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Perkins 2000 Series

WORKSHOP MANUAL
6 cylinder diesel engines
for industrial applications

Publication TPD 3245, Issue 2.


Proprietary information of Perkins Group Limited, all rights reserved.
The information is correct at the time of print.
Published in September 1999 by Technical Publications,
Perkins Engines Company Limited, Lancaster Road, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, SY1 3NX, England
1

This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

Contents
10 General information
Introduction ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 11
New 2000 Series engines . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 11
Cylinder bore identification . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 11
Engine identification . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 12
General safety precautions .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 13
Safety . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 14
Engine lift equipment ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 14
Asbestos joints . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 14
Dangers from used engine oils ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 15
Environmental protection ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 15
Viton seals . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 15
Practical information ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 16

11 Specifications
Basic engine data . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 19
Recommended specific applied torques ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 22
Recommended nominal applied torques ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 24

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12 Cylinder head assembly


Rocker cover
12-1 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 25
Rocker assembly
12-2 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 26
Tappet clearances
12-3 To check and to adjust ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 27
Cylinder head
12-4 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-5 Procedure for retightening of the cylinder head bolts ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-6 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-7 To clean and to inspect the cylinder head . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-8 To renew a valve spring with the cylinder head installed ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-9 To correct a valve seat .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-10 To remove a valve seat insert .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-11 To fit a valve seat insert ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-12 To inspect the valve guides . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
12-13 To renew a valve guide ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

28
31
32
34
34
35
36
36
37
37

Valves, valve springs and valve rotators


12-14 To remove and to fit . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38
12-15 To clean and to inspect ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38
Fuel injector sleeves
12-16 To remove and to fit . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 39
Push rods
12-17 To remove and to fit . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 41
12-18 To inspect ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 41
Fits and clearances - Rocker assemblies ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 42
Fits and clearances - Cylinder heads and valve assemblies ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 43

13 Piston and connecting rod assembly


General description ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45
Piston and connecting rod assembly
13-1 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47
13-2 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49

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Piston and rings


13-3 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 50
Connecting rod
13-4 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 50
Small end bushes
13-5 To renew ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 51
Fits and clearances ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 52

14 Crankshaft assembly
General description .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 57
Damper and pulley - early engines
14-1 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 58
Damper and pulley - new engines
14-2 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 59
Crankshaft hub and front oil seal
14-3 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 60
14-4 To fit a new oil seal to a wheelcase removed from the engine . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 61
Rear oil seal
14-5 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 62
Crankshaft
14-6 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 63
14-7 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 64
Fits and clearances ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 65

15 Wheelcase and drive assembly


General description .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 67
Wheelcase
15-1 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 68
Backplate
15-2 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 68

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Camshaft gear - bolt-on type


15-3 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 71
Camshaft gear - integral type
15-4 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 72
15-5 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 73
Idler gear
15-6 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74
15-7 To set the gear backlash ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75
Fits and clearances ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 77

16 Cylinder block assembly


General description ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79
Crankcase
16-1 To fit to and to remove from a build stand . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 80
16-2 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 81
16-3 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 90
Cylinder liners
16-4 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 91
16-5 To clean and to inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 92
Cam followers
16-6 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 93
Camshaft
16-7 To remove and to fit - bolt-on type . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 94
16-8 To remove and to fit - integral type ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 95
16-9 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 96
Fits and clearances ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 97

17 Engine timing
Valve timing
17-1 To check ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 99
Fuel injection pump timing
17-2 To check and to adjust ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 100

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18 Aspiration system
General description .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 103
Aspiration system maintenance .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 103
Turbocharger
18-1 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 105
18-2 How to check the waste-gate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 105
Turbochargers: OE49342, OE50642, OE51140, and OE51430
18-3 To dismantle and to assemble .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 106
18-4 To clean and to inspect . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 108
Turbocharger: OE50674
18-5 To dismantle and to assemble .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 109
18-6 To clean and to inspect . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 111
Turbochargers: OE52534 and OE52535
18-7 To dismantle and to assemble .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 112
18-8 To clean and to inspect . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 114
Inlet manifold
18-9 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 115
Exhaust manifold
18-10 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 115

19 Lubrication system
General description .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 117
Lubricating oil filter
19-1 To renew the canister ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 120
By-pass filter/separator
19-2 To renew the canisters .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 121
Sump
19-3 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 122
Sump drain plugs .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 123
Lubricating oil pump
19-4 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 124
19-5 To dismantle and to assemble .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 125
19-6 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 125
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Oil pressure relief valve


19-7 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 126
19-8 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 126

20 Fuel system
General description ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 128
Overhaul instructions ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 128
Fuel injectors
20-1 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 129
20-2 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 131
20-3 To clean and to inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 131
20-4 To set and to test ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 133
Fuel lift pumps ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 135
Single acting type
20-5 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 135
20-6 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 135
Double acting type
20-7 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 136
20-8 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 136
20-9 To test ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 137
Fuel injection pump
20-10 To remove and to fit . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 138
20-11 How to eliminate air from the fuel system ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 141
Air stop cylinder
20-12 How to set the air-operated stop cylinder ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 142

21 Cooling system
General description ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 143
Radiator
21-1 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 146
Fan
21-2 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 147

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Fan drive belts


21-3 How to check the fan belts ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 148
21-4 How to adjust the tension of the fan belts . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 148
Coolant pump
21-5 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 149
21-6 To dismantle and to assemble .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 150
21-7 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 153
Thermostat
21-8 How to check the operating temperatures ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 154
21-9 How to check the operating speed ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 155
Oil cooler
21-10 To dismantle and to assemble ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 156
21-11 To inspect ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 157

22 Flywheel and flywheel housing


General description .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 159
Flywheel
22-1 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 161
22-2 To inspect .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 161
Flywheel housing
22-3 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 162

23 Electrical equipment
General description .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 163
Alternator drive belts
23-1 To check and to adjust the tension ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 165
Alternator
23-2 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 166
Starter motor . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 167
23-3 To remove and to fit .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 167
23-4 To dismantle and to assemble the solenoid switch ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 167
23-5 To dismantle and to assemble the starter motor ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 169
23-6 To clean ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 171
23-7 To inspect and to correct ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 171
23-8 To test ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 172
23-9 To fit the main starter cables . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 172
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Engine stop solenoid


23-10 How to adjust the linkage . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 173

24 Auxiliary equipment
Compressor
24-1 To remove and to fit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 175
24-2 Compressor gear alignment .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 177

25 Running-in and test


General description ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 179
Running-in and test
25-1 To run the engine ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 180
25-2 To check the consumption rate of the engine lubricating oil .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 181

26 List of special tools


Special tools .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 184

10

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10
General information

10

Introduction
This workshop manual has been designed to provide
assistance in the service and the overhaul of 2000
Series engines. Most of the general information,
which is included in the Users Handbook (sections 1
to 9), has not been repeated in this Workshop Manual
and the two publications should be used together.
Read the Safety precautions and remember them.
They are given for your protection and must be
applied at all times.
To ensure that you use the correct information for
your specific engine type, refer to Engine
identification on page 12.

If the specification of your engine is in doubt, contact


your Perkins distributor.
In this publication engines manufactured to the later
specification will be referred to as New 2000 series
engines.

Cylinder bore identification


The left and right sides of the engine are as seen from
the rear (flywheel) end.
The numbers of the cylinders start from the front of
the crankcase.

Danger is indicated in the text by two methods:


Warning! This indicates that there is a possible
danger to the person.
Caution: This indicates that there is a possible
danger to the engine.
Note: Is used where the information is important, but
there is not a danger.

New 2000 Series engines


A number of specification changes were made to
engines produced after July 1996. The changes were
introduced on generator set engines from the
following engine specification numbers:
2006TG1A

SCG060223

2006TG2A

SGH060224

2006TWG2

SGK060225

2006TAG2

SGB060226

2006TTAG

SGJ060227

These engines can be identified by the type of sump


fitted. Engines manufactured to the later specification
are fitted with a sump made from a composite
material. The sumps of earlier engines are made from
aluminium.
The specification changes were not applied to
industrial engines until August 1998 (specification
number: SPD060427) and then to only certain
engines. Additionally, industrial engines may be
manufactured to the new specification, but retain the
aluminium sump.

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10

Engine identification
The engine number is stamped on the data plate
which is fastened to the left side of the crankcase.
For early engines, a typical engine number is:
8B13718U 66381T, which consists of these codes:
8B

Engine family

13718

Engine number

Country of manufacture

66381

Build line number

Year of manufacture

Engines made after August 1994, have a new engine


number system. For these engines, a typical number
is: SGK 06 0024 U 2238 B, which consists of these
codes:
SG

Engine application

Engine type

06

Number of engine cylinders

0024

Engine specification number

The country of manufacture

2238

Build line number

Year of manufacture

Units such as the fuel injection pump and


turbochargers have their own data plates.
If you need parts, service or information for your
engine, you must give the complete engine number to
your Perkins distributor.

12

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General safety precautions


These safety precautions are important.
Reference must also be made to the local regulations
in the country of operation.

10

Read and use the instructions relevant to lift


equipment which are given on page 14.

Always use a safety cage to protect the operator


when a component is to be pressure tested in a
tank of water. Fit safety wires to secure the plugs
which seal the hose connections of a component
which is to be pressure tested.

Do not allow compressed air to contact your skin.


If compressed air enters your skin, obtain medical
help immediately.

Turbochargers operate at a high speed and at


high temperatures. Keep fingers, tools and other
items away from the inlet and outlet ports of the
turbocharger and prevent contact with hot
surfaces.

Diesel fuel and lubricating oil (especially used


lubricating oil) can damage the skin of certain
persons. Protect your hands with gloves or a
special solution to protect the skin.

Only use these engines in the type of application


for which they have been designed.

Do not change the specification of the engine.

Do not smoke when you put fuel in the tank.

Clean away fuel which has been spilt. Material


which has been contaminated by fuel must be
moved to a safe place.

Do not put fuel in the tank while the engine runs


(unless it is absolutely necessary).

Do not clean, add lubricating oil, or adjust the


engine while it runs (unless you have had the
correct training; even then extreme caution must
be used to prevent injury).

Do not make adjustments that you do not


understand.

Ensure that the engine does not run in a location


where it can cause a concentration of toxic
emissions.

Do not wear clothing which is contaminated by


lubricating oil. Do not put material which is
contaminated with oil into the pockets.

Discard used lubricating oil in a safe place to


prevent contamination.

Other persons must be kept at a safe distance


while the engine or equipment is in operation.

Do not permit loose clothing or long hair near


moving parts.

Ensure that the control lever of the transmission


drive is in the out-of-drive position before the
engine is started.

Keep away from moving parts during engine


operation. Warning! The fan cannot be seen
clearly while the engine runs.

Do not operate the engine if a safety guard has


been removed.

The combustible material of some components of


the engine (for example certain seals) can
become extremely dangerous if it is burned. Never
allow this burnt material to come into contact with
the skin or with the eyes.

Fit only genuine Perkins parts.

Do not remove the filler cap of the cooling system


while the engine is hot and while the coolant is
under pressure as dangerous hot coolant can be
discharged.

Fuel and oil pipes MUST be inspected for cracks


or damage before they are fitted to the engine.

Do not allow sparks or fire near the batteries


(especially when the batteries are on charge),
because the gases from the electrolyte are highly
flammable. The battery fluid is dangerous to the
skin and especially to the eyes.

Disconnect the battery terminals before a repair is


made to the electrical system.

Only one person must control the engine.

Ensure that the engine is operated only from the


control panel or from the operators position.

Be extremely careful if emergency repairs must be


made in adverse conditions.

If your skin comes into contact with high pressure


fuel, obtain medical assistance immediately.

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10

Safety

Engine lift equipment


Use only the lift equipment which is designed for the
engine. The part number for the lift adaptor to use for
the engine is: 21825 821.
Use lift equipment or obtain assistance to lift heavy
engine components such as the cylinder block,
cylinder head, flywheel housing, crankshaft and
flywheel.
Check the engine lift brackets for security before the
engine is lifted.

Asbestos joints
Some joints and gaskets contain compressed
asbestos fibres in a rubber compound or in a metal
outer cover. The white asbestos (Chrysotile) which is
used is a safer type of asbestos and the danger of
damage to health is extremely small.
Contact with asbestos particles normally occurs at
joint edges or where a joint is damaged during
removal, or where a joint is removed by an abrasive
method.
To ensure that the risk is kept to a minimum, the
procedures given below must be followed when an
engine which has asbestos joints is dismantled or
assembled.
z

Work in an area with good ventilation.

Do NOT smoke.

Use a hand scraper to remove the joints - do NOT


use a rotary wire brush.

Ensure that the joint to be removed is wet with oil


or water to contain any loose particles.

Spray all asbestos debris with water and place it in


a closed container which can be sealed for safe
disposal.

14

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10

Dangers from used engine oils

Viton seals

Prolonged and repeated contact with mineral oil will


result in the removal of natural oils from the skin,
leading to dryness, irritation and dermatitis. The oil
also contains potentially harmful contaminants which
may result in skin cancer.

Some seals used in engines and in components fitted


to engines are made from Viton.

Adequate means of skin protection and washing


facilities should be readily available.
The following is a list of Health Protection
Precautions, suggested to minimise the risk of
contamination.
1 Avoid prolonged and repeated contact with used
engine oils
2 Wear protective clothing, including impervious
gloves where applicable.
3 Do not put oily rags into pockets.
4 Avoid contaminating clothes, particularly
underwear, with oil.
5 Overalls must be cleaned regularly. Discard
unwashable clothing and oil impregnated footwear.
6 First aid treatment should be obtained immediately
for open cuts and wounds.
7 Apply barrier creams before each period of work to
aid the removal of mineral oil from the skin.

Viton is used by many manufacturers and is a safe


material under normal conditions of operation.
If Viton is burned, a product of this burnt material is an
acid which is extremely dangerous. Never allow this
burnt material to come into contact with the skin or
with the eyes.
If it is necessary to come into contact with
components which have been burnt, ensure that the
precautions which follow are used:
z

Ensure that the components have cooled.

Use Neoprene gloves and discard the gloves


safely after use.

Wash the area with a calcium hydroxide solution


and then with clean water.

Disposal of gloves and components which are


contaminated, must be in accordance with local
regulations.

If there is contamination of the skin or eyes, wash the


affected area with a continuous supply of clean water
or with a calcium hydroxide solution for 15-60
minutes. Obtain immediate medical attention.

8 Wash with soap and hot water, or alternatively use


a skin cleanser and a nail brush, to ensure that all oil
is removed from the skin. Preparations containing
lanolin will help replace the natural skin oils which
have been removed.
9 Do NOT use petrol, kerosene, diesel fuel, gas oil,
thinners or solvents for washing the skin.
10 If a skin disorder appears, medical advice must be
taken.
11 Degrease components before handling if
practicable.
12 Where there is the possibility of a risk to the eyes,
goggles or a face shield should be worn. An eye wash
facility should be readily available.

Environmental protection
There is legislation to protect the environment from
the incorrect disposal of used lubricating oil. To
ensure that the environment is protected, consult your
Local Authority who can give advice.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

15

This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

10

Practical information
To clean components
It is important that the work area is kept clean and that
the components are protected from dirt and other
debris. Ensure that dirt does not contaminate the fuel
system.
Before a component is removed from the engine,
clean around the component and ensure that all
openings, disconnected hoses and pipes are sealed.
Remove, clean and inspect each component
carefully. If it is usable, put it in a clean dry place until
needed. Ball and roller bearings must be cleaned
thoroughly and inspected. If the bearings are usable,
they must be flushed in low viscosity oil and protected
with clean paper until needed.
Before the components are assembled, ensure that
the area is as free from dust and dirt as possible.
Inspect each component immediately before it is
fitted, wash all pipes and ports and pass dry
compressed air through them before connections are
made.
Use suitable gloves for protection when components
are degreased or cleaned with trichloroethylene,
white spirit, etc. Degreasing solutions which are
basically trichloroethane are not recommended.
Suitable fluids to clean and to protect
components
Warning! Full information for the use of all the
products listed below and for their safe disposal, and
especially for the health and safety of the personnel
who use them, will be found in the Manufacturers
data.
Ardrox 667: Ardrox Limited, Brentford,
Middlesex.
Maxan 774:

Henkel Chemicals Limited,


Edgeware Road, London.

These products are basically methylene chloride and


are safe to use on most metals for the removal of
carbon and to remove paint. They can damage rubber
and most plastic materials.

16

Method of use
The components to be degreased must be lowered
completely into the degreasing solution. Allow
enough time to elapse for the components to be
thoroughly cleaned. Subsequently, the components
must be thoroughly flushed in clean water. In use,
maintain a layer of water at least 76 mm (3 inches)
deep above the cleaning fluid to ensure that vapour
and toxic gases are not released.
Warning! Do NOT smoke near the container.
Protection for the eyes and for the skin must be used
always during the use of these fluids, and the
container must be in a place with good ventilation.
Oil seals
Apply petroleum jelly to oil seals before they are fitted,
and do not damage the lip of the seal on sharp edges.
Unless other specifications apply, fit the seal with the
edge of the lip toward the bearing.
Hose connections
Do not use a screwdriver to remove hoses by force
because adaptors or pipe connections can be
damaged. Cut through the hose and then cut the ends
of the hose from the adaptor or pipe connection.
When a new hose is fitted, a suitable rubber lubricant
can be used instead of antifreeze, water or french
chalk. Never lubricate a hose with oil or grease.
Gaskets, joints and O rings
Discard all used items if an engine or a component is
dismantled and fit only new and correct parts.
If a jointing compound is needed, Hylomar PL 32
jointing compound is recommended for use, but on
metal joints ONLY. Only a thin application is needed,
an excessive quantity of compound can restrict the
flow of fluids in pipes and passages.
Caution: Hylomar jointing compound must NOT be
used in contact with any fibre joints as the solvent
contained in Hylomar can damage the joint material.
Apply a small amount of a suitable lubricant to O ring
seals to prevent damage during assembly.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

10

Locking devices

Checks for cracks

Split pins, locking plates and tab washers which have


been used must be discarded. Stiffnuts can be used
again only if they have not lost their grip and the
original torque is needed to turn them.

When possible, it is recommended that components


which are affected by high stresses, such as the
crankshaft, the connecting rods, the gears and the
cylinder liners, are tested for cracks during overhaul.
They should also be checked for cracks when they
have been affected by an excessive load or impact.

There must be a minimum protrusion of one full


thread of the bolt or stud through the stiffnut when it is
tightened fully.
Application of thread locking compounds

It is recommended that ferrous components are


tested by the electro-magnetic method if possible.
Portable electro-magnetic test equipment is available
from Radalloyd Limited, Oadby, Leicester.

Remove all oil, grease and dirt from engine parts


before thread locking compounds are applied to
them. Most thread locking compounds have a date by
which they must be used. Do not use any compounds
after their expiry date.

Non-ferrous components can be tested by the use of


a dye penetrant process such as Ardrox 996,
available from Ardrox Limited, Brentford, Middlesex.
The dye penetrant must conform to one of the
standards listed below:

Discard all stiffnuts which have nylon or fibre inserts.

Fits and clearances

MIL-STD 271-E

The dimensions given at the end of each section are


acceptable limits. The components which have
measurements within these limits are acceptable for
a complete period of service.

MIL-L 25135

Certain components which are worn by more than


these limits can be corrected in accordance with a
Service Reclamation Scheme (SRS). Information
about the Service Reclamation Schemes is available
from the Service Department at Perkins Engines
Company Limited, Shrewsbury.

B.S. 5750
D.T.D. 929
Exchange units
It is recommended that unserviceable units are
returned, as complete as the new exchange unit, with
covers fitted to all openings and the joint faces
protected. When necessary, protect the unit, both
inside and outside, from corrosion.

Special tools

Parts

Special tools are available for specific jobs and should


be used, where recommended, to save time and
prevent damage to parts. These tools are listed in
section 25.

To ensure maximum reliability, fit only genuine


PERKINS parts supplied by the official distributor.
These parts are made to the latest specification and
have a guarantee for 12 months. The use of parts,
such as filter elements, which do not conform to
PERKINS standards, may reduce the life of the
engine and can affect the warranty.

Applied torques
The specifications for applied torques, which are
given in section 11, apply to certain bolts and nuts
where damage or failure can occur if they are
incorrectly tightened.

If you need parts, spares or information for your


engine, give the complete engine number to the
official distributor.

Where joints are fitted, for example, between the


cylinder head and the crankcase, it is also important
that bolts and nuts are tightened evenly and
gradually, and in the correct sequence.
The torque wrenches listed below are suitable for the
requirements of the engine and are available from
Perkins Distributors.
Range

Part number

8 to 54 Nm (6 to 40 lbf ft)

21825 846

30 to 150 Nm (20 to 110 lbf ft)

21825 991

70 to 310 Nm (50 to 230 lbf ft)

21825 992

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

11
Specifications

11

Basic engine data


Engine
Number of cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Cylinder arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In-line
Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four stroke
Induction system
191 kW (256 bhp) to
272kW (365 bhp) versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbocharged
287 kW (385 bhp) to
368 kW (494 bhp) versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbocharged and charge cooled
Combustion system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Direct injection
Nominal bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130,17 mm (5.125 in)
Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152,4 mm (6.00 in)
Cubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,17 litres (742.64 in3)
Compression ratio
TAG1, 2, 3 and TWG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.9:1
TTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15:1
2006-12TA1, 2 and 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.8:1
Firing order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 4, 2, 6, 3, 5
No.1 cylinder is at the front (fan end)
Direction of rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clockwise: view on front (fan end)
Tappet clearances (cold)
Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,25 mm (0.010 in)
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,50 mm (0.020 in)
Injection timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . As stamped on engine data plate
Dry weight of engine (approximate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine only:

Typical electropak:

TG1, TG1A, TG2, TG2A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118 kg (2465 lb)

1180 kg (2601 lb)

TAG, TAG2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1231 kg (2714 lb)

1365 kg (3009 lb)

TWG, TWG2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138 kg (2509 lb)

1216 kg (2681 lb)

TTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1325 kg (2921 lb)

1459 kg (3217 lb)

Industrial Open Power Units:


12TA1, 12TA2, 12TA3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255 kg (2767 lb) - includes radiator, alternator and starter motor

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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11

Cooling system
Capacity of coolant system (engine only)
(does not include radiator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,4 litres (4.5 UK gallons)
Coolant system pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum 70 kN/m (10 lbf/in) to suit installation
Coolant pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centrifugal, gear driven unit
Temperature (normal)
(At sea level). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 to 95C (172 to 203F)
Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Triple element, wax capsule type with radiator by-pass

Fuel system
Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low pressure supply to injection pump with return of spill fuel to the tank
Fuel injection pump
165 kW (221 bhp) to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S3000 with 12mm lower helix elements (damper plates fitted to
257 kW (345 bhp) gross . . . . . . . . . . . . . variable speed engines over 300 bhp only). Boost control device
fitted to 300 bhp engines only. Automatic selection of excess fuel
and retarded timing for starting. The engine is retarded by 6.
229 kW (307 bhp) to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S7100 with 12mm lower helix elements and snubber valves.
368 kW (494 bhp) gross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boost control device fitted. Automatic selection of excess fuel
and retarded timing for starting. The engine is retarded by 6.
Governor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All speed, integral with fuel injection pump or electric
(depending on requirements)
Lift pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single acting, with integral preliminary fuel filter
Fuel supply pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 to 207 kN/m (15 to 30 lbf/in)
Stop control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Electrical, 24 volt
Fuel injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low spring type, opening pressure 240 bar
Main fuel filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single screw-on type canister

Lubrication system
Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wet sump
Capacity of lubricating oil sump
Max. mark on dipstick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 litres (5.5 UK gallons)
Max. mark on dipstick - composite sump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 litres (7.9 UK gallons)
Lubricating oil pressure
Normal load conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350 to 480 kN/m (50 to 70 lbf/in)
Minimum at rated speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *207 kN/m (30 lbf/in)
Pressure relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spring loaded plunger in body of oil pump, not adjustable
Opening pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414 kN/m (60 lbf/in)
Oil filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two, screw-on type canisters with integral by-pass valves.
And a lubricating oil by-pass filter
Oil cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single unit, tube stack type with partial by-pass for coolant
* Important for the protection of turbocharger bearings

20

Perkins Engines Company Limited

This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

Induction/exhaust system

11

Aspiration
2006 TTAG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure charged by twin turbochargers: OE50642 and OE50674
Other 2000 series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure charged by a single turbocharger OE49342, OE50642,
OE51140, OE51430, OE52534 or OE52535
Air inlet depression limits
Clean filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 mm (10 in) W.g. nominal
Dirty filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 mm (22 in) W.g. maximum
Air charge cooler
TG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not fitted
TA, TAG and TTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-to-air type, integral with radiator
TW, TWG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-to-coolant type, integral with induction manifold
Cold start aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optional - Start Pilot or Fleetguard

Electrical equipment
Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Belt driven unit, 24 volt, 40 amp
Starter motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single, 24 volt - flange-mounted

Auxiliary equipment
Air compressor (if fitted). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single or twin cylinder, flange mounted

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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11

Recommended specific applied torques


Caution: The torque loads listed below apply to threads in an oil wet condition, unless the use of thread
locking compound is recommended.
Application of a torque load specification is NOT enough to ensure that the relevant components are retained
securely as an assembly. It is important to conform also to the recommendations for assembly and, if given,
the sequence in which the bolts or nuts must be tightened. This information is given in the relevant section of
this publication.
If a bolt or nut is retained with a locking washer, locking plate or split pin, the specification for a torque load can
be exceeded, if necessary, by the MINIMUM amount that is needed for correct assembly.
Nm

lbf ft

Prestolite

95

7-

CAV 5

54

40

CAV 7

88

65

Thrustplate setbolts/capscrews

54

40

Drive gear setbolts

61

45

176

13

200 to 250

148 to 184

217

160

24

18

Initial tightening of all bolts and nuts

136

100

Intermediate tightening of all bolts and nuts

204

Alternator pulley nut

Camshafts

Compressor - single cylinder model


Drive gear nut
Compressor - twin cylinder model
Drive gear nut
Connecting rods
Big end bearing bolts and nuts
Coolant pump
Pulley retaining screws (low-mounted pump)
Cylinder heads

Final tightening at positions 1 to 23 in black circles ONLY

150
+40 degrees

Caution: The drilled bolt, which is identified by the


word "OIL" stamped on its head for early engines
and by a recess in its head for later engines, MUST
be fitted at position 22. The old and new drilled bolts
are interchangeable. Certain early engines have a
stud fitted at position 22 and require a nut and
washer.

Rocker pedestal bolts

41

30

Tappet screw lock nuts

41

30

Rocker cover stud (apply Loctite 270 to thread before


fitting to pedestal)

16.3

12

Rocker cover nuts

10.8

33

24

Fuel injector sleeves


22

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11
Nm

lbf ft

Front, centre and rear bearing cap bolts

217

160

Intermediate bearing cap bolts

353

260

Lateral bolts for main bearing caps

95

70

949

700

41

30

45

33

24

18

Crankcase

Crankshaft
Hub retaining nut
Note: If a torque wrench is not available, tighten by hand
and then use the special tool, 21825 807, to tighten by a
further two flats
Damper setbolts
Exhaust manifolds
Bolts
Flywheel
Friction face bolts 5/16 inch UNC
Friction face bolts

3/

45

33

122

90

95

70

Idler gear axle bolt - New 2000 series

300

220

Idler gear axle bolts - earlier engines

61

45

10,8

45

33

Bolts, pump to crankcase

47

35

Hub nut

163

120

Setscrews, FIP drive gear

45

33

Nuts for high pressure fuel pipes

25

18

Pinch bolt of Econocruise actuator lever

11

61

45

41

30

61

45

11

inch UNF

Flywheel retaining bolts


Flywheel housing
Bolts, flywheel housing to crankcase
Front timing gears

Fuel injectors
Cap screws, injector clamp
Cap nut, nozzle
Fuel injection pump

Lubricating oil filters


Adaptor insert
Sump
Sump retaining bolts (all types of sump)
Sump drain plug
New 2000 series only
Caution: One of five different types of sump drain plug
is fitted. Refer to section 19 to identify the correct torque
figure for the drain plug of your engine.
Turbochargers
Vee band clamp

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

11

Recommended nominal applied torques


Where instructions are not given for the correct torque to be applied to nuts and bolts, the figures which follow
should be used.

24

Bolt size

Nm

lbf ft

M5

4.5

M6

9.5

M8

23

17

M10

46

34

M12

80

59

M14

127

94

M16

198

146

M18

273

201

M20

387

285

M22

526

388

M24

669

493

Perkins Engines Company Limited

This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

12
Cylinder head assembly

12

Rocker cover
To remove and to fit

12-1

To remove
1 Remove the three cap nuts (A) from the top of the
cover.
2 The cover and joint can now be removed. For
certain engines it may be necessary to first remove
the air ducting between the turbocharger and the inlet
manifold.
To fit
1 Remove the joint from the rocker cover and clean
the two corresponding faces of the cover and cylinder
head.

275

2 Fit a new joint to the rocker cover and, ensuring that


it is correctly located within the slots in the cover,
secure it to the cover with a suitable adhesive. Place
the cover in position on the head.
3 Secure the cover with the three cap nuts and check
that the joint has not moved. Tighten the cap nuts
evenly to a torque of 11 Nm (8 lbf ft). Do NOT
overtighten.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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12

Rocker assembly
1

To remove and to fit

12-2

To remove
1 Remove the rocker cover as previously described.
2 Unscrew the bolts (A1) which secure the rocker
pedestals to the cylinder head.
3 Remove the rocker assembly complete and
carefully lift out the push rods. Ensure that the tappets
remain in position in the crankcase.
To fit

273

1 Ensure that the tappets have remained correctly


positioned in the crankcase and fit the push rods.
2 Check that the lower ends of the push rods are
located inside the tappets.
3 Fit the rocker assembly with the tappet adjusting
screws seating in the upper end of the push rods.
4 Screw in the pedestal securing bolts and tighten
evenly, outwards from the centre, to a torque of 41 Nm
(30 lbf ft).
5 Check and adjust the tappet clearances as given on
page 27.
6 On completion of tappet clearance adjustment, fit
the rocker covers.

26

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12

Tappet clearances
To check and to adjust

12-3

Check and adjust the tappet clearances in the


sequence which follows. It is easier to perform this
operation while the injectors are removed for
servicing.
The tappet clearances are measured between the
rocker levers and the tips of the valves (A).
Valves rocking on
cylinder No

Check tappets on
cylinder No

Valves rocking means: inlet valve just opening and


exhaust valve just closing.
1 Remove the rocker covers.
2 Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of
rotation, anti-clockwise when viewed on the flywheel,
until the inlet valves of number 6 cylinder are rocking.
Check the clearances of the valves of number 1
cylinder and, if necessary, adjust to the correct
clearances as shown (A).

151

When the clearance has been set, tighten the lock


nut.
Tappet clearances (cold):
Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,25 mm (0.010 in)
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,50 mm (0.020 in)
3 Continue to turn the engine and adjust the
remainder of the tappet clearances in the sequence
given above.
4 Fit the rocker covers.

