ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Islam and the Prophet of Peace By Fazlur Rahman Khan

Translated: Mir Mahboob Ali

1

TRANSLATED FROM BENGALI ‗SHANTIR NABI‘ OF FAZLUR RAHMAN KHAN BY MIR MAHBOOB ALI

GOD SAYS IN AL-QUR‘ÄN:
1.

Say, ‘O men! I am sent Unto you all, as the Apostle Of God,’ (AlQur’än – 7: 158). God hath chosen him above you, and hath gifted him abundantly with knowledge and bodily prowess: (Al-Qur’än - 2: 247). We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures (Al-Qur’än - 21: 107). You have indeed in the Apostle of God a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in God and the Final Day, and who engages much in pthe raise of God (Al-Qur’än - 33: 21). And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character (Al-Qur’än 68: 4). There hath come to you From God a (new) light And a perspicuous Book (Al-Qur’än - 5:17). Verily thou art one of the Apostles (Al-Qur’än - 2: 252). O Prophet! Truly We have sent thee as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and a Warner, - and as one who invites To God’s (Grace) by His leave, and as a Lamp spreading Light. (Al-Qur’än - 33: 45-46). God and His Angels Send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, And salute him With all respect (Al-Qur’än - 33:56). Say : If ye do love God Follow me: God will love you And forgive you your sins: (Al-Qur’än - 3: 31).

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10.

THE PROPHET (PBUH) SAYS:
My words are laws for you, my examples are your ideals, and my life is the expression of the Truth.
TRANSLATED FROM BENGALI ‗SHANTIR NABI‘ OF FAZLUR RAHMAN KHAN BY MIR MAHBOOB ALI

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Table of Contents
Chapter I .................................................................................................................................... 1 LA ILAHA ILLALLAHU (THERE IS NO GOD, BUT ALLAH) ......................................................... 1 MUHAMMADUR RASULULLAH: .............................................................................................. 2 Prophet of the Jinni and Humankind: Muhammad (PBUH): 4 Unique Personality: .................................................................................................... 5 Phenomenal: ............................................................................................................... 5 Messenger of Peace Muhammad (PBUH): ................................................................. 5 THE GREATEST PROPHET IS GRANTED AN AUDIENCE WITH GOD........................................... 7 PARACLETE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH) ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT: .......................... 7 HIS SALAAM DESCENDS ON THE PROPHET ............................................................................. 8 MUHAMMAD (PBUH) IN THE ANCIENT SCRIPTURES .............................................................. 9 The Promised Prophet: 9 Hinduism: 9 Prophecies in the Atharva Veda: .............................................................................. 13 The Kuntap Sukt in Atharva Veda: .......................................................................... 13 The First Mantra:...................................................................................................... 13 The Blessed Name of the Prophet: ........................................................................... 14 He Will Be Safe Among His Foes: ........................................................................... 14 The Camel-rider Rishi: ............................................................................................. 14 Wives of the Prophet: ............................................................................................... 15 The Prophet‘s Ascension: ......................................................................................... 15 The Gold Coins: ....................................................................................................... 15 The Ten Chaplets: .................................................................................................... 16 Three Hundred Good Steeds: ................................................................................... 16 The Ten Thousand Cows:......................................................................................... 17 Muhammad In Shloka 5:27:1 In Rig Veda: .............................................................. 17 Zoroastrianism 18 Buddhism 18 The Last Buddha Maitreya: ...................................................................................... 19 Characteristics of Buddha: ....................................................................................... 19 Characteristics of Maitreya Buddha: ........................................................................ 20 Confucianism: 22 Judaism: 22 Christianity: 23 Jesus Christ: ............................................................................................................. 24 Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) In the Bible: ................................................................ 24 Muhammad (PBUH): A Prophet Like Musa (Moses): ............................................. 24 The King of Glory Muhammad (PBUH): ................................................................. 25 Migration (Hijrat) Of Muhammad (PBUH).............................................................. 26 Muhammad (PBUH) Arrives with Ten Thousand Companions: .............................. 27 Judge Muhammad (PBUH): The Last Prophet: ........................................................ 27 Muhammad (PBUH) - The Terminator Of Idolatry: ................................................. 28 Muhammad (PBUH) -The Modern Warrior: Destroyer of Idols: ............................. 29 The Son of Man – Destroyer of Evil: Muhammad (PBUH): .................................... 29 Al-Amin: Muhammad (PBUH): ............................................................................... 31 NON-MUSLIM THINKERS AND SCHOLARS ON MUHAMMAD (PBUH).................................... 32 Dr. Ved Prakash Upadhaya: 32 Professor Asit Kumar Bandapadhaya: 33 II

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE Mahatma Gandhi: The Father of Modern India: Napoleon Bonaparte: The Emperor of France: Pundit Jawaherlal Nehru: Sir Radha Krishnan: Professor KS Rama Krishna Rao: The Great Hindu Savant MN Roy: Sarojini Naidu: Tulshi Das: Acharya Prafulla Chandra Roy: Rev. Mahendra Nath: Pandit Dharmananda Mahabharati: Pandit Gopal Chandra Shastri: Bhai Girish Chandra Sen: Swami Bibekananda: Joseph Hale: Professor Max Muller: Encyclopaedia Britannica: Goethe, The Greatest German Poet: J.W. Draper: Thomas Carlyle-A Famous Historian and Essayist: John Davenport- English Writer: George Bernard Shaw: Lord Bertrand Russell: William Muir: Historian Edward Gibbon: R.V.C. Bodley: Historian Stanley Lane-Poole: Washington Irving: Venkata Ratnam: Annie Besant: H.G. Wells: Lothrop Stoddard: Havell: Laura Veccia Vogluri: The Daily Express: W. Hunter: Dr. B. Ram Krishna Rao: Dr. John Clerk Archer: Professor Joseph Hill: Prof. Ramesh Chandra Ghosh: AC Bouquet: Selwyn Gurney and Dorothy Short: Major Arthur Glyn Leonard: C.W. Leitner: Professor C. Parameshwar: Rev. Canon Isaac Taylor: Lamartine: JD Cockbain: Lala Lajpat Rai: TL Vaswani: Edward A. Farmer: E. Royston Pike: III 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 45 45 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 51 51 52 53

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE NON-MUSLIM SCHOLARS ON ISLAM: ISLAMIC LAW AND CONSTITUTION: ........................... 53 Robert Hough Wont Jackson: 53 Professor Joseph Schacht: 54 V. Fitzerald: 54 Professor Henry Cattan: 54 Professor Thomas Arnold: 54 Joules Messermann: 55 MUHAMMAD (PBUH) IN THE BOOK ‗THE HUNDRED‘: ......................................................... 55 Chapter II ................................................................................................................................. 57 MECCAN PERIOD .................................................................................................................. 57 Birth: 57 Father‘s Death: 57 Wet Nurse: 57 Mother‘s Death: 58 Slave Umme-Aymon (RA): 58 Death of Grandfather: 58 Childhood: 59 Life at Abu Talib‘s House, Journeys: 59 Experiences Of Early Life, Guidance For Later Life: 59 Okâz Fare: 60 Hilful Fudhul: 61 Marriage with Bibi Khadija (Radiallahu-Anha): 62 Livelihood: 63 Restoration Of The Ka‘aba (House Of The Lord): 63 The First Step to Abolish Slavery: 64 Dedication to Human Welfare Worldwide: 64 Revelation of the First Divine Message: 65 Promotion of Education among Muslims: 66 Beginning Of Islam: Introduction of Salat (Prayers): 67 Declaration: Quraish Hostility and Reprisals on New Believers: 67 Quraish Temptation & Threat: Unwavering Abu Talib: 69 The First And Second Hijrat To Abyssinia: 70 Hamza (RA) and Omar‘s (RA) Ordination in Islam: 70 The Valley of Shiabay: 71 Death of Abu Talib and Ummul Muminin Khadija (RA): 72 Renewed Persecution by the Pagan Quraish: 73 Journey to Tayef to Preach: Persecution by Tayefians: 73 Muhammad‘s (PBUH) Second And The Third Marriages: 74 Me‘räj and Introduction of Salat (Prayers): 74 The First Pledge of Aqaba: 77 The Second Pledge of Aqaba and Preparation for Migration (Hijrat): 78 Return of Amanats (Entrusted Deposits): Hijrat: 79 Chapter III ............................................................................................................................... 80 MEDINEASE PERIOD ............................................................................................................. 81 The First Hegira 81 Medïna before the Arrival of Muhammad (PBUH): ................................................. 81 Historic Medïna: 82 Arrival in Medïna: Reaching Kobba and Building the First Mosque: 84 Reception at Medïna: ............................................................................................... 84 Settlement at Medïna and Arrival of Families from Mecca: ..................................... 84

IV

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE Reminiscence and Thanks Giving: ........................................................................... 85 Establishment of Masjidun Nabubi and Azan: ......................................................... 85 Muhajirun (Migrants) and Ansars (Helpers): ........................................................... 86 Foundation of an Islamic State and the Caliphate:.................................................... 86 Medïna Sanad (Pact of Medïna) and Establishment of Inter-Community Peace: ..... 88 Expansion of Education in Medinease Males and Females: ..................................... 89 Administration: ........................................................................................................ 90 Conspiracy of the Enemy: Recourse to Arms for Defense: ...................................... 91 Change of Qibla: ...................................................................................................... 93 The Second Hegira: 93 The Battle of Badr: ................................................................................................... 93 Hazrat Fatima‘s (RA) Marriage and Introduction of Fasting: ................................... 96 The Third Hegira: 96 Battle of Ohud: ......................................................................................................... 96 The Fourth Hegira: 99 Betrayal by the Idolaters at Rajee and Beer-e-Mowna: ............................................ 99 Reason of the Jewish Hostility: .............................................................................. 100 The Fifth Hegira: 101 Defiance of Charter and Rebellion by the Jewish: .................................................. 101 The Last Bid of Abu Sufiyan: The Battle of Khandaq (Ditch): ............................. 102 The Sixth Hegira: 105 Hudaibiya Pact: ...................................................................................................... 105 Benefits of Hudaibiya:...................................................................................... 106 Conversion of Khalid Bin Walid and Amr Bin Äs: ................................................ 107 Deputation to Other Countries: .............................................................................. 107 Marriage with Umme-Habiba (RA): ...................................................................... 109 The Seventh Hegira: 109 The Battle of Khaibar: ............................................................................................ 109 A Jewish Woman Poisons the Prophet (PBUH): .................................................... 110 Pilgrimage (Hajj):................................................................................................... 110 The Eight Hegira: 111 The Battle of Muta: ................................................................................................ 111 The Conquest of Mecca:......................................................................................... 112 Conversion of Abu Sufiyan: ................................................................................... 113 Entering Mecca and Declaration of General Amnesty: .......................................... 114 The Battle of Hunaian: ........................................................................................... 115 The Siege of Tayef: ................................................................................................ 116 The Ninth Hegira: 116 The Expedition of Tabuk:....................................................................................... 116 Usury Prohibited and Introduction of Zakat (Regular Charity): ............................. 117 The Tenth Hegira: 118 The Farewell Pilgrimage: ....................................................................................... 118 The Farewell Sermon: ...................................................................................... 119 Descent of the Last Divine Message (Wahy): ........................................................ 120 Apostle‘s Address at Gadir-e-Kham and Admiration of Ali (RA): 121 Return to Medïna: 123 Mission Completed: ............................................................................................... 123 The Eleventh Hegira: ............................................................................................. 124 Death: ..................................................................................................................... 124 The Last Khutba (Sermon) of the Prophet (PBUH): (delivered in the Masjidunnabubi): ......................................................................................................................... 124 Chapter IV.............................................................................................................................. 128 V

