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# Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Introduction.................................................................................................2

Chapter: Calculation

## Purpose and Objectives...............................................................................2

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## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Theory.........................................................................................................2
Equipment and Apparatuses.......................................................................4
Method and Procedure.................................................................................6
Numerical example.....................................................................................6
Lab Data Observation..................................................................................7

Chapter: Calculation

Calculation...................................................................................................9

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Spring No.2...............................................................................................9
Spring No.3.............................................................................................11
Discussion.................................................................................................14

Chapter: Calculation

Conclusion.................................................................................................15

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References.................................................................................................16
Appendix...................................................................................................16

Chapter: Calculation

Appendix A:............................................................................................16

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Introduction

Chapter: Calculation

Vane shear test is used to measure the shear strength of a soil. It also estimated
and measured the fully saturated clays undrained shear strength without
derangement in the specimen. This test can be conducted in field and laboratory
however, in laboratory can only execute the experiment with low shear strength

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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(0.3 kg/cm2) for which unconfined test cannot be performed. The test apparatus
are composed of 3 different diameters of 4-blade stainless vane that is attached
in a steel rod that pushed vertically in the soil. The pocket value that can get in
small vane should multiply by two however, the value can get in large vane
should divide by two and the value that can get in medium vane is as it is. The
test is performed by pushing the vane vertically in the soil and rotated it clockwise
from the surface to determine the torsional force. The soil will resist the rotation of
the vane and its resistance is the force of soil that causes the cylindrical area to

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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be sheared by the vane. When the rotation of the vane is continues it means that
the soil fails in shear and it is normal that the rotation is continued after
measuring the shear strength.

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## Purpose and Objectives

Chapter: Calculation

The vane test provides a measure of the stress-strain behavior, the undrained
shear strength, and the remolded strength of soft saturated cohesive soils.

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Theory

Chapter: Calculation

Fairly reliable results for the in situ undrained shear strength, cu(=0 concept)
ofsoft plastic cohesive soils may be obtained directly from vane shear tests during
the drilling operation (ASTM Test Designatin 2573). The shear vane usually
consists of four thin, equal sized steel plates welded to a steel torque rod. First,
the vane is pushed into the soil. Then torque is applied at the top of the torque

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rod to rotate the vane at a uniform speed. A cylinder of soil of height h and
diameter d will resist the torque until the soil fails. The undrained shear strength
of the soil can be calculated as follows; if T is the maximum torque applied at the
head of the torque rod to cause failure, it should be equal to the sum of the
resisting moment of the shear force along the side surface of the soil cylinder (M s)
and the resisting moment of the shear force at each end (Me).
T =M s + M e + M e
Chapter: Calculation

Two Ends

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Chapter: Calculation

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The resisting moment Ms can be given as

Chapter: Calculation

Moment
ArmArea
Surface

d
M s=(dh) c u ( )
2

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o
The standard rate of torque application is 0.1 /sec . the maximum torque T is
applied to cause failure can be given as;

T =f ( cu , h ,d )

Chapter: Calculation

Or

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c u=

T
K

## According to ASTM (2010), for rectangular vanes,

d2
d
h+
2
3

( )

Chapter: Calculation

K=

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If h/d=2,
K=

7 d3
6

Chapter: Calculation

Thus

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K=

6T
3
7d

## For tapered vanes,

d2 d
d
+
+6h
12 cos i T cos i B

Chapter: Calculation

K=

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## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Chapter: Calculation

Field vane shear tests are moderately rapid and economical and are used
extensively in field soil-exploration programs. The test gives good results in soft
and medium stiff clays, and it is also an excellent test to determine the properties
of sensitive clays.

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## Equipment and Apparatuses

Laboratory Vane Apparatus [Figure 1]
Calibrated springs supplied with the vane apparatus [Figure 2]
Standard vane, 12.7mm [Figure3]
Attachment for holding soil sample tubes or glass sampling jars.

Chapter: Calculation

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Chapter: Calculation

2
3
6
7
8

Figure 1;

## Laboratory Vane apparatus

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4
5

Chapter: Calculation

9
15
10

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11

Chapter: Calculation

12
13

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Chapter: Calculation

14

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Hand Knob
Vertical screw control
Knurled Knob
Electrical motor
Pointer
Carrier
Vane deflection scale
Spring deflection scale
Vertical shaft

Chapter: Calculation

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Rotating socket
Vane
Cylinder
Both for tighten the cylinder to plate.
Plate
Calibrated springs.