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12

Cylinder head
To remove and to fit

12-4

Special tools:
Lifting bar, 21825 816
Bobbin removal tool, 21825 800
Torque angle gauge, 21825 924
To remove
1 Drain the cooling system.
2 Remove the air inlet ducting between the
turbocharger and the induction manifold.
3 Remove the rocker cover(s), operation 12-1.
4 Remove rocker assembly and push rods, operation
12-2.
5 Unscrew and remove the set of high-pressure fuel
pipes. Do not remove the pipes individually, they
MUST be removed as a full set. Do NOT bend the
pipes.
Warning! If a high-pressure fuel pipe becomes bent,
its structure will be damaged and it may become split
during use.
6 Remove the coolant rail/thermostat housing and
the fuel filter assembly.
7 Unscrew and remove the turbocharger(s). Remove
the inlet and exhaust manifolds.
8 Remove the fuel spill return pipes from the
injectors. Unscrew the injector clamping bolts and
withdraw the injectors.
Caution: Ensure that dirt does not enter the fuel
injectors.
9 Fit suitable caps or plugs to the injector nozzles,
fuel pump delivery valve holders and other open
apertures.
10 Unscrew and remove the cylinder head securing
bolts and washers together with the nut from the
oilway stud (later engines are fitted with a special bolt
in place of the stud and nut), working inwards from
each end.
11 Using the lifting bar, 21825 816, remove the
cylinder head and place it on a clean surface. Protect
the face of the head from damage.
12 Remove the cylinder head gasket and the coolant
transfer bobbins using bobbin removal tool, 21825
800.

28

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12

To fit
1 Clean the face of the cylinder head and the top
surface of the crankcase. Check that the cylinder
bores are clean and free from debris.
2 Fit a new cylinder head gasket over the roll pins in
the crankcase top face, ensuring the side stamped
TOP is fitted uppermost.
3 Fit the transfer bobbins with new sealing rings and
place in position.
4 Ensure that the face of the head is clean and, using
lifting bar, 21825 816, carefully lower the head into
position on the crankcase.
5 A light application of oil must be applied under the
head of each cylinder head bolt and also to the
threaded area. Do NOT use an excess amount of oil.
Where relevant, fit a washer to each bolt. Recent
engines use a different type of bolt which must not be
fitted with a washer.

56

6 Screw the bolts in by hand to ensure the correct


location. Always place the bolts in position, do NOT
drop them. Lightly oil the threads on the oilway stud
and fit the nut and washer. Later engines have a
special bolt fitted in place of the stud.
Caution: The special bolt (at position A22) is drilled
and can be identified by the word OIL stamped on its
head or, for later engines, a recess in its head. The
old and new types of drilled bolt are interchangeable.
7 Tighten the bolts and nut (fitted to early engines) as
follows:
a Tighten all of the bolts in the sequence shown
(A) to a torque of 136 Nm (100 lbf ft).
b Tighten all of the bolts in the sequence shown
(A) to a torque of 204 Nm (150 lbf ft).
c Tighten ONLY the bolts shown in the black
circles, in the sequence shown (A), by an
additional angle of 40 degrees. A torque angle
gauge, 21825 924, is available for this purpose.
8 Fit the rocker gear and push rods. Adjust the tappet
clearances, see page 27, and fit the rocker covers.
9 Fit the inlet manifold/charge cooler assembly. Do
not fit the ducting to the turbocharger(s) at this stage.
10 Fit the exhaust manifold and tighten the securing
bolts to a torque of 45 Nm (33 lbf ft). Fit the
turbocharger(s).
Continued

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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12

11 Renew the sealing rings (A) in the coolant rail/


thermostat housing and fit the assembly.
12 Fit the fuel filter assembly.
13 Remove any blanking plugs or caps and fit the
injectors. Tighten the clamping bolts to a torque of
10,8 Nm (8.0 lbf ft).
14 Fit the fuel spill pipes using new washers with the
banjo bolts.
15 Remove the blanking covers from the fuel
injection pump and fit the high-pressure fuel pipes
as a complete set. Do NOT allow the pipes to
become bent. Tighten the nuts to a torque of 25 Nm
(18.5 lbf ft).

274

Warning! If a high-pressure fuel pipe becomes bent,


its structure will be damaged and it may become split
during use.
16 Fit the air ducting between the turbocharger and
the induction manifold/charge cooler.
17 Refill the cooling system to the correct level.
Caution: When a cylinder head had been removed
and fitted, its bolts and nut must be retightened to the
correct torque figures and the tappet clearances
checked after the first 500 to 1 000 km. See operation
12-5. This operation does NOT apply to New 2000
Series engines - engines from build line number
91880 onward.

30

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Procedure for retightening of the


cylinder head bolts

12
12-5

Special tools:
Torque angle gauge, 21825 924
Note: For engines from build line number 91880, this
procedure is NOT necessary due to new procedures
used when the engine is assembled.
The cylinder head bolts of engines built before build
line number 91880 must be retightened after the first
12 months of operation. Additionally, if a cylinder
head from one of these engines has been removed,
its bolts and nut must be retightened to the correct
torque figures and the tappet clearances checked
after the first 500 to 1 000 km. Use the procedure
which follows.
Caution: A drilled bolt, which is identified by the word
"OIL" stamped on its head for early engines and by a
recess in its head for later engines, is fitted at position
22 shown on the illustration (A). This special bolt
MUST be used at the correct position.

56

6 Check and, if necessary, adjust the tappet


clearances, operation 12-3.
7 Pour approximately 0,6 litre (1 pint) of clean engine
lubricating oil over the rocker assemblies and fit the
rocker covers, operation 12-2.

1 Remove the rocker covers and the rocker


assemblies.
2 Wipe clean the nuts and the heads of the bolts
which retain the cylinder heads.
3 Make a temporary mark on each nut and on the
head of each bolt, and also on the cylinder heads.
Ensure that the marks are aligned.
Caution: Do NOT remove or slacken more than one
nut or bolt at a time.
4 Work on one bolt or nut at a time, use the sequence
shown (A) and proceed as follows:
All bolts and nuts:
a Remove the bolt or nut. Lubricate lightly the
threads and the lower face of the bolt or the nut.
b Tighten the bolt or nut to 204 Nm (150 lbf ft).
Continue in the correct sequence.
Bolts shown in black circles:
a Tighten these bolts in the correct sequence by
a further 40 of angular movement or until the
marks align, whichever is the tighter. A suitable
torque angle gauge, 21825 924, is available.
5 Fit the rocker assemblies, tighten the bolts evenly
and progressively to a torque of 41 Nm (30 lbf ft).

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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12

To dismantle and to assemble

12-6

Special tools:
Cup plug removal tool, 21825 855
Slide hammer, 21825 849
Replacer kit for cup plugs, 21825 865
Drive handle, 21825 861
Valve spring compressor, 21825 739
Adaptor, 21825 742
Insertion tool, 21825 764
To dismantle

215

Check all cup plugs for signs of coolant leakage. Any


plugs which are in doubt must be renewed. To
remove suspect cup plugs use the cup plug removal
tool, 21825 855 and slide hammer, 21825 849. To fit
new cup plugs, use the replacer kit, 21825 865, and
the drive handle, 21825 861. Apply Loctite 575 to new
cup plugs before they are fitted to the cylinder head.
1 Clean the face of the cylinder head before removing
the valves and check the depth of the valves below
the flame face.
2 Lay the cylinder head, flame face down, on a bench
with a soft surface and remove the valves by use of
the valve spring compressor, 21825 739, and
adaptor, 21825 742. Fit the adaptor, 21825 742, into
a suitable bolt hole. Fit the compressor tool stud into
the adaptor, finger-tight, then tighten the lock-nut.
Note: Only certain early engines are fitted with valve
rotators (rotocoils) beneath the exhaust valve springs.
All other engines have solid spring seats.
3 Compress the valve springs in turn (A) and remove
the collets to release the springs. Lift off the springs
together with upper and lower spring seats/rotocoils.
Exhaust valve stem seals must be removed before
the rotocoils can be removed. To remove a seal, lever
it carefully from the guide and discard. It must NOT be
refitted.
Note: Valve rotators (rotocoils) cannot be fitted or
removed while stem seals are in position.
4 Stand the cylinder head in a suitable position to
remove the valves. Identify the valves to ensure that
they are returned to their original positions. Do NOT
use a centre punch or number stamps for marking the
valves.

32

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12

To assemble
1 Clean all components and renew all seals.

2 Fit the lower spring seats/valve rotators (A1) over


the exhaust valve guides.

3 Renew the valve stem seals (A3) as follows: oil the


valve guide and fit the seal to the insertion tool, 21825
764 (B). Insert the tool into the guide and carefully tap
the seal into position until it reaches the shoulder of
the guide. Remove the tool and check that the seal is
undamaged.

4 Fit the seating washers (A2) over the inlet valve


guides.
5 Lightly lubricate the valve stems and fit the valves
to their respective guides.
1

6 Carefully lay the cylinder head, flame face down, on


a soft surface. Assemble the springs (A4) and upper
spring seats (A5), compress them with the valve
spring compressor, 21825 739, and slide a new O
ring (A6) over the valve stem. Retain the pressure, fit
the collets (A7) and slowly release the compressor.
7 Check carefully to ensure that all of the collets are
located correctly.

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270

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12

To clean and to inspect the


cylinder head

To renew a valve spring with the


12-7 cylinder head installed

Clean all of the components; use a cleaning fluid


which can be diluted with water and refer to section 10
for relevant information. To remove heavy carbon
deposits from most components: soak them in
solutions of Maxan or Ardrox 667.
Caution: Do not use the Maxan or Ardrox
processes on the valve springs or the surface finish
will be damaged.
If cup plugs were removed, before the cylinder head
was cleaned, they must be renewed before the
cylinder head is given a pressure test, see operation
12-6.
Make, locally, enough seals to close all of the openings
for coolant and fit them to the cylinder head. Connect a
pipe from a supply of air to the coolant galleries. Apply
air at a pressure of 207 kN/m (30 lbf/in).
Caution: Do NOT exceed 207 kN/m (30 lbf/in) as
damage may be caused.

12-8

Special tools:
Valve spring compressor, 21825 739
Adaptor, 21825 742
If necessary, it is possible to renew a valve spring
without removing the cylinder head. Proceed as
follows:
1 Remove the relevant rocker cover, operation 12-1,
and turn the engine in the normal direction of rotation
until the inlet valve of the cylinder concerned just
commences to open. The piston of that cylinder will
then be at TDC position.
2 Slacken the tappet screws of this cylinder, remove
the rocker assembly and lift out the push rods.
3 Cover the push rod holes to ensure that no
components can drop in and fit the valve spring
compressor, 21825 739, and adaptor, 21825 742, to
an adjacent hole.

Put the cylinder head in a tank of water which is at a


temperature of 40-45C (104-113F) and inspect for
bubbles from around all the cup plugs and injector
sleeves. Renew plugs or sleeves which are not fully
sealed. Remove the seals from the openings for
coolant.

4 Compress and remove the springs and other


components in the manner described previously with
the cylinder head removed.

Inspect the flame face for signs of damage. If


necessary, the face may be reconditioned by surface
grinding, in four stages, to a maximum of 0,51 mm
(0.020 in). Information about work done must be
etched on an area of the flame face which is not under
the gasket of the cylinder head.

6 Fit the push rods and the rocker assembly. Check


and reset the tappet clearances, operation 12-3, for
all valves and fit the rocker cover, operation 12-1.

5 Renew items as necessary and fit the springs and


other components. Remove the covers from the push
rod holes.

Caution: When a cylinder head flame face has been


machined, the valve seats must be recut to maintain
the correct distance between the valve faces and the
flame face of the cylinder head. See fits and
clearances on page 43.

34

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To correct a valve seat

12

12-9

Special tools:
Valve seat tool, 21825 841
Replacement tips, 21825 842
It is recommended that all the valve guides are
inspected, and renewed as necessary, before the
work is begun on the valve seat inserts. Ensure that
the bores of the guides are within the limits given at
the end of this section.
1 Inspect the inserts for erosion and cracks. If it is
necessary to correct the inserts, lightly lap the faces
of the valve seats and their relevant valves. To correct
the faces of more badly damaged valve seats, use the
valve seat tool, 21825 841, together with the relevant
pilot. To use the tool, fit the guide (A) and proceed as
shown (B). Ensure that the cutter is correct for the
angle of the valve seat, which is given on page 43.
The surface finish of the valve seat will be improved if
a compressed air supply is used to remove debris
during this operation.

222

223

Warning! Ensure that eye protection is used during


the above operation.
Caution: During the correction of a valve seat it is
important to remove only the minimum amount of
material.
2 After the inspection and correction of a valve seat
and the relevant valve, fit the valve into the guide and
check the depth of the head of the valve below the
flame face. If the depth is more than the limits given
on page 43 use a new valve to check again. If the
depth is then within acceptable limits, the new valve
must be fitted to the valve seat when the cylinder
head is assembled.
3 To ensure that the valve is fitted in its correct
position, the number of the cylinder and the position
of the valve must be etched above the collet groove
on the valve stem. Valves must not be stamped or
marked with a centre punch, because cracks may
occur.
If the depth still exceeds the acceptable limits, a new
valve seat insert must be fitted.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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12

To remove a valve seat insert

12-10
1

1 Secure the cylinder head on a milling machine, and


use a slot drill of approximately 10 mm (3/8 in)
diameter to machine two slots into the valve seat
insert (A3). The depth of the slots should be 0,50 mm
(0.020 in) less than the depth of the valve seat insert.
The minimum depth of the insert is 10,74 mm
(0.423 in). The slots should be apart by
approximately 13 mm (1/2 in) between their centres.
Machine the slot to within 0,5 mm (0.020 in) of the
outside diameter of the insert.
Caution: It is essential that the depth of the cutter is
carefully set to prevent cutting through the insert and
into the head. A safety margin of at least 0,5 mm
(0.020 in) should be allowed.

34

2 Use a flat chisel, at the point which is indicated by


the arrow (A2) and in the direction of the opening in
the insert, to break the insert. Do not damage the
recess during this operation.
3 Remove the insert and check that the recess is
clean and that there is no damage. Ensure that any
broken pieces from the old insert are removed from
the port.

To fit a valve seat insert

12-11

Special tools:
Valve seat insertion tool, 21825 869
To fit
1 Replacement inserts are available in either
standard or 0,050 mm (0.002 in) oversize diameters.
Always check that you have the required size.
2 Ensure that the counter bores in the cylinder head
are clean. The insert should be frozen in liquid
nitrogen immediately before insertion.
3 Fit the insert immediately, using the special tool
21825 869.
4 Check, using a 0,04 mm (0.0015 in) feeler gauge,
that the insert is fully seated.

36

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To inspect the valve guides

12

12-12
1

Check the clearance of each valve stem in its guide.


This must be within the limits given on page 44. If the
clearance is excessive, use a new valve to check
again. If the clearance is still excessive, a new valve
guide must be fitted.

To renew a valve guide

12-13

Special tools:
Valve guide remover, 21825 752
Valve guide replacer, 21825 763

272

231

Reamer for valve guides, 21825 748


Valve seat tool, 21825 841
Replacement tips, 21825 842
1 Working from the flame face side of the cylinder
head drive out the guide using drift, 21825 752.
2 Ensure that the new guide is clean and free from
burrs. Freeze the guide in liquid nitrogen, if available,
or alternatively coat it with graphited machine oil.
3 Exhaust guides must be entered with the end
machined for the valve stem seal leading. Inlet guides
are symmetrical and may be entered either way.
4 Press fit the new guide (A1) using the replacer tool,
21825 763 (A2), and a hand press. Stop when the tool
just contacts the cylinder head flame face.
5 Use the reamer, 21825 748, by hand, to finish the
guide bore (B).
6 Recut the valve seat to the relevant angle. See
operation 12-9.

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12

Valves, valve springs and valve rotators


To remove and to fit

12-14

To remove
1 Remove the cylinder heads, operation 12-4.
2 Remove the valves, the valve springs and the valve
rotators, operation 12-6.
To fit
1 Fit the valves, the valve springs and the valve
rotators, operation 12-6.
2 Fit the cylinder heads, operation 12-4.

To clean and to inspect

12-15

Special tools:
Gauge, 21825 754
1 Clean the valves thoroughly and inspect the head
of each valve for cracks or other damage. Check the
valve stems, the collet grooves and the tips of the
valves for wear. On valves which appear serviceable,
test, for cracks using a dye penetrant process such as
Ardrox 996. See page 16.

271

2 Check that the valves are not dished by use of a


straight edge and a feeler gauge. Discard the valve if
the clearance exceeds 0,38 mm (0.015 in).

7 Inspect the tips of the valve stems. If the wear


marks indicate that the valve has not rotated, the
rotator for that valve must be renewed.

3 Pitted or damaged valve seat faces may be


reclaimed by removing the minimum amount of
material necessary at the correct angle.

8 Two springs are fitted over each valve. For ease of


identification the exhaust valve springs are colour
coded yellow and the inlet valve springs are colour
coded red. Clean thoroughly the valve springs and
check for wear, corrosion and distortion. Measure the
free length and the length under load of each spring
and compare the results with the figures given in fits
and clearances on page 44. Discard any spring which
is not acceptable.

4 Check both inlet and exhaust valves with gauge,


21825 754 (A1), and a straight edge, to determine if a
sufficient amount of material remains. Discard any
valve if the head is below the top face of the gauge.
5 If new valves are fitted, the cylinder number and
position should be etched near to the top of the valve
stem. Valves must not be stamped or marked with a
centre punch as this may initiate cracking within the
valve.
6 Certain early engines have valve rotators (rotocoils)
fitted beneath the exhaust valve springs. All other
engines have solid spring seats. If valve rotators are
fitted, check for cracks and other damage and ensure
that the parts rotate freely in relationship to their
relevant parts.

38

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12

Fuel injector sleeves


3

To remove and to fit

12-16

Special tools:
Fuel injector remover, 21825 914
Injector sleeve remover, 21825 922
Injector sleeve wrench, 21825 908
2

To remove
1 Remove the high-pressure fuel pipes: For new
2000 series engines remove the set of high-pressure
fuel pipes. For these engines, do not remove the
pipes individually, they MUST be removed as a
complete set. Do NOT bend the pipes.
Warning! If a high-pressure fuel pipe becomes bent,
its structure will be damaged and it may become split
during use.
2 Remove the relevant low pressure fuel pipes and
remove the injector assembly. To remove a tight fuel
injector use the special tool, 21825 914, as follows:
place the cylindrical portion of the tool (A1) over the
fuel injector to be removed. Unscrew the nut (A2).
Rotate the central part of the tool (A3) until the thread
fully engages with the thread on the injector. Turn the
hexagon nut (A2) with a suitable spanner; this action
will lift the injector from its sleeve, without damaging
the sleeve. Other, harsher methods, may damage the
sleeve or the cylinder head.

179

3 Place the injector sleeve removal tool, 21825 908,


in the slots in the top of the sleeve, unscrew in an anticlockwise direction and withdraw the sleeve. If the
sleeve is a tight fit, use the special tool, 21825 922, to
extract it.
4 Remove and discard the rubber seal from the
cylinder head and the copper washer from inside the
sleeve.

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12
To fit

1 Fit a new O ring seal into the groove in the cylinder


head and lubricate with a smear of T 8210 grease,
obtainable from Edgar Vaughan, Legge Street,
Birmingham.

2 Lubricate the threaded end of the sleeve with


Hylomar Universal sealing compound.
3 Smear the outside of the sleeve with T8210 grease
and screw into position by hand to ensure correct
location.

4 Using the tool, 21825 908, tighten the sleeve to a


torque of 33 Nm (24 lbf ft).
5 Fit a new copper washer over the nozzle and a new
rubber seal over the injector barrel.
6 Apply an even layer of anti-seize compound
(Morris K72 or equivalent) to the outside of the fuel
injector barrel. Do NOT allow the compound to
contaminate the copper washer or the nozzle of the
fuel injector.
7 Slide the injector into position in the cylinder head.
The rubber seal will become enclosed in a
counterbore in the head to prevent ingress of dirt.

8 Fit the distance piece, the injector clamp and the


securing bolts. Tighten evenly to a torque of 11 Nm
(8 lbf ft).
9 Fit the high-pressure fuel pipes as a complete set.
Do NOT allow the pipes to become bent. Tighten the
nuts to a torque of 25 Nm (18.5 lbf ft). Do NOT
overtighten. Fit the low pressure fuel pipes.

40

179

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12

Push rods
To remove and to fit

12-17

Caution: If a push rod has been removed, its tappet


clearance must be checked and, if necessary,
adjusted to the correct figure.
To remove
1 Remove the rocker covers, operation 12-1 and
remove the rocker assemblies, operation 12-2.
2 Withdraw the push rods and put them in storage in
the sequence in which they were removed.
To fit
1 Fit the push rods into their cam followers, ensure
that they are fitted to the locations from which they
were removed. Fit the rocker assemblies, operation
12-2 and fit the rocker covers, operation 12-1.

To inspect

12-18

Inspect the ends of each push rod for wear and


damage, and check each rod for deflection. A push
rod which has a run-out of more than 0,635 mm
(0.025 in) along its total length must be renewed.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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12

Fits and clearances - Rocker assemblies


1

2
3
4
5
6

7
8

289

Bushes in rocker arms (A2)


Rocker arm bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,192 to 26,225 mm (1.0312 to 1.0325 in)
Bush diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,251 to 26,289 mm (1.0335 to 1.0350 in)
Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,0254 to 0,0965 mm (0.0010 to 0.0038 in)
Rocker arms on shaft (A1)
Bush bore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,212 to 22,238 mm (0.8745 to 0.8755 in)
Shaft diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,174 to 22,187 mm (0.8730 to 0.8735 in)
Clearance (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,025 to 0,064 mm (0.001 to 0.0025 in)
Permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,127 mm (0.005 in)

42

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12

Fits and clearances - Cylinder heads and


valve assemblies

2
3
4
5
6

7
8

289

Valve in seat
Clearance below flame face (A8)
Inlet valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,025 to 0,33 mm (0.001 to 0.013 in)
Permissible worn dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,633 mm (0.025 in)
Exhaust valves (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,025 to 0,33 mm (0.001 to 0.013 in)
Permissible worn dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,633 mm (0.025 in)
Valve seat inserts
Angle of valve seat
Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 degrees
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 degrees
Inserts in cylinder head
Cylinder head bore inlet valves (A7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58,06 to 58.09 mm (2.286 to 2.287 in)
Insert diameter inlet valves (A7) (standard). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58,141 to 58,166 mm (2.2890 to 2.2900 in)
Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,051 to 0,106 mm (0.002 to 0.004 in)
Cylinder head bore exhaust valves (A7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52,999 to 53,002 mm (2.0866 to 2.0867 in)
Insert diameter exhaust valves (A7)(standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,099 to 53,101 mm (2.0905 to 2.0906 in)
Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,097 to 0,102 mm (0.0038 to 0.004 in)
Service inserts 0,05 mm (0.002 in) oversize are available.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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12
1

2
3
4
5
6

7
8

289

Valve springs
Inlet and exhaust valve springs:
Outer spring (A4):
Free length: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77,9 mm (3.07 in)
Length under 125 6 lbf load:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37,0 mm (1.457 in)
Inner spring (A5):
Free length: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73,4 mm (2.89 in)
Length under 65 3.5 lbf load: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32,8 mm (1.292 in)
Valve guides
Valve guide bore in cylinder head (A6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,05 to 19,06 mm (0.750 to 0.7505 in)
Valve guide diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,101 to 19,114 mm (0.7520 to 0.7525 in)
Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,041 to 0,064 mm (0.0015 to 0.0025 in)
Valves in guides
Inlet valve stem diameter (A3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,649 to 12,662 mm (0.4980 to 0.4985 in)
Inlet valve guide bore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,687 to 12,700 mm (0.4995 to 0.500 in)
Clearance (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,025 to 0,051 mm (0.001 to 0.002 in)
Permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,142 mm (0.006 in)
Exhaust valve stem diameter (A3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,637 to 12,649 mm (0.4975 to 0,4980 in)
Exhaust valve guide bore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,687 to 12,700 mm (0.4995 to 0.500 in)
Clearance (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,038 to 0,063 mm (0.0015 to 0.0025 in)
Permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,203 mm (0.008 in)

44

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13
Piston and connecting rod
assembly

13

General description
Pistons
1 The pistons (A) are cast in a low expansion type
aluminium alloy with an inserted cast iron top ring
groove (A1). The piston crown (B) is machined to form
two valve recesses (B1) and an open combustion
chamber (B2).

Three rings are fitted to each piston above the


gudgeon pin.
Part of the combustion chamber and piston crown are
hard anodised to thermally insulate the edge of the
combustion chamber, except for the pistons of certain
industrial engines which are squeeze-cast and have a
ceramic fibre crown.

A range of service undersize pistons is available for


engines where the crankcase top face has been
machined.

335

The fully floating gudgeon pin is retained by two


circlips and is offset from the vertical centre line of the
piston. Piston crowns are stamped FRONT and
show compression ratio and height grading.

1
2

Compression ratio:
TAG1, 2, 3 and TWG

15.9:1

TTAG

15:1

2006-12TA1, 2 and 3
Compression height:

17.8:1

277

98,81 to 98,93 mm
(3.890 to 3.895 in)

Clearance from crankcase top face to piston crown at


TDC (Top dead centre) - Minus 0,28 to 0,38 mm
(0.011 to 0.015 in).
Maximum limit for piston crown machining 0,127 mm
(0.005 in).
The correct pistons and rings, as given in the Perkins
Parts Book, must always be fitted.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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13

Piston rings
Top ring (A1)

Molyplus inlaid face, 15 degree wedge design, fitted


either side up.

Second ring (A2)


Chrome plated on face with chamfered top inner
edge, marked TOP for fitting.

Third ring (A3)


Spring backed oil control ring, chrome plated on rails
and may be fitted either way up.
Connecting rods

278

The rods are steel forgings machined to size and


drilled longitudinally to allow pressure lubrication of
the small end bearings.
Early engines have two bushes fitted in the small end
with an oilway gap between them (B). Subsequent
engines have a single bush fitted in a wedge type rod
(C).
Each rod and its cap are stamped with correlation
marks (B1) on all factory built engines. The rod and
cap are secured together with two fitted bolts and
nuts. The big end will pass through the bore of the
cylinder liner and no locking device is fitted.
During manufacture, all connecting rods are weighed
and classified in groups of 113 grams (4 oz) which are
identified by a letter and number stamped on each
individual rod (B2). If an order is placed for a
replacement connecting rod it must state the weight
group letter of the rod required.

46

2
1

280

279

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13

Piston and connecting rod assembly


To remove and to fit

13-1

Special tools:
Piston ring sleeve, 21825 784
Dial gauge, 21825 782
To remove
1 Drain the coolant and lubricating oil.
2 Remove the cylinder head, operation 12-4.

281

3 Remove the sump, operation 19-3.


4 Remove the piston cooling jet (A) from the bottom
of the relevant cylinder.

Cooling jets for earlier engines are similar in principle


but differ in design.
5 Unscrew the big end nuts and remove the big end
cap bearing and bolts.
6 Push the piston and connecting rod carefully out
through the top of the bore.
7 The rod and piston must be kept together with all
the related parts as an assembly for the relevant
cylinder.
To fit

283

1 Check that the piston and connecting rod are


correctly assembled and that the piston and cylinder
bore are clean.
2 Turn the crankshaft until the crank pin, relevant to
the bore in which the piston is to be fitted, is at its
lowest position. Clean the crank pin and lubricate with
clean engine oil.
3 Fit the upper half of the big end bearing to the
connecting rod, ensuring that the location tang is
correctly seated. Lubricate the bearing with clean
engine oil.
4 Ensure that the piston cooling jet is removed from
the bottom of the bore.
5 Use the sleeve, 21825 784 (B1), to fit the assembly
into the bore with the FRONT marking on the piston
crown toward the front of the engine. Guide the rod
down carefully onto the crank pin. Fit the lower half of
the bearing into the big end cap, ensuring correct
location, and lubricate with clean engine oil.
Continued

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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13

6 Ensure that the flats on the big end bolts are


correctly located against the flats on the connecting
rod. Fit the bearing cap with the correlation marks
aligned and tighten the lightly oiled nuts to a torque of
217 Nm (160 lbf ft).
7 Turn the crankshaft until the piston is at TDC and
measure the clearance of the piston crown below the
top face of the crankcase. A dial gauge, 21825 782
(A), is obtainable for this operation. Permissible
clearance is 0,28 to 0,38 mm (0.011 to 0.015 in). If
necessary, it is permissible to machine up to a
maximum of 0,127 mm (0.005 in) from the piston
crown. Restore the FRONT and other markings if
they are removed during machining. Dial gauge must
be zeroed on a flat clean surface before use.

284

8 Fit the piston cooling jet, complete with new O ring


seal. If necessary, turn the engine to ensure that the
jet pipe is positioned centrally in the slot in the piston
skirt.
9 Fit the sump, operation 19-3.
10 Fit the cylinder heads, operation 12-4.
11 Fill the coolant system to the correct level with the
approved coolant mixture.
12 Fill the sump to the correct level with the correct
grade of lubricating oil.
Refer to the Users Handbook, TSD 3215, for the
correct procedures before the engine is first started
after an overhaul.

48

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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To dismantle and to assemble

13

13-2

Special tools:

Piston ring pliers, 21825 793


To dismantle
1 Use piston ring pliers, 21825 793, to remove the
rings from the piston.
2 Make a note of the relationship between the
FRONT marking on the piston and the correlation
marks on the connecting rod.
3 Remove the gudgeon pin circlips and push out the
pin sufficiently to release the piston from the
connecting rod. Keep each assembly together.

13

To assemble
1 Fit the rings to the piston ensuring that the nonreversible rings are fitted correctly.
2 Heat the piston to approximately 20C (68F). Oil
the small end bushes and assemble the rod to the
piston with the FRONT marking on the piston crown
in correct relationship to the correlation marks.
Ensure that the gudgeon pin circlips are correctly
located in their grooves.
3 Set the gaps of the piston rings at equidistant
intervals as shown (A) before the assembly is fitted to
the engine.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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13

Piston and rings


To inspect

Connecting rod
13-3 To inspect

1 De-carbonise the piston by soaking in a proprietary


solvent such as Ardrox 691.
2 Check the piston for damage or wear. Use a new
piston ring as a guide when checking for wear in the
ring grooves.

13-4

1 Crack test the rod assembly electromagnetically


and inspect the bolts for signs of wear or damage.
Renew any components found to be defective.
2 Check the small end bushes and renew as
necessary, operation 13-5.

3 Crack test the gudgeon pin and check for a push fit
in the piston at 20C (68F). If the pin is slack in the
piston the assembly should be discarded.

3 Check the alignment of the big and small end bores


in two planes. Do NOT attempt to correct a bent or
twisted rod.

4 Check the piston rings for damage, scores, wear,


and signs of leakage. Discard the top ring if the
molybdenum shows signs of wear or breaking up, if
necessary, comparing it with a new ring.

4 Carefully inspect the bearings for cracks, scores,


wear and embedded foreign material. If there is any
doubt regarding their serviceability the bearings
should be renewed. Always ensure that replacement
bearings are of the correct size and type.

5 The spring in the oil control ring gives a radial


pressure of 1035 kN/m (150 lb/in) when new and is
identified by a yellow paint marking. Inspect the ring
for wear, and if found to be defective, the ring and
spring together must be renewed.
6 Place the rings in turn in an unworn portion of their
own liner to check the ring gaps. Discard any ring
which has a gap exceeding the limits. Piston rings
must be renewed when fitting a new cylinder liner.