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE MUHAMMAD‘S PERSONALITY: ........................................................................................... 128 Divine Revelations: ................................................................................................ 128 Physique, Dress, Food Habits, Preferences and Behavior: ..................................... 128 Exchanges of Gifts: ................................................................................................ 130 Alms:...................................................................................................................... 130 Exchanging Greetings: ........................................................................................... 130 Fellowship with the Companions: .......................................................................... 131 Obedience of God: ................................................................................................. 131 Equality of Status: .................................................................................................. 131 Household Management:........................................................................................ 132 Lifestyle: ................................................................................................................ 133 Relatives‘ Perception of Muhammad (PBUH): ...................................................... 133 Worshiping (Ibadah): ............................................................................................. 136 Patience and Tenacity: ........................................................................................... 138 Benevolence: .......................................................................................................... 140 Equality: ................................................................................................................. 141 Spartan Life:........................................................................................................... 142 Reliance on God: .................................................................................................... 146 Self-control: Compassion: Magnanimity and Forgiveness: .................................... 147 Devout Companions: 152 Multi-faceted Philosophy: 154 Chapter V ............................................................................................................................... 161 ISLAMIC SYSTEM OF EDUCATION ....................................................................................... 161 The First Student of the World: 161 THE FRAMEWORK: ............................................................................................................. 161 The First Ordinance of God: 161 The Holy Qur‘än on Acquiring Knowledge: 162 SOME IMPORTANT SAYINGS OF MUHAMMAD (PBUH) ON EDUCATION:............................. 164 NECESSITY OF STUDYING THE QUR‘ÄN .............................................................................. 165 MUHAMMAD (PBUH): THE TEACHER: ............................................................................... 170 NEED OF EDUCATION AT THE BEGINNING OF ISLAM: ......................................................... 173 LESSONS TO SERVE THE HUMANITY:.................................................................................. 174 APPOINTMENT OF SCRIBES: EXPANSION OF EDUCATION .................................................... 175 HAZRAT ALI‘S DISCOURSE ................................................................................................. 177 COMMENTS OF DR. MAURICE BUCAILLE ............................................................................ 179 No Man Can Write A Book Like The Holy Qur‘än: 179 DISCOVERIES OF NON-MUSLIM SCIENTISTS: ...................................................................... 182 THE HOLY QUR‘ÄN - A TREASURE OF KNOWLEDGE: ......................................................... 183 NEED OF EDUCATION AND KNOWLEDGE: ........................................................................... 186 THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY: ............................................................ 188 ISLAMIC EDUCATION SYSTEM: ........................................................................................... 191 SCIENCE IN ISLAM: ............................................................................................................. 192 THE FEATURES OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION ............................................................................ 193 Astronomy and Mathematics: 197 Geography and Mapping: 198 Medicine: 198 Chemistry and Physics: 199 Botany: Agriculture and Horticulture 199 ILLITERACY AND IGNORANCE: ........................................................................................... 199 EXAMPLES OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN THE MUSLIM WORLD: ........................................... 200 The Role of Saudi Arabia: 201

VI

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University: Riyadh: 202 EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS ............................................................................. 202 CONCLUSION: ..................................................................................................................... 204 Chapter VI.............................................................................................................................. 206 STATUS OF WOMEN IN ISLAM ............................................................................................. 206 Men and Women: 206 WOMEN IN OTHER RELIGIONS:........................................................................................... 207 Women in Hinduism: 207 Women and the Roman Civilization: 210 Women in Buddhism: 210 Women in Judaism: 211 Women in Christianity: 211 WOMEN IN ARAB HEATHEN RELIGION: .............................................................................. 216 WOMEN AT THE ADVENT OF ISLAM: .................................................................................. 217 REBUTTAL OF ALLEGATIONS AGAINST EVE: ...................................................................... 219 PLACE OF WOMEN ACCORDING TO THE QUR‘ÄN AND AHADITH: ...................................... 219 Veil (Hizab) in Islam: 222 MARRIAGE IN ISLAM: ......................................................................................................... 224 Dowry (Mehr) In Islam: 225 Rights of Wives in Islam: 227 PHYSICAL INABILITY OF WOMEN: ...................................................................................... 228 Menstruation: 228 Menopause: 231 Gynecologist Dr. Sudeep Chakravarty: .................................................................. 231 Nervous and Mental Symptoms: ............................................................................ 232 Symptoms in the Stomach and Duodenum: ............................................................ 232 Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessels: ................................................................. 232 Genital Condition: .................................................................................................. 232 Other Symptoms: ................................................................................................... 232 HUSBAND WIFE RELATIONSHIP AND DUTIES: .................................................................... 233 Kind Hearted Women: 233 POLYGAMY IN ISLAM: ........................................................................................................ 237 NON-MUSLIM THINKERS‘ SUPPORT FOR POLYGAMY: ........................................................ 239 DIVORCE OR ANNULMENT OF MARRIAGE IN ISLAM: .......................................................... 240 MUSLIM WOMEN‘S CONTRIBUTION TO THE WORLD: ......................................................... 241 MODERN WOMEN IN THE EAST AND THE WEST: ................................................................ 250 Chapter VII ............................................................................................................................ 252 WIVES OF THE PROPHET (PBUH) ....................................................................................... 253 PRE-ISLAMIC ERA: ............................................................................................................. 254 THE PIOUS CONSORTS OF MUHAMMAD (PBUH): ............................................................... 256 WIVES OF THE PROPHET (PBUH) AT A GLANCE:................................................................ 257 Hazrat Khadijatul-Kubra (RA): 258 Hazrat Shawda Bint Jomaa (RA): 261 Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqa (RA): 263 Hazrat Hafsa (RA): 269 Hazrat Joynab Bint Khozaima (RA): 270 Hazrat Umme-Salma (RA): 271 Hazrat Joynab Bint Jahash (RA): 272 Hazrat Juwaiera (RA): 274 Hazrat Maria Kibtia (RA): 275

VII

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE Hazrat Sofia (RA): 276 Hazrat Umme-Habiba (RA): 278 Hazrat Maimuna (RA): 279 NECESSITY OF MARRIAGES OF THE PROPHET (PBUH): ...................................................... 279 Chapter VIII .......................................................................................................................... 285 SOCIAL MANAGEMENT IN ISLAM ....................................................................................... 285 Creation of Man: The Birth: 289 The Death: 289 Fathers - Mothers: 290 Family and Relatives: 290 This Life and Hereafter: 290 Righteous Deeds: 290 The Truth and The Falsehood: 291 Trusts and Custody of Wealth: 291 Kindness: Restraint: Forgiveness: Composure And Patience: 291 Return of Trust Deposit: 293 Integrity in Business and Trade: 293 Accounting: 294 Charity and Dole: 294 Begging is an Abominable Act: 296 Prohibition of Usury: 296 Distribution of Zakat (Regular Charity): Compulsory: 297 Zakat Acts as a Social Security in Islam: ............................................................... 298 Assets (Categories): Zakat is due on: ..................................................................... 299 Nisab (Amount at which Zakat is due): ................................................................. 299 Rate of zakat: ......................................................................................................... 300 Counting Zakat-Year:............................................................................................. 300 Quantity of Zakat to be given: ................................................................................ 300 Charity and Zakat: 301 Miserliness: 302 Usury: 302 Renouncing Miserliness: 303 Punishment for Theft and Misappropriation: 303 Punishment of Adultery: 303 Justice and Neutral Testimony: 305 Commitment: Loyalty and Honesty: 306 Proscription of Illegal Income: 307 EATING HALAL AND ESCHEWING HARAM FOOD: ............................................................... 307 Halal (Permitted) Food: 307 Haram (Proscribed) Food: 308 Meat of Dead Animals: .......................................................................................... 309 Blood: .................................................................................................................... 309 Pork: ....................................................................................................................... 309 Meat of Animals that Die of Asphyxia Prohibited: ................................................ 310 Animal beaten or clubbed to Death: ....................................................................... 310 BAN ON GAMBLING AND DRINKING: .................................................................................. 313 The Holy Qur‘än about Intoxicants: 314 Benefits of Alcohol: ............................................................................................... 314 Disadvantages of Alcohol: ..................................................................................... 314 Gambling is Illegal: 315 Advantages of Gambling: ....................................................................................... 316

VIII

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE Disadvantages: ....................................................................................................... 316 RESTRAINING ARROGANCE AND PRIDE: ............................................................................. 317 TOLERANCE: ...................................................................................................................... 317 BENEVOLENCE (SERVICE TO OTHERS): .............................................................................. 318 MODESTY, HUMILITY, POLITENESS, AND SHIRKING CALUMNY: ........................................ 318 ORPHANS OR FATHERLESS CHILDREN: ............................................................................... 319 WASTEFULNESS AND EXTRAVAGANCE: ............................................................................. 320 SLANDER, CALUMNY: ........................................................................................................ 320 PRIDE: ................................................................................................................................ 320 TYRANNY: .......................................................................................................................... 321 ASSETS AND RICHES: ......................................................................................................... 321 CLEMENCY: ........................................................................................................................ 321 INDECENCY: ....................................................................................................................... 321 WEIGHT AND MEASURE: .................................................................................................... 322 FRAUD: PRETENDERS AND HYPOCRITES: ........................................................................... 322 ACTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES: ......................................................................................... 323 REPENTANCE AND PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS: ................................................................. 323 SAYINGS AND IDEALS OF THE PROPHET (PBUH):.............................................................. 324 NO CELIBACY IN ISLAM: .................................................................................................... 324 ISLAM IS NOT CONFINED TO MOSQUES: .............................................................................. 326 THE FIRST SOCIAL WELFARE ORGANIZATION OF THE WORLD: ......................................... 326 THE FIRST NURSING CORPS IN THE WORLD: ...................................................................... 328 RIGHTS OF NEIGHBORS IN ISLAM: ...................................................................................... 329 HEALTH AND HYGIENE IN ISLAM ....................................................................................... 330 TIBBUN NABI: .................................................................................................................... 332 Honey: 333 Henna (Lawsonia Alba): 333 Mustard: 333 Fenugreek (Melilotus Indica): 334 Mushroom: 334 Ginger (Officinale Rose): 334 Wheat (Titicum Vulgare): 334 Bitter Plum (Zizyphus Jujuba): 334 Bottle Gourd (Logenaria Sicararla): 335 Onion (Allium Cepa): 335 Garlic (Allium Sativum Linn): 335 Olive: 335 Barley: 335 Fennel (Nigella Sativa): 335 Sandal Wood: 336 Dates (Phoenix Sylvestris): 336 PREVENTIVE MEASURES AGAINST INFECTIOUS DISEASES: ................................................. 336 CLEANLINESS IN ISLAM: ..................................................................................................... 336 RAISING CHILDREN IN ISLAM: ............................................................................................ 339 RIGHTS OF PARENTS IN ISLAM ............................................................................................ 344 SLAVES (SERVANTS) IN ISLAM: .......................................................................................... 346 BEGINNING OF SLAVERY: ................................................................................................... 347 EMERGENCE OF SLAVERY IN ANCIENT INDIA:.................................................................... 349 CONDITION OF SLAVES AT THE ADVENT OF ISLAM: ........................................................... 351 ISLAMIC STATE‘S DECLARATION ON SLAVES: .................................................................... 352 LIBERTY: EDUCATION: SOCIO- RELIGIOUS STATUS OF SLAVES IN ISLAM: ......................... 355 SERVANTS IN THE MODERN THIRD WORLD: ...................................................................... 358 IX

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE KINDNESS TO MUTE ANIMALS: .......................................................................................... 359 ALLAH IS MERCIFUL .......................................................................................................... 360 RAHMATULLIL AL-AMIN: .................................................................................................. 360 LA ILAHA ILLALLAHU MUHAMMADUR RASULULLAH. ....................................................... 366

X

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

PART-I Chapter I
LA ILAHA ILLALLAHU (THERE IS NO GOD, BUT ALLAH)

Begin in the Name of God Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, The Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds; Most Gracious, Most Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgement, Thee do we worship, And Thine aid we seek, Show us the Straight way, The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, Those whose (portion) Is not wrath, And who go not astray. Amen! (Al- Qur‘än -1:1-7) O God! You are One, Sublime Exalted in Honor Your are the Origin, End You are You are Revealed, Concealed You are You are One, and All Knowing (Al- Qur‘än -54:3). In The Name Of Allah, the Most Exalted in Power, Most Gracious Allah the Creator of all things on earth and beyond. The Universe, the Sun, the Moon, Constellations, Stars, Supernovas, Planets their Satellites and every thing on them: Ocean, Sea, River, Stream, Mountains, Hills, Forest and Desert, Inhabited and Barren lands, Sky and things therein, Moving and Inert all things are Created by the One, and only God. Almighty God is One and only Creator and Sustainer of all things in the Worlds. Only He is eternal, deathless and permanent, and all other things are ephemeral. He is the Mightiest of the Mighty. All Angels, Jinni, Human, Animals and even inert things are His servants. He is very Kind and Magnanimous toward His Servants. If His Commands are obeyed, He Blesses the obedient. On the willful falls His wrath, which destroys him. However, the Kindness of God always takes precedence over His anger and He forgives His servants given the slightest pretext.

