Laboratory Test for vene shear test of the soil.

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Laboratory Test for vene shear test of the soil.

© All Rights Reserved

- Water Content
- ASTM D 4648 - 00
- Laboratory Report Vane Shear Test
- ASTM D 1586
- Mil Std 619b
- Experiment 1 - Disturbed Soil Sampling, Labelling, and Storage.docx
- Soil Mechanics Arranged)
- Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering
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- APP128
- PDW - O-Series Precast Bridge.pdf

You are on page 1of 78

Test]

Table of Contents

Introduction.................................................................................................2

Chapter: Calculation

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Theory.........................................................................................................2

Equipment and Apparatuses.......................................................................4

Method and Procedure.................................................................................6

Numerical example.....................................................................................6

Lab Data Observation..................................................................................7

Chapter: Calculation

Calculation...................................................................................................9

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Spring No.2...............................................................................................9

Spring No.3.............................................................................................11

Discussion.................................................................................................14

Question and Answer:............................................................................14

Advantages and Disadvantages:............................................................15

Chapter: Calculation

Conclusion.................................................................................................15

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

References.................................................................................................16

Appendix...................................................................................................16

Chapter: Calculation

Appendix A:............................................................................................16

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Introduction

Chapter: Calculation

Vane shear test is used to measure the shear strength of a soil. It also estimated

and measured the fully saturated clays undrained shear strength without

derangement in the specimen. This test can be conducted in field and laboratory

however, in laboratory can only execute the experiment with low shear strength

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

(0.3 kg/cm2) for which unconfined test cannot be performed. The test apparatus

are composed of 3 different diameters of 4-blade stainless vane that is attached

in a steel rod that pushed vertically in the soil. The pocket value that can get in

small vane should multiply by two however, the value can get in large vane

should divide by two and the value that can get in medium vane is as it is. The

test is performed by pushing the vane vertically in the soil and rotated it clockwise

from the surface to determine the torsional force. The soil will resist the rotation of

the vane and its resistance is the force of soil that causes the cylindrical area to

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

be sheared by the vane. When the rotation of the vane is continues it means that

the soil fails in shear and it is normal that the rotation is continued after

measuring the shear strength.

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Chapter: Calculation

The vane test provides a measure of the stress-strain behavior, the undrained

shear strength, and the remolded strength of soft saturated cohesive soils.

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Theory

Chapter: Calculation

Fairly reliable results for the in situ undrained shear strength, cu(=0 concept)

ofsoft plastic cohesive soils may be obtained directly from vane shear tests during

the drilling operation (ASTM Test Designatin 2573). The shear vane usually

consists of four thin, equal sized steel plates welded to a steel torque rod. First,

the vane is pushed into the soil. Then torque is applied at the top of the torque

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

rod to rotate the vane at a uniform speed. A cylinder of soil of height h and

diameter d will resist the torque until the soil fails. The undrained shear strength

of the soil can be calculated as follows; if T is the maximum torque applied at the

head of the torque rod to cause failure, it should be equal to the sum of the

resisting moment of the shear force along the side surface of the soil cylinder (M s)

and the resisting moment of the shear force at each end (Me).

T =M s + M e + M e

Chapter: Calculation

Two Ends

10

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

11

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

The resisting moment Ms can be given as

Chapter: Calculation

Moment

ArmArea

Surface

d

M s=(dh) c u ( )

2

12

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

o

The standard rate of torque application is 0.1 /sec . the maximum torque T is

applied to cause failure can be given as;

T =f ( cu , h ,d )

Chapter: Calculation

Or

13

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

c u=

T

K

d2

d

h+

2

3

( )

Chapter: Calculation

K=

14

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

If h/d=2,

K=

7 d3

6

Chapter: Calculation

Thus

15

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

K=

6T

3

7d

d2 d

d

+

+6h

12 cos i T cos i B

Chapter: Calculation

K=

16

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Chapter: Calculation

Field vane shear tests are moderately rapid and economical and are used

extensively in field soil-exploration programs. The test gives good results in soft

and medium stiff clays, and it is also an excellent test to determine the properties

of sensitive clays.

17

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

18

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Laboratory Vane Apparatus [Figure 1]

Calibrated springs supplied with the vane apparatus [Figure 2]

Standard vane, 12.7mm [Figure3]

Attachment for holding soil sample tubes or glass sampling jars.

Chapter: Calculation

1.

2.

3.

4.