50

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13

Small end bushes


To renew

13-5

Special tools:
Con-rod bush remover/replacer, 21825 814
For use only on early engines.
Early engines
1 Press out the unserviceable bushes. Remove any
burrs from the eye of the connecting rod and ensure
that the oilway is clear.

282

2 New bushes should be drawn in one from each side.


A tool, 21825 814 (A), is available for this purpose.
Ensure that the bushes are correctly fitted with a space
between them of at least 2,5 mm (0.10 in) to form an
oilway.
New engines - engines fitted with wedge-type
connecting rods
1 Press out the unserviceable single small end bush.
Remove any burrs from the eye of the connecting rod
and ensure that the oilway is clear.
2 Press a new bush into the connecting rod, ensuring
that the oil hole is correctly aligned with the hole in the
rod.
Caution: The oil hole in the new bush must be aligned
with the oil hole in the connecting rod to within 1.
3 Cut off the protruding edges of the bush and dress
up with a smooth file until flush with the side faces of
the rod.
4 Secure the connecting rod in a boring machine and
bore the bush to the correct diameter:
50,813 to 50,838 mm (2.0005 to 2.0015 in).
Remove any burrs.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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13

Fits and clearances

2
3
1

291

Pistons
Gudgeon pin in piston
Bore of piston (A1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50,8000 to 50,8025 mm (2.0000 to 2.0001 in)
Gudgeon pin diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50,8000 to 50,8064 mm (2.00000 to 2.00025 in)
Gudgeon pin in piston - clearance (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0,0063 to +0,0025 mm (-0.00025 to +0.0001 in)
Top groove in piston
(Wedge shaped for top ring OE 48644)
Diameter over 2,779 mm (0.1094 in) rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128,981 to 129,184 mm (5.078 to 5.086 in)
Piston clearance at top dead centre
Piston crown (A2) below top face of crankcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,28 to 0,38 mm (0.011 to 0.015 in)
(Machine the piston crown to obtain the correct clearance)

52

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13

Fits and clearances

2
3
1

291

Piston rings
Depending on the application, different piston and piston ring combinations are used on the range of 2000
series engines. Use the part number of the piston rings to determine the correct clearances for the piston rings.
Clearances of piston rings in grooves (A3)
Top ring OE 48644 (wedge shaped) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refer to ring gap dimensions
Second ring OE 48645 (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,076 to 0,114 mm (0.003 to 0.0045 in)
Maximum permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,152 mm (0.006 in)
Oil control ring OE 48646 (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,025 to 0,063 mm (0.001 to 0.0025 in)
Maximum permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,102 mm (0.004 in)
Clearances of piston rings in grooves (A3)
Top ring OE 50977 (wedge shaped) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refer to ring gap dimensions
Second ring OE 52517 (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,076 to 0,113 mm (0.003 to 0.0044 in)
Maximum permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,152 mm (0.006 in)
Oil control ring OE 52518 (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,023 to 0,060 mm (0.0009 to 0.0024 in)
Maximum permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,010 mm (0.004 in)
Second ring OE 50978 (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,076 to 0,113 mm (0.003 to 0.0044 in)
Maximum permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,152 mm (0.006 in)
Oil control ring OE 50979 (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,023 to 0,060 mm (0.0009 to 0.0024 in)
Maximum permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,010 mm (0.004 in)

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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13
2
3
1

291

Piston ring gaps (A4) measured with the ring fitted in a new liner
Top ring OE 48644 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,40 to 0,60 mm (0.016 to 0.024 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,52 mm (0.060 in)
Second ring OE 48645 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,40 to 0,60 mm (0.016 to 0.024 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,52 mm (0.060 in)
Oil control ring OE 48646 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,40 to 0,65 mm (0.016 to 0.0256 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,02 mm (0.040 in)
Top ring OE 50977 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,40 to 0,60 mm (0.016 to 0.024 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,52 mm (0.060 in)
Second ring OE 52517 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,80 to 1,00 mm (0.031 to 0.039 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,52 mm (0.060 in)
Oil control ring OE 52518 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,40 to 0,65 mm (0.016 to 0.0256 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,02 mm (0.040 in)
Second ring OE 50978 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,40 to 0,60 mm (0.016 to 0.024 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,52 mm (0.060 in)
Oil control ring OE 50979 (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,40 to 0,65 mm (0.016 to 0.026 in)
Maximum permissible worn gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,02 mm (0.040 in)

54

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13
1

5
290

Connecting rods
Gudgeon pin in bush (A1)
Bore of bush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50,813 to 50,838 mm (2.0005 to 2.0015 in)
(Bush pressed into position and bored to size)
Diameter of gudgeon pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50,8000 to 50,8064 mm (2.00000 to 2.00025 in)
Clearance (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,0064 to 0,038 mm (0.00025 to 0.0015 in)
Permissible worn clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,067 mm (0.0026 in)
Bush in small end (A2)
Bore in connecting rod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57,137 to 57,15 mm (2.2495 to 2.250 in)
Diameter of bush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57,277 to 57,328 mm (2.255 to 2.257 in)
Interference fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,127 to 0,19 mm (0.005 to 0.0075 in)
Alignment of connecting rod (A3)
Parallel alignment between centres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To be no more than 0,025 mm (0.002 in) out
of parallel over a length of 254 mm (10 inches)
Distance between centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274,307 to 274,333 mm (10.7995 to 10.8005 in)
End-float of big end (A4)
End-float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,076 to 0,20 mm (0.003 to 0.008 in)
Permissible worn end-float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,305 mm (0.012 in)
Clearance on diameter of big end (A5)
Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,063 to 0,10 mm (0.0025 to 0.004 in)
(Check that crank pin is within the limits of ovality)

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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This document has been printed from SPI. Not for Resale

14
Crankshaft assembly

14

General description
The crankshaft is forged from chrome-molybdenum
steel. It is dynamically balanced, and all bearing
surfaces are nitride-hardened and lapped to size. The
rear flange is machined to form a spigot location for
the flywheel and is drilled to accept the flywheel bolts.
Drillings in the crankshaft permit oil transfer to the
seven main bearings.
A drilling from each journal conveys oil to an adjacent
crankpin, which incorporates an oil reservoir with a
detachable plug. This plug is fitted with an O ring and
is secured by a spring clip.
Crankshafts fitted after July 1995, have a new
arrangement of oil passageways which removes the
need for oil reservoirs. These new crankshafts are
therefore not fitted with oil reservoir plugs.
If, during overhaul, the oil reservoir plugs are removed
from the earlier crankshaft, the plugs MUST be
refitted before the engine is run.
Crankshaft end float is controlled by steel-backed
lead bronze thrust washers, fitted either side of the
centre main bearing. The lower half of the washer has
a tang which locates in a slot machined in the bearing
cap.
The nose of the crankshaft carries the oil pump drive
gear and the main pinion, and is splined to receive the
hub to which the damper and pulley are attached.
The main crankshaft oil seals are of lip type design.
The rear oil seal is fitted directly into the flywheel
housing and forms a seal around the rear flange of the
crankshaft. For earlier engines the oil seal is carried
in a housing which is bolted to the rear of the
crankcase. The front oil seal is fitted in the wheelcase
and forms a seal around the crankshaft hub. Both
seals are supplied with a plastic insert for fitting
purposes.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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14

Damper and pulley - early engines


To remove and to fit

14-1

To remove
1 Slacken the belt tensioner pulley and remove the
drive belts.
2 Slacken and remove the bolts which secure the
pulley and damper to the hub.
3 Withdraw the pulley, the hub nut locking plate, the
spacer and the damper, noting the sequence for
refitting.
To fit
1 Assemble the damper, the spacer, the hub nut
locking plate and the pulley to the crankshaft, in the
correct sequence.
2 Fit the sixteen setbolts and spring washers. Tighten
the setbolts evenly to a torque of 41 Nm (30 lbf ft).
3 Refit the drive belts, adjust to the correct tension,
and tighten the belt tensioner pulley.

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Damper and pulley - new engines


To remove and to fit

14-2

Engines from build line number 971621 have a new


damper and pulley. The new arrangement does not
include a hub locking plate or a spacer.
The new damper and pulley are fully interchangeable
with those fitted to all earlier engines, but it is NOT
possible to fit the new damper without the new pulley.
To remove
1 Remove the alternator belt. Slacken the tensioner
pulley for the fan belts and remove the fan belts.
2 Slacken and remove the bolts which retain the
pulley and the damper on the crankshaft hub.
3 Remove the pulley and the damper.
To fit
1 Fit the damper and the pulley to the crankshaft. The
pulley fits over the large crankshaft nut. If the bolt
holes in the pulley are not in alignment with those in
the crankshaft hub, remove the pulley, rotate it by one
notch, try it again and if necessary one more time until
the bolt holes are aligned correctly.
Warning! Do NOT loosen the crankshaft nut.
2 Fit the damper and the pulley and fit the 16 bolts
and spring washers. Tighten the bolts to a torque of
41 Nm (30 lbf ft).
3 Fit the drive belts and adjust them to the correct
tension. Tighten securely the tensioner pulley for the
fan belts.

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14

Crankshaft hub and front oil seal


To remove and to fit

14-3

Special tools:
Spanner, 21825 807
To remove
1 Remove the pulley and damper as previously
instructed in this section.
2 Using the spanner, 21825 807, and a suitable
hammer, unscrew and remove the hub securing nut.

152

3 Withdraw the hub and front cone.


4 Carefully lever out and discard the front oil seal.
To fit
1 Check the crankshaft hub splines and cone for
signs of wear, and renew if necessary.
2 Fit a new oil seal to the wheelcase. Ensure that the
seal is positioned correctly, as shown (A).
Note: Each new seal is supplied fitted with a plastic
mandrel for assembly purposes. This mandrel must
NOT be removed until the fitting of the seal is
completed.
3 Apply a light film of clean engine oil to the hub
splines prior to fitting the hub and cone.
4 Check the hub nut threads, lightly oil, and fit the nut
by hand.
5 Tighten the nut to 950 Nm (700 lbf ft) by torque
spanner or, alternatively, by the following method with
the spanner, 21825 807, and a 1,8 kg (4 lb) hammer:
a Use the spanner to tighten the nut as fully as
possible by hand.
b Scribe suitable alignment marks on the hub and
nut and use a hammer to tighten the nut by a
further two flats.
c If difficulties are encountered when fitting the
locking plate, the nut may be tightened by the
minimum amount necessary. It must NOT be
slackened.
6 Fit the pulley and damper, see operation 14-1 or
operation 14-2.

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To fit a new oil seal to a wheelcase removed


from the engine
14-4

14

The plastic mandrel supplied with the seal must NOT


be removed until the fitting of the seal is completed.
Grease, oil or other sealants must NOT be applied to
the seal or housing during assembly.
1 Ensure the seal housing in the wheelcase is free
from oil and other possible debris.
2 Support the wheelcase on a flat horizontal surface
under a hand press, ensuring sufficient clearance is
available to avoid disturbing the plastic mandrel whilst
pressing in the seal.
3 Place the seal at the entrance to the bore with the
part number facing outwards.
4 Cover the seal completely with a flat metal plate
and operate the press until light bottoming of the seal
is felt.
5 Wipe away any excess dry sealant which has been
displaced from the seal outer casing.
6 Do NOT remove the plastic mandrel until the
wheelcase has been fitted to the engine.

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14

Rear oil seal


To remove and to fit

14-5
1

Special tools:

Oil seal tool, 27610 007

To remove
1 Drain the engine oil and remove the flywheel,
operation 22-1.
2 Use a centre punch to make two holes in the edge
of the seal at diametrically opposite positions (A1 and
A2). Drill two holes, of 5 mm (3/16 in) diameter, in the
seal at the positions shown (A1 and A2).
3 Select two suitable self-tapping screws, complete
with plain washers, and fit the screws to the drilled
holes. Leave a small space between the face of the
seal and the plain washers. Use two screwdrivers, as
levers, between the plain washers and the flywheel
housing (oil seal housing on early engines) to remove
the oil seal.
4 Clean the bore of the flywheel housing, or oil seal
housing, which was in contact with the old seal.

35

4 Remove the complete tool. The tool should be kept


assembled to protect the guide part.
5 Fit the flywheel, operation 22-1.

To fit
Ensure that the crankshaft and the bore of the
flywheel housing are clean and free from grease.
Caution: Check that the part number of the new seal
is the correct one for the engine.
1 Ensure that the flywheel location dowel is fitted to
the crankshaft. Fit the guide part of the special tool,
27610 007, onto the end of the crankshaft and secure
it with the four bolts. Take care not to damage the fine
edge of the guide during fitting.
2 Before the oil seal is fitted, check the guide and the
crankshaft again for dirt or for a rough surface finish
which could damage the lip of the oil seal. Remove
and discard the yellow inner sleeve from the new oil
seal and fit the seal onto the guide. The lip of the seal
must be toward the crankcase.
Caution: Do NOT apply oil or grease to the oil seal
to assist the operation. There is a dry lubricant on the
contact face of a new seal for this purpose.
3 Slide the collar part of the tool onto the guide until
the face of the collar is against the outer face of the oil
seal. Lubricate lightly the thread of the stud and also
the thrust washer. Fit the nut and washer to retain the
collar. Rotate the nut until the seal is pressed fully into
the flywheel housing or oil seal housing for earlier
engines.

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14

Crankshaft
To remove and to fit

18 Remove the main bearing caps, if necessary


using the puller, 21825 806, and remove the lower
half main bearing shells from the caps.

14-6 19 Using suitable lifting equipment, lift out the

Special tools:

crankshaft and remove the upper half of the main


bearing shells and thrust washers.

Engine build stand, 21825 993

To fit

Puller, 21825 806

1 Lightly oil the upper halves of the main bearing


shells and fit them to the crankcase.

To remove
1 Drain the engine lubricating oil and coolant whilst
the engine is still installed.
2 Remove the unit and fit it to the engine build stand,
21825 993. See operation 16-1.
3 Remove the sump and oil pump, operation 19-3
and operation 19-4.
4 Remove the coolant pump, operation 21-5 and the
thermostat housing/coolant rail assembly.
5 If fitted, remove the compressor, operation 24-1.
6 Remove the fuel injection pump, operation 20-10.
7 Remove the starter motor, operation 23-3.
8 Remove the alternator, operation 23-2.
9 Remove the flywheel housing, operation 22-3.
10 If fitted, remove the crankshaft rear seal housing.
11 Remove the crankshaft hub and damper
assembly, operation 14-3 and operation 14-1 or
operation 14-2.
12 Remove the wheelcase, operation 15-1.
13 Unscrew the idler gear retaining bolt and withdraw
the gear and thrust plate.
14 Remove the camshaft gear or, for engines with an
integral gear, remove the camshaft, operation 16-8.
15 If fitted, remove the fuel pump adapter plate and
discard the O rings. Remove the wheelcase
backplate and discard the gasket.

2 Carefully lower the crankshaft into position.


3 Fit the main bearing caps as given in operation
16-2, paragraphs 3 and 4. Check that the
crankshaft rotates freely. Lever the crankshaft to
the extremes in each direction and measure the
end float. Limits are 0,127 to 0,33 mm (0.005 to
0.013 in).
4 Withdraw each piston and connecting rod assembly
from its bore and fit the upper half of the big end
bearing to the connecting rod. Ensure that the
location tang is correctly seated. Lubricate the
bearing with clean engine oil and guide the
connecting rod carefully onto the crank pin. Fit the
lower half of the bearing into the big end cap, ensuring
correct location, and lubricate with clean engine oil.
Ensure that the flats on the big end bolts are correctly
located against the flats on the connecting rod. Fit the
bearing cap with the correlation marks aligned and
tighten the lightly oiled nuts to a torque of 217 Nm
(160 lbf ft).
5 Fit the backplate, complete with a new gasket and,
where necessary, the fuel pump adapter plate,
complete with new O ring seals.
6 Turn the engine until No.1 piston is at the TDC
position. Fit the camshaft and idler gears with the
timing marks correctly aligned - see section 16.
7 Fit the wheelcase.
8 Fit the crankshaft hub and damper assembly,
operation 14-3 and operation 14-1 or operation 14-2.

16 Disconnect the connecting rods from the


crankshaft. Ensure that the caps and shell bearings
are retained with their respective rods.

9 For early 2000 series engines, fit the crankshaft


rear seal housing.

17 Slide the piston and connecting rod assemblies


into the bores until they are clear of the crankshaft.

11 Fit the alternator, operation 23-2.

10 Fit the flywheel housing, operation 22-3.


12 Fit the starter motor, operation 23-3.
13 Fit the fuel injection pump, operation 20-10.
14 If necessary, fit the compressor, operation 24-1.

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14

15 Fit the coolant pump, operation 21-5 and the


thermostat housing/coolant rail assembly.
16 Fit the oil pump and sump, operation 19-4 and
operation 19-3.
17 Remove the engine from the build stand,
operation 16-1.
18 Refill with clean engine oil of the correct grade and
specification.
19 Fill the coolant system to the correct level with the
approved coolant mixture.

To inspect

14-7

1 Thoroughly clean the assembly.


2 Inspect the pinion and oil pump drive gear
assembly for wear and damage.
3 Where relevant, extract all the oil reservoir plugs:
tap each plug in slightly, remove the retaining clip and
screw in a suitable bolt to withdraw the plug.
4 Clean all the components with special attention to
the crankshaft oilways.
5 Perform a crack test on the shaft, pinion and oil
pump drive gear, preferably using the
electromagnetic process. Renew as necessary.
6 Where relevant, refit the oil reservoir plugs,
complete with new O rings, as follows: Oil the bores,
press in the plugs, fit the retaining clips and pull the
plugs back against the retaining clips.
If necessary, it is possible for the crankshaft to be
reground. Re-grinding is permissible in four stages,
each of 0,25 mm (0.010 in) on the diameter.
Caution: The crankshaft MUST be re-nitrided if it is
re-ground by more than 0,25mm (0.010 in).
Should the crankshaft be re-ground several times, renitriding will be necessary at:
a Minus 0,51 mm (0.020 in)
and
b Minus 1,02 mm (0.040 in)
For further details about crankshaft re-grinding,
please contact the Service Department at Perkins
Engines Company Limited, Shrewsbury.

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14

Fits and clearances


Crankshaft journals

Diameter (A1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99,0473 to 99,0727 mm (3.8995 to 3.9005 in)


Permissible worn dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98,9838 mm (3.897 in)
Ovality - permissible worn dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,076 mm (0.003 in)
Journals in main bearings - clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,0127 to 0,089 mm (0.0005 to 0.0035 in)
Crank pins
Diameter (A2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82,5348 to 82,5373 mm (3.2494 to 3.2495 in)
Diameter - permissible worn dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82,4611 mm (3.2465 in)
Ovality - permissible worn dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,076 mm (0.003 in)
Deflection of crankshaft
Deflection of crankshaft (A7) when it is held on
V blocks under numbers 1 and 7 main journals (A6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,030 mm (0.012 in)
(The deflection must be progressive from the outer main journals to the centre main journal)
End-float of crankshaft
Width between crankshaft webs of central journal (A3) . . . . . . . . . . 80,645 to 80,696 mm (3.175 to 3.177 in)
Width of centre bearing and thrust washers (A4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80,315 to 80,467 mm (3.162 to 3.168 in)
Clearance (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,178 to 0,381 mm (0.007 to 0.015 in)
Permissible worn clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,51 mm (0.020 in)
Flywheel on crankshaft
Diameter of crankshaft (A5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107,899 to 107,925 mm (4.248 to 4.249 in)
Bore of flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107,95 to 107,975 mm (4.250 to 4.251 in)
Clearance (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,025 to 0,076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in)

A
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15
Wheelcase and drive assembly

15

General description
The wheelcase assembly of the new 2000 series
engine consists of an aluminium wheelcase and a
cast iron backplate. For earlier engines, the backplate
is manufactured from aluminium. The assembly is
situated at the front end of the crankcase and houses
the engine gear train. The backplate is located on the
crankcase by dowels and is secured by close fitting
bolts. This ensures the correct positioning of the front
seal in relation to the crankshaft.
A steel oil transfer tube is fitted between the backplate
and the front end of the main oil gallery in the
crankcase. Lubricating oil is supplied through this
tube and through drillings in the backplate to the fuel
injection pump.
The wheelcase provides mounting points for the
coolant pump, alternator and belt tensioner bracket.
The backplate houses the radiator by-pass tube and
provides mounting points for the compressor and fuel
injection pump.
The gears of new 2000 series engines have a
different gear tooth design and are not
interchangeable with those fitted to earlier engines.
The idler axle fitted to new 2000 engines does not
require adjustment.

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15

Wheelcase
To remove and to fit

Backplate
15-1 To remove and to fit

To remove

To remove

1 Drain the engine coolant.

1 Remove the wheelcase, operation 15-1.

2 Remove the following components:

2 Remove the fuel injection pump assembly,


operation 20-10.

a (a) Sump - see operation 19-3.


b Alternator - see operation 23-2.
c Belt tensioner bracket.
d Crankshaft hub - see operation 14-3.
e Coolant pump - see operation 21-5.
f Compressor (if fitted) - see operation 24-1.
3 Remove the wheelcase retaining bolts and
withdraw the casing.
4 Discard all gaskets and clean the joint faces.
To fit
1 Renew all gaskets.
2 Fit the wheelcase, complete with a new gasket.
3 Fit the components removed in paragraph 2 of the
removal sequence.
4 Refill the coolant system.

15-2

3 Remove the coolant rail, thermostat housing and


the radiator by-pass tube from the top of the
backplate.
4 Turn the engine until No.1 piston is at TDC with the
relevant mark on the flywheel aligned with the timing
pointer in the flywheel housing. The timing marks on
the camshaft and crankshaft gears should now be
facing the idler gear axle, and the mark on the front
end of the crankshaft at the 12 oclock position.
5 Bend back the tabs on the camshaft gear locking
plate and slacken the retaining bolts. The camshafts
of certain engines have an integral gear; for these
engines the camshaft must be removed, operation
16-8.
6 Remove the idler gear retaining bolt and withdraw
the gear and thrust washer.
7 For engines with removable camshaft gears:
Unscrew the camshaft gear retaining bolts and
remove the gear and lockplate, then remove the
camshaft thrust plate.
8 If fitted, remove the fuel pump adaptor housing from
the backplate and discard the O rings.
9 Unscrew the three backplate retaining bolts and
carefully tap the plate free from the dowels.
10 Discard the gasket and clean the joint faces.
11 Withdraw the oil transfer tube from the backplate
and discard the O ring.

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To fit
1 Fit the oil transfer tube (A1) to the backplate,
complete with a new O ring (A2).

2 Fit a new gasket over the two dowels in the front of


the crankcase, fit the backplate and secure with the
three bolts.
3 Fit the camshaft thrust washer and tighten the
setscrews evenly to a torque of 54 Nm (40 lbf ft).
4 Fit the camshaft gear (B1), locating it on the roll pin
in the end of the camshaft. The bolt holes are offset
and will only align in one position. Use a new locking
washer (B5) and fit the bolts (B6) finger tight only at
this stage.

285

5 Slide the idler gear (B2) on to its axle, with the


timing marks aligned with the corresponding marks on
the camshaft and crankshaft gears as shown (C).

6 Fit the idler gear thrust plate (B3) and securing bolt
(B4). Ensure that the slot in the plate (D1) is correctly
located on the roll pin (D2), then tighten the bolt to a
torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).
7 Tighten the camshaft gear retaining bolts to a
torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft), and bend over the locking
plate tabs to secure. Ensure that the tabs are bent
fully against the flats of the bolts heads.
Continued

3
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15

8 For early engines: fit the fuel pump adaptor (A2)


and renew the two O ring seals (A1 and A3).

9 Fit the fuel injection pump, operation 20-10.

10 Fit the radiator by-pass tube, thermostat housing


and coolant rail, renewing all gaskets and O rings
seals.
11 Fit the wheelcase, operation 15-1.
3

70

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15

Camshaft gear - bolt-on type


To remove and to fit

15-3

To remove
1 Remove the wheelcase, operation 15-1.
2 Turn the engine until No.1 piston is at TDC with the
relevant mark on the flywheel aligned with the timing
pointer in the flywheel housing. The timing marks on
the camshaft and crankshaft gears should now be
facing the idler gear axle as shown (A), and the mark
on the front end of the crankshaft at the 12 oclock
position.

2
295

3 Remove the idler gear (A1).


4 If fitted, bend back the locking plate tabs, remove
the retaining bolts and carefully lever off the camshaft
gear (A3).
5 Inspect the gear for worn or damaged teeth and
renew if necessary.
6 Do not turn the engine from its present position.
To fit
1 Fit and secure the camshaft gear (A3) to the
camshaft with the timing mark aligned with the
corresponding marks on the idler gear (A1).
2 Fit the idler gear.
3 Check that the gear backlash is within limits. Refer
to Fits and clearances on page 77. If the backlash is
not within the limits, the position of the idler gear axle
may need to be adjusted, see operation 15-7.
4 Fit the locking plate, if one was previously fitted, fit
the retaining bolts, tighten them to a torque of 61 Nm
(45 lbf ft) and bend up the tabs on the locking plate.
Note: It has been found that the locking plate for the
camshaft gear is no longer required and therefore will
not be fitted to engines manufactured after August
1998.
5 Fit the wheelcase, operation 15-1.

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15

Camshaft gear - integral type


To remove and to fit

15-4

To remove
To remove the camshaft gear from this type of
camshaft, the camshaft must first be removed from
the engine.
1 Remove the cam followers, operation 16-6.
2 Remove the idler gear, operation 15-6.
3 Remove the camshaft, operation 16-8.
4 Place the camshaft in a hydraulic press with the
camshaft gear uppermost. Support the gear under the
thrust plate with suitable packing, such as vee blocks.
Carefully press the camshaft from the gear and
remove the thrust plate and the key.
Caution: Do not damage the camshaft during this
operation.
To fit
1 Support the camshaft in a suitable press. Fit the
thrust plate to the camshaft. Ensure that the plate is
fitted with the words FRONT (A1) uppermost, away
from the cams.
2 Insert a new key in the camshaft keyway.
3 Heat the gear in a pre-heated oven at
minimum of 15 minutes.

300oC

142

for a

Warning! Protective gloves and overalls must be


used when handling the heated camshaft gear.

4 Place the gear on the camshaft while still hot and


press it onto the camshaft until the distance between
the rear face of the gear and the rear face of the
camshaft flange (B4) is 11,54 mm (0.4545 in).

5 Fit the camshaft, operation 16-8.

B
72

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To inspect

15-5

15

1 Inspect the camshaft gear journal for burrs or other


damage. If the damage cannot be removed by the use
of a fine grade of emery cloth, renew the camshaft.
Measure the outside diameter of the journal. It must
be between 65,1637 and 65,1815 mm (2.5655 and
2.5662 in). If it is beyond these limits the camshaft
must be renewed.
2 Inspect the bore of the gear for burrs or other
damage. If the damage cannot be removed by the use
of a fine grade of emery cloth, renew the gear.
Measure the diameter of the gear bore. It must be
between 65,0875 and 65,1078 mm (2.5625 and
2.5633 in). If it is beyond these limits the gear must be
renewed.

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15

Idler gear
To remove and to fit

15-6

To remove
1 Remove the wheelcase, operation 15-1.
2 Turn the engine until No.1 piston is at TDC with the
relevant mark on the flywheel aligned with the timing
pointer in the flywheel housing. The timing marks on
the camshaft and crankshaft gears (A3 and A2)
should now be facing the axle of the idler gear (A1),
and the mark on the front end of the crankshaft at the
12 oclock position.

2
295

3 Check and note the end float of the idler gear.


4 Check the gear for excessive play on the axle.
5 Remove the securing bolt and thrust plate.
6 Withdraw the gear and check for worn or damaged
teeth.
7 Do not turn the engine from its present position.
To fit
1 Slide the gear onto the axle, with the timing marks
aligned with the relevant markings on the camshaft
and crankshaft gears.
2 For new 2000 series engines: Fit the idler gear
thrust plate and securing bolt. Tighten the bolt to a
torque of 300 Nm (220 lbf ft). Check that the end
float is within these limits: 0,10 to 0,25 mm (0.004
to 0.010 in). If it is outside the limits, the assembly
of the idler gear and bushes must be renewed.
For earlier 2000 series engines, fit the idler gear thrust
plate and securing bolt. Ensure that the slot in the plate
is correctly located on the roll pin before tightening the
bolt. Tighten the bolt to a torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).
Check that the end float is within these limits: 0,051 to
0,20 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in). If it is outside the limits,
the assembly of the idler gear and bushes must be
renewed.
3 Check the backlash of the idler gear, see Fits and
clearances on page 77. If a new gear has been fitted,
the position of the idler gear axle may require
adjustment to obtain the correct backlash
dimensions. Refer to page 76. This operation does
NOT apply to new 2000 series engines.
4 Fit the wheelcase,operation 15-1.

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To set the gear backlash

15-7

15

Special tools:
Reaming jig, idler gear axle, 21825 999
Note: This operation is NOT applicable to New 2000
series engines.
The backlash of the timing gears is set by the position
of the idler gear axle. If, during an overhaul, a new
idler gear, a new idler gear axle or a new crankcase is
used, the correct position for the idler gear can
change and effect the backlash setting of the gears.
To obtain the position that will give the correct
backlash settings for the idler gear, the position of the
dowel holes may have to change. To do this, the
dowel holes must be reamed to a larger size by 0,38
mm (0.015 in), this will give them a diameter of 8,33
mm (0.328 in). If this operation has been done before,
they may have to be reamed by a further 0,38 mm
(0.015 in) to a finished size of 8,73 mm (0.3437 in).
According to the size of the dowels which are to be
fitted, a selection of these location pins and reamers
will be necessary:
Dowel size 8,33mm (0.32in) oversize
Dowel part number:
Location pin:
Reamer:
Location pin:

OE51709/1
21825 830
21825 833
21825 831

Dowel size 8,73mm (0.343in) oversize


Dowel part number: OE51709/2
Location pin:
21825 831
Reamer:
21825 834
Location pin:
21825 832
To fit a new idler gear to an existent crankcase
Dowel part number: OE51385
Location pin
21825 829
Reamer
21825 835
Continued

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15

To adjust the backlash of the timing gears


If the crankcase is to have its original idler gear and
idler gear axle fitted, they should be fitted with the
original dowels and then the backlash must be
checked. The backlash limits are:

Between the idler gear and the drive gear for the fuel
injection pump (FIP):
0,05 to 0,15 mm (0.002 to 0.006 in).
Between the idler gear and the camshaft gear:
0,05 to 0,15 mm (0.002 to 0.006 in).
Between the idler gear and the crankshaft gear:
0,15 to 0,40 mm (0.006 to 0.010 in).