1

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Human is the greatest creation of God. The Almighty Has created all necessary things on earth for the comfort and enjoyment of the humankind. God has given guidelines through Muhammad (PBUH), His Prophet for enjoying all His bounties. This is a comprehensive stricture for all conceivable human activities public or private on this earth. These activities might be private, personal, public, ritualistic, economic, social, political, spiritual, national or international. The Prophet applied these rules of God in their true form in his own life and established a perfect example for all to follow. His life is a reflection of God‘s injunctions and nothing else. In public, private, national and international affairs and at war or peace, Muhammad (PBUH) never deviated from the code of Allah. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) told the people that these injunctions of God are inscribed in the Holy Qur‘än and their deliverance depend on the obedience of His strictures. They would be rewarded hereafter and live in peace and prosperity on earth, if they obeyed God‘s rules. This has been assured by the Prophet (PBUH).
MUHAMMADUR RASULULLAH: MUHAMMAD THE MESSENGER OF GOD (PBUH)

Now hath come unto you An apostle from amongst Yourselves: it grieves him That ye should perish: Ardently anxious is he Over you: to the Believers Is he most kind and merciful (Al-QUR‘ÄN 9:128).

Adam, the first Man on earth, the father of humankind, once saw ‗La Ilaha Illallahu Muhammadur Rasulullah‘ (There is no god, but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger) inscribed on the Throne of God. He asked the reason from Gabriel. Gabriel told him that the name that is inscribed along with that of Allah is none but one of Adam‘s progeny. He would descend on the earth as a Prophet of God in the last days of the earth. There would be no Prophets after him. Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of God through whom God has sent the Qur‘än with the complete code of life. Starting from the birth to the grave all actions of man has been accounted for in the Qur‘än. Instructions are given as how to live on the earth and to prepare for the hereafter.
2

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) portrayed the Qur‘än by materializing its injunctions in his activities. His life is an example of the Qur‘änic canons and their true exercise. For his votaries, the key to a blissful prosperous life is to follow him carefully in all activities. God in the Holy Qur‘än says,
1. G OD DID CONFER A GREAT FAVOR O N THE B ELIEVERS W HEN H E SENT AMONG THEM A N A POSTLE FROM AMONG T HEMSELVES , REHEARSING U NTO THEM THE S IGNS O F G OD , SANCTIFYING THEM , A ND INSTRUCTING THEM I N S CRIPTURE AND W ISDOM , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:164). A ND W E HAVE SENT DOWN U NTO THEE ( ALSO ) THE M ESSAGE ; T HAT THOU MAYEST EXPLAIN CLEARLY T O MEN WHAT IS SENT F OR THEM , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:44). ... AND W E HAVE SENT DOWN T O THEE THE B OOK EXPLAINING A LL THINGS , A G UIDE , A M ERCY, A ND G LAD T IDINGS TO M USLIMS (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:89). W E HAVE INDEED I N THE A POSTLE OF G OD A BEAUTIFUL PATTERN ( OF CONDUCT ) F OR ANY ONE WHOSE HOPE IS I N G OD AND THE F INAL D AY, A ND WHO ENGAGES MUCH I N THE PRAISE OF G OD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33:21). O P ROPHET ! T RULY, W E H AVE SENT THEE AS A W ITNESS , A B EARER O F G LAD T IDINGS , A ND A WARNER , - A ND AS ONE WHO INVITE S T O G OD ‘ S (G RACE ) BY H IS LEAVE , A ND AS A L AMP S PREADING L IGHT (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33:45-46). N OR DOES HE SAY ( AUGHT ) O F ( HIS OWN ) D ESIRE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 53:3). H E WAS TAUGHT BY ONE M IGHTY IN P OWER (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 53:5). E NDUED WITH W ISDOM : F OR HE APPEARED (I N STATELY FORM ) W HILE HE WAS IN T HE HIGHEST PART O F THE HOR IZON : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 53:6).

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

From all these it can easily be inferred that God Has taught Muhammad (PBUH) directly. As the Prophet has learned his lessons under the direct guidance of his Creator, there was no need for him to go through the process of temporal education. He attained perfection in Knowledge and Wisdom through Divine superintendence and guidance. Therefore, his education was complete, impeccable and perfect. Under the Divine Guidance of the Supreme Lord, Muhammad (PBUH) acquired knowledge of the highest order in all the branches of learning and became the Teacher of the supreme caliber for the humankind. At the head of all the learned, he taught the people, enlightening their hearts with the eternal light of knowledge and wisdom. The blazing light of his lessons has been illuminating the world and would keep on doing so till the end. Only by adhering to the teachings of the last Prophet, people would live in peace, harmony and blissful prosperity.

3

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

The Master of the Worlds granted universality to Muhammad (PBUH), in a way that he never done in the case of other prophets. In the special epithets that God used for prophets like: Safiullah for Adam, Nabiullah for Noah, Khalilullah for Abraham, Jabiullah for Ishmael, Kalimullah for Moses and Ruhullah for Jesus, do not denote universality. None but Muhammad (PBUH) is described and addressed as: ―Muhammadur Rasulullah (Muhammad is the Apostle of God; Al-Qur‘än - 48:29),‖ and ―O Apostle!‖ (Al-Qur‘än - 5:70), in the Holy Qur‘än. Furthermore, at different chapters and verses God discussed and described other prophets as:
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. W E SENT N OAH TO HIS PEOPLE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:59). T O THE Ä D PEOPLE , (W E SENT ) H ÜD , ONE O F THEIR ( OWN ) BRETHREN (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:65). T O THE T HAMÜD PEOPLE , (W E SENT ) S ÄLIH , ONE O F THEIR ( OWN ) BRETHREN (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:73). T O THE M ADYAN PEOPLE W E SENT S HU ‘ AIB , ONE O F THEIR OWN BRETHREN (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:85). W E SENT M OSES WITH O UR S IGNS (A ND THE COMMAND ). ‗B RING OUT T HY PEOPLE FROM THE DEPTHS O F DARKNESS INTO LIGH T ‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 14:5). A ND ( APPOINTED HIM : J ESUS ) A N APOSTLE TO THE C HILDREN O F I SRAEL (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:49). W E HAVE NOT SENT THEE B UT AS A UNIVERSAL (M ESSENGER ) T O MEN , GIVING THEM G LAD TIDINGS , AND WARNING THEM (A GAINST SIN ) (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 34:28). T HERE HATH COME TO YO U F ROM G OD A ( NEW ) LIGHT A ND A PERSPICUOUS B OOK (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:17). T HESE ARE THE S IGNS O F G OD : WE REHEARSE THEM T O THEE IN TRUTH : VERILY T HOU ART ONE OF THE A POSTLES (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:252).

14.

About Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) God said:
15.

16. 17.

In this manner, God granted Muhammad (PBUH) universality and made him the Prophet of the humankind and the Jinni. He is given the highest rank among all the prophets of God.
PROPHET OF THE JINNI AND HUMANKIND: MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

Muhammad (PBUH) is not a Prophet of only humankind but the Jinni, as well. God on the Day of Judgment shall only Judge Humankind and jinni among all His creations. The Prophet says, ―I have been sent for both humankind and the Jinni.‖ About this God in the Holy Qur‘än says,

4

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 18. S AY: ‗I T HAS BEEN R EVEALED TO ME THAT A COMPANY OF J INN I L ISTENED ( TO THE Q UR ‘ ÄN ).‘ T HEY SAID , ‗W E HAVE R EALLY HEARD A WONDERFUL R ECITAL ! I T GIVES GUIDANCE T O THE R IGHT, A ND WE HAVE BELIEVED THEREIN : W E SHALL NOT JOIN ( IN WORSHIP ) A NY ( GODS ) WITH OUR L ORD ‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 72:1-2).

UNIQUE PERSONALITY:

―Qul Inna Ma Ana Basarrum Mislukum Uha Ilaiya (Say, I am a human, as you are, on whom descends divine messages),‖ said the Qur‘än about the Prophet. Now that, divine messages do not come to ordinary people, Muhammad (PBUH) is not an ordinary man. Muhammad said about himself: ―I am not like any of you, I pass nights with my Master and He Feeds me (Ahadith).‖ God said in the Holy Qur‘än:
19. H E KNOWS WHAT IS BEFORE THEM , AND WHAT IS BEHIND THEM , AND THEY OFFER NO INTERC ESSION E XCEPT FOR THOSE WHO ARE A CCEPTABLE , AND THEY STAND I N AWE AND REVERENCE O F H IS ( GLORY ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21:28). G OD AND H IS A NGELS S END BLESSINGS ON THE P ROPHET: O YE THAT BELIEVE ! S END YE BLESSINGS ON HIM , A ND SALUTE HIM W ITH ALL RESPECT (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33: 56).

In the Holy Qur‘än God again says,
20.

These clearly show the high status granted to the Prophet (PBUH) by God. He is the Prophet, the greatest of all prophets.
PHENOMENAL:

Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anhu) (RA) in a speech said, ―None could be compared to Muhammad (PBUH) and the damage caused by his death is irreparable and never would a situation arise by which the vacuum could be filled.‖1
MESSENGER OF PEACE MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

Muhammad‘s ideology, his undertakings and his prayers have been adorned by superb success. He built a nation well accomplished in all respects out of a savage people within a very short time. So complete was their foundation that within a century these people accomplished excellence in all branches of knowledge. Fourteen hundred years ago, he established a Social Welfare organization ‗Hilful Fudhul‘ that provided the basis for today‘s charitable organizations, world over. Organizations like the Red Cross or Red Crescent or even UNICEF reflect the main theme of ‗Hilful Fudhul‘, the organization that channeled the youthful energy into charitable activities.
1 Nahjul Balagha: Hazrat Ali (RA).

5

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Similarly, he founded nursing crops with women to look after the war casualties and to nurse the wounded. This idea has expanded rapidly among the nations of the world and contributed tremendously toward treatments of patients in peace and war. The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―That, who is kind to His Creations, serves the Lord.‖ Today the worldwide humanitarian services are a reflection of that idea propagated fourteen hundred years ago by none other than Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The Harbinger of Peace told his votaries ―think of the people as a single body. If a part of the human body is hurt the whole suffers, so if one among you is afflicted, the whole community should feel the pain.‖ He again said, ―Be equally kind to all.‖ This conviction around the world today arouses the compassion of the people when a section of them, no matter how far removed, is beset with calamities like Cyclone, Tidal Bore, Earthquake, Famine, and Epidemic, Avalanche or even war and civil wars. This is what the greatest of the prophets, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) preached, practiced and urged upon his followers to do as he did. All his life he endeavored to accomplish deliverance for the people, through righteous belief and deed and to achieve global peace and harmony. He called upon the people, not a section, tribe, community or even a nation, but all the people of the world to pay respect to none but Allah the Supreme Lord and do only good to His creations. That is why he is attributed the title of the ‗Mercy of the Universe‘. Those who are in quest of global peace, security and prosperity, for them to be able to follow the ideals of the Prophet (PBUH), in the light of Qur‘änic injunctions, this book has been written. Comments and Observations of some renowned scholars and religious leaders of different religions have been included in this for the benefit of the readers. God Has in the Qur‘än repeatedly said,
21. V ERILY THIS IS A R EVELATION F ROM THE L ORD OF THE W ORLDS : W ITH IT CAME DOWN T HE S PIRIT OF FAITH AND T RUTH - T O THY HEART AND MIND , T HAT THOU MAYEST ADMONISH I N THE PERSPICUOUS A RABIC TONGUE . W ITHOUT DOUBT IT IS ( ANNOUNCED ) I N THE MYSTIC B OOKS O F FORMER PEOPLES (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 26:192-196). F OR W E ASSUREDLY SENT A MONGST EVERY P EOPLE AN APOSTLE , ( WITH THE C OMMAND ), ‗S ERVE G OD , AND ESCHEW E VIL‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 16:36).

