supiori Regency In The Year of 2024 Activity Center INTERNAL Sorendiweri Korido Yenggarbun Sabarmiokre Sowek Befondi Mapia Rani Aruri EXTERNAL Biak
Source:Analysis result


Production (person/day) 2272 1502 1314 1087 2849 570 567 553 504 1858

Attraction (person/day) 1529 1502 1846 646 1893 619 539 657 549 2019

Supriori Timur Supriori Selatan Supriori Utara Supriori Barat Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri

2.2 Estimated Freight Transport of Supiori Regency In this case the estimation of freight movement inside and outside of Supiori Regency is base on daily basic freight demand of population. The standar for this have issued by Ministry of Communication of Republic of Indonesia, as describe in Table 7. From Table 7 can be determine basic consumption demand of population for each district. Freight transport demand estimation calculating result in the form of freight production-atraction for future until the year of 2014, 2019, and 2024, is shown in Table 8, Table 9, Table 10, respectively. Also in these table stated the demand of freight vehicles in according with 12 ton capacity of trucks. The growth of freight transport demand in future will attend to the demand of higher capacity of trucks.

Table 7 Standard of Consumption per capita per year No 1 2 3 4 commodity Beras Gula Garam Tepung Consumption/person/year (kg) 145,47 14,04 7,88 7,39

Source: Ministry of Communication Republic of Indonesia

Table 8 Freight Production‐Attraction until the Year of 2014 Production Growth Coefficient = 1.03 Dependency Decreasing Coefficient = 0.9
Activity Center


Production Attraction
(Ton/year) (Ton/year)


Truck 12 ton cap. Attraction 140 152 65 111 34 8 8 7 7 531 244 78 51 20 37 98 32 28 34 28 406 314

INTERNAL Sorendiweri Korido Yenggarbun Sabarmiokre Sowek Befondi Mapia Rani Aruri EXTERNAL Biak
Source:Analysis result

Supriori Timur Supriori Selatan Supriori Utara Supriori Barat Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Total

1665.01 1810.52 768.11 1316.64 395.58 79.12 78.67 76.74 69.98 6260 2923

933.57 616.90 243.04 446.53 1170.42 382.59 333.16 406.23 339.60 4872 3756

Table 9  Freight Production‐Attraction until the Year of 2019  Production Growth Coefficient = 1.03  Dependency Decreasing Coefficient = 0.9
Activity Center


Production (Ton/year)

Attraction (Ton/year)

Truck 12 ton cap.
Production Attraction

INTERNAL Sorendiweri Korido Yenggarbun Sabarmiokre Sowek Befondi Mapia Rani Aruri EXTERNAL Biak
Source:Analysis result

Supriori Timur Supriori Selatan Supriori Utara Supriori Barat Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Total

2597.79 2824.81 1198.43 2054.24 617.20 123.44 122.74 119.73 109.19 9768 3405

2545.47 934.47 368.16 676.40 1772.92 579.54 504.66 615.35 514.42 8511 2930

217 236 101 172 52 11 11 11 10 823 284

212 78 31 56 148 48 42 51 43 709 245

Table 10 Freight Production‐Attraction until the Year of 2024 Production Growth Coefficient = 1.03 Dependency Decreasing Coefficient = 0.8
Activity Center


Production (Ton/year)

Attraction (Ton/year)

Truck 12 ton cap.
Production Attraction

INTERNAL Sorendiweri Korido Yenggarbun Sabarmiokre Sowek Befondi Mapia Rani Aruri EXTERNAL Biak
Source:Analysis result

Supriori Timur Supriori Selatan Supriori Utara Supriori Barat Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Kep Aruri Total