02

If these clearances cannot be obtained, use the


procedure which follows:
1 The camshaft gear and the crankshaft gear must be
fitted and the FIP drive gear must be fitted, but without
its bolts at this time.
2 Fit the idler gear axle (A1) without the dowels, fit
spring washers to the bolts and tighten the bolts
lightly.
3 Fit the gear and check the backlash at four equally
spaced points on its circumference between the
gears of the camshaft and the crankshaft.
4 Adjust the position of the idler gear axle to achieve
a backlash of 0,05 to 0,15 mm (0.002 to 0.006 in)
between the idler gear and the camshaft gear and
also between the idler gear and the FIP drive gear.
And ensure that the backlash between the idler gear
and the crankshaft gear is between 0,15 and 0,25 mm
(0.006 and 0.010 in).
5 Remove carefully the idler gear, ensure that the
idler gear axle is not disturbed; tighten the bolts of the
idler gear axle to a torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).
Caution: Ensure that the correct tools are used for
the size of dowels to be fitted.
6 Fit the reaming jig, 21825 999, over the idler gear
axle, fit the relevant location pin into one of the dowel
holes (A2) and use the relevant reamer in the other
dowel hole to ream the other hole in the crankcase to
the next relevant size.
7 Fit the relevant locating pin to the dowel hole and
remove the other locating pin. Ream the second
dowel hole with the same reamer.
8 Remove the locating pin and the reaming jig.
Ensure that the dowel holes are clean. Fit new dowels
of the correct size.
9 Use a centre punch to distort the dowel holes
similar to that shown (A3).
10 Fit the idler gear, operation 15-6.

76

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15

Fits and clearances

314

Idler gear (A)


Bore of bush when fitted and machined (A1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51,765 to 51,816 mm (2.038 to 2.040 in)
Axle diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41,2850 to 41,2877 (1.6250 to 1.6255 in)
End-float - new 2000 Series (A2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,010 to 0,254 mm (0.004 to 0.010 in)
End-float - earlier engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,51 to 0,20 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)
Gear train
Backlash - new 2000 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,15 to 0,25 (0.006 to 0.010 in)
Permissible worn limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,38 mm (0.015 in)
Backlash - earlier engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,051 to 0,152 (0.002 to 0.006 in)
Permissible worn dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,20 (0.008 in)
Oil pump drive gear
Backlash - new 2000 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,15 to 0,25 mm (0.006 to 0.010 in)
Permissible worn limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,38 mm (0.015 in)
Backlash - earlier engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,102 to 0,254 mm (0.004 to 0.010 in)
Permissible worn limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,305 mm (0.012 in)

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16
Cylinder block assembly

16

General description
The crankcase is a single unit cast in high grade
nickel-chrome iron and comprises the crank chamber
and the cylinder block. The crank chamber extends
below the crankshaft line to ensure rigidity. Lateral
bolts to the front, centre and rear main bearing caps
provide additional stiffness.
Five transverse webs within the crankcase provide
support for the crankshaft and camshaft. The
crankshaft is carried in seven bearings, secured by
removable caps and fitted with thrust washers at the
centre bearing.
The camshaft has seven journals. On all engines prior
to build line number 79339 the camshaft runs in
bearing surfaces machined in the crankcase parent
metal. Industrial engines, from build line number
79339, have a bush fitted to the front journal with the
six remaining journals running in bearing surfaces
machined in the crankcase parent metal.
The low-mounted camshaft is gear driven from the
front of the crankshaft through an idler gear. It is
drilled through its complete length to form an oil
gallery and runs in bearings or bearing surfaces
machined in the crankcase.
Oil is transferred from the centre bearing to lubricate
the remaining six camshaft journals and certain other
components.
The drive gear is located on the shaft by a single
dowel and retained by five setbolts/capscrews and a
locking plate. For certain early engines, the drive gear
is pressed onto the camshaft and is located by a
woodruff key.
Slip-fit wet-type cylinder liners manufactured from
cast iron and which have been induction hardened
are used. The liner bore is honed and carbide
finished, which results in a matt surface.
Caution: If a used liner is to be refitted to an engine,
it is vital that NO re-honing or de-glazing of the bore is
undertaken.
The top of the liner is flanged and forms a coolant seal
with the counterbore seat in the crankcase top face.
Three grooves are machined into the skirt of the liner
to accept three composition sealing rings.

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16

Crankcase
To fit to and to remove from a
build stand

14 Fit the mounting brackets to the crankcase. Using


a crane and the lifting beam, 21825 821, support the
crankcase, remove the transportation stands and fit
the crankcase to the build stand, 21825 993.

16-1 To remove from a build stand

Special tools:
Strap wrench, 21825 825
Lift adaptor for engine, 21825 821
Build stand - engine, 21825 993
To fit to a build stand
To obtain access to the crankcase and further main
components, the engine must be disconnected from
its driven unit and fitted in a build stand. Instructions
to disconnect the driven unit are to be found in the
publication of the relevant manufacturer. To fit the
engine to a build stand proceed as follows:
1 Disconnect the batteries.
2 Close the valves and disconnect the pipes for the
fuel supply and the fuel return.
3 Drain the coolant system (refer to the Users
Handbook TSD 3215), remove the radiator, operation
21-1, and the relevant coolant pipes and air ducts.
Warning! Remove carefully the radiator filler cap as
the system may be under pressure.

1 Fit the lift adaptor, 21825 821, to the engine, use a


suitable hoist to remove the engine from the build
stand and support it with transportation feet.
2 Fit the oil cooler assembly and its coolant pipes,
secure pipes with hoses and hose clips. Fit the
connecting pipework between the sump, oil cooler
and crankcase and fit the compressor oil feed pipe.
3 Fit the engine stop solenoid, refer to section 23 for
setting details.
4 Fit new oil filter canisters as detailed in section 4 of
the Users Handbook, TSD 3215.
5 Fit the oil by-pass filter together with all the relevant
pipework.
Warning! Fuel and oil pipes MUST be inspected for
cracks or damage before they are fitted to the engine.
6 Fit the fan, operation 21-2.
7 Connect the exhaust pipes.
8 Fit the radiator, operation 21-1.
9 Fit the air cleaner assembly and connect the
ducting to the turbocharger.
10 Set the fuel injection pump timing, operation 17-2.

5 Remove the fan, operation 21-2.

11 Fill the lubrication system to the correct level with


clean engine lubricating oil, see Users Handbook
TSD 3215.

6 Remove the air cleaner assembly and the ducting


to the turbocharger.

12 Fill the coolant system to the correct level, see


Users Handbook TSD 3215.

7 If a compressor is fitted, remove the compressor air


filter and associated pipework. Disconnect the
coolant and oil pipework and remove the compressor.

13 Connect the fuel supply.

4 Drain the lubricating oil from the engine by the


removal of the drain plugs from the base of the sump.

14 Connect the batteries.


15 Eliminate air from the fuel system, operation 20-11.

8 Remove the turbocharger exhaust outlet pipe and,


where applicable, the diffuser. Prior to removal, scribe
alignment marks to ensure correct orientation on
reassembly.
9 Remove the alternator and drive belt.
10 Slacken the belt tensioner and remove the belts
and the tensioner assembly.
11 Use the filter wrench, 21825 825, to remove the oil
filter canisters. Disconnect all relevant pipework and
remove the oil cooler and, if fitted, the oil bypass filter.
12 Remove the turbocharger(s), complete with the oil
supply and drain pipework.
13 Remove the oil filler and the dipstick tube
assemblies.

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To dismantle and to assemble

16-2

Special tools:
Cylinder head lifting bar, 21825 816
Bobbin removal tool, 21825 800
Flywheel lifting bracket, 21825 817
Bearing cap removal tool, 21825 806
Engine build stand, 21825 993
Lapping tool. 21825 902
Piston replacer sleeve, 21825 784
Dial gauge, 21825 782
Torque angle gauge, 21825 924
Sump guide studs, 21825 812

16

Take care not to damage the rocker oil feed studs.


Remove the coolant bobbins, head gaskets, roll pins
and oil feed studs; a special tool, 21825 800, is
available for bobbin removal.

12 Remove the starter motor and solenoid assembly,


operation 23-3.
13 Remove the tappet cover, gasket, baffle plate and
the rocker oil feed pipe. Lift out the cam followers. The
cam followers must be stored in the correct sequence
to ensure that they are fitted to their original positions
when the engine is assembled.
14 Remove the flywheel, operation 22-1, use the
lifting bracket 21825 817. Remove the flywheel
housing, operation 22-3.

Flywheel guide studs, 21825 802

15 Rotate the build stand until the sump is uppermost


and remove the sump.

Spanner, 21825 807

16 Remove the wheelcase, operation 15-1.

To dismantle

17 Remove the oil transfer pipes, the connections


and the suction intake assembly. Remove the oil
pump complete with drive gear and shims.

1 Fit the assembly of the engine to a build stand,


operation 16-1.
It is recommended that small items (for example: low
pressure fuel pipes, clips, brackets, etc.) are labelled,
to indicate their location and purpose, and are stored
with the relevant engine parts.
2 Remove the exhaust manifolds.
3 Remove the main pulley and damper from the
crankshaft hub. Unscrew the crankshaft nut and
remove the hub.
4 Disconnect and remove the low pressure fuel
pipes. Unscrew the fuel filter and remove the filter
header.
5 Remove the coolant rail and the thermostat
housing.
6 Disconnect the coolant pump pipework. Unbolt the
pulley from the coolant pump and remove the pump.
7 Remove the air inlet manifold/charge cooler and
associated pipework.
8 Remove the high-pressure fuel pipes, unions and
shrouds.
9 Remove the rocker covers and fuel injectors.
10 Remove the rocker gear and pushrods. The
pushrods must be stored in the correct sequence to
ensure that they are fitted to their original positions
when the engine is assembled.

Note: Shims are not fitted to the oil pumps of new


2000 series engines.
18 Remove the rear end oil seal housing - not fitted
to new 2000 series engines.
19 Disconnect and remove the stop solenoid.
Remove the fuel injection pump drive gear and
remove the fuel injection pump, together with its
mounting bracket and, if fitted, the adaptor plate. If
fitted, remove the oil distribution block.
20 For engines fitted with an integral camshaft gear,
remove the camshaft as given in operation 16-8. For
all other engines: remove the camshaft gear retaining
bolts, remove the retaining bolts of the idler gear and
withdraw the thrust plate. Remove the idler gear and
camshaft drive gear. Remove the camshaft thrust
plate and carefully withdraw the camshaft. Remove
the idler gear axle.
21 Remove the backplate and rotate the build stand
until the engine is horizontal. Remove the piston
cooling jets, unscrew the big end nuts, remove the
bearing caps and carefully withdraw each of the
pistons.
22 Remove the lateral bolts of the main bearing caps
and extract the bearing caps, if necessary use the
removal tool, 21825 806. Use a crane and suitable
sling to lift out the crankshaft.

11 Fully slacken the tappet adjusting screws before


removing the rocker pedestal bolts. Slacken the
cylinder head bolts and nuts in the reverse order to
the tightening sequence, shown on page 86. Note the
positions for any brackets retained by the cylinder
head bolts. Remove the bolts and nuts and, using the
lifting bar 21825 816, remove the cylinder heads.

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16

To assemble

4 Apply a light coat of oil to the threads of the main


bearing cap bolts. Fit all the bolts but do not tighten at
this stage. Fit the lateral bolts, complete with plain
washers, to the front, centre and rear bearing caps.
Tighten the main bearing cap bolts in the sequence
shown (A). The bolts for the centre, front and rear
bearing caps must be tightened to a torque of 216 Nm
(160 lbf ft). The intermediate bearing cap bolts must
be tightened to a torque of 272 Nm (200 lbf ft). Finally,
tighten the lateral bolts to a torque of 95 Nm (70 lbf ft)
in the alphabetical sequence shown (A).

The crankcase should be cleaned and any suspect


cup plugs renewed. If any blanking plugs have been
removed they should be replaced at this stage. It is
recommended that the engine is rebuilt using the
sequence which follows:
1 Fit the mounting brackets to the crankcase and
secure the crankcase in the engine build stand, 21825
993.
2 Oil the camshaft bearing housing and carefully slide
the camshaft into position.

5 Check that the crankshaft rotates freely and


measure the crankshaft end float, it must be between
0,127 and 0,33 mm (0.005 and 0.013 in).

3 Rotate the build stand until the sump mounting face


is uppermost. Fit and oil the upper halves of the main
bearing shells. Check that the dowels are fitted at the
front, centre and rear bearing cap positions and, using
a suitable sling, carefully lower the crankshaft
assembly into position. Feed the upper halves of the
thrust washers into place at each side of the centre
bearing, with the bronze face of each washer toward
the crank web. Fit the lower half bearing shell and
lower halves of the thrust washers to the centre main
bearing cap and fit the cap. Fit the remaining caps
complete with lower half bearing shells. Ensure that
the correlation numbers on each cap correspond to
the adjacent numbers on the crankcase.

82

Continued

13 15

11

17 19

16 14

10

12

20 18

6 Ensure that the cylinder liners have been cleaned


and inspected as given in operation 16-5 and perform
a liner protrusion check as follows: Carefully fit the
liners, without sealing rings, into their relevant
positions in the crankcase.

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7 Measure and record the liner flange protrusion


above the crankcase top face at four equidistant
points.
Protrusion limits are 0,076 to 0,127 mm (0.003 to
0.005 in) and must also meet the following
requirements (A).
z

Maximum variation of 0,025 mm (0.001 in)


between the highest and lowest points on any one
liner flange.

Maximum variation of 0,025 mm (0.001 in)


between protrusions at adjacent points of
neighbouring liners.

8 Use Engineers blue to check the contact between


the liner flanges and their seating faces. To ensure a
satisfactory seal, the contact area must cover 100%
of the circumference and at least 50% of the width
and any position. If the area of contact does not
conform to these requirements, the flange of the
cylinder liner must be lapped to the shoulder in the
crankcase by the use of a lapping compound. A
lapping tool, 21825 902, is available for this operation.
Continued

0.114
0.127

0.102

0.114

0.089
0.102

0.076

0.089

0.076
0.076

0.076

0.076

0.089
0.076

0.076

0.076

0.114
0.102

0.102

0.127
0.127

0.127

0.089

0.127

0.127

0.114

Acceptable

0.127
0.127

0.076

0.102

0.102
0.076

0.127

0.102

0.127
0.076

0.076

0.114

0.076
0.076

0.076

0.076

0.127

0.127

0.127

0.127

0.076

0.102

Unacceptable

A
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16

When a new liner is fitted and the protrusion check is


satisfactory, etch its position number on the top face
(A2) of the liner adjacent to the large coolant port. Do
NOT mark the flange face (A1).

9 When the protrusion check for the cylinder liners is


satisfactory, remove the liners and ensure that the
seats are clean and have been degreased.
10 Fit the cylinder liners, operation 16-4.
11 Rotate the build stand until the engine is almost
horizontal. Assemble the pistons and connecting rods
as detailed in section 13 and clean the bores of the
cylinder liners. Before each piston assembly is fitted,
turn the crankshaft until the appropriate journal is at
its lowest position. Clean the journal and lubricate
with clean engine oil.

292

12 Fit the upper half of the big end bearing to the


connecting rod, ensuring that the location tang is
correctly fitted. Lubricate the bearing with clean
engine oil. Enter the piston/connecting rod assembly
through the compression sleeve tool, 21825 784, into
the bore with the FRONT marking on the piston
crown to the front of the engine. Guide the rod
carefully onto the crank pin.
13 Fit the lower half of the bearing into the big end
cap ensuring correct location, and lubricate with clean
engine oil. Fit the bearing cap with the correlation
marks aligned, ensure that the big end bolts are
correctly seated and tighten the lightly oiled nuts to a
torque of 217 Nm (160 lbf ft). Repeat the procedure
for the remaining five assemblies.
14 Fit the six piston cooling jets, complete with new
O ring seals, secure each with a bolt and spring
washer.
15 Rotate the build stand until the engine is upright.
Turn the crankshaft until the piston is at TDC (top
dead centre) and measure the clearance of the piston
crown below the crankcase top face. A dial gauge,
21825 782, is obtainable for this purpose. Permissible
clearance is 0,28 to 0,38 mm (0.011 to 0.015 in). If
necessary, it is permissible to machine up to a
maximum of 0,127 mm (0.005 in) from the piston
crown. Perform the check on all pistons. Restore the
FRONT and other markings if they are removed
during machining.
16 Fit the two rocker gear oil feed studs and the
blanking plug, complete with new sealing washer, to
the crankcase top face. Ensure that the feed stud
oilways are clear before fitting.
Continued

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16

17 Fit a new O ring seal to the oil transfer tube and


position the tube in the crankcase front end face. Fit
the two dowels to the front face and position a new
gasket over the dowels. Fit the backplate and retain
with three bolts with plain and spring washers.

18 Fit the fuel injection pump adaptor using new O


rings on the spigot and between the adaptor and
backplate. Fit the rear support bracket to the
crankcase and loosely attach the support block.
19 Lightly smear the camshaft journals and bearing
surfaces with clean engine oil and insert the camshaft
into the crankcase.
20 For engines with the bolt-on type of camshaft gear
proceed as follows:

2
295

Fit the thrust plate and tighten the capscrews to a


torque of 54 Nm (40 lbf ft). Fit the camshaft drive
gear and secure with a dowel and five setbolts
tightened to a torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft). Bend up
the tabs of the locking plate.
For engines with the integral type of camshaft gear
proceed as follows:
Rotate the camshaft gear until the capscrews
which retain the thrust plate can be fitted through
the access holes in the camshaft gear. Tighten the
capscrews evenly to a torque of 54 Nm (40 lbf ft).
21 Fit the fuel injection pump drive gear and secure
with retaining plate and bolts.
22 For new 2000 series engines: Fit the dowel for the
idler gear axle, fit the axle, fit the gear and collar and
retain with the capscrew. For earlier engines: Fit the
idler gear axle locating dowels and retain the axle with
three setscrews. Fit the idler gear. For all engines,
align the timing marks as shown (A).
Note: On early engines, if a new idler gear, a new
idler gear axle or a new crankcase is used, the
position of the idler gear axle must be set correctly to
obtain the correct backlash for the gears. Refer to
operation 15-7.
23 Ensure that the crankcase and cylinder head
flame faces are clean and dry. Fit the coolant bobbins,
complete with new O ring seals, into the top face of
the crankcase. Fit the dowels and the new cylinder
head gaskets, noting that the gaskets are marked
TOP, and lower the cylinder heads into position. A
lifting bar, 21825 816, is obtainable for this purpose.
Continued

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24 Position the lifting eyes. A light application of oil


must be applied under the head of each cylinder head
bolt and also to the threaded area. Do NOT use an
excess amount of oil. Where relevant, fit a washer to
each bolt.
Note: Recent engines use a different type of bolt
which MUST be fitted without a washer.
25 Screw the bolts in by hand to ensure the correct
location. Always place the bolts in position, do NOT
drop them. Lightly oil the threads on the oilway stud
and fit the nut and washer. Later engines have a
special bolt (A22) fitted in place of the stud and nut.
Caution: The special bolt (at position A22) is drilled
and can be identified by the word OIL stamped on its
head or, for later engines, a recess in its head. The
old and new types of drilled bolt are interchangeable.

56

26 Align the heads by temporarily fitting the inlet


manifold without the gasket and, using the sequence
shown (A), tighten the bolts (and nut where relevant)
of each cylinder head as follows:
a Tighten all bolts in the sequence shown (A) to a
torque of 136 Nm (100 lbf ft).
b Tighten all bolts in the sequence shown (A) to a
torque of 204 Nm (150 lbf ft).
c Tighten ONLY the bolts in the black circles, in
the sequence shown (A), by an additional angle
of 40 degrees. A torque angle gauge, 21825
924, is available for this purpose.
Remove the inlet manifold.
Caution: Except for new 2000 series engines, the
bolts and nuts of a newly fitted cylinder head must
be re-tightened to their final torque figures, and the
tappet clearances checked, after the first 500 to
1000 km.
27 Lightly oil the cam followers and fit them to their
relevant positions in the crankcase. Fit the rocker oil
feed pipe and secure with three bolts and shouldered
washers. Fit the gasket, baffle plate, gasket and the
tappet cover and secure the engine breather pipe to
the tappet cover. If the engine is fitted with an oil
distribution block it should now be refitted complete
with plugs and adaptors as appropriate.
Continued

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28 Fit the push rods and assemble the rocker gear.


Refer to section 11 for torque settings. To facilitate
barring over the crankshaft, screw two bolts into its
rear face. Turn the crankshaft anticlockwise, viewed
from the flywheel end, and adjust the tappet
clearances in the sequence which follows. Valves
rocking means inlet valve just opening, exhaust
valve just closing.
Valves rocking on
cylinder number

Adjust tappets on
cylinder number

No.6

No.1

No.3

No.4

No.5

No.2

No.1

No.6

No.4

No.3

No.2

No.5

Adjust the valve tappet clearances, as shown (A), to


these dimensions:
Inlet valves:

0,25 mm (0.010 in).

Exhaust valves:

0,50 mm (0.020 in).

29 Re-check each clearance after tightening the lock


nut of the adjusting screw to 40 Nm (30 lbf ft). Do not
fit the rocker covers permanently until the injection
pump timing procedure has been done. Pour oil over
the rocker and valve assemblies and fit the rocker
covers.

151

30 Fit the air inlet manifold/charge cooler assembly,


use new gaskets at the joint face. Fit the coolant pipe
between the charge cooler and the rear end of the
crankcase.
31 Fit the rear oil seal housing and oil seal to the
crankcase rear face.
Note: A rear oil seal housing is not fitted to new 2000
series engines.
Rotate the build stand until the sump mounting face is
uppermost.
32 Fit the oil pump dowels and, where necessary, the
original shims, and fit the oil pump complete with drive
gear, to the bearing cap.
Check the drive gear backlash at four equidistant
points on the gear. With the engine upright in the
normal running position, the backlash should be 0,10
to 0,25 mm (0.004 to 0.010 in). Adjust if necessary by
varying the shim thickness between the pump and the
bearing cap. Shims are supplied in thicknesses of 0,2
and 0,3 mm (0.008 and 0.012 in).
Continued

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16

33 Fit the suction intake assembly, the oil transfer


pipes and connections to the oil pump and crankcase.
34 Fit the wheelcase complete with a new gasket at
the joint face. Before tightening the securing bolts use
a straight edge to align the base with the sump
mounting face, the base should be within 0,08 mm
(0.003 in) of the sump mounting face.
35 Fit the sump guide studs, 21825 812, apply two
lines of Hylogrip sealant along the joints where the
wheelcase meets the backplate and position the new
gasket. Carefully fit the sump, remove the guide studs
and fit the bolts, complete with plain and spring
washers.

Caution: When tightening bolts on rear pannier


sumps the four bolts immediately to the front of the
pannier (two each side, near the centre of the sump),
must be tightened last to a torque of 28 Nm (21 lbf ft).
36 With the crankcase in the upright position, fit the
flywheel housing as follows:
For new 2000 series engines, the crankshaft rear oil
seal is fitted directly in the flywheel housing and the
joint between the flywheel housing and the crankcase
must be sealed by the use of a special sealant,
Loctite gasket eliminator 518. Ensure that the faces
of the flywheel housing and crankcase are clean and
dry. Apply a continuous bead of Loctite gasket
eliminator 518 to the cylinder block as shown (A1).

300

For earlier engines, which have a separate housing


for the crankshaft rear oil seal, the flywheel housing is
fitted directly onto the crankcase. No gasket is
required and sealant must NOT be applied.
Lift the housing onto the locating dowels and fit the
retaining bolts and washers. Tighten the bolts evenly
to a torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).
37 Fit the flywheel guide studs, 21825 802, to the
crankshaft, position the flywheel using lifting bracket,
21825 817, ensure that it is correctly located over the
dowel and fit the retaining bolts. Remove the guide
studs, fit the remaining bolts and tighten all bolts to a
torque of 122 Nm (90 lbf ft).
38 Fit and secure the starter motor assembly.
39 Fit the rear cone, the crankshaft hub, the front
cone and the crankshaft nut, ensure that the oil seal
lips are properly positioned on the hub. If an adequate
torque wrench and reduction unit is available, tighten
the crankshaft nut to a torque of 949 Nm (700 lbf ft). If
not, tighten the nut hand-tight then a further two flats
using spanner 21825 807. To ensure alignment of the
nut locking plate the nut may be tightened further but
must NOT be slackened.
Continued

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40 Fit the fuel injection pump, operation 20-10.


41 Fit the fuel injectors, operation 20-1. Fit both
rocker covers complete with new gaskets.
42 Blow through high pressure fuel pipes with dry
compressed air before proceeding: Loosely fit the
injector feed pipes. Note that the high pressure pipes
of recent engines are joined and must be fitted as a
set. Ensure that each pipe is aligned correctly, press
the rubber shroud inserts over each pipe, then
position the shrouds over the inserts with steel
backplates where necessary. Do NOT bend the
pipes. Tighten the pipe unions taking care not to strain
or twist the pipes. Finally secure the shrouds with
bolts and spring washers.
43 Assemble the coolant rail to the thermostat
housing, using new O ring seals on all connections.
Fit the thermostat-to-wheelcase coolant pipe then fit
the coolant rail assembly, complete with thermostat,
and secure to the cylinder heads.
44 Fit the fuel filter bracket and fit the low pressure
fuel pipes, check all pipes for cleanliness before
fitting. Strict cleanliness must be observed when
assembling pipes and fittings to the engine. Fit a new
fuel filter canister as described in the Users
Handbook TSD3215.

16

52 Fit the belt tensioner assembly, then the alternator


drive belt and the three main drive belts. Set the belt
tensions as given in section 4 of the Users
Handbook, TSD3215.

53 Apply a light coat of anti-seize compound to the


mounting stud threads and assemble the
turbocharger unit to the exhaust manifold/mounting
duct. Fit the turbocharger diffuser and the exhaust
outlet pipe, realign the marks which were made during
dismantling to ensure correct orientation. Prime the
turbocharger bearings by pouring 0,2 ltr (1/3 pint) of
clean engine lubricating oil into the aperture at the top
of the bearing housing. Check the turbocharger oil
feed and drain pipes for damage and restrictions and
assemble to the engine complete with new gaskets
where necessary. Fit the duct between the
turbocharger and the air inlet manifold, use a new
seal at the V band camp end. Tighten V band
clamps to a torque of 8 Nm (6 lbf ft).
54 Remove the engine from the build stand,
operation 16-1.

45 Position a new coolant pump gasket and fit the


coolant pump, connect the relevant hoses and
connections and fit the alternator adjusting strap
beneath the relevant cover bolt. Fit the coolant pump
drive pulley and tighten the securing bolts to a torque
of 24 Nm (18 lbf ft).
46 Fit the crankshaft damper, locking plate and main
pulley and secure with bolts and spring washers.
Tighten the bolts to a torque of 41 Nm (30 lbf ft).
47 Assemble the exhaust manifold and, using new
gaskets, bolt the assembly to the cylinder heads. Use
the two tie plates between diagonally opposite bolts at
the number 2 and 5 cylinder positions and apply
Rocol J-166 to the bolt threads before fitting.
48 Mount the compressor, complete with drive gear,
on the rear of the backplate, use a new gasket at the
joint face and secure with three bolts, nuts and spring
washers. For engines without compressors the
banking plate should be fitted.
49 Connect the coolant pipework between the
crankcase and the compressor and the compressor
and the base of the thermostat housing. Fit the
compressor air filter and pipework.
50 Fit the oil filler assembly, complete with a new
gasket. Fit the dipstick assembly.
51 Secure the alternator mounting bracket and
alternator to the coolant pump outlet connection, fit
plain and spring washers to each bolt. Attach the
alternator to its adjusting strap but do not tighten. On
new engines the alternator mounting is an integral
part of the coolant pump cover.
Perkins Engines Company Limited

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16

To inspect

16-3

Special tools:
Remover tool for cup plugs, 21825 855
Slide hammer, 21825 849
Replacer kit for cup plugs, 21825 865
Drive handle, 21825 861
Cutting tool, 21825 791
Cutter, 21825 792
Crankcase
Remove all blanking plugs and clean the crankcase
thoroughly giving special attention to oilways. Refit
the coolant plugs to the cylinder block, apply Loctite
225 to the threads and use new sealing washers
where necessary. Remove any suspect core plugs
using the core plug remover, 21825 855, and slide
hammer, 21825 849. To fit new core plugs use the
replacer kit, 21825 865, and drive handle, 21825 861.

303

Test the crankcase for cracks as follows: make,


locally, enough seals to close all of the coolant
apertures and fit them to the crankcase. Immerse the
crankcase in water which has been maintained at
60C (140F) for 20 minutes. Apply air pressure at
207 kN/m (30 lbf/in) and examine for leaks. If there
is a fault in the casting, contact the service
department at Perkins Engines Company Limited
Shrewsbury.
Top face
Eroded bobbin recesses and fretting of the crankcase
top face may be rectified. Details of the relevant
service reclamation schemes may be obtained from
the Service Department at Perkins Engines Company
Limited, Shrewsbury. A range of service undersize
pistons is available for use when the top face of the
crankcase has been machined.
Liner recesses
Check each liner flange seat for fretting or cracks.
A cutting tool (A), 21825 791 and cutter 21825 792,
may be used to restore unsatisfactory seats or to
restore seat depths after the top face of the crankcase
has been machined.
Inspect the lower recesses for erosion and damage
around the sealing areas. Instructions for any
necessary repairs may be obtained from the Service
Department at Perkins Engines Company Limited,
Shrewsbury.

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Cylinder liners
1

To remove and to fit

16-4

Special tools:
Remover/replacer tool, 21825 790
Cylinder liner clamp, 21825 844
To remove
1 Drain cooling and engine lubrication systems.
2 Remove the cylinder head/s, operation 12-4.

141

298

3 Remove the sump, operation 19-3, and remove the


pistons, operation 13-1.
4 Turn the engine to a vertical position with the flame
face uppermost.
5 Extract the cylinder liners using the special tool,
21825 790. Remove and discard the sealing rings.
6 Inspect the cylinder liners, operation 16-5.
Caution: Ensure that the cylinder liners are not
damaged while they are out of the crankcase.
To fit
Before each cylinder liner is fitted, it is recommended
that Loctite Ultra Copper Sealant (Loctite 5920) is
applied to the crankcase (A1) around the seats for the
cylinder liner flanges. Linalube must be applied to
the sealing ring area at the lower end of the cylinder
bore.
Ensure that the cylinder liner seats are clean and
have been degreased.
1 Apply a thin smear of Linalube to the sealing ring
area at the base of each cylinder bore. Ensure a
100% covering of that area. Repeat the procedure for
each cylinder.
2 Apply Loctite 5920 as a bead of 2-3 mm (1/8 in)
diameter (A2). Ensure that the sealant is applied
evenly around the whole circumference. Do NOT
apply too much sealant. Repeat the procedure for
each cylinder.
Warning! Loctite Ultra Copper Sealant starts to
harden after 30 minutes.
3 Apply a light smear of Linalube to the sealing rings
and fit them to the liner as shown (B). Ensure that the
white marks on the sealing rings are on the outside
and face towards the liner flange.
Caution: An excessive quantity of Linalube may
cause hydraulic locking during fitting of the liner.
Continued

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16

4 Liners may be pressed in by hand. If difficulties are


encountered it is advisable to withdraw the liner and
check that the rings are correctly fitted and that an
excessive amount of Linalube has not been applied.
As each cylinder liner is fitted, fit a cylinder liner
clamp, 21825 844, to retain it securely.
Do NOT use mineral oil on the crankcase and sealing
rings if Linalube is not available. Tight liners may be
pressed in using the remover/replacer tool, 21825
790 (A).
5 After the cylinder liners have been fitted, check the
bores (B) for ovality and taper. The maximum
acceptable limit for both taper and ovality is 0,05 mm
(0.002 in). The lower bore dimension should not be
less than 130,14 mm (5.124 in).