Chapter: Calculation

15

## Figure 2 ; Calibrated Springs

Figure 3 ; Vane

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Chapter: Calculation

11

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## The vane apparatus is assembled by mounting the vane and spring

appropriate for the soil to be tested. Instruction provided with the vane

Chapter: Calculation

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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apparatus are to be followed for adjustment of the pointer used in reading
the spring and vane deflection.
The soft clay to be tested may include tube samples 38mm (1 in) or
115mm (4 in) or soil in glass sampling jars or Proctor molds. The
clamping attachment will hold the soil container vertically below the vane
shaft.
The soil surface should be trimmed so as to permit the vane to be lowered
into the soil to a depth sufficient to ensure that shearing will take place on

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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the horizontal edges of the vane without movement of the soil sample
surface.
With the vane in position, apply torque to the vane at a rate that should not
exceed 0.1 deg/s. This rate will normally give a time to failure of from 2 to 5
min. In very soft clays the time to failure may be longer. Record the
maximum torque with motorized apparatus.
Record values of spring and vane deflection at intervals of 15 s or less as
needed to prepare torque or strength curves. Following determination of the

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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vane shear strength, remold the soil by rotating the vane rapidly through a
minimum of 10 revolutions.
Immediately repeat the vane test to determine the remolded vane shear
strength. After the test select a representative portion of the sample for a
water content determination.

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Numerical example

Chapter: Calculation

Data from the vane test are recorded in the term of a spring deflection and a vane
deflection on the data and calutation sheet. The torque is obtained by noting the
angular spring deflection and reading the relecant spring calibration chart.
Alternatively the torque maybe computed using the relevant spring constant. The
vane shear strength is now computed suing the vane constant T as defined at the

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bottom of the data sheet. The data maybe summaried as illustrated in figure.
Water content data included for use in making, comparisons with other vane test
data.

## Lab Data Observation

Chapter: Calculation

## Vane Diameter (D) =12.7mm

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(L) =12.7mm

Vane Length
Vane Height

(H) =12.7mm

Chapter: Calculation

## Observed Data from Spring No.2

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Chapter: Calculation

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Chapter: Calculation

## Observed Data from Spring No.3

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Chapter: Calculation

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Calculation

Chapter: Calculation

Vane Constant

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3 2
3
3
2
( 12.7 x 10 ) (12.7 x 10 )
(12.7 x 10 )
D L
D
6 3
K=
1
=
1
=2.15 10 m
3
2
3L
2
3(12.7 x 10 )

Spring No.2

Chapter: Calculation

## From the plotted Graph

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y
( 2 y 1 ) ( 0.2700.200 )
=
=3 x 103
( 9067 )
( x 2x 1 )

## Spring Data Point 1:

Shear strength

Chapter: Calculation

Time

## Spring No.2 point 1

Spring(o)
Torque (Nm)

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Chapter: Calculation

30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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(KN/ m2)
5
0.015
6.98
10
0.030
13.95
15
0.045
20.93
20
0.060
27.91
25
0.075
34.88
30
0.090
41.86
35
0.105
48.84
40
0.120
55.81

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270
300
330
360

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45
0.135
50
0.150
55
0.165
55
0.165

[Consolidation
62.79
69.77
76.74
76.74

## Maximum Degree of spring deflection =55

Chapter: Calculation

## Maximum Torque, T = Maximum spring x Gradient for spring no 2

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Tmax = 55 0.003 = 0.165Nm
T
0.165
=
=76.74 kN / m2
K 2.15 106

Chapter: Calculation

S u=

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Spring Data Point 2:
Time

4
8

0.012
0.024

Shear strength
v (KN/ m2)
5.58
11.16

Chapter: Calculation

30
60

## Spring No.2 point 2

Spring(o)
Torque (Nm)

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[Consolidation
23.72
30.70
36.28
43.26
47.44
54.42
64.19
72.56
79.53

Chapter: Calculation

90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory

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17
0.051
22
0.066
26
0.078
31
0.093
34
0.102
39
0.117
46
0.138
52
0.156
57
0.171

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63
0.189
87.91

## Maximum Degree of spring deflection =63

Maximum Torque, T = Maximum spring x Gradient for spring no 2

Chapter: Calculation

## Tmax = 63 0.003 = 0.189Nm

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T
0.189
S u= =
=87.91 kN /m2
K 2.15 106

Spring No.3

Chapter: Calculation

## From the plotted Graph

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## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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y
( 2 y 1 ) ( 0.2800.200 )
3
Gradient ( x x ) = (140100) =2 x 10
2
1

## Spring data, point one:

Chapter: Calculation

Spring 3 point 1

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Time

Chapter: Calculation

30
60
90
120
150
180
210

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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o
Spring( )
Torque (Nm)
Shear strength
(KN/ m2)
6
0.012
5.58
11
0.022
10.23
13
0.026
12.09
18
0.036
16.74
25
0.050
23.26
27
0.054
25.12
30
0.060
27.90