4053.12 4407.33 1869.81 3205.07 962.96 192.59 191.51 186.81 170.36 15240 5769

9253.97 1132.41 446.14 819.67 2148.46 702.30 611.55 745.70 623.39 16484 4572

339 368 157 268 81 17 17 17 15 1270 481

771 94 37 68 179 59 51 62 52 1374 382

2.3 Transportation Development Program of Supiori Regency The development program stated for Supiori Regency in order to anticipate it transport demand above is included surface transport and water (sea) transport. For surface transport the main program is develope the new road on west area of Biak Island, in order to make out island link road. Freight transport growth in another side need to be anticipate, if the estimating amount of freight calculated above is happend in future, of course the exsisting bridges that recent planted in Supiori Regency all must be replaced by steel or concrete bridges, which will stronger enought to use by heavy trucks. Another program besides surface transport development is port development at Marsram Village, East Supiori Distric. For Air transport the important program is take place in surface transport that is the demand in improving the road to be use from all districts inside Supiori Regency to be arrived in Biak Airport in time, according with flying schedule. The piers or traditional little port need to be developed at each separated island (Mapia, Aruri, Rani, Befondi, and Sowek) in order to establish an easy communication with main land of Supiori Regency area, or the western side of Biak Island.

held in the field, there is still the strictly rule that must be keep, about the boundary line of conservation forest in Supiori Regency. The discussion is have done too with RTRW planner team, and the commitment is make the development planning of this regency with still keep the boundary of conservation forest. So the future development area of regency capital city of Soriwendari is made in the shape of long line to southest direction, out side and following the shape of conservation forest boundary land. Some key developments in reaching target audiences are now pinpointed because of their potential importance for the field and for transportation. Then a diverse set of threads, “catalyzing a future,” are identified which show promise for energizing the field of road ecology, as well as noticeably improving both surface transportation and nature on the land around us [7]. The quality targets are the starting point when the desirable long-term state of the existing road network is formulated for important natural and cultural heritage assets [8]. The relation between new road development even can be integrated with more details conservation program [9] [10]. New road projects are not only aimed at alleviating congestion created by the growing population pressures, but are concurrently viewed in relation to the natural landscape. As future roadway alignments are considered, planners and designers are using the environmental landscape as a tool to design sustainable roadway projects in an effort to preserve a healthy interconnected landscape for future generations. [11]



The important think to discuss in this paper is according to the special characteristic of Supiori Regency in case of that this regency is growth from conservation forest. Until the research of this topic



There are 3 conclusion come from this study, as follows: 1) Transport demand of Supiori Regency is still low. 2) The development of transportation network in Supiori Regency, Biak Island is necessary to anticipate the population and economic growth till meet the optimum equilibrium between population-economic activityecology. 3) Out line island ring road development at western of Biak Island, still need to make the back up transportation facilities beside water (sea) transportation that can be used 24 hours per days along the year, and not depend on the seasons. Is this case boat transportation not always available if the sea wave is too high. 4) New link road that across in direction of south-north in the middle of Supiori Regency is not allowable, because this can be destroy the conservation forest. Also in the same time, as have studied from topography data, it is not technically feasible too.

Ecology and Transportation (ICOET), Lake Pacid- New York [8]. Nilsson, Lars, 2003, “Targets and Measures For Consideration of Natural And Cultural Heritage Assets In The Transport System”, Proceedings of International Conference of Ecology and Transportation (ICOET), Lake Pacid- New York [9]. DiGregoria, John, 2005, “Integration Transportation Conservation with Regional Proceedings of Conservation Planning”, International Conference of Ecology and Transportation (ICOET), San Diego [10].Austin, John M.; Viani, Kevin; Hammond, Forrest; Slesar, Chris, 2005, “A GIS Based of Potentially Significant Wildlife Habitats Associated With Roads in Vermont”, Proceedings of International Conference of Ecology and Transportation (ICOET), San Diego [11]. Burn, Joseph, 2007, “Application of Ecological Assessments to Regional and Statewide Transportation Planning”, Proceedings of International Conference of Ecology and Transportation (ICOET), Little Rock-Arkansas .

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