Allah further says,
22.

6

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Forget about admission of appearance of prophets for every nation, most of the religions do not even concede that their God is the God of other nations, as well. Jehovah was exclusively the God Israelites alone. Similarly, in the Vedic religions Aryans are the only children of God. Brahmins, Kashatriyas and Vaishas had the right to the milk of the Vedic cow-mother. John S. Hayland in his book, ‗A Brief History of Civilization‘2 writes, ―The God whom the Jewish worshiped had at first been conceived of as the tribal Deity of a nomadic people.‖ ―...for many centuries the Jewish continued to conceive this God of righteousness as their God only...‖ ―But this idea that their own national God was also the God of all other men was never welcomed and adopted by the mass of the Jewish population.‖
THE GREATEST PROPHET IS GRANTED AN AUDIENCE WITH GOD

At fifty, the great Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on 27th of Razab, in the night invited by God went for an audience with Him riding the Buraq. Riding through the space, he reached to the extreme frontiers of the space. God granted him an audience. He addressed God saying: ―Attahiahtulillahi Was Salawatu Wat Taiyabatu (Oral, physical and pecuniary, all worshipping is only for God).‖ God Jallah Jalaluhu (‫ﻼﺟﻞﺟ ﻪﻟ‬-Supreme is God in Benevolence) replied: ―Wa Assalamu Alaika Aiuhannabiu WA Rahmatullahi WA Barakatuhu (O dear Prophet! Peace, mercy and increment be upon you).‖ They met and talked from very near. At the end of the parley the Prophet (PBUH) returned to the Ka‘aba with the instruction of prayers, five times a day (Al-Qur‘än - 17:1 and 53:7-9 and Al-Hadith). Never before any Rasul, Nabi3, Savants or anyone else met God, the Creator of the Worlds, face to face and talked to Him, from so close a distance. Never again would it happen before the Day of Judgement.
PARACLETE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH) ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT:

On the Day of Judgement Allah ‗’‫( ﻪﻟ ﻼﺟﻞﺟ‬Jallah Jalaluhu) would sit in Judgement. All prophets, nabis, rasuls, saints, savants, from Adam to all jinni and human born before the doom‘s day, stand heads bowed before Him. Followers would beseech their respective leaders to intercede on their

2 3

A Brief History of Civilization: John S. Hayland, p. 72. Rasul: a prophet with a holy book. Nabi: a prophet

7

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

behalf. Save one, all would express their inability to do so. Referring to this God said in the Qur‘än:
23. W HO IS THERE CAN INTE RCEDE I N H IS PRESENCE EXCEPT A S H E PERMITTETH ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:255). O N THAT D AY NO I NTERCESSION AVAIL E XCEPT FOR THOSE FOR WHOM P ERMISSION HAS BEEN G RANTED B Y (G OD ) M OST G RACIOUS A ND WHOSE WORD IS A CCEPTABLE TO H IM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 20:109). N O INTERCESSION CAN AVAIL I N H IS P RESENCE , EXCEPT FOR THOSE F OR WHOM H E HAS GRANTED P ERMISSION (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 34:23).

He again said:
24.

He said:
25.

In this regard addressing the Prophet (PBUH) the Master of the Worlds Allah says in the Qur‘än:
26. A ND SOON WILL THY G UARDIAN -L ORD GIVE THEE ( THAT WHEREWITH ) THOU S HALT BE WELL - PLEASED ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 93:5).

Hearing the verse (ayat) the Prophet (PBUH) said: ―Then I would not be satisfied as long as one of my followers was in the hell‖ (Kurtubi). In a tradition narrated by Hazrat Ali (RA), the Prophet (PBUH) said: ―Allah Most Gracious, Most Merciful would grant my intercession for my followers.‖ One day the Syed ul Mursalin (leader of the prophets) recited a verse about Abraham and then about Jesus and then in a voice choked with tears cried my followers, my followers. Allah Most Merciful sent Gabriel to inquire about the reason (Saying, but I know all). Asked about the reason the Prophet (PBUH) replied: ―I want deliverance of my adherents.‖ God ordered Gabriel: ―Go and tell that Allah would satisfy you regarding your disciples and would not give you cause for pain.4‖ In another Hadith, the Prophet (PBUH) said: ―On the day of Judgement first I would entreat for my followers. 5‖
HIS SALAAM DESCENDS ON THE PROPHET

Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Universe says in the Holy Qur‘än:
27. A LLAH AND H IS ANGELS SEND SALAAM AND BLESSINGS ON T HE P ROPHET. O YE THAT BELIEVE ! S END YE BLESSINGS ON HIM , A ND SALUTE HIM W ITH ALL RESPECT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33:56).

The interpretation of the above verses goes like: ―God the Merciful coveys His love and affection to His beloved friend Muhammad (PBUH) and His angels feel elated by saluting him. Among angels, seventy thousands who
4 5 Interpretation of the Qur'än (Tafsir-e-Ma‘aref al-Qur'än), p. 1462, King Fahd Publishing Project. Interpretation of the Qur'än (Tafsir-e-Ma‘aref al-Qur'än), p. 139, King Fahd Publishing Project.

8

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

are made of Light keep on circumverating Baitul Mamur day and night‖ (Al-Bukhari). Then it is urged: O the Faithful offer your best salat (durud: benediction) and salaam for the Prophet (PBUH). Here salat means to offer the best of love and affection with the utmost reverence and submission. To express gratitude for being enlightened as a faithful to earn the approval of the Prophet (PBUH) through which to ultimately attain God‘s approval. This is the thing (reciting durud) that God does and gets it done by the angels. Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful and the angels high above and man beneath, as wished by the Master, in the mundane world are sending salaam and durud (blessings) on the Prophet (PBUH). God might and might not grant prayers, but after invoking durud (blessings) and salaam, God grants wishes. That is why provision for reciting durud after prayers is there. It is hoped that that would recommend prayers to be granted.6
MUHAMMAD (PBUH) IN THE ANCIENT SCRIPTURES

AND THE VOTARIES OF VARIOUS FAITHS ON ISLAM
THE PROMISED PROPHET:

That Muhammad (PBUH) would come as a prophet was decided much earlier, he is the promised prophet. Muhammad says, ―Ana Nurullah Owakullay Shaiuummin Nuri (I am created from the Nur (Light) of God and rest of the things are created from my Light).7‖ He further says, ―The very first thing that God Has created is my Nur.‖ This testifies that Muhammad (PBUH) was created before all the prophets. From Adam to Jesus many of these great men presaged the arrival of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). There are predictions in Veda, Purana, Zend-Avesta, DhighaNikaya, Torah, Zabur and the Bible about the advent of Muhammad (PBUH), the last of the prophets. Some examples are given below:
HINDUISM:

History testifies that there was no idolatry in Hinduism in the Vedic era. Idolatry came into vogue, later8. Numerous predictions are found in the sacred books of Hindus: the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Puranas. The
6 7 8 Interpretation by Maulana Abdullah Al-Ma‘ruf Muhammad Shah Alam, Islamic Foundation, Dhaka. Bangladesh. Hadith Al-Qudsi: Sayings of Muhammad which came from Allah and he narrated them in his own language. A History of Civilization in Ancient India, RC Dutta, Vol. III, p. 28.

9

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

scriptures of Hindu religion are very old, in them there are prophecies regarding the advent of the Prophet (PBUH), his name, description, birth, education and even the practice of sending blessings on him and his companions. Hindu scripture‘s ‗GK†gev ØZxqvg ' (God is One without a partner) is an echo of ‗There is no god but Allah.‘ In the ‗Alla‘ chapter of the ‗Atharva Veda‘ it is mentioned that (Aj¬ c…w_e¨v A›—ix¶s wek¡iƒc| Bj¬v Kei Bj¬v‡j¬vZ Bj¬vj¬) Allah is the Creator of the earth and all subtle things in the universe. Allah is the Master of the pious and only Allah (‫)ﷲﺍ‬ is addressed as Allah (‫)ﷲﺍ‬. In the same chapter in another place it is said, ―‡nvZviwg‡›˜ªv ‡nvZviwg‡›˜ªv gnvm–wi˜ªvt| A‡j¬v ‡R¨ôs ‡k«ôs cigs c‚Y©s e«þvY Aj¬vg|| A‡j¬vim–jgng`Ks eim¨ A‡j¬v Aj¬vg| A`j¬vn&&e– K‡g KKg Avj¬ve–K wbLvZg||”, meaning, ―Allah‘s attributes are unlimited. He is Complete and All-Knowing, Muhammad is His prophet. Allah is One, Indestructible, Eternal and Self-born‖. In Yajur Veda, it is said: ‗Aj¬ im–j gn¤g`i KsKis‘ means all should accept Allah and His Messenger, Muhammad (PBUH). Maharishi Vayasa is greatly revered by the Hindus as a pious God-fearing pure-hearted learned divine. He arranged the Vedas under various heads and wrote a valuable book on mysticism. The Gita and Maha Bharat both ensued from his mighty pen. The eighteen volumes of Puranas are his greatest compilation. Bhavishaya Purana is a leading Purana. Since it gives an account of the future events, it is called the Bhavishaya (future) Purana. Hindus revere it as the Word of God just as the Vedas. English translations, of the following prophecies quoted from Bhavishaya Purana9 are given here:10 ―A malechcha (belonging to a foreign country and speaking foreign language) spiritual teacher will appear with his companions. His name will be Mohammed. Raja (Bhoj) after giving this Maha Dev Arab (of angelic disposition) a bath in Panchgavya and the Ganges water (i.e., purging him of all sins) offered him the presents of his sincere devotion and showing him all reverence said, ‗I make obeisance to thee.‘ ‗O Ye! The pride of humankind, the dweller in Arabia, Ye have collected the great force to kill the Devil and you yourself have been protected from the malechcha opponents.‘ ‗O Ye! The image of the Most Pious God the biggest Lord, I
9 10 Prati Sarg Parv III: 3, 3. 5-8. Venkteshwar Press, Bombay. Mohammed in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940, p. 61.

10

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

am a slave to thee, take me as one lying on thy feet‘.‖ In this eulogy of the Holy Prophet, the Maharishi Vayasa illustrates the following:
1. 2.

MUHAMMAD HE

I S T HE NA ME OF T HE

P R O P HE T.
MA RUST HA L ME AN S A SA ND Y T RA CT OF

BE LONGS TO

ARABIA (SANSKRIT

L A N D O R A D E S E RT ) . 3.

P A RT I C U L A R

M E N T I O N I S M A D E A B O U T T H E C O M PA N I O N S

( H A R D LY

AN Y OT HE R DID).

P R O P H E T H A D S U C H A G R E AT N U M B E R O F C O M P A N I O N S A S 4. 5. 6. 7.

MUHAMMAD

WITH

AN AN GE LIC DI SPO SITI ON, HE IS FREE OF SIN S. SHOWS HIM RE VERE NCE .

I N D I A‘ S R A J A ( K I N G ) HE HE

IS GIVEN PROTECTION AGAINST E NEMIES. E L I M I N AT E S A L L E V I L S , E X T E R M I N AT E S I D O L - W O R S H I P A N D D E S T R O Y S T H E

DEVIL.
8. 9.

IN

HI M IS REFLECTED T HE

ALL-POWERFUL G OD.
HIM TO TA K E HIM AS HI S S L AV E AND SEEK

T HE MA HA RI SHI

BESEEC HES

P E R M I S S I O N T O L A Y AT H I S F E E T . 10.

F I N A L LY ,

HE IS ME NTIONE D AS T HE PRI DE OF HUMAN KIN D.