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[Consolidation
31.63
38.14
42.79
49.30
53.95
53.95
53.95

Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory

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240
34
0.068
270
41
0.082
300
46
0.092
330
53
0.106
360
58
0.116
390
58
0.116
420
58
0.116
Maximum Degree of spring deflection =58

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Maximum Torque, T = Maximum spring x Gradient for spring no 3
Tmax = 58 0.002 = 0.116 Nm
T
0.122
=
=53.95 kN
/m2
K 2.15 106

Chapter: Calculation

S u=

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Spring Data Point 3:
Time

4
8

0.008
0.016

Shear strength
(KN/ m2)
3.72
7.44

Chapter: Calculation

30
60

Spring 3 point 2
Torque (Nm)
Spring ()

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[Consolidation
13.95
19.53
25.12
30.70
35.35
41.86
45.58
52.09
55.81

Chapter: Calculation

90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330

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15
0.030
21
0.042
27
0.054
33
0.066
38
0.076
45
0.090
49
0.098
56
0.112
60
0.120

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360
390
420

Test]
62
0.124
68
0.136
68
0.136

[Consolidation
57.67
63.26
63.26

## Maximum Degree of spring deflection =68

Chapter: Calculation

## Maximum Torque, T = Maximum spring x Gradient for spring no 3

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Tmax = 68 0.002 = 0.136 Nm
T
0.136
=
=63.26 kN
/m2
K 2.15 106

Chapter: Calculation

S u=

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Discussion

Chapter: Calculation

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Chapter: Calculation

I.

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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For the Tapered Vane shown in [Figure 6] develop an expression for the
constant K needed in computation of Su=T/K, where T is the torque required
to rotate the vane.

iT

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iB

Chapter: Calculation

A= r 2

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Figure 4 ; Geometry of field vane
Tapered Vanes

d2 d
d
+
+6h
12 cos i T cos i B

Chapter: Calculation

K=

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II.

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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For the same vane, develop an expression for evaluation of the vertical (Suv)
and horizontal (SUH) undrained shear strengths.

2T

S u=
3

S uh
H
1
+

D (n+ 3) S uv

Chapter: Calculation

x d

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## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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Where:
T is the Maximum Torque measured
H/D is the aspect ratio of the vane
D is the Diameter of the vane

Chapter: Calculation

Suh/Suv is the ratio of the undrained strength in both vertical and horizontal planes.

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X is the factor describing the location of the failure surface with respect to
diameter of the vane .
n is the power law describing the shear stress distribution on the horizontal
planes.

Chapter: Calculation

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The test is simple and quick.
It is ideally suited for the determination of the undrained shear strength of nonfissured fully saturated clay.

Chapter: Calculation

The test can be conveniently used to determine the sensitivity of the soil.

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The test can be conducted in soft clays situated at a great depth, samples of
which are difficult to obtain.

Chapter: Calculation

The test cannot be conducted on the clay containing sand or silt laminations or
the fissured clay.

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The test does not give accurate results when the failure envelope is not
horizontal.

Conclusion

Chapter: Calculation

Vane shear test is used to measure the shear strength of a soil. It also estimated
and measured the fully saturated clays undrained shear strength without

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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derangement in the specimen. This test can be conducted in field and laboratory
however, in laboratory can only execute the experiment with low shear strength
(0.3 kg/cm2) for which unconfined test cannot be performed. The test apparatus
are composed of 3 different diameters of 4-blade stainless vane that is attached
in a steel rod that pushed vertically in the soil. The pocket value that can get in
small vane should multiply by two however, the value can get in large vane
should divide by two and the value that can get in medium vane is as it is. The
test is performed by pushing the vane vertically in the soil and rotated it clockwise

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Chapter: Calculation

## Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory [Consolidation

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from the surface to determine the torsional force. The soil will resist the rotation of
the vane and its resistance is the force of soil that causes the cylindrical area to
be sheared by the vane. When the rotation of the vane is continues it means that
the soil fails in shear and it is normal that the rotation is continued after
measuring the shear strength.

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References

Chapter: Calculation

## 1. Mr. Khatta Marwah, Laboratory Sheet, 2014, UNISEL, Civil Engineering

Department.
2. Braja M Das, Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering.
3. ASTM Standards, 2002, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Hrbor Drive.
4. Roy Whitlow, Basic Soil Mechanics.

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Appendix

Chapter: Calculation

Appendix A:

Scale

## Figure 7 ; Calibrated Spring Supplied

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