19

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Chapter: Calculation

2

3

6

7

8

Figure 1;

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

4

5

Chapter: Calculation

9

15

10

21

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

11

Chapter: Calculation

12

13

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Chapter: Calculation

14

23

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Hand Knob

Vertical screw control

Knurled Knob

Electrical motor

Pointer

Carrier

Vane deflection scale

Spring deflection scale

Vertical shaft

Chapter: Calculation

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

24

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Test]

Rotating socket

Vane

Cylinder

Both for tighten the cylinder to plate.

Plate

Calibrated springs.

Chapter: Calculation

15

Figure 3 ; Vane

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SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Chapter: Calculation

11

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

appropriate for the soil to be tested. Instruction provided with the vane

Chapter: Calculation

29

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

apparatus are to be followed for adjustment of the pointer used in reading

the spring and vane deflection.

The soft clay to be tested may include tube samples 38mm (1 in) or

115mm (4 in) or soil in glass sampling jars or Proctor molds. The

clamping attachment will hold the soil container vertically below the vane

shaft.

The soil surface should be trimmed so as to permit the vane to be lowered

into the soil to a depth sufficient to ensure that shearing will take place on

30

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

the horizontal edges of the vane without movement of the soil sample

surface.

With the vane in position, apply torque to the vane at a rate that should not

exceed 0.1 deg/s. This rate will normally give a time to failure of from 2 to 5

min. In very soft clays the time to failure may be longer. Record the

maximum torque with motorized apparatus.

Record values of spring and vane deflection at intervals of 15 s or less as

needed to prepare torque or strength curves. Following determination of the

31

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

vane shear strength, remold the soil by rotating the vane rapidly through a

minimum of 10 revolutions.

Immediately repeat the vane test to determine the remolded vane shear

strength. After the test select a representative portion of the sample for a

water content determination.

32

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Numerical example

Chapter: Calculation

Data from the vane test are recorded in the term of a spring deflection and a vane

deflection on the data and calutation sheet. The torque is obtained by noting the

angular spring deflection and reading the relecant spring calibration chart.

Alternatively the torque maybe computed using the relevant spring constant. The

vane shear strength is now computed suing the vane constant T as defined at the

33

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

bottom of the data sheet. The data maybe summaried as illustrated in figure.

Water content data included for use in making, comparisons with other vane test

data.

Chapter: Calculation

34

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

(L) =12.7mm

Vane Length

Vane Height

(H) =12.7mm

Chapter: Calculation

35

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

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SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

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SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

39

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Chapter: Calculation

40

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

42

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

43

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Calculation

Chapter: Calculation

Vane Constant

44

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

3 2

3

3

2

( 12.7 x 10 ) (12.7 x 10 )

(12.7 x 10 )

D L

D

6 3

K=

1

=

1

=2.15 10 m

3

2

3L

2

3(12.7 x 10 )

Spring No.2

Chapter: Calculation

45

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

y

( 2 y 1 ) ( 0.2700.200 )

=

=3 x 103

Gradient

( 9067 )

( x 2x 1 )

Shear strength

Chapter: Calculation

Time

Spring(o)

Torque (Nm)

46

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

Test]

(KN/ m2)

5

0.015

6.98

10

0.030

13.95

15

0.045

20.93

20

0.060

27.91

25

0.075

34.88

30

0.090

41.86

35

0.105

48.84

40

0.120

55.81

47

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

270

300

330

360

Test]

45

0.135

50

0.150

55

0.165

55

0.165

[Consolidation

62.79

69.77

76.74

76.74

Chapter: Calculation

48

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Tmax = 55 0.003 = 0.165Nm

T

0.165

=

=76.74 kN / m2

K 2.15 106

Chapter: Calculation

S u=

49

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Spring Data Point 2:

Time

4

8

0.012

0.024

Shear strength

v (KN/ m2)

5.58

11.16

Chapter: Calculation

30

60

Spring(o)

Torque (Nm)

50

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

[Consolidation

23.72

30.70

36.28

43.26

47.44

54.42

64.19

72.56

79.53

Chapter: Calculation

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

Test]

17

0.051

22

0.066

26

0.078

31

0.093

34

0.102

39

0.117

46

0.138

52

0.156

57

0.171

51

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

360

Test]

63

0.189

87.91

Maximum Torque, T = Maximum spring x Gradient for spring no 2

Chapter: Calculation

52

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

T

0.189

S u= =

=87.91 kN /m2

K 2.15 106

Spring No.3

Chapter: Calculation

53

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

y

( 2 y 1 ) ( 0.2800.200 )

3

Gradient ( x x ) = (140100) =2 x 10

2

1

Chapter: Calculation

Spring 3 point 1

54

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Time

Chapter: Calculation

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

Test]

o

Spring( )

Torque (Nm)

Shear strength

(KN/ m2)