This above quotation clearly applies to Muhammad (PBUH), the Prophet of Islam. Some people may raise objection or try to show that the name of the King (Bhoj) does not tally citing the existence of a king of the same name who lived in the 11th century AD. He was the tenth descendant of Raja Shalivahan. Others argue that this was the epithet of the kings, like Pharaohs of Egypt, who ruled India. Several rajas lived before the mentioned Raja Bhoj had the same kingly name. Mention of a king Bhoj is found in an old Sanskrit book: ―Aitarya Brahmana‖ - (Panchka, VIII: 12 and XIV: 17). Panni, a renowned Grammarian of Sanskrit who lived long before Islam, also refers to Bhoj, his cities and offspring (Adhya I: 1075). All said the prophecy clearly mentions the name as Muhammad, which leaves little scope for any doubt. The bath in the Panchgavya and the Ganges may demand an explanation. The actual bath did not take place since this was only a vision and could have meant that the Prophet would be purged of all sins and be made sin free. In the Bhavishaya Purana, in Shlokas 10-27 another clearer prophecy is made about the appearance of Muhammad. The Maharishi comments about the holy Prophet: ―The Malechchas have spoiled the well known land of the Arabs. Arya Dharma is not to be found in that country. Before also there appeared a misguided fiend whom I had killed, he has now again
11

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

appeared being sent by a powerful enemy. To show these enemies the right path and give them guidance the well known ‗Muhamad‘ (Muhammad), who has been given by me the epithet of Brahma, is busy in bringing the Pishachas to the right path. O Raja! You need not go to the land of the foolish Pishachas; you will be purified through my kindness even where you are. At night he of the angelic disposition, the shrewd man, in the guise of a Pishacha said to Raja Bhoj, ―O Raja! Your Arya Dharma has been made to prevail over all religions, but according to the commandments of Ishwar Pramatma, I shall enforce the strong creed of the meat-eaters. A man circumcised without a tail (on his head), keeping beard, creating a revolution, announcing Adzan (call for prayers) and eating all lawful things will be my follower. He will eat all sorts of animals except swine. They will not seek purification with the holy shrubs but through warfare. Because of their fighting the irreligious nations, they will be known as Musalmans. I shall be the originator of this religion of the meat-eating nation.11 The salient features of the Maharishi‘s prophecy are:
11. 12. 13. 14.

EVILDOE RS IN

HAD CORRUPTED

ARAB

LAND.

T H AT L A N D ,

A R YA D H A R M A

I S A B SE NT.

CURRENT GOD

ENE MIES PE RI S H LI KE T HE FO RME R.

GI VES T HE EPIT HET OF

BRAHMA

TO

MUHAMMAD,

TO GUIDE OPPONENTS

O F T R U T H , A N D H E I S B U S Y I N B U I L D I N G H I S N AT I O N . 15.

SINCE

T HE

INDIAN RAJA

I S AFRAID OF G OI N G TO T HE LAN D OF T HE

ARABS
HE RE .

HIS

P U R I F I C AT I O N C O M M E N C E S I N 16.

INDIA

AT T H E A R R I VA L O F

MUSALMANS

EXCEPT
THEM.

T H E F L E S H O F S W I N E , A L L O T H E R E AT A B L E A N I M A L S A R E L A W F U L F O R

17.

FOLLOWERS

O F T HE

PROPHET

A R E C I R C U M C I S E D , D O N O T K E E P A T A I L , H AV E

B E A R D S A N D T H E I R L E A D E R C R E AT E S A N E V O L U T I O N . 18.

T HE

P R O P H E T AT T E S T S T O T H E T R U T H O F T H E

A R YA N

FA I T H A N D R E F O R M S T H E

MISG UI DED FO LLO WE RS. 19.

T HE RE

I S N O S E C R E C Y I N T H I S R E L I G I O N A N D C A L L T O P R AY E R S I S R A I S E D

FROM T HE MIN A RETS O F T HE MO SQ UES. 20. 21. 22.

T HESE T HE Y T HE

PEO PLE ARE PURI FIED BY T HE SWO RD, UN LI KE BY A N Y SHRUBS.

ARE KNOWN AS

MUSALMANS.

R E L I G I O N O F T H E M E AT - E AT E R S I S A D I V I N E R E L I G I O N .

11

Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940, p. 64.

12

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

The Maharishi further writes: ―Corruption and persecution are the order of the day in the seven secret cities of Kashi, etc. Rakshas, Shabar, Bhil and other foolish people inhibit India. In the land of malechcha, the followers of the malechcha dharma (Islam) are wise and brave people. All good qualities are found in the Musalmans and all sorts of vices accumulated in the land of the Aryas (Aryans). Islam will rule India and its islands. Having known these facts O Muni, glorify the name of thy Lord.‖12 Though ‗malechcha‘ is used in a bad sense, the Maharishi used it in a different sense and he defines it as: ―A man of good actions, sharp intellect, spiritual eminence, showing reverence to the deities, is known as a wise ‗malechcha‘.‖13
PROPHECIES IN THE ATHARVA VEDA:

In the Atharva Veda, all kinds of mantras like Rig Vedic Richas (eulogies), Sam Vedic literary compositions and Yajur Vedic details of worship are found. It also contains mantras describing treatments of fatal diseases, technique of warfare and description of heaven and hell. Therefore, the Atharva Veda is a leading book among the four Vedas known as Brahma Veda or Divine Knowledge.
THE KUNTAP SUKT IN ATHARVA VEDA:

Some Suktas (chapters) in the twentieth segment of the Atharva Veda are called Kuntap Sukt (Kuntap means the consumer of misery and troubles).
THE FIRST MANTRA:

Several English rendition of the first mantra by different authors are given below.
23.

LISTEN YE SIXTY

FOLKS, TO T HI S

(A

SON G) IN PRAI SE O F A HERO SHA LL BE SUN G !

T HO USA ND AN D NI NETY A MON G T HE

(COWS)

DID WE

G E T, W HE N WE WE RE

WITH

KAURAMA
24.

R U S H A M A S ( T R A N S L AT I O N : M . B L O O M F I E L D ) . ―LISTEN
TO T HI S, YE MEN A LA UD O F SIXTY AND N I N E T Y,

P R O F. G R I F F I T H
GLORIOUS

T R A N S L AT E S I T A S : SHALL BE

BO UNT Y

SUNG.

THOUSAND

O

KAURAMA,
25.

AMO NG T HE

RUSHAMAS
OF

H AV E R E C E I V E D . ‖ RENDE RS T HE

P UN DIT K HE M KA RAN LISTEN
WILL

ALLA HA BAD THE

SUKT

AS:

―O

PEOPLE !

T O T H I S R E S P E C T F U L LY ! PRAISED.

P R A I S E W O RT H Y M A N A M O N G T H E P E O P L E KING, WE FIND SIXT Y T HO USAN D AND

BE

O

EASE-LOVING

N I N E T Y B R AV E M E N U P R O O T I N G T H E I R E N E M I E S .

12 13

Bhavishaya Purana, Parv. III: 1,4, 21-23. Bhavishaya Purana Parv. III: 1,4, pp. 256-57. (As quoted in Mohammed in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940.)

13

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

In these translations, in spite of, adding some texts, meanings are not clear. The following questions remain unanswered.
26. 27. 28. 29.

W HO

IS GOING TO BE PRAISED? A RE T HESE SI XTY T HO USA ND AND N INET Y T HIN GS ?

W H AT WHY AND

S H O U L D T H E P E O P L E L I S T E N T O I T R E S P E C T F U L LY ? WHO A RE T HESE

RUSHAMAS

AND

KAURAMA?

Though the ancient Indian history remains silent on this, the course of event in Arabia at the advent of Islam makes the obscure mantras meaningful. For example: ―He will be praised‖ literally means ‗Muhammad‘, the total population of Mecca, sixty or seventy thousand was opposed to Muhammad. Since, this mantra contained a great prophecy, people are asked to listen to it. Rushamas are the enemies of the Prophet, and Kaurama meaning ‗emigrant‘ or ‗peace-promoter‘, is the attribute of the Prophet. No other Shlokas of the four Vedas are so emphatically addressed to the people. Since people are urged to listen to the mantra respectfully and attentively, they cannot dismiss it as a riddle. ‗Astvishyate‘, the Sanskrit word is in the future tense form and means ‗he will be praised‘. It certainly is talking about some future event, when a Prophet will be greatly praised, and this attests to its being a prophecy.
THE BLESSED NAME OF THE PROPHET:

That this promised Rishi should have a name was necessary and the Vedic Rishi thus mentions his name as, ‗Narashansah Astvishyate‘, which means praiseworthy. The word, ‗Narashansah‘ is translated as, ‗The praised one among people‘, i.e., Muhammad.
HE WILL BE SAFE AMONG HIS FOES:

Another sign that the Rishi mentions is that this praiseworthy will be alone among sixty thousand cruel and fiendish enemies; but will be unharmed. Precarious situations wrought with danger will never deter or dampen his courage and he will emerge unscathed. Always in the forefront, he will fight many sanguinary wars and fierce battles, yet will remain alive for none will be able to kill him.
THE CAMEL-RIDER RISHI:

―Camels twice ten that draw the car with females by their side, Fair would be chariots top bow down escaping from the stroke of heaven:‖ the second mantra of Kuntap Sukt as translated by Professor Griffith. Pundit Khem
14

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Karan translates it asm ―Whose swift riding beasts are twenty camels with she-camels. The fools are disregardful of the eminent position of man.‖ Pundit Raja Ram‘s translation gives another interpretation of the mantra. He writes: ―Twenty camels draw his carriage with him being also his wives. The top of that carriage or chariot bows down escaping from touching the heaven.‖ It is evident in the translations that all these refer to the same person as in the first mantra. They all agree that this chosen one will be a camel-rider, except Bloomfield. These translations make it clear that the top of the chariot would be as high as the heavens. This mantra thus makes it clear that the promised one will be an Arab. An Indian Rishi could not ride a camel, as the Dharma Shastra prohibits it as is forbidden the flesh and milk of the camel (Manu V: 5, 18). Similarly, the Brahmins are forbidden to ride a camel. ―A Brahmin is polluted by willfully riding an ass or a camel and by bathing naked. They can be absolved from this pollution only by holding breath for a long time (Manu XI: 201). This prohibition makes it very clear that the promised one belongs to Arabia, for no Indian rishi rides a camel.
WIVES OF THE PROPHET:

‗Vadhu mantah davirdarsh‘ has been interpreted in two different ways: firstly, that he is in a camel driven chariot with his wives. Secondly, camels with their females drag his chariot. In the first, the prophet is shown to have more than one wife, which is true about the Holy Prophet, and in the second riding camel is his distinctive characteristic, which also is true about the Prophet. Therefore, it can be concluded that both these translations apply to none other than Muhammad (PBUH).
THE PROPHET’S ASCENSION:

A clear reference to his Ascension or Me‘räj is: ―The top of his chariot bows down escaping from touching the heavens.‖ The Qur‘än says, ―And he is in the highest part of the horizon.‖14
THE GOLD COINS:

―God bestowed hundred gold coins upon the Holy Prophet.‖ This is a reference to the early Meccan companions of the Prophet. They endured all hardships and persecutions of the hostile Meccans and consequently, became pure and precious like gold. ―They were the foremost, the first‖ and
14 Al-Qur'än: Süra 9:100

15

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

was constrained to migrate to Abyssinia, leaving all even their beloved Prophet behind. These companions at the behest of the Prophet left their kith and kin and all their belongings but did not forsake Islam. Consequently, they became the chosen ones of God and according to the Qur‘än: ―Allah is well pleased with them.‖15 In every trial, however hard, that they were put to, they came out successful. The Qur‘än says, ―And we most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruit.‖16 It again says, ―And we try you by evil and good by way of probation.‖17 The early converts the companions of the Prophet were purified by the fire of long persecution, torture, hardships and sufferings and became pure gold. They went through a process of cleansing of impurities, like the gold. According to the Sathpath Brahmana (XII: 9.1.4.), considered a revealed commentary of Yajur Veda, gold is metaphorically used to indicate spiritual power of a man. Prophet‘s companions were therefore, the coins of pure gold, since they have gone through unimaginable sufferings and hardships. One hundred companions migrated to Abyssinia fulfilling the prophecy that a hundred coins would be given to the promised Rishi.
THE TEN CHAPLETS:

According to these mantras, the second gift granted to the Prophet was ten exquisite precious necklaces. The ten best companions known as the ―Ashra-i-Mubashshara‖ were the necklaces. The Prophet (PBUH) called each of them: Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, Ali, Talha, Zubair, Abdur Rahman ibn Auf, Sad bin Abi Wakkas, Sad bin Zaid, and Abu Obieda and said, ‗in paradise.‘ The Vedas refer them as ‗Dashasrijah‘ (ten bouquets from the paradise).
THREE HUNDRED GOOD STEEDS:

The third gift according to the mantras is the three hundred good steeds. Sanskrit ‗Arvah‘ means swift Arab horse particularly used by Asuras (nonAryans).18 ‗Arvah‘‘ is also the ride of Agni and Indra (learned and powerful). In the battle of Badr, Muhammad had three hundred valiant
15 16 17 18 Al-Qur'än: Süra 9:100. Al-Qur'än: Süra 2:155. The Qur'än: Süra 21:35. Rig Veda, V: 54.14. (As quoted in Mohammed in World Scripture, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940.)