296

297

6 Remove the clamps and fit the pistons, operation


13-1.
7 Fit the cylinder heads, operation 12-4.
8 Fit and the sump, operation 19-3. Fill the coolant
and lubrication systems to the correct levels.

To clean and to inspect

16-5

Ensure that the seals have been removed. Soak the


liners in a carbon solvent, such as Ardrox 667 or
Maxan 776. See Warnings and instructions on how to
use these solvents on page 16.
Check for cracks in each cylinder liner by use of the
electro-magnetic method if possible. Inspect the top
flange for fretting and the coolant areas for erosion
and pitting. Special attention should be given to the
area of the sealing ring grooves. Unserviceable
cylinder liners must be renewed.
Silicon carbide liners are fitted and they MUST NOT
BE RE-HONED.
Cylinder liners with a thicker flange are available to
enable correct liner protrusion to be established after
restoration work. These liners are identified by a
groove machined around the top flange. Cylinder
liners with thicker flanges are available in two sizes:
+0,05 mm (+0.002 in) and +0,127 mm (+0.005 in).
When a new liner is fitted, etch its cylinder position
number on the liner top face on satisfactory
completion of the protrusion check given on page 83.

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Cam followers
To remove and to fit

To fit

16

1 Ensure that the joint faces on the cover plate and


crankcase are clean.

16-6 2 Lightly smear the cam followers with clean engine

To remove
1 If a compressor is fitted to the engine, drain the
coolant system to below the level of the coolant inlet
pipe of the compressor.
2 Remove the rocker covers and the rocker
assemblies, operation 12-1 and operation 12-2.
Withdraw the push rods and store them in the correct
sequence to ensure that they can be refitted to their
original positions.
3 Where fitted, disconnect and remove the oil feed
and coolant pipes from the compressor, and remove
the compressor air supply pipe.
4 Slacken the hose clip and remove the breather pipe
from the cam follower cover.

oil and fit them to the correct positions in the


crankcase.
3 Fit the baffle and cover plate, complete with new
joints.
4 Fit the breather pipe to the cover and tighten the
clip.
5 Fit the oil feed pipe, the coolant pipes and the air
supply pipe to the compressor.
6 Fit the push rods to the relevant cam followers. Fit
the rocker assembly, operation 12-2, and adjust the
tappets, operation 12-3.
7 Fit the rocker covers, operation 12-1.
8 If the coolant system was drained, fill to the correct
level with the approved coolant mixture.

5 Remove the cam follower cover and withdraw the


baffle. Discard the joints.
6 Lift out the cam followers. Keep the cam followers
in the correct sequence to ensure that they can be
refitted to their original positions.
Inspect the cam followers for wear and scuffing, and
check each one in its respective bore. If the cam
follower is otherwise serviceable, slight damage may
be removed by the use of a smooth oilstone.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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16

Camshaft
To remove and to fit - bolt-on type

16-7

To remove
1 Remove the cam followers, operation 16-6.
2 Remove the alternator, operation 23-2.
3 Remove the coolant pump, operation 21-5.
4 Remove the crankshaft pulley assembly, operation
14-1 or operation 14-2, and the wheelcase, operation
15-1.

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305

5 Turn the engine until No.1 piston is at TDC with the


relevant mark on the flywheel aligned with the timing
pointer in the flywheel housing. The timing marks on
the camshaft and crankshaft gears should now be
facing the idler gear axle as shown (A), and the mark
on the front end of the crankshaft at the 12 oclock
position.
6 Remove the five bolts from the drive gear and
withdraw the gear.
7 Unscrew and remove the thrust plate.
8 Carefully withdraw the camshaft.
To fit
1 Lightly smear the journals and bearing surfaces
with clean engine oil and carefully insert the camshaft.
2 Ensure that the thrust plate bolts and their
respective holes in the crankcase are clean and free
from grease. Fit the thrust plate. Apply Loctite 242 to
the threads of the bolts, fit the bolts and tighten each
bolt to a torque of 54 Nm (40 lbf ft).
3 Fit and secure the camshaft gear (A3) to the
camshaft with the timing mark aligned with the
corresponding marks on the idler gear (A1). Fit the
locking plate, if one was previously fitted, fit the
retaining bolts, tighten them to a torque of 61 Nm (45
lbf ft) and bend up the tabs on the locking plate.
Check the end float as shown (B). Limits for end float
are 0,152 to 0,405 mm (0.006 to 0.016 in).

7 Fit the wheelcase, operation 15-1.


8 Fit the crankshaft pulley assembly, operation 14-1
or operation 14-2.
9 Fit the coolant pump, operation 21-5.
10 Fit the alternator, operation 23-2.
11 Fit the cam followers, operation 16-6.

4 If the end float exceeds the limits it must be


corrected by fitting a new thrust plate or drive gear.
5 When the end float is correct, check that the gear
retaining screws are tightened to the correct torque
figure, 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).
6 Ensure that the timing marks on the idler gear (A1),
crankshaft gear (A2) and camshaft gear (A3) are
correctly aligned. Check the backlash between the
idler gear and the camshaft gear, and also between
the idler gear and the crankshaft gear. Refer to Fits
and clearances on page 77.

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16

Camshaft
To remove and to fit - integral type

16-8

To remove
1 Remove the cam followers, operation 16-6.
2 Remove the alternator, operation 23-2.
3 Remove the coolant pump, operation 21-5.
4 Remove the crankshaft pulley assembly, operation
14-1 or operation 14-2, and the wheelcase, operation
15-1.

306

5 Remove the idler gear.


6 Rotate the camshaft gear until the capscrews which
retain the thrust plate can be seen through the access
holes in the gear.

7 Remove the thrust plate capscrews.


8 Carefully withdraw the camshaft.
To fit
1 Turn the engine until the number 1 piston is at TDC
with the mark on the end of the crankshaft at the top
position.
2 Lightly smear the camshaft journals and bearing
surfaces with clean engine oil and carefully insert the
camshaft into the crankcase.

2
304

3 Rotate the camshaft gear until the capscrews which


retain the thrust plate can be fitted through the access
holes in the gear. Ensure that the capscrews and their
respective holes in the crankcase are clean and free
from grease. Apply Loctite 242 to the threads of the
capscrews, fit the capscrews and tighten each to a
torque of 54 Nm (40 lbf ft).
4 Check the camshaft end float as shown (A).
Limits for end float are 0,152 to 0,405 mm (0.006 to
0.016 in). If the end float exceeds the limits it must
be corrected by fitting a new thrust plate or drive
gear.
5 Fit the idler gear.
6 Ensure that the timing marks on the idler gear (BI),
the crankshaft gear (B2) and the camshaft gear (B3)
are correctly aligned.
7 Check the backlash between the idler gear and the
camshaft gear, and also between the idler gear and
the crankshaft gear. Refer to Fits and clearances on
page 77.
8 Fit the wheelcase, operation 15-1.
9 Fit the crankshaft pulley assembly, operation 14-1
or operation 14-2.
10 Fit the coolant pump, operation 21-5.
11 Fit the alternator, operation 23-2.
12 Fit the cam followers, operation 16-6.

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16

To inspect

16-9

1 After the camshaft has been removed from the


crankcase, clean thoroughly and check for cracks.
The electro-magnetic method is recommended. If this
method is not available, use the dye penetrant
process.
2 Check the cams and journals for wear or damage.
Small marks can be removed by the use of a smooth
oilstone. Ensure that the shape of each cam is not
affected.
3 Check the thrust plates for wear or damage and
renew them if necessary.
4 Where necessary, check the camshaft bush in the
crankcase for wear or damage and renew if
necessary. New camshaft bushes are a tight fit in the
crankcase.
5 With the camshaft fitted in the crankcase, check the
end float as given in operation 16-7 or operation 16-8.
If the end float exceeds the limits it must be corrected
by fitting a new thrust plate or drive gear.
6 Check the backlash between the idler gear and the
camshaft gear, and also between the idler gear and
the crankshaft gear. Backlash dimensions are given
on page 77.

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16

Fits and clearances

294

Cylinder liners in the cylinder block


Liner flange bore in cylinder block (A2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155,067 to 155,143 mm (6.105 to 6.108 in)
Outside diameter of cylinder liner flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154,788 to 154,838 mm (6.094 to 6.096 in)
Clearance (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,229 to 0,355 mm (0.009 to 0.014 in)
Depth of counterbore in the cylinder block (nominal) (A1) . . . . . . 12,588 to 12,591 mm (0.4956 to 0.4957 in)
Depth of the flange of the cylinder liner (nominal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,675 to 12,700 mm (0.500 to 0.499 in)
Protrusion of the cylinder liner above the flame face of the crankcase . 0,076 to 0,127 mm (0.003 to 0.005 in)
Caution: Cylinder liners must be selected carefully to obtain the correct protrusion dimensions.
Cylinder liners when not fitted to the cylinder block
Bore of cylinder liner (A3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130,175 to 130,2005 mm (5.125 to 5.126 in)
Permissible worn dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130,480 mm (5.137 in)

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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16
1

294

End float of camshaft


Clearance (new). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,152 to 0,40 mm (0.006 to 0.016 in)
Permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,51 mm (0.020 in)
Camshaft bearings
Bore in cylinder block (A6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66,027 to 66,053 mm (2.5995 to 2.6005 in)
Diameter of camshaft journals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65,875 to 65,900 mm (2.5935 to 2.5945 in)
Clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,127 to 0,177 mm (0.005 to 0.007 in)
Permissible worn clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,254 mm (0.010 in)
Shell-type camshaft bearing
Note: A bearing is only fitted to the front position on non-generator set industrial engines.
Bore in cylinder block (A6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,091 to 70,117 mm (2.7595 to 2.7605 in)
Bore of shell-type bearing when installed in crankcase (A7) . . . . 65,9765 to 66,040 mm (2.5975 to 2.6000 in)
Main bearing housing in crankcase
Bore of bearing housing (A5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104,140 to 104,165 mm (4.100 to 4.101 in)
Bearing caps in crankcase
Width in crankcase for bearing cap (A4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168,275 to 168,300 mm (6.625 to 6.626 in)
Width of bearing cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168,283 to 168,295 mm (6.6253 to 6.6258 in)
Fit (new) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0,018 mm (0.0007 in) clearance to 0,020 mm (0.0008 in) interference

98

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17
Engine timing

17

Valve timing
To check

17-1

Caution: This operation requires a high degree of


accuracy to avoid a false reading.
1 Remove the timing pointer cover from the flywheel
housing.
2 Remove the rocker covers and joints.
3 Turn the engine forward (clockwise viewed from the
front) until the valves of No. 6 cylinder are rocking
(i.e., inlet valve just opening and exhaust valve just
closing).
4 Adjust the clearance of the No. 1 cylinder inlet valve
to 0,89 mm (0.035 in).

2
295

5 Continue turning the engine forward until a 0,13 mm


(0.005 in) feeler gauge is just nipped between the
No. 1 inlet valve rocker arm and its valve stem. The
inlet valve opening mark V1 on the flywheel should
now be aligned with the flywheel housing timing
pointer.
6 If satisfactory, return the engine to the No. 6
cylinder valves rocking position. If not, check the
timing gear marks (A).
On completion, proceed as follows:
1 Reset No. 1 cylinder inlet valve clearance to
0,25 mm (0.010 in) and fit the timing pointer cover.
2 Remove the joints from the rocker covers and
clean the corresponding faces of the covers and
cylinder head. Fit new joints to the rocker covers,
ensuring that they are correctly located within the
slots in each cover, and fit the covers. Secure each
cover with the three cap nuts and check that the
joints have not moved. Tighten the cap nuts evenly
to a torque of 11 Nm (8 lbf ft). Do NOT over tighten.

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17

Fuel injection pump timing


To check and to adjust

17-2

1 The injection timing position is stamped on the


engine data plate.

2 Secure the stop lever in the NO FUEL position and


remove the front rocker cover.
3 Turn the engine in the normal direction of rotation
(anti-clockwise viewed on flywheel) until No. 1 inlet
valve closes. Remove the timing pointer cover (A1)
from the side of the flywheel housing.

307

Note: The position of the timing pointer on the


flywheel housing depends on the type and age of the
engine. For new engines the timing pointer is at the 10
oclock position when viewed from the rear of the
engine.
4 Continue turning the engine until the figure on the
flywheel, corresponding to that stamped on the
engine data plate, aligns with the timing pointer in the
flywheel housing aperture.
5 Remove the cap nut from the fuel injection pump
and withdraw the timing pointer location device (B1).
Ensure that the timing pointer (C1) is now visible
through the aperture.
6 Invert the location device and refit it to its original
position with the location slot horizontal. If the timing
is correct the location device (D1) will enter fully.

308

Continued

309

D
100

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17

7 If the location device does not enter fully the timing


is incorrect and the access cover (A1) must be
removed from the front of the engine.
8 Slacken the four gear retaining bolts (B) and turn
the pump camshaft, with a 30 mm spanner, until the
location device enters fully under light pressure.
9 Tighten the gear retaining bolts to a torque of 45 Nm
(33 lbf ft) and withdraw the location device.
10 Turn the engine backwards a minimum of 60
degrees and repeat paragraphs 4, 5 and 6.
11 If timing is still incorrect repeat paragraphs 4 to 9
inclusive.
12 Proceed as follows when the timing is correct.
13 Fit the front access cover plate.
14 Withdraw the location device (C1), invert it and
refit it as shown (C). The pointer location slot MUST
face outwards. Fit the cap nut.
15 Fit the rocker cover, release the engine stop lever
and fit the timing pointer cover plate to the flywheel
housing.

311

C
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312

1
313

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18
Aspiration system

18

General description
The induction system of the engine is supplied with air
under pressure by means of a turbocharger driven by
the energy of the waste exhaust gases. The part
number of the turbocharger can be found on the
turbocharger data plate. Early engines are fitted with
one of these: OE49342, OE51140 or OE51430. New
2000 series engines are fitted with OE52534 or
OE52535. TTAG engines are fitted with two
turbochargers: OE50642 and OE50674.
Turbochargers OE51430 and OE52535 are each
fitted with a waste-gate.
The exhaust manifolds direct the exhaust gases to the
turbine wheel of the turbocharger rotor, causing the
rotor to spin. The turbocharger compressor impeller,
which forms part of the rotor assembly, draws air in
through the air cleaner and delivers it to the induction
manifold, under pressure, to be distributed to each
cylinder as the inlet valves open. A waste-gate, fitted
to certain turbochargers, monitors the boost delivery
pressure in the turbocharger compressor and, once
this reaches a pre-set figure, opens and allows the
excess pressure to escape.
TWG engines are fitted with an air-to-coolant charge
cooler, interposed between the turbocharger and the
induction manifold. This serves to lower the
temperature of the compressed induction charge
before it passes into the engine. The charge cooler is
supplied by coolant from the engine. The coolant
flows through a matrix of tubes within the charge
cooler before recirculating through the engine coolant
system.
All TA, TAG, and TTAG engines are fitted with an airto-air charge cooler, an intercooler. It is mounted at
the front face of the coolant radiator. The
turbocharger compressor directs air through the
intercooler before it passes through large bore
pipework into the induction manifold.

Aspiration system maintenance


The following points should receive particular
attention:
1 Service the air cleaner in accordance with the
Perkins recommendations given in section 4 of the
Users Handbook, TSD3215, or in the equipment
manufacturers manual.
2 At frequent intervals inspect the induction and
exhaust systems for leakage and deterioration of
hose connections. If the systems are disturbed they
must be reassembled carefully to ensure perfect
joints and to prevent cracking of manifolds due to
uneven tightening.
3 During servicing, take special care to prevent dirt
and loose articles from entering the induction and
exhaust systems where they could damage the
compressor or turbine wheels of the turbocharger.
4 The exhaust manifolds are made from a special
alloy to protect the turbocharger turbine wheel from
damage by loosened scale. Manifold components
designed for non-turbocharged engines are not
suitable for use in conjunction with a turbocharger.
5 At frequent intervals check that the turbocharger oil
feed and drain pipes are undamaged. Restriction of
oil flow may result in turbocharger bearing failure.
Check the bore of the drain pipe at oil change
intervals.
6 Use an approved lubricating oil of the correct grade
and specification and maintain the engine lubrication
system in accordance with the Users Handbook,
TSD3215.
7 Make periodic checks to ensure that the exhaust
system is unrestricted (for example: by choked
silencer or damaged exhaust pipe). Overheating and
loss of performance will occur if the exhaust backpressure exceeds 51 mm (2 in) Hg under full load.
8 If investigation of an engine fault involves checking
the turbocharger, remove the trunking and spin the
rotor assembly by hand. Check for freedom to rotate
and listen for noises indicating binding or rubbing. If
necessary, remove the turbocharger for cleaning and
bearing checks, as described later.
Continued

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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18

9 Certain turbochargers are fitted with a waste-gate.


The operation of the waste-gate must be checked at
the intervals specified in the service schedule given in
the Users Handbook, TSD3215.
Caution: If a new turbocharger is fitted or if a
turbocharger has been removed and refitted to an
engine, it must be primed with clean engine oil of the
correct specification before the engine is first started.
Refer to operation 18-1.

104

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Turbocharger

To fit

Description
The turbocharger is a turbine driven compressor
which utilises the energy of the exhaust gases to
increase the mass of the induction charge.
The unit is secured to the exhaust manifold assembly
and consists of a bearing housing which contains the
rotor assembly and bearings and to which is secured
the turbine and compressor housings.
The rotor bearings are of the fully floating sleeve type.
Lateral location of the rotor and control of end float is
achieved by use of a shaft-mounted thrust ring
assembly and a thrust bearing plate. Filtered oil from
the engine is delivered under pressure to the
turbocharger to provide bearing lubrication.

18

1 Clean the exhaust manifold and turbocharger


mating faces, position the turbocharger on the
exhaust manifold and secure with nuts and plain
washers.
2 Fit the oil supply and drain pipes. Tighten the two
bolts which retain the oil inlet flange to a torque of
20 Nm (15 lbf ft). Connect the air duct. Where V
band clamps are used, they should be tightened to
a torque of 8 Nm (6 lbf ft).
3 Prime the turbocharger bearing housing as follows:
Clean the area around the blanking plug fitted to the
inlet flange of the oil supply pipe. Remove the plug
and add 0,2 litres of clean engine oil, of the correct
grade, to the bearing housing. Fit and tighten the
blanking plug.

Drillings in the bearing housing direct oil to the


bearings and the thrust bearing. The rotor assembly
is sealed at each end by split ring type seals.

Caution: The turbocharger/s MUST be primed with


clean engine oil before the engine is first started.

If the turbocharger is correctly used and maintained


the life expectancy between overhauls may be
regarded as equal to that of an engine. In the event of
a turbocharger failure the cause must be found and
rectified before a replacement is fitted. It is also
necessary to check that the failure has not caused, or
may eventually cause, any further internal damage to
the engine.

How to check the waste-gate

Reconditioned turbochargers are available from


Perkins distributors. Service kits, which include all of
the new parts required for turbocharger overhaul, are
also available from Perkins distributors.

To remove and to fit

18-2

1 Apply air pressure up to a maximum of 207 kN/m


(30 lbf/in) and feel for movement of the end of the
control rod. This should be about 1,15 mm (0.045 in).
2 If the rod fails to move, disconnect the rod from its
lever and try to move the lever by hand. If the lever is
stiff, that part of the turbocharger must be dismantled
and cleaned.
3 With the rod still disconnected, test the assembly
again with air pressure upto 207 kN/m (30 lbf/in). If
the rod fails to move, the diaphragm and rod
assembly must be renewed.

18-1

To remove
1 Remove the turbocharger air ducts and the oil feed
and drain pipes. Do NOT damage or bend the pipes.
2 Support the turbocharger, unscrew the four
securing nuts and remove the unit.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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18

Turbochargers: OE49342, OE50642,


OE51140, and OE51430

To dismantle and to assemble

18-3

To dismantle

These turbochargers are very similar in both design


and operation.

Refer to the exploded view (A) for itemised parts.

Whilst OE49342 is illustrated (A), OE51140 and


OE50642 differ from OE49342 in only minor details.
Turbocharger OE51430 is the same as OE51140
except it is fitted with a waste-gate. The operations
which follow apply to these three types of
turbocharger.

1 Use a scriber to mark the relative positions of the


turbine housing (A23), the bearing housing (A19) and
the compressor housing (A1). This will ensure correct
alignment during reassembly.

Oil pressure with the engine on load must be between


2,0 kgf/cm (30 lbf/in) and 4,0 kgf/cm (60 lbf/in).
Under idling conditions pressure should not fall below
0,7 kgf/cm (10 lbf/in).

3 Remove the bolts (A4) and the clamping plates (A2)


and lift off the compressor housing.

2 Clamp the unit on the turbine inlet flange in a vice


in an upright position.

Caution: Compressor wheel blades can be easily


damaged with compressor housing removed.
4 Bend back the tabs on the locking plates (A25) and
remove the bolts (A24) and clamping plates (A26)
from the turbine housing (A23). Lift the core assembly
away from the turbine housing.
Caution: Turbine blades can be easily damaged
with the turbine housing removed.
Continued

12

16

13

14

24

15

18

11

10
5

17

25

26

18

23
22
20

21

17

A
106

19

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5 Use a scriber to mark the relative position of the


compressor impeller (A6) to the turbine shaft (A21).
Hold the turbine wheel in a suitable fixture and
remove the compressor lock nut (A5).

18

8 When fully assembled, check by hand that the rotor


spins freely.
9 The following specific torques must be applied
during assembly:

Note: Left hand thread. Do NOT bend the shaft.

Bolts (A4)

- 8,5 Nm (75 lbf in)

6 Slide the compressor impeller (A6) off the shaft.

Bolts (A24)

- 20,3 Nm (180 lbf in)

Lock nut (A5)

- 14 Nm (124 lbf in)

Screws (A14)

- 4,5 Nm (40 lbf in)

7 Ease out the retaining ring (A7), using a small


screwdriver, and remove the oil seal plate (A8) from
the bearing housing (A19). Remove the O ring seal
(A9) from the bearing housing and push out the oil
slinger (A11) from the oil seal plate.
8 Lift out the oil baffle (A12).

10 Bend over the tabs of the locking plates on the


turbine and compressor housings.

9 Remove the three flat head cap screws (A14) and


withdraw the thrust bearing (A15) and thrust collar
(A16).
10 Remove the shaft assembly (A21) together with
the seal (A22) and remove the heat shield (A20).
11 Remove the outer retaining rings (A17), withdraw
the bearings (A18), and remove the inner retaining
rings (A17).
To assemble
Assembling of the unit is the reversal of the
dismantling procedure after the inspection process
has been completed.
The following points must be observed if a
satisfactory rebuild is to be achieved:
1 Ensure that the parts which have been marked for
alignment purposes are fitted correctly.
2 Bevelled faces of the retaining rings (A17) must be
assembled towards the bearings (A18).
3 Lightly smear all parts with a film of clean engine oil
prior to fitting.
4 Do not force seals (split ring) into bores as they may
fracture and cause binding.
5 Take care not to trap or damage the O ring seal
(A9) when assembling the plate (A8) to the bearing
housing (A19).
6 Mount a dial test indicator gauge at the end of the
shaft and check the end float of the shaft between the
extreme positions.
Total travel should be between 0,10 mm to 0,16 mm
(0.004 to 0.006 in).
7 Mount the dial test indicator gauge on the
compressor impeller boss and check the extreme
radial travel by pushing the impeller towards and
away from, in turn, the dial test indicator.
Total travel should be between 0,46 mm and 0,30 mm
(0.018 to 0.012 in).
Note: Readings outside the acceptable travel limits
in paragraphs 6 or 7 will indicate that a complete
overhaul is necessary or that a service replacement is
required.
Perkins Engines Company Limited

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18

To clean and to inspect

18-4

To clean
1 Use a commercially approved non-caustic cleaning
solution to soak parts until all deposits have been
loosened.
2 Clean all aluminium parts with a bristle type brush
or plastic scraper. Vapour blast may be used except
on the shaft and bearing surfaces.
3 Blow compressed air through all drilled
passageways and ensure that the surfaces adjacent
to the turbine and compressor wheels are clean,
smooth and free from deposits.
To inspect
1 Inspect the shaft bearing journals and the walls of
the seal grooves for wear and excessive scratches.
Minor scratches may be tolerated.
2 Check the turbine and compressor wheels for
cracked or damaged blades but do NOT attempt to
straighten blades.
3 Check the thrust bearing surfaces for wear or
damage. Minor scratches are acceptable. Ensure
that the feed grooves in the thrust bearing are clean.
4 Replace the bearings if excessively scratched or
worn.
5 Replace the bearing housing if the bearing or seal
bores are severely scratched or worn.
6 Have the balance of the rotor assembly checked at
an establishment which has the relevant special
equipment and knowledge.
7 Replace the O ring seal (A9).
8 Check the turbine housing for signs of rubbing,
flaking and overheating. Slight damage is acceptable
but otherwise the housing should be replaced.
9 Check the compressor housing for damage due to
contact with the rotor. Slight damage is acceptable
but otherwise the housing should be replaced.

108

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18

Turbocharger: OE50674

Caution: Turbine blades can be easily damaged


with the turbine housing removed.
6 Locate the turbine wheel in a 29 mm socket

To dismantle and to assemble

18-5 clamped in a vice or a suitable fixture. Use a scriber

To dismantle
1 Use a scriber to mark the relative positions of the
turbine housing (A23), the bearing housing (A12), the
compressor housing and the V band clamp (A2).
This will ensure correct alignment during reassembly.

to mark the relative position of the compressor


impeller (A4) to the turbine shaft (A22). Remove the
compressor wheel lock nut (A3).
Note: Left hand thread. Do NOT bend the shaft.
7 Slide the compressor impeller (A4) from the shaft.

2 Clamp the unit on the turbine inlet flange in a vice


in an upright position.

8 Remove the assembly from the socket and


carefully withdraw the turbine shaft and wheel (A22)
from the bearing housing (A12).

3 Slacken the V band clamp and carefully remove


the compressor housing.

9 Carefully remove the piston ring type seal (A9) from


the shaft.

Caution: Compressor wheel blades can be easily


damaged with the compressor housing removed.

10 Remove the heat shield (A9).

4 Bend back the tabs on the clamping plates (A15).


Remove and discard the bolts (A16) and clamping
plates
5 Check that the bearing housing and turbine
assembly rotates freely in the turbine housing. If not,
tap the turbine housing (A23) lightly with a copper
hammer. Do NOT hit the turbine wheel to aid removal.
Remove the assembly from the turbine housing
(A23).

11 Secure the bearing housing, with the diffuser (A5)


uppermost, in a vice fitted with soft jaws.
12 Remove the four diffuser screws and washers. If
the screws are tight, use a penetrating oil to help
loosen them. Discard the screws. Carefully remove
the diffuser.
13 Remove the oil slinger (A7) from the diffuser.
Remove and discard the piston ring type seal (A6)
from the oil slinger.
Continued

4
3

5
9
12

10

13
18

17

16

15
11

19

20

21

A
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18

14 Remove and discard the oil baffle (A17).


15 Remove the shim (A19).

16 Remove the thrust bearing (A20) and the thrust


collar (A21).

17 Remove and discard the O ring seal (A18).


18 Use circlip pliers to remove the two circlips (A14)
and the journal bearing (A13) from the compressor
side of the assembly. Discard the circlips and the
journal bearing.
19 Turn the bearing housing over. Remove and
discard the two circlips (A11) and the journal bearing
(A10).
To assemble
Before assembly, ensure that the compressor wheel
and the turbine shaft/wheel have both been
individually balanced by an establishment having the
relevant special equipment and knowledge. The two
parts must then be assembled and balanced. During
balancing, the alignment marks on the end of the
shaft and the compressor wheel MUST be aligned.

160

10 Fit a new shim. It must be fitted with the letter T


facing away from the thrust bearing.
11 Fit the oil baffle into the housing.
12 Fit a new piston ring to the oil slinger. Apply a light
coat of engine oil to the slinger and insert it into the oil
seal plate.
13 Lubricate and install the O ring seal.

1 Place the turbine housing on a flat bench with the


turbine end uppermost. Fit the circlip with its bevelled
edge facing upwards.

14 Align the balance marks on the oil slinger with that


on the end of the shaft and fit the diffuser onto the
bearing housing.

Caution: Circlips (A1) must always be fitted with the


bevelled edge facing the journal bearing.

15 Fit four new diffuser bolts and washers. Tighten


the diffuser bolts in a diagonal pattern to a torque of
24,9 Nm (220 lbf in).

2 Lubricate the journal bearing and fit it into the


bearing housing. Fit the second circlip with its
bevelled edge facing the bearing.
3 Turn the turbine housing over and repeat the
procedure with the other journal bearing and circlips.
4 Fit the heat shield.
5 Fit a new piston ring seal to the turbine shaft.
6 Use clean engine oil to lubricate the turbine shaft,
then enter the shaft into the bearing housing. Adjust
the piston ring seal so that the gap is opposite to the
oil drain in the bearing housing.
Caution: Gently press down on the turbine wheel
and rotate it slightly to assist with properly locating the
piston ring seal.
7 Support the assembly in a suitable fixture and use
pliers to pull out the two roll pins by approximately
3mm (0.100 in).
Caution: Do not use excessive force with the pliers
as the roll pins may collapse. if the roll pins collapse
they must be renewed.

Caution: Tighten the bolts to the correct torque twice


to ensure that all four are tightened equally.
16 Align the balance marks and fit the compressor
wheel onto the shaft. Fit the compressor wheel lock
nut (left-hand thread). Ensure that the nut is fitted
with its flat side towards the compressor wheel.
Tighten to a torque of 45,2 Nm (400 lbf in).
17 Secure the turbine housing in a vice or suitable
fixture. Fit the bearing housing assembly to the
turbine housing. Fit four new clamp plates, align the
scribe marks, fit eight new bolts and tighten to a
torque of 45,2 Nm (400 lbf in).
18 Position a dial test indicator so that its plunger is
resting on the end of the shaft. Check the end float of
the shaft between the extreme positions.
Total travel should be between 0,051 mm to 0,125 mm
(0.002 to 0.0049 in).

8 Fit the thrust collar. Ensure that the balance mark


on the thrust collar is aligned with that on the shaft.

19 Mount the dial test indicator gauge with its plunger


resting on the side of the shaft above the compressor
wheel and check the extreme radial travel by pushing
the impeller towards and away from, in turn, the dial
test indicator.

9 Apply a light coat of engine oil to the thrust bearing


and fit it to the bearing housing.

Total travel should be between 0,485 mm and


0,746 mm (0.0191 to 0.0294 in).
Continued

110

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18

Note: Readings beyond the acceptable limits in


paragraphs 18 or 19 will indicate that a complete
overhaul is necessary or that a service replacement is
required.

4 Inspect the journals of the turbine shaft for


excessive scratches and wear. Minor scratches are
acceptable. The minimum diameter of the turbine
shaft journals is 15,961 mm (0.628 in).

20 Loosely fit the V band clamp and fit the


compressor housing.

5 Check the thrust bearing surfaces for wear or


damage. Minor scratches are acceptable. Ensure that
the feed grooves in the thrust bearing are clean.
Replace the bearings if excessively scratched or
worn.

