• A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances • Uniform in composition and properties

• Solutes
– Dissolved substances – Substance present in smaller quantity

• Solvents
– Dissolving medium – Substance present in greater quantity

Test your knowledge…
Identify the solute and solvent in the following solutions:

• Potassium chloride (KCl crystals) and water • 10cm3 acetone + 20 cm3 alcohol • 75% nitrogen gas + 25% oxygen gas

• Properties • Concentration • Ability to conduct electric current

Classification according to phase liquid



Classification according to Concentrations
• Saturated solutions – A solution which contains, at a specific temperature, an amount of solute that it can normally hold in the presence of a given amount of solvent.

Classification according to Concentrations
• Unsaturated solutions – A solution which contains less amount of solute that it can normally hold

Classification according to Concentrations
• Supersaturated solutions
– A solution which contains more solute than what it can normally hold

Classification according to Concentrations
• Laboratory terms
– Dilute
• Solutions which contains small quantity of solute relative to the solvent

– Concentrated
• Solutions which contains large amounts of solute compared to the amount of solvent present

Classification according to Electrical Conductivity
• Electrolytes
– Solutions that conduct electricity – Substances that are ions in solution – Cations (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+) & anions (Cl-, CO32-)

• Non-electrolytes
– Solutions that do not conduct electricity

Examples of Electrolytes
 Strong electrolyte  Sea water  Hydrochloric acid  Sulphuric acid  Aqueous copper sulphate  Molten lead bromide  Aqueous sodium chloride  Nitric acid  Aqueous potassium hydroxide  Weak electrolyte  Tap water  Carbonic acid  Acetic acid  Ammonium hydroxide  Citric acid  Oxalic acid      Non-electrolyte  Chemically pure water  Alcohol  Kerosene  Aqueous sugar solution  Carbon disulphide      

A simple setup of a conductivity apparatus