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Why is Food Safety Important?

No one likes to be sick.


Food safety includes:
Proper food storage
Good hygiene
Prevention of crosscontamination
Cooking food to proper
temperatures
Avoiding mistakes in food
preparation

Food Safety Terms


Bacteria:
Tiny, one-celled microorganisms
found everywhere

Food-Borne Illness:
Illness caused by eating
contaminated food

Cross-Contamination:
Transfer of harmful bacteria
from one source to another

Conditions for Bacterial Growth


Remember: FAT TOM
Food
Acidity
Temperature
Time
Oxygen
Moisture

FA T TOM

Food
Nutrients needed for bacterial growth
Protein
Meat
Poultry
Eggs
Milk
Fish

Carbohydrates
Cooked rice
cooked Beans
cooked Potatoes

FA T TOM

Acidity

FA T TOM
Microorganisms
Like a pH between
6.6 and 7.5

pH scale
Bacteria
Grow best in
neutral or
slightly
acidic
environment

Temperature
Bacteria grow the
fastest between 40140F
Freezing and
refrigerating stop or
slow growth, but not
kill

FA T TOM

Temperature
DANGER
Zone

Time
Bacteria can double every
20 minutes
Dont leave food out more
than 2 hours

FA T TOM

Oxygen

F A T T OM

Aerobic = requires oxygen


Anaerobic = no oxygen

OXYGEN

Moisture

FAT TO M

Microorganisms love a moist


environment
Dry foods safe to store at
room temperature
Salt and sugar help preserve

5 Steps to Food Safety


1. Cook
2. Separate
3. Chill
4. Clean
5. Avoid

Cook
Cook foods to the right internal temperature:
Ground Beef

160 F

Meat

145 F

Poultry

165 F

Eggs

160 F

Fish

145 F

Leftovers

165 F

Separate
Combat Cross-Contamination
At the grocery store
In your refrigerator
While preparing food

Chill
Dont Wait, Refrigerate!
Chill out! Set the correct temperature
on these appliances:
- Refrigerator: 40 F or lower
- Freezer: 0 F or lower

Refrigerate prepared foods


within 2 hours
Store perishables properly
Use a cooler

Clean
Keep it clean!
Wash your hands before
preparing or eating food
Wash produce under running
water
Keep food preparation surfaces
clean to prevent crosscontamination

Avoid Risky Foods


Risky foods are those that are most likely to
produce a food-borne illness
Foods from an animal source
- Raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish,
non-pasteurized milk
& shellfish

Raw fruits & vegetables


produced in unsanitary
conditions
Soft cheeses

Product Dates & Recommendations


Sell-by date:
Tells the retailer how long to keep a product
out for sale
Use-by date:
Tells the consumer
the date by
which to use
the product

Whos at Risk?
Anyone and everyone
Especially dangerous for high-risk
populations:
- Very young
- Elderly
- Pregnant women
- People with a compromised
immune system

How Does
Food-Borne Illness Occur?
Contaminated foods carry microorganisms
into the body
Bodys defenses try to fight infection
Primary symptoms of most food-borne illnesses:
- Nausea
- Vomiting
- Abdominal cramps
- Diarrhea

Campylobacter

Cook
me thoroughly!

Illness: Campylobacteriosis
Microorganism: Campylobacter
jejuni
Found in:
undercooked poultry
non-pasteurized milk
surface water
mountain streams
Symptoms: diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, nausea,
vomiting, fever, headache

Salmonella
Illness: Salmonellosis
Microorganism: Salmonella
Found in:
Raw meats
Poultry
Eggs
Non-pasteurized milk
Symptoms: diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps,
vomiting

E. coli 0157:H7
Illness: E. coli
Microorganism: Escherichia coli 0157:H7
Found in:
Contaminated water
Raw milk
Raw or rare ground beef
Contaminated produce
Symptoms: painful stomach cramps, bloody diarrhea,
severe cases result in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

Norovirus
Illness: Norovirus Gastroenteritis
Microorganism: Norovirus
Found in:
Contaminated water
Ready-to-eat food
Shellfish contaminated by sewage
Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal
cramps

Listeria
Illness: Listeriosis
Microorganism: Listeria monocytogenes
Found in:
Soft cheeses Deli salads Cold smoked fish
Hot dogs Deli meats Raw milk

Symptoms: fever, muscle aches, occasionally nausea


or diarrhea.
Pregnant women: spontaneous abortion
Newborns: sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis

Botulism
Illness: Botulism
Microorganism: Clostridium botulinum
Found in:
Home canned or improperly canned foods
Oil infusions
Baked potatoes wrapped in foil
Vacuum-packed and tightly wrapped food
Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, dry
mouth, headache, double vision, slurred speech,
difficulty swallowing

Staph
Illness: Staph infection
Microorganism: Staphylococcus aureus
Found in:
Deli meats
Salads including egg, tuna, chicken, and macaroni
Cream-filled pastries
Symptoms: nausea, vomiting and retching, abdominal
cramps

Youre the Expert


You have been hired as a restaurant critic
for a local newspaper. You visit a
restaurant and although you have no
complaints on the taste of the food, you
notice some disturbing food preparation
methods. You find that food is left out on
the counter for several hours, employees
rarely wash their hands between handling
different types of food, and utensils are
not always properly washed between
uses.

Applying What You Know


1. Create a food safety poster to be placed in a
restaurant kitchen. Include pictures and
descriptions of ways to ensure food safety using
the 5 Steps to Food Safety.
2. Research a food-borne illness and write a 1-2
page report on your findings. Be sure to include
causes of the illness, health effects, and
prevention tips.

Review Questions
Choose the best answer for the following questions.
1. When should hands be washed?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Before eating or cooking.


After using the bathroom.
After playing with a pet.
All of the above

2. This bacteria is found in deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses and can
be especially dangerous for pregnant women.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes
Shigella
Norovirus

3. Bacteria multiplies quickly when it is kept between ___ and ___ degrees
Fahrenheit.
a.
b.
c.
d.

30 and 60
130 and 150
40 and 140
200 and 240

Review Questions
4. Contaminated food ALWAYS looks, smells, and tastes bad.
True or False
5. It is safe to cut raw greens on a cutting board previously used for
raw chicken if the board is rinsed off first.
True or False
6. It is safe to eat a perishable food, like pizza, that has set out
over 2 hours if it is thoroughly reheated.
True or False

Exploring the Web


Investigate the internet for more information on food safety.
Check out these websites:
US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service
www.fsis.usda.gov
Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov
American Dietetic Association Home Food Safety
www.homefoodsafety.org
Gateway to Government Food Safety Information
www.foodsafety.gov
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
www.cdc.gov

More on Food Safety


From Learning ZoneXpress
Food Safety Bingo Game
Just the Facts Food Safety
Video
Kitchen Safety
Smart Video
Play It Safe Posters

Food Safety
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