21 Align the scribe marks and tighten the V band


clamp to a torque of 8,5 Nm (75 lbf in) and bend up
the tabs of the lock plate.

18-6

To clean

6 Renew the bearing housing (A12) if the bearing


or seal bores are severely scratched or worn.
Ensure that the tapped holes are clean. The bore of
the bearing housing must not exceed 28,023 mm
(1.103 in).

1 Use a commercially approved non-caustic cleaning


solution to soak parts until all deposits have been
loosened. Bead blasting may be used on the turbine
housing, but only if chemicals do not clean
sufficiently.

7 Check the profile in the turbine housing for damage


caused by possible contact with the rotor. Inspect the
outer and inner walls for cracks or flaking caused by
overheating, also check the mounting flanges for
signs of distortion.

To clean and to inspect

Caution: Do NOT use bead blasting on any other


turbocharger components.
2 Clean all aluminium parts with a bristle type brush
or plastic scraper. Vapour blast may be used except
on the shaft and bearing surfaces.
Caution: Do NOT use a wire brush or metal scraper
on any turbocharger component.
3 Blow compressed air through all drilled
passageways and ensure that the surfaces adjacent
to the turbine and compressor wheels are clean,
smooth and free from deposits.
In the event of carbon build-up, it may be necessary
to carefully blast the piston ring groove area of the
turbine wheel using low-grade shot medium.

8 Check the compressor housing for damage caused


by possible contact with the rotor. Slight damage is
acceptable but otherwise the housing should be
replaced. Check the condition of the V band groove.
9 Inspect the oil slinger (A7). Ensure that the walls
of the seal grooves are not scored or damaged.
Also check for signs of rubbing on the flat surfaces.
The groove width in the oil slinger must not exceed
1,664 mm (0.0665 in).
10 Inspect the seal bore of the diffuser (A5), renew if
scored or damaged.
11 Inspect the heat shield (A9), renew if there are
signs of distortion, rubbing or cracks.

Caution: Shot blasting specific areas for long


periods may effect the balance of the component.
To inspect
Refer to the illustration (A) on page 109.
1 Inspect the shaft bearing journals and the walls of
the seal grooves for wear and excessive scratches.
Minor scratches may be tolerated.
2 Check the turbine and compressor wheels for
cracked or damaged blades but do NOT attempt to
straighten blades.
3 Place the turbine shaft (A22) on a vee block with a
dial test indicator positioned at the opposite end to the
turbine wheel. Rotate the turbine wheel and check the
reading on the dial gauge. The total variation must not
exceed 0,025 mm (0.001 in).
Caution: Do NOT attempt to straighten a distorted
turbine shaft.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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18

Turbochargers: OE52534 and OE52535


To dismantle and to assemble

6 Bend back the tabs on the clamping plates (A25)


and remove the bolts (A24) and clamping plates from
the turbine housing (A26). Lift the bearing housing
assembly away from the turbine housing.

18-7

Caution: Turbine blades can be easily damaged


with the turbine housing removed.

To dismantle

7 Locate the turbine wheel in a 19 mm socket


clamped in a vice or a suitable fixture. Use a scriber
to mark the relative position of the compressor
impeller (7) to the turbine shaft (23). Remove the
compressor wheel lock nut (A6).

1 Use a scriber to mark the relative positions of the


turbine housing (A26), the bearing housing (A18) and
the compressor housing (A3). This will ensure correct
alignment during reassembly.
2 Clamp the unit on the turbine inlet flange in a vice
in an upright position.

Note: Left hand thread. Do NOT bend the shaft.


8 Slide the compressor impeller (A7) from the shaft.

3 Remove, if fitted, the retaining ring (A1) and baffle


plate (A2).

9 Remove the assembly from the socket and


carefully withdraw the turbine shaft and wheel (A23)
from the bearing housing assembly.

4 Remove, if fitted, the two nuts which retain the


cylinder of the waste-gate assembly. Make a note of
the position of the nuts for correct reassembly.

10 Carefully remove the two piston ring type seals


(A22) from the shaft.

5 Remove the eight bolts and the clamping plates


(A5) and lift off the compressor housing. If fitted,
remove the O ring seal (A4).

11 Remove the heat shield (A21).


12 Using circlip pliers, remove the insert retaining
ring (A8).

Caution: Compressor wheel blades can be easily


damaged with the compressor housing removed.

Continued

10

11

12

17

4
3

15

2
6

13

16

14

24
21
20

25

23
22

26

19

A
112

18

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18

13 Use two flat screwdrivers to gently remove the oil


seal plate (A9).
14 Remove the oil slinger (A12) and and remove and
discard its piston ring seal (A11).

15 Remove and discard the O ring seal (A10).


16 Remove the oil baffle (A13).
17 Remove the thrust bearing (A14) and the thrust
collar (A15).
18 Remove and discard the two circlips (A16) and
withdraw the journal bearing (A17).
19 Turn the bearing housing over. Remove and
discard the two circlips (A19) and withdraw the journal
bearing (A20).

160

To assemble

10 Fit the oil baffle into the housing.

Before assembly, ensure that the compressor wheel


and the turbine shaft/wheel have both been
individually balanced by an establishment having the
relevant special equipment and knowledge. The two
parts must then be assembled and balanced. During
balancing, the alignment marks on the end of the
shaft and the compressor wheel MUST be aligned.

11 Fit a new piston ring to the oil slinger and insert it


into the oil seal plate.

1 Place the turbine housing on a flat bench with the


turbine end uppermost. Fit the circlip with its bevelled
edge facing upwards.

13 Use circlip pliers to fit the circlip.

Caution: Circlips (A1) must always be fitted with the


bevelled edge facing the journal bearing.
2 Lubricate the journal bearing and fit it into the
bearing housing. Fit the second circlip with its
bevelled edge facing the bearing.
3 Turn the turbine housing over and repeat the
procedure with the other journal bearing and circlips.
4 Fit the heat shield.
5 Fit new piston ring seals (A22) to the turbine shaft.
Fit them with their gaps 180 degrees apart as shown
in the illustration (A) on page 112.
6 Lubricate the turbine shaft and fit it into the bearing
housing.
Caution: The piston ring seals MUST be fitted with
their gaps 180 degrees apart. Gently press down on
the turbine wheel and rotate it slightly to assist with
properly locating the piston ring seals.
7 Support the assembly in a suitable fixture and fit the
thrust collar. Ensure that the balance mark on the
thrust collar is aligned with that on the shaft.
8 Apply a light coat of engine oil to the thrust bearing
and fit it to the bearing housing.
9 Apply a small amount of clean engine oil to the O
ring seal and fit it into the housing.

12 Fit the oil seal plate into the bearing housing.


Ensure that the balance marks on the oil slinger are
aligned with those on the end of the shaft. Gently tap
the oil seal plate with a soft-faced hammer to seat it
fully.
14 Align the balance marks and fit the compressor
wheel onto the shaft. Fit the compressor wheel lock
nut (left-hand thread). Tighten to a torque of 17 Nm
(150 lbf in).
15 Secure the turbine housing in a vice or suitable
fixture. Fit the bearing housing assembly to the
turbine housing. Fit the three clamp plates, align
the scribe marks and tighten the six bolts to a
torque of 20 Nm (180 lbf in).
16 Position a dial test indicator so that its plunger is
resting on the end of the shaft. Check the end float of
the shaft between the extreme positions.
Total travel should be between 0,038 mm to 0,093 mm
(0.0015 to 0.0037 in).
17 Mount the dial test indicator gauge with its plunger
resting on the side of the shaft above the compressor
wheel and check the extreme radial travel by pushing
the impeller towards and away from, in turn, the dial
test indicator.
Total travel should be between 0,394 mm and
0,635 mm (0.0155 to 0.0250 in).
Note: Readings outside the acceptable travel limits
in paragraphs 16 or 17 will indicate that a complete
overhaul is necessary or that a service replacement is
required.
18 If fitted, install the O ring seal.
Continued

Perkins Engines Company Limited

113

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18

19 Fit the compressor housing and align the scribe


marks. Take care not to damage the compressor
wheel. Fit the two clamp plates and secure with eight
bolts and locking washers, where relevant, fit the
cylinder of the waste-gate assembly. Tighten the bolts
to a torque of 8.5 Nm (75 lbf in).
20 When fully assembled, check by hand that the
rotor spins freely.
21 Bend over the tabs of the locking plates on the
turbine and compressor housings.
22 Where necessary, fit the inlet baffle and its
retaining ring to the compressor housing.

To clean and to inspect

7 Check the compressor housing for damage caused


by possible contact with the rotor. Slight damage is
acceptable but otherwise the housing should be
replaced. Check the condition of the V band groove.
8 Inspect the oil slinger (A12). Ensure that the walls
of the seal grooves are not scored or damaged. Also
check for signs of rubbing on the flat surfaces.
9 Inspect the bore of the oil seal plate (A9), renew if
scored or damaged.
10 Inspect the heat shield (A21), renew if there are
signs of distortion, rubbing or cracks.

18-8

To clean
1 Use a commercially approved non-caustic cleaning
solution to soak parts until all deposits have been
loosened. Bead blasting may be used on the turbine
housing, but only if chemicals do not clean
sufficiently.
Caution: Do NOT use bead blasting on any other
turbocharger components.
2 Clean all aluminium parts with a bristle type brush
or plastic scraper. Vapour blast may be used except
on the shaft and bearing surfaces.
Caution: Do NOT use a wire brush or metal scraper
on any turbocharger component.
3 Blow compressed air through all drilled
passageways and ensure that the surfaces adjacent
to the turbine and compressor wheels are clean,
smooth and free from deposits.
To inspect
1 Inspect the shaft bearing journals and the walls of
the seal grooves for wear and excessive scratches.
Minor scratches may be tolerated.
2 Check the turbine and compressor wheels for
cracked or damaged blades but do NOT attempt to
straighten blades.
3 Check the thrust bearing surfaces for wear or
damage. Minor scratches are acceptable. Ensure that
the feed grooves in the thrust bearing are clean.
4 Replace the bearings if excessively scratched or
worn.
5 Renew the bearing housing if the bearing or seal
bores are severely scratched or worn. Ensure that the
tapped holes are clean.
6 Check the profile in the turbine housing for damage
caused by possible contact with the rotor. Inspect the
outer and inner walls for cracks or flaking caused by
overheating, also check the mounting flanges for
signs of distortion.

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Inlet manifold
To remove and to fit

Exhaust manifold
18-9 To remove and to fit

18
18-10

Note: References to coolant drain and refill, and to


removal of the coolant pipes, ONLY apply when an
engine is fitted with an air-to-coolant charge cooler.

To remove

To remove
1 Drain the engine coolant.

2 Disconnect the air intake pipe from the


turbocharger and remove it from the engine.

2 Disconnect and remove the coolant pipes from both


ends of the charge cooler casing.

3 Disconnect the oil feed and drain pipes from the


turbocharger.

3 Remove the bolts securing the air intake pipe to the


manifold. Discard the gasket.

4 Remove the bolts and clamps securing the


manifold to the cylinder heads, and withdraw the
assembly. Make a note of the position of the clamps
and bolts to assist when refitting.

4 Where necessary, remove the compressor air


intake filter.
5 Remove the bolts and washers which secure the
manifold to the cylinder heads. Remove the manifold
and discard the gaskets.
To fit
1 Renew all gaskets and ensure that all joint faces
are clean and undamaged.
2 Fit and secure the manifold to the cylinder heads
with the relevant bolts and washers. Tighten the bolts
evenly.

1 Remove the boost control pipe from between the


fuel injection pump and the air intake pipe.

5 If necessary, separate the turbocharger from the


manifold.
To fit
1 Always use new gaskets and ensure that all joint
faces are clean.
2 Fit and secure the manifold to the cylinder heads
with the relevant bolts, washers and plates.
3 Tighten the bolts evenly to a torque of 45 Nm
(33 lbf ft).

3 Fit the air intake pipe to the manifold, renew the


gasket and tighten the bolts securely.

4 Fit the turbocharger to the manifold if it was


separated on removal.

4 If relevant, fit the compressor air intake filter.

5 Fit the air intake pipe.

5 Fit the coolant pipes to the charge cooler casing.

6 Fit the boost control pipe.

6 Refill the coolant system with the recommended


coolant mixture.

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19
Lubrication system

19

General description
The engine has a wet sump type system. One of two
types of sump is fitted: a cast aluminium type or, for
recent engines, a version made from a composite
material. The capacity of the aluminium sump is 25
litres (5.5 UK gallons) to the maximum mark on the
dipstick and 18 litres (4 UK gallons) to the minimum
mark. The capacity of the composite sump is 41 litres
(9 UK gallons) to the maximum mark on the dipstick
and 34 litres (7.5 UK gallons) to the minimum mark.
The drain plug fitted to the sump depends on the type
of engine.
Continued

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19

The oil is circulated in the system at a pressure of 310


to 480 kN/m (45 to 70 lbf/in). Pressure is controlled
by a relief valve assembly (A3) contained in the body
of the oil pump (A2). The oil pump is mounted on the
front main bearing cap and is driven by a large spur
gear on the front of the crankshaft.

Key to illustration (A)

Oil is drawn by the oil pump through a strainer (A1),


and is delivered, under pressure, to the oil cooler
(A4), the base of which forms the oil filter header
bracket.

5 Parallel-flow main filters

After being cooled by the engine coolant, the oil


passes through the two canister type filters (A5) which
incorporate filter by-pass valves.
The filtered oil is then directed into the transfer pipe
which returns the oil to the main oil gallery which is
machined in the crankcase.
Drillings in the crankcase provide lubrication for the
camshaft and crankshaft bearings. The crankshaft
shown (A) is of the early type which included an oil
reservoir within each crankpin. The crankshafts of
engines built after July 1995 have a new arrangement
of oil passageways which removes the need for oil
reservoirs.

1 Suction filter
2 Pressure pump
3 Oil pressure relief valve
4 Oil cooler
6 Piston cooling jets
7 Supply to turbocharger
8 Supply to injection pump (early engines)
9 Idler gear axle

High pressure system


Restricted flow system
Suction spill and splash lubrication

A
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Two oilway studs in the top face of the crankcase


allow the passage of oil for lubrication of the rocker
gear, push rods and tappets.

19

Individual drillings from the main gallery supply oil,


under pressure, to the piston cooling jets. The jets,
fitted with an O ring type seal, are fitted to the
underside of the main oil gallery. Oil flow from the jets
is continuous when the engine is running and is
directed at the inside of the piston.
The idler gear axle and bearing are supplied with oil
under pressure from the main gallery, with the gear
train being splash lubricated.
Oil to the fuel injection pump passes through drillings
in the mounting plate and backplate and returns to the
sump through a drain hole at the front of the pump.
For recent engines, lubricating oil is supplied to the
fuel injection pump by an external flexible pipe
connected to the main oil gallery of the crankcase.
Oil is delivered to the turbocharger bearings through
a steel pipe from the engine system and returns to the
sump through a flexible drain pipe.
Certain engines are fitted with an oil by-pass filter.
The by-pass filter uses centrifugal force to remove
particles from the oil. After the oil has passed through
the filter it is returned to the sump. The by-pass filter
is fitted in addition to the main oil filter canisters NOT
instead of them.

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19

Lubricating oil filter


Two canister type filters are fitted to a header which is
part of the oil cooler. Each canister incorporates a
filter by-pass valve which allows a continuous flow of
oil should the element become blocked.

To renew the canister

19-1

Special tools:
Strap wrench, 21825 825
1 Put a tray under the canisters and use a strap
wrench, 21825 825, to remove each canister (A1).
2 Check that the sealing rings are correctly fitted to
the new canisters and clean the contact faces of the
filter head.
3 Fill the two new canisters with new engine
lubricating oil of the correct grade and lubricate the
top of each canister seal with the same oil.
1

4 To install the new canisters use this procedure:


Tighten the canisters, on their adaptors, until the
sealing rings are in contact with the face of the filter
head, then turn the canisters a further 11/4 turns, by
hand. Do NOT overtighten.

120

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19

By-pass filter/separator
1

This filter is only fitted to certain engines. It is used in


conjunction with the main lubricating oil filters. It is
NOT an alternative. The filter must be serviced at the
intervals specified for engine oil and main filter
changes.

To renew the canisters

19-2
3

1 Clean the area around the by-pass filter. Remove


the filter bowl (A2), remove and discard the rotor (A3).
2 Remove the seal (A4) from the filter bowl and clean
all the components, especially the recess for the seal
in the filter bowl and the contact face for the seal on
the housing.

3 Fit a new seal to the recess in the filter bowl and


lubricate the face of the seal with clean engine
lubricating oil.
4 Fit a new rotor to the spindle and ensure that it can
rotate freely. Fit the filter bowl and tighten the nut (A1)
to a torque of 20 Nm (15 lbf ft).
5 When the engine is operated, check for leakage
from the by-pass filter.

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19

Sump
To remove and to fit

19-3

To remove
1 Drain the engine lubricating oil into a suitable clean
container. Refit the sump drain plug, refer to page 123
for the correct torque figure for the sump drain plug.
2 If fitted, remove the sump noise shield.
3 Disconnect the oil filler tube and the dipstick
assembly from the sump. This is not applicable to new
2000 series engines.

167

4 Remove the oil feed pipe and elbow connection


from between the sump and the crankcase. This is not
applicable to new 2000 series engines.
5 Remove the sump bolts and, where necessary, the
brackets and spacers, and remove the sump.
6 Discard all gaskets and O rings.
To fit
1 Clean all joint faces. Renew all gaskets and O
rings.
2 Fit a new sump gasket to the crankcase face. For
new 2000 series engines, fit a new flexible seal to the
sump. Ensure that the seal is fitted correctly. When
seen in section, the long part of the seal (A1) should
be inserted into the groove in the sump.
3 Carefully place the sump in position, taking care not
to disturb the gasket. If necessary use guide studs.
4 Fit the relevant brackets and spacers. Fit the
retaining bolts and tighten evenly to a torque of 41 Nm
(30 lbf ft). If relevant, fit the sump noise shield.
5 Fit the lubricating oil feed pipe and elbow
connection between the oil cooler and the crankcase;
use new O ring seals. This is not applicable to new
2000 series engines.
6 Fit the oil filler tube, complete with a new gasket,
and fit the dipstick assembly. This is not applicable to
new 2000 series engines.
7 Replenish the sump to the correct level with the
correct grade of engine lubricating oil.

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19

Sump drain plugs


The sump plug fitted will be one of five different types.
These are given below, together with the correct
torque figures to be used.
Caution: A thread insert is fitted to certain sumps.
Inspect the thread to find which type is fitted to your
engine.
New 2000 series engines (A): This is a brass socket
plug with a 3/4 inch BSP thread. It fits into an insert in
the composite sump. The plug should be tightened to
a torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft). A special tool, 27610
006, is obtainable for removal and fitting of the plug.

16

Sump with a thread insert (B): This plug has a /8


UNS thread. Use a spanner - size 11/8 AF - to tighten
the drain plug (B1) to a torque of 115 Nm (85 lbf ft).
Sump without a thread insert (C): This plug has a
/8 BSP thread. Use a spanner - size 13/16 AF -to
tighten the drain plug (C1) to a torque of 47,5 Nm
(35 lbf ft). Retain the drain plug with locking wire.

Sump without a thread insert (D): This plug has a 3/4


BSP thread. Use a spanner - size 15/16 AF -to tighten
the drain plug (D1) to a torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).
Sump without a thread insert (E): Use a spanner size 15/16 AF - to tighten the drain plug (E1) to a torque
of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).

17

Caution: If the sump plug is overtightened the thread


in the sump may been damaged. It is permissible to
repair the thread with a 5/8 inch BSP Helicoil insert.

A
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1
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19

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19

Lubricating oil pump


To remove and to fit

19-4

To remove

2 The gear backlash must be between 0,010 and


0,025 mm (0.004 and 0.010 in) and is adjusted by
varying the shims (A2) fitted between the pump and
the bearing cap.
3 Fit the oil strainer and pipework; use new O rings.
4 Fit the sump, operation 19-3, and replenish with oil.

1 Drain the engine oil and remove the sump,


operation 19-3.
2 Remove the oil strainer and pipework.
3 Unscrew the bolts securing the pump to the main
bearing cap and remove the unit.
4 Retain any shims fitted between the pump and the
bearing cap.
To fit
1 Fit the pump to the bearing cap, using the original
shims (A2) where relevant. Ensure that the pump is
correctly located on the dowels (A1) and tighten the
retaining bolts.
Note: New 2000 series engines do not have shims
fitted when new but, if the oil pump or drive gear has
been renewed, it may be necessary to fit shims to
obtain the correct backlash for the drive gear.

A
124

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To dismantle and to assemble

19

19-5

Special tools:
Puller, 21825 837
Bolts, 21825 838
2

To dismantle
1 Withdraw the drive gear (A1) using puller, 21825
837 (A2), with bolts (2 off), 21825 838.
2 Unscrew and remove the pump casing bolts and
dismantle the unit.
To assemble

299

1 Lightly oil all the moving parts whilst ensuring the


casing joint faces remain dry and clean.
2 Jointing compound must NOT be used on these
faces during assembly.
3 Assemble the pump in the sequence illustrated on
page 124 (A). Drive gear end float limits are 0,130 to
0,165 mm (0.005 to 0.0065 in).
4 Before tightening the casing bolts, check using a
straight edge, that the pump mounting faces are
aligned with each other.
5 Heat the drive gear to 150C (302F) and press it
on until flush with the end of the shaft.
6 Allow to cool, fit the puller, 21825 837, and tighten
the centre bolt to a torque of 20 Nm (15 lbf ft) against
the end of the shaft.
7 Remove the puller and check that the gear has
remained flush with the end of the shaft.
8 If movement is evident the shaft and gear must be
checked for wear and renewed as necessary.

To inspect

19-6

To inspect
1 Clean all components and inspect the gears,
casings, and bearings for signs of wear or damage.
2 Carefully stone any small burrs and polish out any
slight scoring.
3 If possible, crack test all gears.

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19

Oil pressure relief valve


1

To dismantle and to assemble

19-7
2

The valve assembly is an integral part of the oil pump.


It consists of a spring loaded plunger (A1) directly
connected to the oil pump outlet, and retained by a
cap nut (A2).
To dismantle
1 Unscrew the cap nut and withdraw the spring and
plunger.
To assemble

3
315

1 Lightly oil the spring and plunger before sliding into


position.
2 Fit a new washer (A3) under the cap nut and tighten
securely.

To inspect

19-8

1 Examine the plunger and the bore in the casing for


wear or scoring.
2 Check that the plunger is a close slide fit within the
bore.
3 Slight burrs may be stoned away, but if the wear is
excessive the parts must be renewed.
4 Inspect the spring for wear and distortion and check
that it conforms to the following dimensions:
Free length: 80,77 mm (3.18 in).
Fitted length: 65,50 mm (2.58 in).
5 Renew the spring if there is any doubt regarding its
serviceability.

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20
Fuel system

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20

General description
A mechanically driven fuel feed pump draws fuel from
the supply tanks and delivers it, via the main filters, to
the injection pump gallery. The gallery pressure is
maintained at a constant pressure by a low-pressure
relief valve which is contained in the bolt which secures
the spill pipe banjo to the fuel injection pump gallery.
Fuel enters the pump elements from the gallery, and
is delivered at high pressure to the six spring type
injectors, which are set to operate at 2408 bar
(2378 atmospheres).
Excess fuel and spill from the injection pump, together
with spill from the fuel injectors, is returned to the
supply tank.

Overhaul instructions

Key to schematic diagram (A)


High pressure fuel
Low pressure fuel
Spill return to tank
Lubricating oil
1 Priming plunger
2 Fuel feed pump
3 Fuel filter canister
4 Relief valve
5 Fuel injector
6 Spill return to supply tank
7 Lubricating oil

Scrupulous cleanliness and careful handling of the


components must be observed at all times when
servicing items in the fuel system.
Thoroughly clean each component and its
surrounding area before dismantling, and fit sealing
caps or plugs to all unions immediately following any
disconnections.

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20

Fuel injectors
3

Fuel injector fault


A fuel injector fault can cause an engine misfire.
To find which injector is defective, operate the engine
at a fast idle speed. Loosen and tighten the union nut
of each of the high pressure fuel pipes at the fuel
injection pump. When the union nut of the defective
injector pipe is loosened, it has little or no effect on the
engine speed.

Warnings!
Ensure that the fuel does not spray onto your skin.

z
z

Ensure that the fan guards are fitted.

To remove and to fit

20-1

Special tools:
Removal tool, 21825 914

To remove
1 Clean the area around the fuel injector and around
its connections.
2 Disconnect and remove the leak-off pipe assembly
from the fuel injectors.

179

3 Disconnect and remove the relevant high pressure


fuel pipe. For new 2000 series engines, remove the
complete assembly of high pressure fuel pipes. Do
NOT bend the pipes.
Caution: Ensure that dirt does not enter the fuel
injector.
4 Remove the nuts (bolts for early engines) and the
clamp which retains the relevant fuel injector and
withdraw the fuel injector. Fit plastic protection caps to
the open apertures on the fuel injector to protect it
from dirt. Remove and discard the copper sealing
washer and the rubber seal, and temporarily seal the
top of the fuel injector sleeve to prevent the entry of
contamination.
5 To remove a tight fuel injector, use the removal tool,
21825 914. Place the cylindrical portion of the tool
(A1) over the relevant fuel injector and unscrew the
nut (A2). Rotate the central part of the tool (A3) until
the thread fully engages with the thread on the
injector. Turn the nut (A2) with a suitable spanner; this
action will lift the fuel injector from its sleeve without
damage to the sleeve. Other, harsher methods, may
damage the sleeve or the cylinder head.

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20
To fit

1 Ensure that the fuel injector sleeve is clean and is


free from carbon deposits.
2 Fit a new rubber seal (A1) onto the body of the fuel
injector and a new copper sealing washer (A2) to the
nozzle. Fit the aluminium distance piece above the
rubber seal.
3 Apply evenly anti-seize compound (Morris K72,
Copaslip or equivalent) to the body of the fuel
injector between the arrows (B1). Do NOT allow the
anti-seize compound to contaminate the copper
washer or the nozzle of the fuel injector (B2).

Caution: Ensure that dirt does not enter the fuel


injector.
4 If fitted, remove the plastic protection caps from the
fuel injector. Fit the fuel injector into the fuel injector
sleeve. Apply an even layer of anti-seize compound of
1 mm thickness to the threads of the retaining studs.
Secure the fuel injector with the clamp and nuts.
Tighten the nuts evenly to a torque of 11 Nm (8 lbf ft).
If the injector studs have been removed these should
be refitted and tightened to a torque of 11 Nm (8 lbf ft).
5 Fit the set of the high pressure fuel pipes. Ensure
that there is no tension on the connections and that
the connections do not turn when the nuts are
tightened. Tighten the fuel injector pipe nuts to a
torque of 25 Nm (18.5 lbf ft). Do NOT overtighten and
do NOT bend the pipes.

125

6 Fit and tighten all clamps which have been


removed.
7 Fit the leak-off pipe, complete with new washers,
and eliminate air from the fuel system, operation
20-11.
8 Run the engine and check for leakage.

B
130

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To dismantle and to assemble

20

20-2

To dismantle
1 Lightly grip the injector body in a vice and unscrew
the nozzle cap nut.

2 Withdraw the nozzle assembly, transfer block


spring cap, valve spring and adjusting shims.
3 Keep all the components from each injector
together in individual trays.
Caution: Each needle valve is matched to its
individual body and must not be used with any other
body.

To assemble

1 Lightly secure the injector body (A1) in a vice.

2 Insert the adjusting shims (A2), valve spring (A3)


and spring seat (A4). Locate the transfer block (A5)
around the spring seat.

4
6

3 Immerse the valve (A6) and nozzle (A7) in clean


test oil and slide the valve fully home. Locate the
assembly on the transfer block and fit the nozzle
cap nut (A8). Tighten the nut to a torque of 45 Nm
(34 lbf ft).

To clean and to inspect

20-3

153

To clean
If the facilities are available, the injectors should be
cleaned ultrasonically. Alternatively, proceed as
follows:
1 Wash the components of each injector in paraffin or
fuel oil and dry with a jet of dry compressed air.
2 Soak the nozzle in a carbon solvent and remove
any remaining carbon using the relevant cleaning kit,
together with a cleaning wire of the correct size. Wires
are not included in the kit and must be purchased
separately.
3 It is important that the correct size of wire is used to
clean the spray holes. Fit the wire into the holder with
a maximum protrusion of 1,5 mm (0.0652 in), this will
minimise the risk of the wire breaking in the nozzle
spray holes.
4 When the spray holes are cleared, re-soak each
nozzle in carbon solvent, rinse in clean water and dry
with a jet of dry compressed air. Dip in clean test oil.
Continued

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20

5 Blow through in reverse flow direction to remove


any remaining loose particles.
Before purchasing cleaning kits, check the size of the
nozzle holes. The number of holes and hole size
varies depending on the age and type of engine.
To inspect
1 Use a magnifying glass to inspect each valve and
nozzle for damaged or worn seats and spray holes. If
the valve face or nozzle is discoloured, due to
overheating, both components must be renewed.
2 Dip the needle valve in clean test oil and insert it
fully into the nozzle bore, held in a near vertical
position.
3 Withdraw the valve by approximately one third of its
travel. When released the valve should slide onto its
seat under its own weight.
4 Inspect the pressure faces between the injector
body, transfer block and nozzle for signs of scratches
or damage which could allow leakage under pressure.
5 Check the shims for damage and inspect the
springs for distortion.

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To set and to test

20

20-4

Warning! Fuel injectors should only be serviced by


personnel who have had the correct training and are
aware of the dangers associated with high pressure
fuel sprays.

A suitable test rig, such as a Testmaster or Poptest


MK3, is required for the testing of fuel injectors. The
test rig container must be filled with clean test oil
which conforms to the ISO standard 4113.

Warning! When testing a fuel injector, the nozzle


must be turned away from the operator, as the spray
has sufficient force to penetrate human skin.

1 Slacken the vent screw and operate the hand pump


until bubble-free test oil emerges. Tighten the screw
and continue pumping until bubble-free oil flows from
the discharge connection.

5
4
6

2 Connect the discharge connection to the injector


inlet and tighten securely. Close the pressure gauge
valve to prevent damage to the gauge and operate
the hand lever vigorously to expel air from the fuel
injector.

Opening pressure test


Open the valve of the pressure gauge a quarter turn,
operate the lever SLOWLY, and note the pressure to
which the gauge needle flicks indicating the nozzle
valve opening. Opening pressure should read a
minimum of 240 bar (237 atmospheres).

153

If the pressure reading is incorrect the fuel injector


must be dismantled and adjusted by changing the
shims. Add shims to increase pressure; remove
shims to reduce pressure.
Leakage test
When the correct setting is obtained, dry the nozzle
tip and pump up the pressure slowly until the needle
indicates a reading of 20 bar (20.3 atmospheres)
below the opening pressure previously recorded.
Maintain this pressure for 10 seconds and then
inspect the nozzle tip.
Slight dampness is acceptable but there should be no
droplets of oil before the 10 seconds has elapsed. Do
NOT attempt to rectify any leakage by overtightening
the nozzle.
If droplets are forming within the 10 second period,
dismantle the nozzle holder assembly, clean the
parts, reassemble and perform the test again. If the
fuel injector fails the test again, the nozzle must be
renewed.