16

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

companions with him. They were also learned and powerful, besides being three hundred in number.
THE TEN THOUSAND COWS:

According to the mantras, the last gift was the ten thousand cows. These ‗ten thousand cows‘ are the ten thousand saintly companions that accompanied Muhammad (PBUH) in his conquest of Mecca. Kuntap Sukt‘s mantras clearly give the name of the Prophet as Mamah. This name resembles Muhammad, in form and pronunciation and conveys the same meaning. The mantras also show Muhammad as a great Rishi bestowed with divine gifts. They were so tried, exalted and perfected through trial and tribulations that they were compared to flowers of paradise. These companions were not only saintly but they were also great warriors. Great worshipers of God, they also excelled in the battlefields. History testifies that all these prophecies were fulfilled only in the person of the Prophet. Revelation about the Prophet manifested in the same order as mentioned in the mantras. To begin with, the Prophet was given the hundred gold coins, then the ‗Ashra-i-Mubashshara‘, then the three hundred companions who fought along with him in the battle of Badr and lastly the ten thousand saintly companions that accompanied him at the conquest of Mecca. No person having the attributes mentioned above and fulfilling the description of the mantras can be found in the human history other than the Prophet of Islam.
MUHAMMAD IN SHLOKA 5:27:1 IN RIG VEDA:

"ÁAb¯^›—v mrcwZ gvg‡n ‡g Mev ‡PwZ‡ôv Am~‡iv g‡NvYt|

‰Îe…‡òv A‡Mœ `kwf©t mn‰m« ‰ek¡vbit ÎqsiƒY wð‡KZ||" The above Shlokas mean that the truthful, learned, mighty, benevolent Muhammad (Peace be upon him) with the carriage has honored me with his sermon. The son of the Almighty, the alembic of all good qualities, mercy of the world would earn fame with his ten thousand companions. Washington Irving in his ‗Life of Muhammad‘ writes: ―The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) departed with ten thousand men on this enterprise.‖ His number ‗ten thousand‘ is an attestation of the prophecy of the Rig-Veda coming true.

17

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE ZOROASTRIANISM

Zoroastrianism is the ancient religion of Persia, modern Iran, commonly known as Parsi-ism. This is also called the religion of ‗Fire worshippers‘ and ‗Magianism‘. The scriptures of this religion are found in two languages in Zendi and Pahlavi. There are two divisions of the scripture: one known as Dasatir and the other as Zend-Avesta. In the second book of Avesta by Max Muller, it is written: ―I am announcing O Spitam Zarutushtra, consecrated Muhammad would certainly appear. From him you would receive virtuous thoughts, noble words, honest deeds and a pure religion.‖ In Dasatir, there is similar prophecy about his advent: ―when the Persians abandoning their own religion fall into the lowest abyss of their moral turpitude a great man would be born in Arabia whose followers would defeat the indomitable Persians. Leaving fire worshipping in their monasteries they would pray, facing the Ka‘aba of Abraham. They would conquer Persia, Madyan, Tus, Balk and other Persian sacred places. Their prophet would be a great orator and preach many wonderful things.‖
BUDDHISM

Gautam Buddha‘s (567-485 BC) Buddhism is the principal religion, among the ancient religions of the East. Dhigha-Nikaya, the scripture of the Buddhist announces: ―Whence man wilt forget the teachings of Gautam Buddha there will come another Buddha called Moittaya (Sanskrit: Maitreya) meaning the (Buddha) of peace and mercy.‖ Moittaya here indicated Muhammad (PBUH) because after Buddha nobody became famous as ‗Rahmatullil Al-Amin‘ other then Muhammad (PBUH). Maitreya means repository of mercy and comrade of all. Below as an attestation is given a quotation discovered in Ceylon: Ananda asked the Blessed one: ―Who shall teach us when thou art gone?‖ And the Blessed one replied: ―I am not the first Buddha who came to the earth, nor shall I be the last. In one time, another Buddha will arise in the world; a holy one supremely enlightened one endowed with wisdom in conduct. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and pure such as I now proclaim.‖ Ananda asked: ―How shall we know him?‖ The Blessed one said: ―He will be known as Maitreya.‖19
19

The Gospel of Buddha: Carus, pp. 117-18. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940).

18

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE THE LAST BUDDHA MAITREYA:

In the Buddhist religion, a Rishi (Sage) is called Buddha. Gautam Buddha at the time of his death told his adored disciple Ananda about the last Buddha: ―I am not the first Buddha who came to the earth, nor shall I be the last. A Buddha will arise in time in this earth to teach altruism. A pure and clean soul, he will be knowledgeable and wise with a refined heart. He will be a hero and leader of all. He will teach the truth like me and will give a complete and holy code of life to the world. Ananda, he will be called Maitreya.‖20 Buddha means ‗with wisdom‘ and Buddha is a human being not a god. ―It is only a human being not a deity that can be a Buddha.‖21
CHARACTERISTICS OF BUDDHA:
30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

B UD D HA B UD D HA B UD D HA B UD D HA B UD D HA B UD D HA

I S W E A LT H Y A N D R I C H . I S A F AT H E R . I S A FA M I LY M A N A N D A R U L E R . LIVE S HI S ALLOTTED TIME D O E S H I S O W N C H O R E S . 22 IS O N LY A PREA C HE R.

( WA R R E N : P. 7 9 ) .

T H E T AT H A G AT A S ( B U D D H A S )

ARE

O N LY

P R E A C H E R S . 23 36. 37.

B UD D HA

IS ALSO CALLED

T AT H A G AT A . GOD
OF S E N D S D E VAT A S A N D J I N N I T O H I M . 24 HIS PREDECESSOR MEANS AND RE MINDS OF HIS

W HEN B UDD HA B UD D HA
DISCIPLES

IS ALONE, PEOPLE

EACH
OWN AND

RE MINDS ABOUT

‗MAR‘.
OR

‗MAR‘

P R O P A G AT O R

‗SIN

DEST RUCTI ON‘

(DEVIL

S AT A N ) . T H E

FOLLOWER OF

BUDDHA

IS A TRUE

D I S C I P L E ; H E C A N N O T B E D E R A I L E D . 25 38. 39.

T HE RE A

I S O N LY O N E

BUDDHA

AT A T I M E O N T H E E A RT H . 26

MAI N C HA RACTE RISTI C OF

BUDDHA

I S T H AT H E H A S N O T E A C H E R O N T H E

E A RT H . 27

20 21 22 23 24 25 26

The Gospel of Buddha: Carus, pp. 117-18. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). Muhammad in the Buddhist Scripture: p. (As quoted in Mohammed in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). The Dhammapada S.B.E. Vol. X p. 67. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). The Dhammapada S.B.E. Vol. X p. 67. (As quoted in Mohammed in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). Saddhama-Pundrika S.B.E. Vol. XXI, p. 225. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). The Dhammapada S.B.E. Vol. X p. 67. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). The Life and Teaching of Buddha: Anagarika Dhammapada, p.84. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940).

19

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE CHARACTERISTICS OF MAITREYA BUDDHA:

Maitreya means ‗The merciful‘.28 The last Buddha Maitreya would have the characteristic of the earlier Buddha because he would be a Buddha. Maitreya would arrange a congregation under the Bodhi (tree under which Buddha gets enlightened) Brikhaya (tree) is of two kinds: one is the worldly tree the other is heavenly. Under the Bodhi Brikhaya, the Buddha is enlightened. Now a few words about the heavenly tree:
40. 41.

H E AV E N LY B O D H I AFTER

E X T E N D S O V E R A V E R Y L A R G E A R E A . 29

E NL IG HT E N ME NT,

BUDDHA

WAT C H E S T H E T R E E I M M O VA B LY .

Buddha‘s neck-bone is harder than the neck-bone of ordinary people. Therefore, he has to turn his body to move his neck. 30 It is, therefore, natural that the attributes mentioned earlier should be present in a Maitreya Buddha. Following are the opinions of historians regarding the great man that qualifies to be the prophesied ‗Maitreya Buddha‘. In the Holy Qur‘än God says about Muhammad (PBUH):
28. A ND H E FOUND THEE I N NEED , AND MADE T HEE INDEPENDENT (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 93:8).

Muhammad (PBUH) became rich before attaining divinity. He had many horses for his personal use he had a camel named, ‗al-Kaswa‘. He rode the camel from Mecca to Medïna. The milk of the twenty more camels that he owned was used to feed his children and entertain guests; he also owned seven milking goats but no buffaloes. Buffaloes were not available in Arabia.31 He had three pieces of land and a few wells; in Arabia, owning wells indicated wealth, as water was very dear, due to its scarcity in the Arabian Desert.32 Muhammad (PBUH) had twelve wives, four sons and four daughters, therefore, fulfilled one of the criterion ‗of being a father‘ to be a Buddha. He defeated and subjugated thousands in battles to establish his rule over a vast area and ruled as a representative of the Supreme Lord, Allah. ―The
27 28 29 30 31 32 Romantic History of Buddha: Beal, p.15. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). Muhammad in Buddhist Scriptures, p.15. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). Romantic History of Buddha: Beal, p. 237. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). The Dhammapada S.B.E. Vol. X p. 64 (footnote). (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). Life of Mohammet: Sir William Muir, Abridged Edition, pp. 545-46. Desert Life of Mohammet: Sir William Muir, Abridged Edition, p. 548.

20

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

fare of desert seemed most congenial to him even when he was sovereign of Arabia.‖33 Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) lived his allotted time i.e. his life was not cut short by anybody. He ―mended his own clothes, milked the goats and waited upon himself.‖34 All through his life, Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) preached religion. History abounds in information regarding his preaching activities.35 He was very popular and illustrious as a preacher. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) recognized his predecessor-rishis. It is stated in the second Süra of the Qur‘än:
29. S AY YE : ‗W E BELIEVE I N G OD , AND THE REVELATION G IVEN TO US , AND TO A BRAHAM , I SMÄ ‘ ÏL , I SAAC , J ACOB , A ND THE TRIBES , AND THAT GIVEN T O M OSES AND J ESUS , AND THAT GIVEN T O ( ALL ) P ROPHETS FROM THEIR L ORD : W E MAKE NO DIFFERENCE B ETWEEN ONE AND ANOTHER OF THEM : A ND WE BOW TO G OD ( IN I SLAM ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2:136).

He repeatedly warned his followers about the devil. The Qur‘än warning about Satan says:
30. A BOUT THE (E VIL O NE ) I T IS DECREED THAT WH OEVER T URNS TO HIM FOR FRIENDSHIP, H IM WILL HE LEAD ASTR AY, A ND HE WILL GUIDE HIM T O THE P ENALTY OF F IRE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 22:4).