6

0.012

5.58

11

0.022

10.23

13

0.026

12.09

18

0.036

16.74

25

0.050

23.26

27

0.054

25.12

30

0.060

27.90

55

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

[Consolidation

31.63

38.14

42.79

49.30

53.95

53.95

53.95

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

240

34

0.068

270

41

0.082

300

46

0.092

330

53

0.106

360

58

0.116

390

58

0.116

420

58

0.116

Maximum Degree of spring deflection =58

56

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Maximum Torque, T = Maximum spring x Gradient for spring no 3

Tmax = 58 0.002 = 0.116 Nm

T

0.122

=

=53.95 kN

/m2

K 2.15 106

Chapter: Calculation

S u=

57

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Spring Data Point 3:

Time

4

8

0.008

0.016

Shear strength

(KN/ m2)

3.72

7.44

Chapter: Calculation

30

60

Spring 3 point 2

Torque (Nm)

Spring ()

58

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

[Consolidation

13.95

19.53

25.12

30.70

35.35

41.86

45.58

52.09

55.81

Chapter: Calculation

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

Test]

15

0.030

21

0.042

27

0.054

33

0.066

38

0.076

45

0.090

49

0.098

56

0.112

60

0.120

59

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

360

390

420

Test]

62

0.124

68

0.136

68

0.136

[Consolidation

57.67

63.26

63.26

Chapter: Calculation

60

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Tmax = 68 0.002 = 0.136 Nm

T

0.136

=

=63.26 kN

/m2

K 2.15 106

Chapter: Calculation

S u=

61

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Discussion

Chapter: Calculation

62

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

I.

Test]

For the Tapered Vane shown in [Figure 6] develop an expression for the

constant K needed in computation of Su=T/K, where T is the torque required

to rotate the vane.

iT

63

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

iB

Chapter: Calculation

A= r 2

64

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Figure 4 ; Geometry of field vane

Tapered Vanes

Answer:

d2 d

d

+

+6h

12 cos i T cos i B

Chapter: Calculation

K=

65

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

II.

Test]

For the same vane, develop an expression for evaluation of the vertical (Suv)

and horizontal (SUH) undrained shear strengths.

Answer:

2T

S u=

3

S uh

H

1

+

D (n+ 3) S uv

Chapter: Calculation

x d

66

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Where:

T is the Maximum Torque measured

H/D is the aspect ratio of the vane

D is the Diameter of the vane

Chapter: Calculation

Suh/Suv is the ratio of the undrained strength in both vertical and horizontal planes.

67

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

X is the factor describing the location of the failure surface with respect to

diameter of the vane .

n is the power law describing the shear stress distribution on the horizontal

planes.

Chapter: Calculation

Advantages:

68

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

The test is simple and quick.

It is ideally suited for the determination of the undrained shear strength of nonfissured fully saturated clay.

Chapter: Calculation

The test can be conveniently used to determine the sensitivity of the soil.

69

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

The test can be conducted in soft clays situated at a great depth, samples of

which are difficult to obtain.

Disadvantages:

Chapter: Calculation

The test cannot be conducted on the clay containing sand or silt laminations or

the fissured clay.

70

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

The test does not give accurate results when the failure envelope is not

horizontal.

Conclusion

Chapter: Calculation

Vane shear test is used to measure the shear strength of a soil. It also estimated

and measured the fully saturated clays undrained shear strength without

71

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

derangement in the specimen. This test can be conducted in field and laboratory

however, in laboratory can only execute the experiment with low shear strength

(0.3 kg/cm2) for which unconfined test cannot be performed. The test apparatus

are composed of 3 different diameters of 4-blade stainless vane that is attached

in a steel rod that pushed vertically in the soil. The pocket value that can get in

small vane should multiply by two however, the value can get in large vane

should divide by two and the value that can get in medium vane is as it is. The

test is performed by pushing the vane vertically in the soil and rotated it clockwise

72

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

from the surface to determine the torsional force. The soil will resist the rotation of

the vane and its resistance is the force of soil that causes the cylindrical area to

be sheared by the vane. When the rotation of the vane is continues it means that

the soil fails in shear and it is normal that the rotation is continued after

measuring the shear strength.

73

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

References

Chapter: Calculation

Department.

2. Braja M Das, Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering.

3. ASTM Standards, 2002, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Hrbor Drive.

4. Roy Whitlow, Basic Soil Mechanics.

74

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Test]

Appendix

Chapter: Calculation

Appendix A:

Scale

75

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

76

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

77

SAYED ASADULLAH

UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

Chapter: Calculation

Test]

78

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UNISEL, FACULTY OF

ENGINEERING, CIVIL DIVISION

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