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20

Back leakage test


Pump up the pressure slowly until the gauge needle
indicates a reading of 230 bar (226 atmospheres).
Release the hand lever and note the time taken for
the pressure to drop naturally to 150 bar (150
atmospheres).
If the time taken is less than 6 seconds the nozzle
assembly must be rejected. Continue monitoring the
gauge and check the total time taken for it to register
100 bar (99 atmospheres). This time must not be less
than 45 seconds.
Prior to rejecting a nozzle assembly it is advisable to
ensure that pressure loss has not been caused by dirt
or carbon on the pressure faces. In the event of a high
number of rejections it is advisable to check that the
fault does not lie within the setting outfit.
Chatter and atomisation test
To perform the chatter and atomisation tests, switch
off the pressure gauge of the nozzle tester by closing
the shut-off valve. This will prevent damage to the
gauge.
When the hand lever is operated rapidly, the nozzle
must be heard to chatter and provide a well-atomised
spray of fuel.
Note: Slow movements of the hand lever will NOT
produce the same results.
If a nozzle assembly, which has been ultrasonically
cleaned, does not chatter, it MUST be renewed.
To perform the atomisation check, operate the hand
lever at approximately two strokes per second. Check
that each of the nozzle holes emits an equal and fully
atomised spray of oil. A spray pattern which is even
but not fully atomised is NOT acceptable.
The spray pattern produced by a used nozzle may
differ from the ideal pattern obtained from a new
nozzle, though the engine running behaviour may not
necessarily be impaired.
Note: Carbon build up within the injector nozzle will
cause low power from the engine. Ideally a flow check
should be performed if the necessary equipment is
available.
On completion of tests, fit protective caps or plugs
over the nozzle and open connections. Store the
injectors in a dry atmosphere until they are required.

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Fuel lift pumps

To dismantle and to assemble

One of two types of lift pump is used on the 2000


series range of engines, either single acting or double
acting types.

To dismantle

20

20-6

1 Withdraw the sliding tappet (A1).


2 Unscrew and remove the hand primer (A4).

Single acting type


To remove and to fit

20-5

3 Carefully unscrew the roller-tappet shell (A2) and


extract the plunger (A3), non-return valve (A6), spring
(A7), spacer ring (A5) and spring seat (A8), noting the
sequence of withdrawal. The priming plunger of early
models differs slightly from that shown (A).

To remove

4 Clean all parts and carefully inspect for wear or


damage.

1 Clean the area immediately surrounding the feed


pump.

To assemble

2 Disconnect the fuel pipes and remove the securing


nuts and washers.

1 Apply a light coat of clean engine oil to all parts.

3 Remove the lift pump from its mounting.

3 Firmly secure the roller-tappet shell and the hand


primer.

To fit
1 Refitting is a reversal of the removal procedure; use
a new gasket.

2 Assemble the pump in the sequence as shown (A).

4 Sealing rings and any parts which are worn or


damaged must be renewed.
5 Test the pump as given in operation 20-9.

1
2
3

8
7
6
5

A
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Double acting type

To dismantle and to assemble

20-8

To dismantle

To remove and to fit

20-7 1 Remove the priming pump, plugs, valve springs,

To remove
1 Before removing the lift pump from its mounting,
slacken each of the banking plugs over the three
valves, the priming pump body (A1) and the large cap
plug over the pump plunger (A2). Disconnect the fuel
pipes and remove the lift pump retaining bolts.
Remove the pump from its mounting.
To fit
1 Refitting is a reversal of the removal procedure; use
a new gasket.
Particulars of further tests for both pumps involving
special apparatus are available from the pump
manufacturer, if required.

valves and pump plunger. Check all components for


wear and damage, and check that the springs are in
good condition. The priming plunger of early models
differs slightly from that shown (A).
Caution: The pump plunger and spring are supplied
as a matched pair, identified by a colour code and
must be renewed as a pair if necessary.
1 Remove the circlip (A3) from the pump body and
withdraw the roller/tappet assembly. Dismantle the
assembly and inspect the components for wear and
damage. Renew any items in doubtful condition.
2 Check the action of the hand priming pump and
replace as a unit if found to be unserviceable.
To assemble
1 Apply a light coat of clean engine oil to all
components and assemble the pump using new joint
washers. Tighten the plugs and priming pump
securely.
2 Test the pump as given in operation 20-9.

1
3

A
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To test

20-9

20

Note: This operation applies to both the single acting


and double acting type of fuel lift pumps.
1 Perform a leakage test by blanking off the delivery
connection and applying air pressure at 193 kN/m
(28 lbf in) to the suction connection, with the pump
immersed in fuel oil. Check for air bubbles and at the
same time, operate the pump plunger to ensure that
there is no leakage from the plunger bore.

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Fuel injection pump


Due to the complexity of the fuel injection pump and
the extent to which special equipment is required for
overhaul, Perkins recommend that customers take
advantage of the Service Exchange Scheme should
malfunctions occur within the pump unit.

To remove and to fit

20-10

To remove
1 Disconnect and remove all relevant pipework and
linkages. Do NOT bend the pipes.
Note: For new 2000 series engines the high pressure
fuel pipes must be removed and fitted as a complete
set.
2 Remove the front rocker cover and turn the engine
in the correct direction of rotation until No. 1 inlet valve
closes.
3 Remove the fuel injection pump access cover (A1)
from the front of the engine.
4 Remove the four bolts which retain the pump drive
gear together with the clamping plate and withdraw
the drive gear.
5 Remove the four nuts and washers from the pump
flange (B1) and the two nuts, bolts and washers (B2)
from the rear end of the fuel injection pump.

311

6 Carefully ease the pump towards the rear of the


engine to remove.

7 If a new or reconditioned fuel injection pump is to


be fitted, remove the hub from the pump.
To fit
1

Note: The injection timing position is stamped on the


data plate on the right side of the engine.
1 Turn the engine in the correct direction of rotation
until the No.1 inlet valve closes.
2 Remove the timing pointer cover (C1) from the
flywheel housing.

321

3 Continue turning the engine until the timing figure


on the flywheel (corresponding to the injection timing
on the data plate) aligns with the pointer in the
flywheel housing aperture.
4 If a replacement pump is being fitted, or if the drive
hub has been removed, fit the hub and tighten the nut
to a torque of 163 Nm (120 lbf ft).
1

Continued

C
138

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5 Fit new O rings; apply a light smear of Linalube to


the larger ring (A1).
6 Fit the fuel injection pump onto the four studs in the
rear of the wheelcase adaptor and retain with nuts
and washers. Tighten the nuts only finger-tight at this
stage.
7 Slacken the bolts (B1) which retain the pump
support bracket. Do NOT disturb the bolts which
secure the bracket to the crankcase.
8 Tighten the four nuts, which secure the pump to the
wheelcase adaptor, to a torque of 47 Nm (35 lbf ft).
9 Fit and tighten the rear mounting bolts to a torque
of 40 Nm (30 lbf ft).

322

10 Tighten the bolts (B1) which retain the pump


support bracket.
11 Remove the cap nut and withdraw the timing
pointer location device (C1).
12 Turn the pump camshaft, using a 30 mm spanner,
until the timing pointer is visible in the centre of the
aperture.
13 Fit the pump drive gear. Ensure that the hub bolt
holes are positioned centrally within the slots in the
gear. Secure the gear with the bolts and clamping
plate, finger-tight only.

14 Fasten the stop lever in the NO FUEL position.


15 Ensure that the timing pointer is still positioned in
the centre of the aperture and insert the location
device with the slotted end entered in a horizontal
plane.

323

16 If necessary turn the pump camshaft, using a 30


mm spanner, until the location device (D1) enters
fully.
17 Tighten the pump drive gear securing bolts to a
torque of 45 Nm (33 lbf ft).
18 Withdraw the location device.
19 Turn the engine backwards by at least 60 degrees
and repeat the timing check. Proceed when the timing
is correct.
20 Fit the front access cover plate.
Continued

308

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20

21 Insert the timing pointer location device with the


location slot outwards and refit the cap nut.
22 Fit the front rocker cover and fit the timing pointer
cover plate to the flywheel housing.
23 Fit all the relevant pipework. Do NOT bend the
pipes. The high pressure fuel pipes of new 2000
series engines must be fitted as a complete set.
24 Release the stop lever to the RUN position.
The fuel injection pump MUST be primed with clean
engine oil of the correct specification before the
engine is first started.
Caution: Before the engine is first started, the fuel
injection pump must be primed with clean engine oil
of the correct grade. Proceed as follows:

308

Remove the plug which retains the location device


(A1) and withdraw the location device. Fill the pump
and governor with the correct oil until it reaches the
level of the plug hole. Fit the location device with the
longest part toward the plug. Fit the plug and tighten
securely.
For the correct start procedures, refer to the relevant
Users Handbook.

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How to eliminate air from the


fuel system

20
20-11

Air in the fuel system can cause:


Engine misfire
Uneven running
Poor engine performance
Engine stopping
Difficulty or failure to start
If air has entered the fuel system, the source of the
problem must be traced and the fault eliminated.

Air can enter the system if:


z

The fuel tank is drained during normal operation.

The low-pressure fuel pipes are disconnected.

There is a leak from the fuel system during the


operation of the engine.

The fuel filter canister has been removed.

There is a leak from the bowl of the preliminary


filter.

To eliminate air from the system, use this


procedure:
1 Ensure that there is fuel in the operating tank and
that all leakages have been eliminated.
2 Loosen the union at the outlet pipe from the lift
pump; operate the hand priming pump (A1) and allow
fuel to flow and then retighten the union.

54

3 Continue to operate the hand priming pump and


loosen the union on the outlet side of the fuel filter;
allow fuel to flow before tightening the union.
4 Continue to operate the hand priming pump and
loosen in turn, each union where the high pressure
fuel injection pipe joins its fuel injector. Tighten the
unions once air has been eliminated.
5 With all unions tightened, continue to hand prime
until the relief valve is heard to open.
6 Wipe away all spilt fuel.
Warning! Ensure that:
a) Pipes have not been strained or distorted.
b) Unions and clamps have been correctly tightened.
c) Fuel does not spray onto your skin.
d) Spilt fuel has been thoroughly dispersed.

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20

Air stop cylinder


For engines utilising an air stop cylinder, one of two
types may be fitted. The first illustration (A) shows the
type fitted to new 2000 series industrial engines. The
second (B) shows the type fitted to earlier engines.
The procedure below is correct for both types.

How to set the air-operated stop


cylinder

20-12

To set correctly the position between the air cylinder


plunger and the stop lever of the fuel injection pump,
this procedure MUST be used:
The air cylinder (A1 or B1) and the inner adjustable
stop lever (A3 or B3) are fitted to the rear side of the
fuel injection pump, which is next to the engine
crankcase. The adjustable stop lever is connected to
the outer stop lever by a common shaft.
1 Ensure that all the nuts and bolts which attach the
air cylinder and the mounting bracket to the pump are
secure.

2 Ensure that the air system of the vehicle is fully


charged.
3 Rotate the outer stop lever in a clockwise direction
until it is tight against its fixed stop screw.

31

4 Energise the air cylinder (A1 or B1).


5 While the outer stop lever is still held against the
outer stop screw, slacken the lock nut and adjust the
screw (A2 or B2) until there is a 1mm (0.039 in) gap
between the screw and the plunger of the air cylinder.
Tighten lightly the lock nut.

6 De-energise the stop cylinder. Energise the stop


cylinder and check that there is 1mm (0.039 in) gap
between the outer lever and its fixed stop screw.
Tighten fully the lock nut.

142

2
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21
Cooling system

21

General description
The illustration (A) on page 144 shows the coolant
flow characteristics for a 2006 TW or TWG engine
which has an air-to-coolant charge cooler. The
illustration (B) on page 145 shows a 2006TA or TAG
engine.

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The coolant capacity of the engine, not including the


radiator and pipework, is 24,4 litres (4.5 UK gallons).
The coolant is circulated through the system by a belt
driven pump mounted on the front of the engine. With
the engine at normal working temperature the coolant
is drawn from the radiator (A13) and into the oil cooler
(A1). After passing through the oil cooler tube pack it
flows through a steel pipe to the coolant pump. The
coolant will then exit through an outlet at the rear of
the pump and pass into the coolant gallery (A2). For
engines (A) which include an air-to-coolant charge
cooler, the coolant will pass from the pump into the
charge cooler (A3), which is part of the inlet manifold
assembly, before entering the coolant gallery (A2).
Coolant from the inlet gallery is directed to the
cylinder liners where it circulates before passing
through the transfer bobbins to enter the coolant
galleries within the cylinder heads. After circulating
around the cylinder heads, the coolant enters an
external rail (A4) and flows forward to the thermostat
housing (A6).

Key to Illustration (A)


1 Oil cooler
2 Coolant inlet gallery
3 Charge cooler
4 Coolant rail
5 Coolant outlet to radiator
6 Thermostat housing
7 Thermostat
8 To thermostat from outlet gallery
9 Thermostat by-pass to coolant pump
10 Coolant pump to inlet gallery
11 To coolant pump from oil cooler
12 Drain plugs
13 To engine from radiator
14 To radiator from engine

A
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1 Oil cooler

9 Radiator by-pass system

2 Coolant inlet gallery

10 Coolant pump to inlet gallery

3 Air inlet manifold

11 To coolant pump from oil cooler

4 Coolant outlet gallery

12 Coolant pump

5 Coolant outlet to radiator

13 To engine from radiator

6 Thermostat housing

14 Drain plugs

7 Thermostat

15 Air-to-air charge cooler

8 To thermostat

16 Fan

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The coolant passes through the open flow valves in


the thermostat and into the radiator. As the coolant
flows through the pipework of the radiator, it is cooled
by air drawn through the radiator, around the
pipework, by the engine-mounted fan. If the engine is
operating at a temperature below 78C (172F), or
82C (180F) for new 2000 series engines, the
thermostat main flow valves (A1) will be closed and
the coolant will then flow through the by-pass ports
(A2), in the base of the housing, and return to the
coolant pump.

Radiator
To remove and to fit

21-1

318

To remove
1 Drain the coolant system as given in the User's
Handbook TSD3215.
2 Disconnect and remove the pipe from between the
oil cooler and the radiator.
3 Disconnect and remove the pipe (B1) from between
the thermostat housing and the radiator.
4 Release the hose clips at the radiator end of the
turbocharger-to-radiator air duct.
5 Remove the air duct (B2), and retaining straps,
from between the connection on the inlet manifold
and the radiator.
6 Remove the nuts and bolts which secure the
radiator to the radiator stand and carefully slide the
radiator assembly away from the engine. Ensure that
the fan cowl does not touch the fan blades.
Caution: Do not damage the fan blades during
removal and fitting of the radiator. If the fan blades
become cracked or bent it will be necessary to renew
the fan.
To fit
1 Place the radiator on the radiator stand and
carefully slide it toward the engine until the fan blades
are halfway inside the fan cowl. Take care not to
damage the fan blades.
2 Loosely fit the nuts, bolts and washers which retain
the radiator on the radiator stand.
3 Rotate the fan so that two of the fan blades are
horizontal. Stand behind the engine and check the
horizontal distance between the two fan blades and
the fan cowl. Adjust the horizontal position of the
radiator until the gap is equal at both sides, then
tighten the nuts and bolts at the base of the radiator.

338

4 Rotate the fan until two of the fan blades are


vertical. Check the distance between the radiator cowl
and the fan blades at the top and the bottom of the
fan. The gap between the fan blades and the radiator
cowl, at the top and bottom, must be equal. If
necessary, adjust the position of the fan cowl by
releasing the four screws at each side. When the
gaps are equal, tighten the screws securely.
5 Fit the air duct (B2) between the inlet manifold and
the radiator, but do not tighten the hose clips at this
stage. Fit the metal retaining strap, complete with
setscrews, plain and spring washers, but do not
tighten the setscrews at this stage.
6 View the radiator and fan from the side to check the
angle of the radiator to the engine. Check the distance
that the fan blades protrude from the fan cowl at the
top and the bottom. The distance should be equal. If
it is not, slacken the three screws at the base of each
side of the radiator, adjust the angle of the radiator
until the fan blade protrusions are equal, then tighten
the setscrews of the strap and the screws in the base
of radiator. Tighten the hose clips to a torque of 4 Nm
(3 lbf ft).
Continued

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7 Fit the coolant pipe (A1) between the thermostat


housing and the radiator. Use new hoses and tighten
the hose clips to a torque of 4 Nm (3 lbf ft).

21
1

8 Fit the coolant pipe between the oil cooler and the
radiator. Use new hoses and tighten the hose clips to
a torque of 4 Nm (3 lbf ft).
9 Using a new hose, connect the air duct from the
turbocharger to the radiator. Tighten the hose clips to
a torque of 4 Nm (3 lbf ft). If the complete air duct
assembly was removed, proceed as follows:
10 Fit the air duct assembly between the
turbocharger and the radiator, use new hoses but
do not tighten the hose clips at this stage. If
necessary, adjust the position of the turbocharger
compressor housing so that the duct assembly lies
naturally between the components. Fit the brackets
to the crankcase and secure the duct assembly with
the two U-bolts. Tighten the hose clips to a torque
of 4 Nm (3 lbf ft).

338

11 Fit the guards. Ensure that they are not in contact


with any part of the engine except where they are
attached to the fan cowl.
12 Fill the radiator with the correct coolant
specification.

Fan
To remove and to fit

21-2

To remove
1 Remove the radiator, operation 21-1.
2 Remove the six retaining screws, remove the fan
and collect the spacer if fitted.
To fit
1 Where necessary, fit the spacer. Fit the fan and
retain with six bolts and spring washers. Tighten each
bolt to a torque of 47 Nm (35 lbf ft).
2 Check that the spring washers have seated correctly
and have not spread out. If any have become distorted
or have spread out from under the bolt head: remove
the relevant bolt, fit a new spring washer and tighten
the bolt to a torque of 47 Nm (35 lbf ft). Check that the
new spring washer has seated correctly.
3 Fit the radiator, operation 21-1.

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21

Fan drive belts


2

How to check the fan belts

21-3

Check all drive belts and renew a belt if it is worn or


damaged. Where more than one belt is used between
two pulleys, all of the belts must be renewed together.
Check the belt tension at the centre of the longest free
length, for example, position (A1). For details about
the alternator belt, refer to section 23.
Use a Gates "Krikit" V-belt tension gauge or similar
tool to check the tension of the belts.
The correct tension for all belts is 400 to 489 N (90 to
100 lbf).
Note: When new belts are fitted they must be
checked again after the engine has been run for 15
minutes and, if necessary, adjusted to the correct
tension.

How to adjust the tension of


the fan belts

21-4

Note: Engines produced before the new 2000 series


engine have a different belt tensioner. Refer to the
relevant Users Handbook for the correct adjustment
procedure.
Loosen the bolt (B1) which is covered by the triple fan
belts. The plate (B2), which holds the tensioner
pulley, pivots about this bolt. Loosen the bolt (B3)
which locks the cam plate (B4) and also clamps the
plate (B2). Use a spanner on the hexagon (B5) and
rotate the cam plate until the correct tension is
obtained (as given above). Then tighten the bolts (B3
and B1).
Where more than one belt is used between two
pulleys, check/adjust the tension on the tightest belt.

157

1
2

3
4

148

5
6
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Coolant pump
To remove and to fit

21-5

To remove
1 Drain the coolant system.
2 Remove the radiator, operation 21-1.
3 Remove the cooling fan, operation 21-2.
4 Remove the alternator and drive belt/s.
5 Release the belt tension and remove the coolant
pump drive belts.
6 Remove the coolant pump drive pulley. For engines
with low mounted pump, remove the crankshaft pulley
and damper.
7 Slacken the hose clips and disconnect the coolant
pipe from the coolant pump.
8 Unscrew the pump retaining bolts and remove the
pump.
To fit
1 Ensure that all joint surfaces are clean.
2 Fit the pump, complete with new joints.
3 Fit the crankshaft pulley, and damper if applicable.
4 Fit the coolant pump pulley and tighten the securing
bolts to a torque of 24 Nm (18 lbf ft).
5 Fit the coolant pump drive belts.
6 Fit the mounting bracket and, where applicable, the
alternator and its drive belt/s.
7 Adjust the tension of all belts, operation 21-4 and
operation 23-1.
8 Connect the coolant pipe between the oil cooler
and the coolant pump.
9 Fit the fan, operation 21-2.
10 Fit the radiator, operation 21-1.
11 Refill the coolant system with the correct coolant
mixture.

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To dismantle and to assemble

21-6 4 Remove the hub (A14), lever out the front oil seal
(A13) and release the circlip (A12).

5 Lever out the balanced seal (A1) and the ceramic


counterface (A6).

Special tools:
Puller, 21825 837
Bolts, 21825 838
Bearing replacer, 21825 904
Seal replacer, 21825 899
Bearing replacer, 21825 903
To dismantle
Note: Unless the special tools required for coolant
pump overhaul are readily available, users are
advised to fit a Service Exchange unit. For further
details contact your Authorised Perkins Dealer.
1 Remove the pump backplate, where applicable.
2 Withdraw the impeller (A5) from the shaft using the
puller, 21825 837, and two bolts, 21825 838.
3 Position the pump assembly on a press and
remove the shaft (A4) by pressing it out towards the
rear of the assembly.

2
3

9
10
11
12

A
150

13

14
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To assemble
1 Pack the bearing with Shell Retinax A grease. The
later type of bearing is double-sealed and prepacked for life.
2 Ensure that the outer diameter of the bearing and
the inner diameter of the bearing housing are
completely free from oil and grease.
3 Use a brush to apply a coat of Loctite 648 to the
shoulder inside the bearing housing (A).
4 Press the bearing into the housing using the special
tool, 21825 904, with the sealed side of the bearing
leading.
5 Apply grease to the inside of the bearing housing
and insert the two spacers.

324

325

6 Add a further smear of grease to the housing and


press in the outer cone of the roller bearing. Lightly
smear the inner part of the roller bearing with grease
and assemble in position.
7 Use a degreasing fluid to clean the shaft. The shaft
MUST be free from oil and grease. Apply a coating of
Loctite 648 to the large diameter adjacent to the
flange (B).
8 Support the front end of the pump on the bearing
replacer, 21825 904, and press in the shaft to the limit
of its travel. Visually check, through the drain aperture
in the pump body, to ensure that the shaft is fully
inserted. Fit the circlip.
9 Press in the balanced seal over the shaft, using
tool, 21825 899, (C1).
10 Fit a new ceramic counterface seal into the
impeller. Do NOT touch the sealing face of the
ceramic counterface seal.
1

11 Support the pump under a press and press the


impeller onto the shaft until the front face of the
impeller is aligned with the end of the shaft.
12 Press a new oil seal into the front of the pump,
using special tool, 21825 903, with the open side of
the seal facing outwards.
Continued

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21

13 Heat the hub in an oven to a temperature of 130C


(226F), or alternatively, immerse it in continually
boiling water for approximately five minutes.
Caution: Overheating of the hub may result in
damage to the seal lip.
14 Place the pump on the press with the lower end of
the shaft fully supported.
15 Remove the hub from the heating process and,
while it is still hot, press it onto the shaft firmly against
the inner race of the bearing.
16 It is now necessary to check the hub for tightness
on the shaft. Before doing so, the pump must be
allowed to stand until the hub has cooled completely.

327

17 Fit a puller, 21825 837, to the pump hub (A) and


tighten the centre bolt to a torque of 27 Nm (20 lbf ft)
against the end of the shaft. The hub should remain
unmoved on the shaft. If movement occurs the shaft
and hub must be renewed.

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To inspect

21

21-7

1 Inspect all of the components for damage or


corrosion.
2 Discard all seals and joints.
3 Measure the diameter of the shaft (A4) and the bore
of the hub (A14). The interference fit should be
between 0,036 and 0,055 mm (0.00145 and 0.0022 in).
If the interference measurement is not within these
limits, both the shaft and the hub must be renewed.
4 Clean and check the bearings (A8 and A11) for
wear or damage. Spin the ball bearing by hand to
check for roughness. Do NOT spin with a compressed
air jet.

2
3

9
10
11
12

A
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21

Thermostat
4

Description
The thermostat (A1) is a wax-type triple-element unit
fitted to a housing (A2) above the coolant pump. It is
correctly located in the housing by a roll-pin (A3),
fitted in the rim. This ensures that the valves are
correctly positioned over the by-pass ports.
To extract the thermostat, remove the thermostat
housing cover (A4) and lift out the unit. The
thermostat requires no servicing and must be
replaced if it becomes defective. Sticking valves may
be rectified by applying silicone grease to the spindles
and operating the valves by hand until they are free.

Note: Silicone grease should be applied to the valve


spindles of a replacement thermostat prior to fitting, or
if the engine is to stand for a period with the coolant
system drained.

How to check the operating


temperatures

21-8

1 Mark the strap of the leading valve and place the


thermostat, the correct way up, in a container filled
with water to the level of the valve platform. Position
a thermometer in the water as close as possible to the
valves.

1
2

319

2 Heat the water, and note the temperature at


which the leading valve opens sufficiently to admit
a 0,05 mm (0.002 in) feeler gauge.
3 Continue heating and note the opening
temperature of the two trailing valves.
4 Continue heating, noting the temperature at which
each valve stops moving and is fully open, i.e.,
approximately 9 mm (0.375 in) of travel.
5 Compare the readings with the following limits:
New 2000 series engines:
Leading valve open: 77,5 to 79,5C (171.5 to 175F)
Trailing valve open: 81,5 to 83,5C (179 to 182F)
All valves fully open: 93,5 to 96C (200 to 205F)
Earlier engines:
Leading valve open: 77 to 79C (171 to 174F)
Trailing valve open: 81 to 83C (178 to 181F)
All valves fully open: 93 to 96C (199 to 205F)

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How to check the operating speed

21-9

21

1 Immerse the thermostat, with all the valves fully


closed, in boiling water to the level of the valve
platform. Note the time taken, after immersion, for
each valve to open sufficiently to admit a 0,05 mm
(0.002 in) feeler gauge.
2 Maintain the water at boiling point and note the time
taken, from immersion, for all valves to open fully.
3 Remove the thermostat and plunge it into cold
water, noting the time taken for all valves to close
fully.
4 Compare the readings taken with the following
limits:
Leading valve starts to open: Within 15 seconds
Trailing valves start to open: Within 20 seconds
All valves fully open: Within 60 seconds
All valves closed in cold water: 4 to 8 seconds
5 Should a thermostat fail to operate satisfactorily
within the given limits it must be replaced
Caution: If a replacement thermostat is not
available, it will be necessary as a temporary
measure only, to jack the valves fully open and run
the engine with the radiator partly banked off. DO
NOT run the engine without a thermostat fitted as this
will cause the engine to overheat.

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Oil cooler

4 Unscrew the 2BA screw (A3) from each end of the


housing. Push the tube pack forward enough to allow
the front O ring to be removed.

Description

5 Withdraw the tube carefully towards the rear. Do


NOT attempt to push the pack through the housing
with the O ring still in position on the pack. It is
possible for the ring to foul in the oilway port and
cause the pack to jam. If pressure is required to
remove a tube pack it must not be applied to the sheet
metal ends. Use a soft round wooden block applying
the end grains to the ends of the tubes. Always check
that the tubes remain clear and undamaged.

The unit consists of a finned tube pack (A1) in a


housing, which incorporates the oil filter header.
Coolant from the radiator passes through the brass
tubes within the pack. Lubricating oil enters through a
port at the rear of the housing and flows over the
exterior of the pack. Baffle plates on the tube pack
direct the oil across the tubes six times before it
enters the oil filter header. After passing through the
oil filters, the oil leaves the oil cooler assembly at the
front and returns to an oil gallery in the crankcase.

6 Wash the pack carefully in fuel oil, blow through the


tubes with compressed air and wash in hot water.

The tube pack is fitted with an O ring (A2) at each


end to form an oil seal within the housing bore.

To dismantle and to assemble

7 Blocked tubes may be cleared by soaking the pack


in a solution of 1 part inhibited hydrochloric acid to
three parts of fresh water. When frothing ceases,
carefully remove the pack and immerse it in a solution
of 2,2 kg (1 lb) of washing soda in 23 litres (5 UK
gallons) of hot water. Finally blow through the tubes
with compressed air and wash the pack in hot fresh
water.

21-10

To dismantle
1 Drain the coolant and disconnect the coolant hoses
and lubricating oil pipes from the unit.
2 Remove the two canister type oil filters.
3 Remove the bolts which secure the unit to the
mounting and lift it away.

A
156

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To assemble

To inspect

1 Refer to paragraph 5 on page 156 with regard to


the use of pressure on the tube pack. Always renew
O rings and hoses.

1 Visually inspect the pack for signs of cracks,


corrosion or obvious damage.

2 Apply a light smear of rubber grease or Linalube


to both ends of the housing bore.

2 If possible, pressure test by applying air to the tube


bores at 207 kN/m (30 lbf/in) pressure with the pack
immersed in water at 80C (176F).

3 Insert the tube pack into the housing, with the


machined recesses aligned for the locating screws.
Push the tube pack through the housing until the O
ring groove just emerges at the front.

21-11

3 Ensure that the housing is clean and completely


free from burrs.

4 Fit a new lightly lubricated O ring. Pull the tube


backwards until the rear O ring groove is just
exposed.
5 Fit a lightly lubricated O ring and push the pack
back into the housing to its correct position.
6 Align the pack and fit the locating screws, complete
with washers, to each end.
7 Fit the unit to the engine with the relevant screws
and washers.
8 Connect the oil pipes and coolant pipes and refill
the coolant system to the correct level.
9 Fit new filter canisters: check that the sealing rings
are correctly fitted to the new canisters and clean the
contact faces of the filter head.
10 Fill the two new canisters with new engine
lubricating oil of the correct grade and lubricate the
top of each canister seal with the same oil.
11 To install the new canisters use this procedure:
Tighten the canisters, on their adaptors, until the
sealing rings are in contact with the face of the filter
head, then turn the canisters a further 11/4 turns, by
hand. Do NOT overtighten. Run engine and check for
leaks.

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22
Flywheel and flywheel housing

22

General description
The flywheel housing (A1) is machined from
aluminium and is fitted to the rear of the crankcase. It
is located by two dowels and provides the mounting
for the starter motor. Additionally, the flywheel
housing fitted to new 2000 series engines contains
the crankcase rear oil seal.

Continued

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337

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22

The flywheel assembly (A1) consists of a basic


flywheel with a shrunk-on starter ring gear. It is
secured to the crankshaft by twelve bolts and is
located by a single dowel.

160

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Flywheel

To inspect

22

22-2

1 Examine the flywheel for cracks or damage and

To remove and to fit

22-1 replace if necessary.

Special tools:
Guide studs, 21825 802
Lifting attachment, 21825 817
To remove
1 Remove the timing pointer from the flywheel
housing to prevent it from fouling the ring gear when
withdrawing the flywheel.
2 Remove two horizontally opposed flywheel
retaining bolts and replace with two guide studs,
21825 802.
3 Unscrew and remove the remaining ten bolts.
4 Carefully release the flywheel from its dowel and
slide it onto the guide studs. Fit the lifting attachment,
21825 817, and using suitable lifting equipment
remove the flywheel from the engine.