Muhammad‘s (PBUH) followers never deviated from their path and steadfastly supported him. They always remained tied to him as disciples and friends. Never, they veered in misfortunes or adversities. Come what may they never left him.36 When Muhammad (PBUH) appeared as a ‗Buddha‘, there was no other ‗Buddha‘ in the world. At the time of his advent, the world was immersed into social and religious defilement. He had no worldly teacher and was unlettered. That is why he is called ‗Ummi‘ (not literate in the worldly sense). The Qur‘än is the anthology of God-send-messages Muhammad (PBUH) received in visions. Where it is said:
31. V ERILY THIS IS A R EVELATION F ROM THE L ORD OF THE W ORLDS : W ITH IT CAME DOWN T HE S PIRIT OF FAITH AND T RUTH - T O THY HEART AND MIND , T HAT THOU MAYEST ADMONISH I N THE PERSPICUOUS A RABIC TONGUE . W ITHOUT DOUBT IT IS ( ANNOUNCED ) I N THE MYSTIC B OOKS O F FORMER PEOPLES (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 26:192-196).

33 34 35 36

The Speeches and Table Talk of the Prophet hMoammad: Lane Poole, p. XXXIX. The Speeches and Table Talk of the Prophet Mohammad: Lane Poole, p. XXXIX. Mohammad and Mohammedanism: Rev. Bosworth Smith, p. 99. Mohammad and Mohammadanism: Rev. Bosworth Smith, pp. 110-111.

21

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

At a place called Hudaibiya, a hard wood tree acted as the ‗Bodhi Brikhaya‘ of Muhammad (PBUH), where he also held assemblies.37 ‗Maitreya‘ means Merciful. A writer gave the meaning of ‗Maitreya‘ as Compassion in the Leader dated October 16th 1930 on page seven, column three. Since, Muhammad (PBUH) was very compassionate, he was called the ‗Rahmatullil Al-Amin‘ (‫ ﺣرﻦﻴﻤﻠﻌﻠﻟ ﺔﻤ‬- Mercy of the universe). ―We sent thee not, but As a Mercy for all creatures‖ (Al-Qur‘än - 21:107). Hazrat Muhammad ((PBUH) had seen an enormous tree on the right of Allah‘s Throne. It was so huge that a horse rider cannot ride through its shadow in one hundred years. In Paradise, there is a tree (such) that a rider cannot cross its shade even in hundred years.38 Muhammad (PBUH) watched the heavenly tree intently without even flinching. It is said about the Maitreya Buddha that he cannot turn his neck without turning the whole body. This was evident in Muhammad (PBUH), he turned his entire body to face people to talk. ―If he turned in conversation towards a friend, he turned not partially, but with his full face and his whole body.‖39 It is apparent that Muhammad (PBUH) had all the qualities of a Buddha. It, therefore, can be concluded without any doubt that the prophesized Maitreya Buddha referred to in the Buddhist Scripture is none other than Muhammad (PBUH).
CONFUCIANISM:

In ancient China, the religion was Confucianism. The founder of the religion, Confucius (551-448 BC) said: ―There would arise a Prophet in the West‖ (the last Prophet in the ancient religious scripture).
JUDAISM:

The great holy Torah is the principal scripture of the Jewish religion. In the Torah, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has been described as an ‗Idealist‘. The Torah says, ―The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;‖ (Deut. 18:15). In another place it states: ―I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall
37 38 39 Mohammad in Buddhist Scripture: p. 64. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). Mohammad in Buddhist Scripture: p. 97. (As quoted in Mohammad in World Scriptures, Maulana Abdul Hoque Vidyarthi, Dar-ul-Kutub, Lahore, 1940). The life of Mohammad: Sir William Muir, pp. 511-512.

22

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

speak unto them all that I shall command him‖ (Deut. 18:18). ―And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him‖ (Deut. 18:18-19). And again the Torah says: ―And this is the blessing, wherewith Moses the man of God blessed the children of Israel before his death.‖ ―And he said, The Lord came from Si´-nai and rose up from Se´-ir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.‖ (Deut. 33:1-2). All this sacred sayings are only applicable to Muhammad (PBUH) and any knowledgeable person will admit that.
CHRISTIANITY:40

In John 1:19-27, 14:15-16, 17:7-8 the advent of Muhammad (PBUH) has been mentioned. The Holy Bible says: ―And this the record of John, when the Jewish sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou? And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed I am not the Christ. And they asked him, What then? Art thou E-lí-as? and he saith, I am not. Art thou that prophet? And he answered, No. Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as he said the prophet E-sá-ias. And they which were sent were of Pharisees. And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor E-lí-as, neither that prophet? John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not; He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe‘s latchet I am not worthy to unloose‖ (John 1:19 27). It is evident from, ―He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe‘s latchet I am not worthy to unloose‖ (John 1:19-27), that there would be a prophet other than Christ and E-lí-as was known to the Jewish.

40

We have based a part of this chapter on ―Baibalay Muhammad (PBUH) (Muhammad in the Bible)‖ by Professor Syed Abdur Rahman, Madrassa Publication Center, Mahatma Gandhi Road, Calcutta, 1991.

23

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Here it leaves no doubt that this prophet certainly, is Muhammad (PBUH), since there came no prophet except Muhammad (PBUH) after Jesus Christ.
JESUS CHRIST:

Jesus Christ said: ―If ye love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you forever;‖ (John14: 15-16). ―Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come‖ (John 16:13). ―Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you‖ (John 16:7). This Paraclete mentioned in the Bible (John 16:7) indicates to Muhammad (PBUH), because, no prophet other than Muhammad (PBUH) has come after Jesus Christ. Paraclete means ‗Comforter‘ or ‗Most Praiseworthy‘. Both these were used for Muhammad (PBUH). Padre Merry Michel in his interpretation of the ‗New Testament‘ wrote that the prophecy of a Paraclete (John 16:7) meaning Ahmed or Muhammad could not be denied by any until the Doom‘s Day. Therefore, there can be no doubt about Muhammad‘s (PBUH) coming.
HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) IN THE BIBLE:

Hikko mamtakkim w‘kullo Mahamaddim Zed dodi w‘ Zehrei benot y‘rushalaim. Canticum canticorum (His mouth is most sweet: ye he is altogether Lovely. 5:16 Hebrew Bible, p.159). This is my beloved and this is my friend, o daughters of Jerusalem (Solomon‘s song 5:16, Oxford Bible, p. 594). Hazrat Solaiman (Solomon) in his song‘s chapter-5, described physical qualities of his beloved. At last, he said, ‗W‘Kullo Mahammaddim‘ meaning He is Muhammad. Translators translated it as ‗Lovely‘. In fact, it should be ‗His countenance is lovely and he is ‗Muhammad‘. O the daughters of Jerusalem, he is my favorite and he is my friend‘.
MUHAMMAD (PBUH): A PROPHET LIKE MUSA (MOSES):

Moses said:

24

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

―The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;‖ (Deut. 18:15). ―I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him‖ (Deut. 18:18). ―And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die‖ (Deut. 18:18-19). We have briefly stated below why these prophecies do not apply to Jesus Christ.
42.

H A Z R AT M U S A ( M O S E S ) ISAAC
WHI LE

AND

H A Z R AT I S A ( J E S U S )

BOT H DESCENDED FROM

P ROPHET M UHAMMA D (PB UH)

WA S A D E S C E N D E N T O F

ISAAC‘S

BROT HE R 43.

ISMÄ‘ÏL. ISA
WA S O N L Y A P R O P H E T N O T A K I N G ,

M USA

WA S A P R O P H E T A N D A K I N G B U T

WHI LE , 44.

MUHAMMAD (PBUH)
FO UG HT WITH HI S

WA S A P R O P H E T A N D A K I N G . D E F E AT E D THE M BUT

M USA

ENEMIES AND

ISA

DID

NOT

F I G H T A N D WA S C R U C I F I E D B Y H I S E N E M I E S .

ON

T H E C O N T R A R Y,

MUHAMMAD

(PBUH)
45.

LIKE

MUSA

F O U G H T A N D VA N Q U I S H E D H I S E N E M I E S . DIVINE OF MESSAGE TO BUT

M USA

BRO UG HT UP

NEW

ISA

DID HI S

NOT.

HE

CAME

AS

A

FOLLOW

PROPHET

MUSA

COMPLETE

MISSION.

JESUS

SAID:

―T HI NK ON

N O T T H AT

I

A M C O M E T O D E S T R O Y, B U T T O F U L F I L

( M AT T . 5 : 1 7 ) . ‖

T HE OT HE R HA ND

MUHAMMAD (PBUH)

C A M E W I T H T O TA L LY N E W D I V I N E

BOOK AND MESSAGES. 46.

IN

T H E P R O P H E C I E S U N D E R C O N S I D E R AT I O N I T I S S T AT E D T H AT T H AT W H I C H

WI LL N OT LI STEN TO T HE PRO PHET ADVE RSARIE S SO DID 47.

I

WILL PUNI SH HI M. BUT

MUSA

PUNISHE D HI S

MUHAMMAD (PBUH),

JESUS

D I D N O T. WA S A F A L S E

ACCORDING
PRO PHET

TO THE A BOVE PROPHEC IES, IF

MUHAMMAD (PBUH)

GOD‘S

C U R S E W O U L D H AV E F A L L E N O N H I M A N D H E W O U L D H AV E

B E E N D E S T R O Y E D I G N O M I N I O U S LY . 41

For numerous similar reasons it is evident that Jesus was not the prophet of Moses‘ prophecies but Muhammad (PBUH) was.
THE KING OF GLORY MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

―Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in.
41 Bibelay Muhammad (Muhammad in the Bible)

25

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

―Who is this King of glory? ‗The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle‘. Lift up your heads, O ye gates; even lift them up, ye everlasting doors; and King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, he is the king of glory.‖ (Ps. 27:7-10). In the Bible (New Testament) and in the Torah (Old Testament) in many places ‗the King of glory‘ has been mentioned, and prophecies have been made about him. The question, ‗Who is this King of glory‘ and the answer ‗The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle‘ and ‗The Lord of hosts, he is the king of glory‘, is placed accurately beautifully. That who did not fight and led no army and was crucified by his enemies, Jesus clearly does not qualify. Therefore, Muhammad (PBUH), who subjugated the savage Arabs, molded this wild nomadic people into a civil and disciplined nation, and built an empire in the wilderness is clearly the person referred to as the ‗King of glory‘. ‗Gates‘ and ‗everlasting doors‘ are the doors of the Ka‘aba, the House of the Lord. Muhammad (PBUH) entered the Ka‘aba on the day he conquered Mecca gloriously powerful without any ostentation. What a Majestic Sight to behold, How sublime, How exalted, What a beauty!
MIGRATION (HIJRAT) OF MUHAMMAD (PBUH)

―Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon heavens by his name JAH, and rejoice before him‖ (Ps. 68: 4) ―They have seen thy goings, O God; even the goings of my God, my King, in the sanctuary. The singers went before, the players on instruments followed after; among them were the damsels playing with timbrels‖ (Ps. 68: 24-25). This historic event happened in only Muhammad‘s (PBUH) life. When Muslims of Mecca were tired absolutely of Quraish persecution, they were ordered to migrate to Medïna. The heathen Quraish surrounded Muhammad‘s (PBUH) home to kill him. Muhammad (PBUH) reciting the Qur‘än went through the cordon unnoticed. He, along with Abu Bakr (RA), rode a camel to Medïna, through three hundred miles of desert and reached Medïna on the 23rd September, 622 AD. History recorded it as the ‗Hijrat‘ (Migration).
26

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

The Medinease were ecstatic to have the great teacher, preacher, reformer and friend among them. Medïna rose to welcome the Prophet (PBUH), people were consumed with joy. Muhammad (PBUH) arrived encircled by armed companions. People stood on the roofs and women sang: ―The moon has risen from behind the hills, Praise be to Allah, and thanks eternal, endless For granting this honor: to the Medinease.‖42 Historian Prof. P.K. Hitti has described this event very beautifully: ―Leaving the city of his birth as a despised prophet, he entered the city of his adoption as an honored chief.‖43 The description: ―Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon heavens by his name JAH, and rejoice before him (Ps. 68:4),‖ almost is a reflection of scenes at Medïna on Muhammad‘s arrival.
MUHAMMAD (PBUH) ARRIVES WITH TEN THOUSAND COMPANIONS:

―And he said, The Lord came from Si´-nai and rose up from Se´-ir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.‖ (Deut. 33: 2). ―My beloved is white and ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousand.‖ (Song 5:10). And E‘-noch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints. To execute Judgement upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. (Jude 1: 1415). Historian Washington Irving in his book, ‗Life of Muhammad‘ wrote: ‗Muhammad (PBUH) went to conquer Mecca with ten thousand companions. The Bible has definitely referred to Muhammad (PBUH) in the above verses not to Jesus who never went on an expedition.
JUDGE MUHAMMAD (PBUH): THE LAST PROPHET:

O let the nations be glad and sing for joy: for thou shalt judge the people righteously, and govern the nations upon earth. … Then shall the earth yield
42 43 Translated by the Translator from Bengali. History of the Arabs, VIII part II, p. 116.

