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 Fabric defects are identified during the grey
inspection of the fabric after weaving or
 These defects are classified into three

◦ Avoidable and unavoidable
◦ Major and minor
◦ Mendable and unmendable
 While most of the defects in the fabric are
avoidable some are unavoidable such as
certain floats/smashes.
 Defect such as weft crack is considered to be a

minor if it is within 1-2 cm while the same

defect is major when it is more than 2cm.
 Certain defects such as isolated snarls could be

mended while the others such as big cracks

are unmendable.
A general terms for a band running across
the full width of the cloth due to difference
in the appearance from its adjacent sites. It
◦ Pick bar,
◦ Starting Mark,
◦ Tension bar or shiner and
◦ Weft bar
A widthwise line showing stained or injured
weft due to the rubbing of shuttle when

This defect may be due to wrong drawing of

thread, inserting a pick in the wrong shed,
incorrect lifting of warp thread.

A pick missing from a portion of the width of

the fabric due to rough shuttle-eyes which
snag the weft.

A narrow streak running parallel to the weft due to

pronounced opening between to adjacent yarns
caused due to the erratic operation of the sley.

A pinhole in the finished fabric caused by the use

of weak weft with a strong warp.

A place in the fabric where warp and weft yarns

escape the required interlacement due to
entanglement of warp threads.

Fibrous appearance of the cloth due to the

presence of abraded yarns.

A pick which is out of line for a short distance

producing a triangular shaped hole in a fabric.

Warp yarns appearing more or less

continuously on the surface of the fabric due
to non interlacement of weft yarns.
Also known as weft trail or jark in weft it is
caused by an extra yarn dragged into the cloth
along with the regular pick.

Loose warp ends which appear like a reed mark

are caused by loose ends which start to feed in
just a trifle faster than the rest of the warp.

Ends loose on the face of the fabric because the

short and long ends of the fabric are not
removed by the weaver.
The most common defect characterized by a
gap of one or more warp threads in a fabric
caused due to unmended broken ends, missing
ends and high incidence of warp breakages.
A ready cloth shows irregular spacing between
groups of warp yarns across the width of the
fabric caused by a damaged or defective reed
or too late reed shedding.
Widthwise warp yarns due to abrasion of warp
yarns by shuttle.

Bulk of weft yarns which slips off the pirn and

get entangled into fabric caused due the loose
winding of pirn.
A distortion in a weave characterized by tight and
slack places in the same warp yarn or fabric.
Stains such as grease, rust etc occur due to poor
material handling.
Appearing in taffeta fabrics as short curved
picks caused due to insufficient warp tension,
incorrect heald timing, oversized warp and
uneven penetration of sizing solution etc.

holes or surface disturbances along the

selvage of the fabric. Due to bad or
improperly adjusted temples.
Inconsistent diameters of the weft produces
a shady cloth where principle of weft mixing
is not used.

The wrong order of drawing ends through
healds and reeds respectively also creates
fabric defects.
◦ Curled selvedge: Caused due to incorrect balance
of cloth structure between body and selvedge.
◦ Cut,torn or burst selvage: Caused due to selvedge
sticking to emery roller or damages caused by
temple roller.
◦ Loppy selvedge: Caused when the selvedge or cut
the race board felt at the reed and the weft is
caught on this groove when the sley beats up.
◦ Pulled in selvedge: Caused due to isolated tight
◦ Rugged or ragged selvedge: Caused due to the
variations in tension of the selvedge ends.
◦ Slacked selvedge: Caused due the incorrect balance
of cloth structure between the body and the
◦ Tight selvedge: Caused due to incorrect balance of
structure between body and selvedge,selvedge yarns
woven at high tension.
◦ Uneven selvedge: Caused by the variation in weft
tension, lack of control on number of selvedge ends.
 The methods employed for analysis of fabric
defects are
1. First piece inspection
2. Grey inspection
3. Point rate system
 The first piece of the newly gated loom is
taken to the grey floding departments and
is inspected fir design verifications.
 The report is immediately sent to the

weaving department and if there is any

defect the the neccesary changes are
 Fabrics are tested in grey state after
weaving and then after finishing processes.
 In the grey inspection the fabric defects are

identified and mended if they are

 In the final folding the fabric defects are

examined and graded into the following six

categories depending upon severity of
1. Fresh or first quality: fabric with no major or
objectionable faults.
2. Shorter length: piece of cloth having shorter
length(less than 50 cm).
3. Seconds: cloth having minor defects.
4. Fents : The cut pieces of cloths measuring 90cm
and more but less than 150 cm in length are
graded as fents.
5. Rags : The cut pieces of cloths larger than 25cm
but less than 90 cm are regarded as rags.
6. Chindies : These are the cloths having length of 25
cm or less.
 The two most commonly used point
rate systems are
 4-point rate system
10-point rate system.
 4-point system
Given by American standard ASTM,the test
method describes a procedure to establish a
numerical designation for grading of fabrics
from a visual inspection.
This system does not establish a quality
level for a given product, but rather provides
a means of defining defects according to
their severity by assigning demerit point
Length of defect Demerit Points

3 inches or less 1
3 - 6 inches 2
6 - 9 inches 3
9 inches 4

 Points to be remembered while using 4-

point system are:
1. No running yard shall be penalized
more than 4 points for warp and weft
2. For Fabric width exceeding 64"-66",
Maximum penalty points can be increased
above 4 per linear yard in proportion to the

3. Defects appearing within one inch of either

edge shall be disregarded.

4. Any hole other than a pin hole shall be

considered a major defect and assigned 4
points for penalty.
 Grading:
1. Linear Yard basis:
Acceptable tolerance=20 points per
100 linear yard
2. Square yard basis:
Points/100 sq. yd
= Total Points scored in the bulk
X 100 X36
Width of the roll(inch) X total yards
 10-point system
◦ In this system the cloth defects are
given demerit points from 1 to 10
depending upon the variety of defect.
◦ Warp way defect
Defects Penalty points
25cm-90cm 10
12.6cm-25cm 5
2-6cm-12.5cm 3
Up to 2.5 cm 1
 Weft way defects
Defect Penalty points
Defects running full width 10

Defects 12.5 cm-half 5

2.6 - 12.5cm 3
Up to 2.5 cm 1

 Points to be taken care for 10-point grading are:

 Not one metre of cloth is penalized more than 10
points even the defect is a combination of warp and
weft threads.
Any defect occurring repeatedly throughout is marked
as second.
 Grading of cloth, that is first and second
quality depends upon the number of
penalty points per piece.
 Cloth is inspected on the face side only

unless specified.
 Weaving by
Dr.M.K.Talukdar,Prof.P.K.Sriramulu, Prof
 Fabric Science by J.Pizzuto