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# Water - Cement Ratio

Water/Cement Ratio

## The number of pounds of water per pound of

cement.
A low ratio means higher strengths, a high
ratio means lower strengths.
For NCDOT, the ratio depends on the class of
concrete, whether an air agent is used or not,
and the shape of the stone - rounded or
angular.

## W/C Ratio Cont.

Example:
W/C = 0.500, and Water = 250 pounds

## How much cement is needed?

250 / 0.500 = 500 pounds of
`````````````````````` cement

## W/C Ratio Cont.

Example:
W/C = 0.500, and Cement = 600
pounds
How much water is needed?
0.500 X 600 = 300 pounds of water
300 pounds / 8.33 = 36.0 gallons

Water/Cementitious Problem
Cement Used in Mix 436 pounds
Fly Ash in Mix 131 pounds
Maximum Water 36.0 gallons
Total Water 33.5 gallons
Metered Water 27.5 gallons
Free Water in aggregates 50 pounds

w/c ratio

## SOLUTION: Design W/C

Add Cement And Fly Ash:
436 + 131 = 567 pounds
Convert Design Water Into Pounds:
33.5 X 8.33 = 279 pounds
Plug Into Formula W/C = Ratio:
279 / 567 = 0.492
(carry answer to three places after decimal)

## Batched W/C Ratio

Add Cement And Fly Ash:
436 + 131 = 567 pounds
Convert Metered Water Into Pounds:
27.5 X 8.33 = 229 pounds
Add free water 229 + 50 = 279 Lbs
279 / 567 = 0.492

## W/C Ratio with Ice

Determine the W/C ratio if 68 pounds of ice
is used to lower the temperature of the
concrete.
The W/C ratio remains the same because
the quantity of total water does not change.

QUESTIONS

## In determining mix designs, you must use

an aggregate dry rodded unit weight.
This weight is determined at the lab.
In the procedure for determining this
weight, only the coarse aggregate is used.
Therefore, there is a % of solids and a %
of voids in the container.

## Formula : % Solids & Voids

% Solids:
Dry Rodded Unit Weight
(Spec. Gravity) X (62.4)
The Answer Is Then Multiplied Times 100
To get % Voids:
Subtract % Solids from 100

Example:
Dry Rodded Unit Weight: 96.6 pcf
Specific Gravity Of Agg.: 2.80
% Solids =
96.6
(2.80 X 62.4)
0.533 X 100 = 55%
% Voids =

= 0.553

100 - 55 = 45%

## Terms I Should Know.

Abrasion Resistance of an Aggregate
Durability
Hydration
Ph
Saturated Surface Dry
Set Retarder
Unit Weight
Water / Cement Ratio
THAT IS ENOUGH FOR A MONDAY!!

## Pass Out Day 1 Mix Design

Problems

PROBLEM SOLUTION
1.Water: 209 + 15 = 224 gals
224 X 8.33 = 1866 pounds
Add all material:
4060+7733 +13,586 +1866 = 27,245
Divide by unit weight:
27,245
= 7.1 cu. yd.
(142.10 X 27)

PROBLEM SOLUTION
2. Water / Cement = Ratio
1866 / 4060 = 0.460
3. (A) % Solid
88.6
= 0.508 X 100 = 51%
(2.79 X 62.4)
(B) % Void = 100 51 = 49%

PROBLEM SOLUTION
4. Wet Sand:
5.9 - 0.5 = 5.4%5.4 / 100 = 0.054
0.054 X 1102 = 59.5 pounds
1102 + 60 = 1162 pounds (batch weight)
Dry Sand:
0.5 / 100 = 0.005
0.005 X 1102 = 5.5 pounds
1102 - 6.0 = 1096 pounds

PROBLEM SOLUTION
5. SSD sand weight ?
1720 / 1.062 = 1620 pounds SSD sand

PROBLEM SOLUTION
6. Gallons of Water from Wet Sand

gallons

HOMEWORK PROBLEM

QUESTIONS