2 Inspect the ring gear for cracks or wear and if


necessary, renew as follows:
a Drill holes in the ring gear body at diametrically
opposite positions until it is weakened
sufficiently to be driven off. Do NOT attempt to
drill through the teeth.
b Remove any burrs from the flywheel ring gear
and the seating area on the flywheel.
c Heat the new ring gear to approximately 215C
(419F), fit it to the flywheel and rotate it to
ensure full seating.
Warning! Always wear protective clothing when
handling heated components.
d Allow it to cool naturally, and then check with a
feeler gauge that it is fully against the shoulder
on the flywheel.
3 Examine the flywheel friction plate for wear, scoring
or cracks and renew if necessary.

To fit
1 Ensure that the two guide studs, 21825 802, are
fitted securely.
2 Lift the flywheel onto the guide studs and align the
dowel hole with the dowel in the crankshaft.
3 Fit the securing bolts and washers and remove the
guide studs. Tighten the bolts evenly to a torque of
122 Nm (90 lbf ft).
4 Fit the timing pointer and its cover.

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22

Flywheel housing
To remove and to fit

22-3

To remove
1 Remove the flywheel, operation 22-1.
2 Remove the starter motor, operation 23-3.
3 Remove the bolts which secure the housing to the
crankcase.

4 Using suitable lifting equipment, release the


housing from its dowels and remove.
To fit
1 Ensure that both joint surfaces are free from burrs
and damage.
2 Fit the flywheel housing as follows:
For new 2000 series engines, the crankshaft rear oil
seal is fitted directly in the flywheel housing and the
joint between the flywheel housing and the crankcase
must be sealed by the use of a special sealant,
Loctite gasket eliminator 518. Ensure that the faces
of the flywheel housing and crankcase are clean and
dry. Apply a continuous bead of Loctite gasket
eliminator 518 to the cylinder block as shown (A1).
For earlier engines, which have a separate housing
for the crankshaft rear oil seal, the flywheel housing is
fitted directly onto the crankcase. No gasket is
required and sealant must NOT be applied.

300

3 Lift the housing onto the locating dowels and fit the
retaining bolts and washers. Tighten the bolts evenly
to a torque of 61 Nm (45 lbf ft).
4 Fit the flywheel, operation 22-1.
5 Fit the starter motor, operation 23-3.

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23
Electrical equipment

23

General description
The electrical components of the engine consist of an
alternator, a starter motor and an engine stop
solenoid. Certain engines may be fitted with warning/
shut-down switches. One of many types of alternator
may be fitted to the engine, but only one type of
starter motor is utilised.
A typical wiring diagram for a 2000 series engine is
shown (A).

TYPICAL WIRING DIAGRAM

Cable Data
24 volt battery *

Section area

Size
Start relay *

in2

mm2

0.093

60.00

II

0.007

4.52

III

0.001

0.65

* SUPPLIED BY CUSTOMER

Run switch
II

Start switch *

III
I

Ammeter *
40-0-40

II

II

II

24 volt
2.8 watt
Lamp *

When start relay


is omitted *
II
1

II

4
III

D
F
II

ALTERNATOR

Perkins Engines Company Limited

STARTER MOTOR
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23

Alternator
The alternator fitted to current engines will be rated at
55 or 70 amps, depending on application.
Each type of alternator is fitted with an integral
regulator. The regulator requires no adjustment
during service and is a non-repairable item.
It is not advisable to attempt repairs to the alternator.
Such work requires specialist equipment and
knowledge. Should alternator failure occur, operators
are advised to take advantage of the Perkins service
exchange scheme.
Starter motor
As specialist equipment and knowledge are
necessary to overhaul the starter motor assembly, it
is recommended that an exchange unit is fitted. If the
equipment and expertise are available, the
instructions for starter motor overhaul are given in this
section.
The starter motor is a 24 volt unit, actuated by an
externally mounted solenoid switch through a lever
arm. The pinion assembly incorporates a positive
engagement device, an overload clutch and a
freewheel ratchet. It is mounted on the flywheel
housing.
Operation of the starter switch energises the pull-in
and hold-in coils and actuates the solenoid to move
the pinion into mesh with the starter ring. Should the
teeth abut, the pinion moves back against its spring
load and rotates slightly until engagement occurs.
The starting contacts then close in parallel with the
pull-in coil, which is de-energised, and full torque is
applied.
If engine resistance is excessive the pinion clutch
comes into operation.
When the engine starts, the pinion is allowed to run
free, in mesh with the starter ring, until the starter
switch is released. The hold-in coil is then deenergised, allowing the return spring in the solenoid
switch to disengage the pinion through the lever arm.
Certain engines are fitted with control switches.
These are set at the factory and cannot be adjusted.
Discard if faulty

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Alternator drive belts


2

To check and to adjust the tension

23-1

To check
Check all drive belts and renew a belt if it is worn or
damaged. Where more than one belt is used between
two pulleys, all of the belts must be renewed together.
See section 21 for details about the fan drive belts.
Check the alternator belt tension at the centre of the
longest free length (A1).
Use a V-belt tension gauge to check the tension of the
belt. The correct tension for all belts is 400 to 489 N
(90 to 100 lbf).
Note: When a new belt is fitted it must be checked
again after the engine has been run for 15 minutes
and, if necessary, adjusted to the correct tension.
To adjust the tension
Loosen the two bolts (A2) and rotate the alternator on
the pivot bolt to tighten the belt to the correct tension.
Tighten the two bolts.

Check again the belt to ensure that the tension is still


correct. Maximum belt life will be obtained only if belts
are kept at the correct tensions.
Where more than one belt is used between two
pulleys, check/adjust the tension on the tightest belt.

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23

Alternator
2

To remove and to fit

23-2

To remove
1 Disconnect the battery.

2 Slacken the adjustment bolt (A1) and pivot bolt


(A2), and remove the alternator drive belt (A3).
3 Disconnect the wiring loom from the alternator.
Make a note of the position of the connectors to assist
during fitting.
4 Remove the adjustment bolt, nut and washers.
Remove the pivot bolt and lift away the alternator.

183

To fit
1 Fit the alternator. Retain with the pivot bolt and a
spring washer. Then fit the adjustment bolt, complete
with nut and washers.
2 Reconnect the wiring loom to the alternator.
3 Fit the alternator drive belt and adjust the tension,
operation 23-1.
4 Connect the battery.

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Starter motor

23

To dismantle and to assemble the


solenoid switch

To remove and to fit

23-4

23-3 To dismantle
1 Remove both jumper leads from between the
solenoid switch and the starter body.

To remove

A special tool will be needed for the next part of the


operation. The tool can be manufactured from a 1/4
inch AF socket; the outside diameter of the socket
must be ground down to 9 mm (0.354 in).

1 Disconnect the battery.


2 Make a note of the terminals of the starter motor
assembly and of the cables which are connected to
them.

2 Extract the rubber plug from the solenoid base,


insert the special tool, engage it with the timing shaft
and turn it anti-clockwise until the plunger and arm are
released from the shaft. Unscrew the two retaining
bolts and remove the solenoid switch.

3 Disconnect the cables from the starter motor


assembly.
4 Remove the three screws and plain and spring
washers and carefully withdraw the starter motor
assembly.

3 Remove the lock nuts, the washers and the sealing


rings from both of the small terminals; partially
withdraw the end cover (A5) and release the small
screw (A6) from the head of the terminal (A8) which
retains the winding connection. Remove the end
cover (A5) complete with the large terminals (A4), the
lock nuts, the washers and the sealing washers.
Remove also the terminal insulators (A3).

To fit
1 Fit carefully the starter motor assembly to the
flywheel housing, fit the three retaining screws,
complete with plain and spring washers, and tighten
securely.
2 Connect the cables to the correct terminals.
3 Connect the battery.

Continued

2
1

3
4
5

8
9
7
6

A
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23

4 Hold the protrusion of the plunger (A2) at the


opposite end of the body (A9) and release the nut
which retains the switch assembly on the shaft (A1).
Remove the washer, the insulation washer, the
insulation bush, the contactor disc (A7), the spring,
the second insulation washer and the second washer
from the shaft and withdraw the plunger and the
spring from the opposite end.

4 Fit a new rubber shroud to the housing of the shift


lever and ensure that the lip is engaged fully in the
groove.
5 Align the screw link with the threaded hole in the
plunger (A2) and insert the special tool through the
hole in the centre of the housing. Turn the plunger
clockwise until it reaches the end of the thread and
insert the solenoid switch into the shift lever housing.

To assemble

6 Fit the two bolts which secure the solenoid switch to


the starter motor and tighten them to 34,0 to 39,5 Nm
(25 to 29 lbf ft). Turn the plunger anticlockwise by
approximately five turns.

1 Assemble the shaft (A1) and the plunger (A2), if


they have been separated, and fit the spring to the
shaft.

7 DO NOT fit the flexible cable and the copper


connector until solenoid adjustment is completed in
operation 23-8.

2 Fit the shaft through the body (A9) of the solenoid


switch and fit the washer, the insulation washer, the
spring, the contactor disc (A7), the insulation bush,
the second insulation washer, the washer and the nut
in the correct sequence as shown (A). Hold the
plunger and tighten the nut.
3 Fit the terminal insulators. Fit the cover to the body
sufficient for the small screw (A6) to be fitted through
the connection and into the side of terminal 3. Fit the
cover fully and fit the washers, the sealing rings and
the nuts.

2
1

3
4
5

8
9
7
6

A
168

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To dismantle and to assemble the


starter motor

23

To assemble

23-5 Ensure that all of the components are clean and dry

To dismantle
1 Remove the solenoid switch, operation 23-4.
Before the starter motor is dismantled, mark the
edges of each section of the starter motor to ensure
their correct relationship during assembly.
2 Remove the cover (A4), release the connections
and carefully withdraw the carbon brushes (A3).
3 Disconnect the two cables from the field windings
(A7), release the four bolts and remove the end cover
(A1). Withdraw the armature (A5).
4 Release the six cap screws and remove the pinion
housing (A8); disconnect and remove the pinion
assembly (A10).
5 Remove the screw and washer from the housing
(A8); withdraw the pivot and remove the shift lever
(A12). Separate the housing from the yoke (A6).

before they are assembled. Apply glycerine to the


new O rings and lubricate all the bushes with clean
SAE 5W/20 engine lubricating oil. Soak the fibre
washers and lubricator wicks in clean SAE 5W/20
engine lubricating oil.
1 Fit a new O ring around the end cover (A1) and
align the marks which indicate the correct relationship
with the yoke. Put new spring washers on the four
bolts which fasten the end cover to the yoke. Apply
Loctite AVV to the threads and fit the bolts. Tighten
each bolt to 12,5 to 17 Nm (110 to 150 lbf in).
2 Fit a steel thrust washer, followed by a fibre washer,
onto the armature shaft at the commutator end and
insert the shaft into the yoke assembly. Fit a steel
washer, followed by a fibre washer, onto the splined
end of the shaft and lubricate the shaft and the splines
with Aeroshell Grease No. DID 5598.
3 Fit a new O ring around the housing (A14) and
apply some grease to the shift lever cams.
Continued

4
1

5
2
3

12
13
14
6

7
8

A
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10

11
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23

4 Put the shift lever housing (A8) over the protrusion of


the shaft and fit two fibre washers (A9) onto the shaft.
Engage the two shift lever cams in the groove of the
pinion assembly and slide the assembly and the
housing onto the shaft. Align the marks which indicate
the correct relationship of the housing and the yoke, and
apply Loctite AVV to the threads of the five cap screws.
Insert the cap screws, with new spring washers, and
tighten to 12,5 to 17 Nm (110 to 150 lbf in).
5 Fit the steel thrust washer (A11) onto the shaft
against the pinion assembly. Fit a new O ring (A13)
to the pinion housing and put the housing around the
pinion. Align the marks which indicate the correct
relationship of the housings for the shift lever and the
pinion. Six new special cap screws, which have a
small square area of locking agent on the threads,
should be inserted through the relevant holes of the
pinion housing and into the shift lever housing.
6 Tighten evenly the cap screws to 24,4 to 28,3 Nm
(216 to 250 lbf in).

7 Check that the armature turns freely and fit the


carbon brushes into their holders (A2). Ensure that
the carbon brushes slide freely in the holders and
tighten the retaining screws to 1,6 to 2,0 Nm (14 to
18 lbf in). Check that the wires of the carbon brushes
remain free.
8 Use a spring balance to check the springs of the
carbon brushes. Renew the springs if the loads are
not within the limits of 1,42 to 1,68 kgf (50 to 59 ozf),
when the end of each spring is held in its correct
position in accordance with the length of a new
carbon brush.
9 Spread a thin application of glycerine on the gasket
of the cover (A4), and fit the ends of the cover across
one of the ribbed sections of the yoke. Tighten the two
screws which retain the cover to 1,13 to 1,70 Nm (10
to 15 lbf in).
10 Fit the solenoid switch as given in operation 23-4.

4
1

5
2
3

12
13
14
6

7
8

A
170

10

11
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To clean

23-6

Use white spirits to clean all the components. Do NOT


dip the assembly of the pinion in the white spirits
because the special lubricant in the assembly will be
eliminated.

To inspect and to correct

23

10 Inspect the bush in the shift lever housing. If


necessary, renew the bush and machine an oil groove
which is the same as the groove in the old bush. Put
the housing in a lathe and ensure that the bore is
concentric with the location face of the shoulder. Bore
the new bush to obtain an internal diameter of 22,20
to 22,25 mm (0.874 to 0.876 in).
11 Inspect the shift lever and its shaft for wear and

23-7 damage, and check that the arrangement which


retains the shaft in the housing is usable.

1 Use an Avometer to check the resistance of the


pull-in coil and the hold-in coil. These should be 1.34
and 2.7 ohms respectively, at 20C. Renew the
solenoid switch if the coils are defective.
2 Inspect the yoke assembly and the field windings,
and also the starter motor housings for damage. Use
suitable equipment to check the insulation of the field
windings and to check that the continuity is not
broken. Renew the complete assembly of the yoke
and the field windings if any winding is defective.
3 Inspect the armature for wear and damage,
especially the splines. Check that there is no
deflection of the shaft. Renew the shaft if the run-out
exceeds 0,13 mm (0.005 in).

12 Check that the contactor disc is not burnt and that


there is no erosion. If necessary, clean the contact
face with smooth emery paper, or machine only the
minimum material from the contact face: a maximum
of 0,5 mm (0.002 in). If the erosion exceeds this limit,
the contactor disc must be renewed.
13 Check the contact faces on the heads of the
terminals. Renew the terminals if they are burnt or if
there is erosion.
14 Inspect the assembly of the pinion. Renew the
assembly if the components have excessive wear or
damage.

4 Use suitable equipment to check that the continuity


and insulation of the armature windings are not
broken. The commutator should have a polished dark
copper finish. Check that the run-out of the
commutator is within 0,08 mm (0.003 in). If the
armature is generally acceptable, the surface of the
commutator may be corrected. Remove only the
minimum material from the face. The final diameter
MUST NOT be less than 52,375 mm (2.063 in).
5 Use a growler and a 230 volt test lamp to check the
armature for earthing, continuity and open circuits.
6 Test the insulation of the carbon brush holders, and
renew the carbon brushes if there is damage or wear.
The minimum permissible length of the carbon
brushes is 15,9 mm (0.625 in).
7 Inspect the bushes in the end cover of the
commutator and in the pinion housing. If there are
indications of wear, use a 13/16 in BSF tapered tap as
a puller to withdraw the old bushes. Press in the new
bushes.
8 Use the measurements of the old bush to machine
a groove in the new bush which aligns with the
lubricator wick.
9 Put the end cover, or the pinion housing, in a lathe
and ream the new bush to obtain an internal diameter
of 19,100 to 19,152 mm (0.752 to 0.754 in). Ensure
that there is concentricity of the bore with the location
face of the shoulder.

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23

To test

23-8

Caution: Ensure that the 24 volt electrical supply is


connected to the correct terminals and that the
insulation on the connection wires is not damaged.
1 Connect a 24 volt supply to terminals 1 and 3, push
back the pinion assembly and, using a 4,76 mm
(0.187 in) gauge, check the clearance between the
pinion front face and its thrust washers (A). Adjust, as
necessary, by turning the shift lever using the special
tool (described in operation 23-4) as shown (B), with
the switch de-energised. Do NOT leave the switch
energised for more than 30 seconds.
Caution: Adjustments must not be made while the
solenoid is energised. Do NOT energise the solenoid
for more than 30 seconds.

330

331

55

2 Replace the rubber plug in the solenoid switch, fit


both jumper leads and apply a few drops of SAE 5W/
20 oil to each of the three lubricating points (C).
3 Test the solenoid switch for correct operating
sequence, as follows:
Fit a locally manufactured solid distance piece to the
pinion shaft to retain the drive - to prevent the pinion
gear from moving axially. Connect a 24 volt supply
across terminals 1 and 3, and check with an Avometer
that no reading is recorded between terminals 2 and
3 (D).

To fit the main starter cables

23-9

Caution: The main positive (red) starter cable is


fitted to the terminal on the solenoid switch and the
main negative (black) starter cable is fitted to the
terminal on the end cover of the starter motor.
1 Fit the lugs of the relevant cables to the two
terminals. Ensure that the polarity of the cables is
correct and fit the locking washers and the lock nuts,
or the stiffnuts if relevant.
2 Hold a 19 mm (0.75 in) A/F spanner on the inner lock
nuts to ensure that they do not move while the outer
nuts are tightened to 25 to 30 lbf ft (34 Nm to 41 Nm)
with a suitable torque wrench.

1 Switch
2 Battery
Hold in
Pull in

D
172

4 Switch

VIEW ON COMMUTATOR END


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23

Engine stop solenoid


1

Description

The solenoid switch is mounted on the side of the fuel


injection pump. It is used in the energised-to-run
mode and is connected to the governor stop control
lever.
When it is energised, the dual circuits in the solenoid
activate a plunger which moves the stop control lever
to the RUN position.
A pull-in coil draws the plunger until the internal switch
contacts open. This breaks the circuit of the pull-in coil
and leaves a low-consumption hold-in coil energised
to retain the stop lever in the RUN position.

334

135

When the stop solenoid is de-energised, a coil spring


returns the plunger to its rest position and the stop
control lever to STOP. This occurs when the STOP
button is pressed, when an engine protection device
breaks the circuit or as the result of an electrical
failure.

How to adjust the linkage

23-10

To enable the solenoid to energise in the shortest


possible time, the linkage must be adjusted as
follows:
1 Disconnect the electrical supply, slacken the lock
nut (A3) and rotate the rod (A2) until the linkage is
disconnected.

2 Connect a 24 volt DC supply of electricity and


energise the solenoid. Ensure that the connections
are fitted to the correct positions. The red wire is
positive, the black wire is negative and the grey wire
is for the indicator.
Note: During the application of electric current to the
solenoid, ensure that the plunger is located correctly
in the solenoid body (B).
3 Ensure that the linkage is fitted to the control lever
(C3). Energise the solenoid and move the stop control
lever (C3) to the maximum RUN position (toward the
solenoid).

3
136

4 Hold the lever at this position and adjust the lock nut
(C1) until its rear face is level with the front of the rod
(C2) as shown. Ensure that the lock nut is not
moved from this position on the thread.
5 Connect the linkage to the solenoid and rotate the
rod (C2) until it reaches the lock nut. Hold the lock nut
with a suitable spanner and tighten the rod securely
against the lock nut.
6 Energise and de-energise the solenoid to check the
operation.

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24
Auxiliary equipment

24

Compressor
Description
Certain engines may be fitted with a compressor. The
compressor will be one of two types: a single cylinder
version for early engines, or a twin cylinder version for
new 2000 series engines.
The single cylinder compressor is a 293 cc water
cooled unit flange mounted to the rear of the
wheelcase backplate. It is gear driven from the
camshaft at 1.212 times engine speed.
The twin cylinder compressor is a 440 cc water cooled
unit flange mounted to the rear of the wheelcase
backplate. It is gear driven from the camshaft at 1.212
times engine speed.

336

If the compressor requires an overhaul, it is advisable


to fit a reconditioned unit. These are available from
authorised Perkins dealers.

To remove and to fit

24-1

To remove
1 Using a 5/16 in allen key remove the hydraulic pump
and coupling, where fitted, from the rear of the
compressor.
2 Drain the engine coolant into a suitable clean
container.
3 Disconnect and remove the rubber coolant pipe
from between the compressor and the crankcase.
4 Remove the compressor air intake filter assembly,
or disconnect the air intake pipe from the induction
system (whichever is fitted).
5 Unscrew the steel coolant pipe from the front of the
compressor cylinder head. Do NOT bend the pipe.
6 Disconnect the oil feed pipe, free it from its clips,
and remove it from the engine.
7 Unscrew the three compressor securing nuts and
washers.
8 Support and carefully withdraw the compressor (A).
Discard the gasket.

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24
To fit

1 If the drive gear has been removed, either refit the


original gear or fit a new gear, as required.
Caution: On certain applications the compressor is
fitted with a balanced crankshaft. These units are
identified with alignment marks on both the crankshaft
end and the drive gear. To ensure that these marks
are correctly aligned on assembly, refer to operation
24-2.
2 Clean both joint faces and fit a new gasket over the
three compressor mounting bolts.
3 Slide the compressor into position ensuring that it
engages with the camshaft gear. Fit the nuts and
washers and tighten securely.
4 Fit and secure the oil feed pipe and the two coolant
pipes.
5 Fit the air intake filter assembly or connect the pipe
to the induction system (whichever is fitted).
6 Refill the engine cooling system with coolant.
7 Where necessary, fit the hydraulic pump and
coupling.

176

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Compressor gear alignment

24

24-2

The following procedure is necessary for marking the


compressor crankshaft for gear alignment when this
has not been completed during manufacture, and
also for ensuring correct drive gear to crankshaft
alignment during reassembly.
1 View the compressor crankshaft from the threaded
drive end. Looking through the mounting flange cast
slots (A1) rotate the crankshaft until the balance
weight is at Bottom Dead Centre (BDC). This is
confirmed by ensuring that the balance weight cheeks
are equally displaced below the horizontal centreline
on both sides looking through the slots.

BDC

175

2 With the machined base of the compressor


crankcase sitting on a flat surface check that the
machined tongue (B1) on the non-threaded
crankshaft end lies horizontally. Scribe a vertical line
centrally on the crankshaft threaded end from the
centreline to BDC (A).

Check again that the crankshaft machined tongue lies


horizontally.
Lightly centre punch a dot at BDC on the vertical
scribed line (A) at approximately 6.0 mm radius.
3 Before fitting the compressor drive gear ensure that
both the crankshaft taper and the gear bore are
thoroughly clean and free from oil.

176

Place the gear on the taper shaft and align the


crankshaft dot mark (C1) with the dot on the gear end
face (C2) so that the gear balance weight is also at
BDC.
Fit the gear retaining washer, lightly oil the threads
of the nut and tighten it to a torque of 180 20 Nm
(132 14 lbf ft). For new 2000 series engines the nut
should be tightened to between 200 and 250 Nm (148
to 184 lbf ft).

Check that the dot marks on both the crankshaft and


the gear remain correctly aligned.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

177

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25
Running-in and test

25

General description
Every new or reconditioned engine which is supplied
by Perkins Engines Limited is run and tested before it
is received by the customer. There is no requirement
for the running-in of the engine when it is initially in
use, but it is recommended that the engine is
operated in accordance with the instructions which
are given in section 3 of the Users Handbook TSD
3215.
A period of running-in, which is relevant to the rating
of the engine, should be done in accordance with the
instructions given below when:
z

A 2000 series engine has had a complete


overhaul.

The engine has been built with the use of a long


engine, which consists of an assembly of the basic
components which are new or which have been
reconditioned - the crankcase, the cylinder liners,
the crankshaft, the connecting rods, the pistons
and the cylinder heads.

A partial overhaul has used new cylinder liners,


new piston rings and new bearings.

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25

Running-in and test


To run the engine

25-1

Caution: Before the engine is run, ensure that the


temporary lubricating oil filters, part number
OE43712, are fitted to the oil inlet in the bearing
housing of each turbocharger. The filters MUST be
removed and discarded when the total period of
running-in is finished; before the engine goes into
service, the correct joints must be fitted in their
places.
1 Prepare the engine as given in section 3 of the
Users Handbook TSD 3215.
2 Start the engine and run it without a load. Check
that the oil pressure is correct. Inspect the lubricating
oil system and the coolant system for leakage and
then stop the engine.
3 Correct all leakage and add more lubricating oil and
coolant, if necessary, to the correct levels. The
schedule for the running-in of a 2000 series engine
rated at 1500 rev/min, 1800 rev/min or 2100 rev/min
is given below:
Phase

Rev/min

Load or power
rating

Period
(minutes)

Rated speed Min load

Rated speed 25% of max load

10

Rated speed 50% of max load

10

Rated speed 75% of max load

10

Rated speed Max load

10

4 It is possible to overload the engine during phase 5


and, to prevent this, the load and the speed must be
checked at the start of the period. During the runningin, if there is excessive noise or vibration, the cause
should be found. The engine should be checked for
leakage of fluids. If there are leakages, they must be
corrected after the running-in is finished.
The engine must only be stopped at the end of a
period, or if there is an emergency.
5 When the schedule is finished and the running-in
has been acceptable, check the consumption rate of
the engine lubricating oil, operation 25-2.

180

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25

To check the consumption rate of the engine


lubricating oil
25-2

The method for the calculation of the consumption


rate of the engine lubricating oil, when the weights of
the oil are in pounds (lb), is as follows:

The check given below is suitable for an engine which


is rated at 1500 rev/min or 1800 rev/min.

Initial weight of the oil - final weight = litres/hour


2.2

1 Ensure that the level of the engine lubricating oil is


exactly to the H mark on the dipstick.

An acceptable consumption rate will not exceed 1,02


litres/hour.

2 Run the engine at its rated speed and power until


the normal temperatures of the coolant and the
engine lubricating oil are reached:
Coolant temperature at outlet 68/85C
Engine lubricating oil 90/105C
3 Run the engine at the minimum load for two
minutes. Stop the engine and check the level of the
engine lubricating oil on the dipstick. Fill with new
engine lubricating oil to the H mark if necessary.
4 Drain immediately the engine lubricating oil from
the sump and from the heat exchanger into separate
containers for exactly 20 minutes. The heat
exchanger should be drained through the lowest
point, which is the drain plug in the end of the housing.
5 Measure separately the weight of each container
with its contents and make a record of the weights.
6 Fit the drain plugs in the sump and the heat
exchanger and return the original engine lubricating
oil to the sump. Measure the weight of the empty
containers and make a record of the weight.
7 Find the difference in the weight of the containers
when with and without the lubricating oil. This will give
the total weight of the lubricating oil. Make a record of
this total.
8 Run the engine at its rated speed with 90% of the
maximum load, for two hours.
Caution: If the engine is stopped during this phase,
the test must be started again from paragraph 1.
9 At the end of the two hours, continue to run the
engine without load for two more minutes. Stop the
engine and repeat the procedures given in
paragraphs 4, 5, 6 and 7.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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26
List of special tools

26

These tools are available from your local Perkins


Distributor.
If you cannot obtain the correct tool locally contact
Perkins Parts Limited, Frank Perkins Way, North
Bank Industrial Park, Irlam, Manchester M30.

Perkins Engines Company Limited

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26

Special tools
A new range of numbers have been allocated to the tools used on Perkins engines. The tables in this section
include all of the tools listed in the workshop manual. The additional number, in brackets below each special
tool number, is the number by which the tool was previously available.
Number

Description

21825 739
(GA5000)

Valve spring compressor

21825 742
(GA5000-3)

Valve spring compressor adaptor


Use with 21825 739 (GA5000)

21825 743
(GA5000-4)

Valve spring compressor adaptor


Use with 21825 739 (GA5000)

21825 748
(GA5003)

Valve guide reamer (inlet/exhaust)

21825 752
(GA5007)

Valve guide adaptor

184

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 754
(GA5009)

Valve face gauge

21825 763
(GA5018)

Valve guide replacer

21825 764
(GA5019)

Valve guide seal replacer

21825 782
(GA5031)

Piston crown checking gauge

21825 784
(GA5033)

Piston replacer sleeve

21825 786
(GA5035)

Dial gauge and holder

Perkins Engines Company Limited

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 787
(GA5035-1)

Check plate for cylinder liners


Use with 21825 786 (GA5035)

21825 790
(GA5037)

Remover tool for cylinder liners

21825 791
(GA5038)

Holder - cylinder liner recess cutter

21825 792
(GA5038-1)

Cylinder liner recess cutter


Use with 21825 791 (GA5038)

21825 793

Ring expander

21825 800
(GA5047)

Cylinder head to crankcase bobbin remover

186

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 802
(GA5050)

Flywheel guide stud

21825 805
(GA5053)

Camshft bearing remover

21825 806
(GA5054)

Main bearing cap remover

21825 807
(GA5055)

Crankshaft hub nut spanner

21825 812
(GA5061)

Sump guide stud

21825 814
(GA5063)

Small end bush remover/replacer

Perkins Engines Company Limited

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 816
(GA5066)

Cylinder head lifting bar

21825 817
(GA5067)

Flywheel lifting bracket

21825 821
(GA5071)

Engine lifting beam

21825 823
(GA5073)

Pressure test kit

21825 825
(GA5074)

Filter wrench

21825 826
(GA5075)

Internal bore gauge

188

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 837
(GA5090)

Puller

21825 838
(GA5090-1)

Adaptor bolts
Use with 21825 837 (GA5090)

21825 841
(GA5091)

Valve seat refacing tool

21825 844

Cylinder liner retainers

21825 846
(GA5095)

Torque wrench 8 to 54 Nm (5 to 40 lbf ft)

21825 848
(GA5098)

Torque wrench 150 to 700 Nm (100 to 500 lbf ft)

Perkins Engines Company Limited

Illustration

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26
Number

Description

21825 849
(GA5100)

Slide hammer

21825 855

Remover tool for cup plugs


(Use with 21825 849)

21825 860
(GA5100-11)

Adaptor
Use with 21825 739 (GA5100)

21825 861
(GA5101)

Drive

21825 865
(GA5101-4)

Core plug replacer kit


Use with 21825 861 (GA5101)

21825 869
(GA5101-8)

Insert insertion tool


Use with 21825 861 (GA5101)

190

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 899
(GA5143)

Coolant pump water seal replacer

21825 902
(GA5148A)

Lapping tool, cylinder liner flange

21825 903
(GA5149)

Coolant pump oil seal replacer

21825 904
(GA5150)

Coolant pump bearingseal replacer

21825 908
(GA5164)

Injector sleeve remover/replacer wrench

21825 909
(GA5165)

Tool holder for face cutter and reamer

Perkins Engines Company Limited

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 914
(GA5170)

Fuel injector remover

21825 922
(GA5909)

Fuel injector sleeve extractor

21825 924
(GA5911)

Torque angle gauge

21825 991

Torque wrench 30 to 150 Nm (20 to 110 lbf ft)

21825 992
(GA5097)

Torque wrench 70 to 310 Nm (50 to 230 lbf ft)

21825 993
(GA5099)

Engine build stand

192

Illustration

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Number

Description

21825 999

Reaming jig

27610 006

Sump plug adaptor

27610 007

Oil seal replacer

Perkins Engines Company Limited

Illustration

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