27

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

her increase; and God, even our own God, shall bless us. God shall bless us; and all the ends of the earth shall fear him (Ps. 67 4, 6-7). Jesus Christ never adorned the seat of a Judge. He said, ―…I came not to judge the world…‖ (John 12: 47). Muhammad (PBUH) is the Prophet who established a judicial system based on equality, justice and truth and ruled a vast land with many nationalities united under the banner of Islam. ―Then shall the earth yield her increase,‖ meaning in his time religion will attain its final shape and be complete. ―This day have I Perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you‖ (Al- Qur‘än - 5:4). After the perfection and completion of religion, there is no need for a prophet. Muhammad (PBUH) is, therefore, the last and universal Prophet.
MUHAMMAD (PBUH) - THE TERMINATOR OF IDOLATRY:

―The Lord reigneth; let the earth rejoice; let the multitude of isles be glad thereof. Clouds and darkness are round about him; righteousness and judgement are the habitation of his throne. A fire goeth before him, and burneth up his enemies round about. His lightning enlightened the world: the earth saw, and trembled. The hills melted like wax at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the Lord of the whole earth. The heavens declare his righteousness, and all the people see his glory. Confounded be all they that serve graven images that boast themselves of old idols: worship him, all ye gods.‖ (Ps. 97:1-7). The above biblical verses point to Muhammad (PBUH) because:
48.

ARABIA

I S A PENI NSULA WHE RE

MUHAMMAD (PBUH)

RULED WITH JUSTICE

A N D V I RT U E A S T H E B A S I S O F H I S R E I G N . 49. 50.

HE HIS

D E F E AT E D H I S E N E M I E S W I T H

‗FIRE‘

M E A N I N G I N B AT T L E S .

C H I VA L R Y , C O N Q U E S T S , E M I N E N C E A N D M I G H T H E L P E D T H E T R U T H A N D

E X PA N S E O F

ISLAM

TO ASSUME UNI VE RSA LIT Y D AZZLI NG A ND ME SME RIZI NG

T H E W O R L D O N I T S WA K E .

Therefore the Qur‘än declares:
32.

T HERE HATH COME TO YO U F ROM G OD A ( NEW ) LIGHT A ND A PERSPICUOUS B OOK . - W HEREWITH G OD GUIDETH ALL W HO SEEK H IS GOOD PLEASURE T O WAYS OF PEACE AND SAFETY, A ND LEADETH THEM OUT O F DARKNESS , BY H IS W ILL , U NTO THE LIGHT, - GUIDETH THEM T O A PATH THAT IS S TRAIGHT. (A L - Q UR ‘ ÄN 5:17-18).

The Bible says: ―Solomon engaged in idolatry.‖ In the verses above, it is said that prophets are sent to nations engaged in idolatry. Muhammad‘s

28

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH) nation was also idolaters. He came and banned idolatry. That is why the idolaters are asked to be ashamed.
MUHAMMAD (PBUH) -THE MODERN WARRIOR: DESTROYER OF IDOLS:

―But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall follow unto it. And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off;‖ (Mic. 4: 1-3). ―And he shall stand and feed in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth.‖ (Mic. 5: 4). ―And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof:‖ (Mic. 5: 6). ―Thine land shall be lifted up upon thine adversaries, and all thine enemies shall be cut off.‖ (Mic. 5: 9). ―Thy graven images also will I cut off, and thy standing images out of midst of thee;‖ (Mic. 5: 13). ―And I will execute vengeance in anger and fury upon the heathens, such as they have not heard.‖ (Mic. 5: 15). Here, in all, eight ‗Signs‘ are mentioned about the prophesized prophet that points to Muhammad (PBUH). The heavenly kingdom that would be established after Jesus, the Committee of Saint Paul could not establish that. They had no kingdom to rule and were only preachers of good tidings. Jesus never asked them to build the heavenly kingdom but merely asked them to publicize good news of its imminence. Contrary to that, Muhammad (PBUH) established the heavenly land by demolishing the evils for protecting the virtuous. He is the universal Prophet, the last Prophet (PBUH).
THE SON OF MAN – DESTROYER OF EVIL: MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

Who is that that would throw ‗Evils into the Fire‘? The Bible says about him: ―The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out

29

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; And shall cast them into a furnace of fire:‖ (Matt. 13: 41-42). It is, therefore, evident that that was not the Committee of Paul. The ‗Son of man‘ has been mentioned in the Bible at many places: ―For the Son of man shall in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he reward every man according to his works‖ (Matt. 16:27). ―For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the ‗Son of man‘ be‖ (Matt. 24:27). ―And then shall appear the sign of the Son of the man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory‖ (Matt. 24:30). ―When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:‖ (Matt. 25:31). ―And then shall they see the son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory‖ (Mark 13:26). ―For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch‖ (Mark 14:34). That Jesus is not the Son of man, but ‗Son of man‘ is a different man is proved by the verses of the Bible quoted below: ―Whosoever, therefore, shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels‖ (Mark 8:38). ―Also I say unto you, Whoever shall confess me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God: But he that denieth me before men shall be denied before the angels of God‖ (Luke 12:8-9). This ‗Son of man has‘ the following qualities:
51. 52.

HE HE

IS A HUMAN BEING. HA S A KIN GD OM AND MI G HT Y PO WE RS

A

VE RY

POWE RFUL KING

AND A

P R O T E C T O R O F V I RT U E A N D D E S T R O Y E R O F E V I L . 53. 54. 55.

DURING T HI S HE

H I S L I F E T I M E , H E D I S PAT C H E S H O LY E M I S S A R I E S .

HA PPEN S IN T HE LA ST EPOC H.

IS SO ME OT HE R T HAN

JESUS.

Muhammad (PBUH) is that ‗Son of man‘. For he fulfills the prophesized qualities. He was a powerful Ruler that looked after the virtuous and
30

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

destroyed the evildoers. His followers were not hypocritical controverts that deserted their leader, like the disciples of Jesus. They were all truthful, dependable, trustworthy and ever ready to sacrifice even their lives for Muhammad (PBUH). They have repeatedly proven that under trial and tribulations.
AL-AMIN: MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

―These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God‖ (Rev. 3:14). ―And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war‖ (Rev. 19:11). Here the ‗Faithful‘ and ‗True‘ very faithfully points to Muhammad (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) is famously known in history as ‗Al-Amin (The Faithful) and As-Sadique (The Truthful) - titles that were bestowed on him by his people, long before the divinity. Historian Thomas Carlyle wrote: ―His companions named him ‗Al-Amin‘, ‗The Faithful‘. A man of truth and fidelity; true in what he did, in what he spoke and thought.‖44 Famous historian Professor Hitti writes: ―His tribe called him Al-Amin (The Faithful).‖45 Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) on the night of the Me‘räj rode a white carrier called ‗Buraq‘ for an audience with God beyond the ‗space frontiers‘, and returned to earth riding the same. Besides that, he had white horses as his carriers. In the Kalki Purana,46 it is stated that the Kalki47 Avatar (incarnation of Vishnu) will be given a white horse and he would establish true religion by fighting and defeating the sinful and evildoers of the infernal age. The verse in the Bible: ―And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war‖ (Rev. 19:11), is a reflection of the same prophesy. It is noteworthy that to establish the truth and for the protection of his unarmed followers including women, children, old and the infirm, he had to take up arms and fight. He fought numerous battles to vanquish the corrupt
44 45 46 47 The Hero as Prophet Mahomet: Islam, p. 13. History of the Arabs, p.111. Kalki Purana the name of the Hindu scripture announcing and giving an account of the tenth incarnation Kalki: the tenth and the last incarnation of Vishnu expected to take place in Kaliyuga (Last Age).

31

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

and protect good, which playwright George Bernard Shaw praised immensely. O people of the world listen carefully with your souls that Faithful and Kalki Avatar who fought to establish truth is none other than Muhammad (PBUH)! There is no scope after this to deny Muhammad (PBUH), the Prophet of the prophets, the last Prophet of God.
NON-MUSLIM THINKERS AND SCHOLARS ON MUHAMMAD (PBUH) DR. VED PRAKASH UPADHAYA:

Dr. Ved Prakash Upadhaya writes: ―Muhammad (PBUH) is proven to be the ‗Last Rishi‘ whose advent has been prophesied in the Veda, the Bible and the Buddhist scripture. I, therefore, felt the urge to express the truth be it unpleasant to some people. In the age before Muhammad (PBUH), the religion of India and the Arabs were alike. There are many evidences of the above, but this is not the proper place to mention them. I am not given to religious parochialism. If there is a truth, I cannot dare deny that. In the Vedas, it is prophesied about a man with twelve wives and riding camels who is called ‗Narashansah‘. Sayan interprets ‗Narashansah‘ as ‗the Praised‘ by people. However, I do not agree with this interpretation and hold that ‗Narashansah‘ hints to a man whose name will mean ‗the Praised‘. Muhammad is an Arabic word meaning ‗the Praised‘. Therefore, Muhammad and ‗Narashansah‘ have the same meaning.‖ Dr. Ved Prakash Upadhaya in the conclusion writes: ―Once Buddha preached a religion to cleanse the Vedic religion of superstitions. Nevertheless, the religion and its followers were looked down upon. People considered Buddhist religion as a new religion other than Vedic. However, when it was proved that Buddha is the twenty-third ‗Avatar‘ of the twentyfour mentioned in the Purana, they unanimously accepted Buddha as an Avatar and the rivalry between Buddhism and Hinduism ended. Likewise, Muhammad‘s religion and his followers may seem to people non-Vedic. However, the description of the twenty-fourth ‗Avatar‘ and the narration in the twelfth chapter of Bhagabat Purana, describing the Avatar leaves no doubt about ‗Muhammad‘ being the mentioned Avatar. Then, I came to believe that, he (Muhammad) is the ‗Kalki‘ Avatar, and the Vedic religion reached its completion through his religion. One day will come when all Brahma, Sakta, Jains, Buddhists, religious and good intelligent people will accept Islam. Consequently, the whole population together will establish a
32

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

huge united community in India. Belief come through conviction and do not expand and spread through arms and coercion. People spontaneously accept the truth, when God shows the light and the heart enlightens. It is the duty of the religious scholars to express the truth about religion. People accept religion voluntarily, if obeisance of religion can be produced in their hearts.‖ Dr. Upadhaya, discussing elaborately in the above book about ‗Maha Kalki‘ i.e. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) writes, ―The main Hindu Scriptures that prophesied about Muhammad are: Matshaya Purana, Karma Purana, Bohraha Purana, Narashingha Purana, Baman Purana, Bishnu Purana, Devi Bhagabat, Shrimadbhagabat, Bhavishaya Purana, Brahma Boibartaya Purana, Garuda Purana, Kalki Purana, Jain Mahabhashaya, Brihaddhrama Purana, Hari Bhashaya, Agni Purana, Bishnu Dharma Tayattha, Baiyoo Purana and Maha Bharata. There have not been as many prophecies about any other great men, as there are about Muhammad in various scriptures of many religions of the world.‖ He again said, ―The Kalki that Indians believe as ‗Bhagaban‘, the Muslims are his disciples.‖48
PROFESSOR ASIT KUMAR BANDAPADHAYA:

Dr. Bandapadhaya in the introduction of ‗Veday Muhammad‘, wrote: ―The Creator of the Universe is ‗one and the only‘. He deserves all worshipping and all praise to Him. He is the Master of the Worlds, in every era He sends His Emissary for the welfare and guidance of mankind, to the countries of the world. However, some Indian humdrum think rishis, savants, prophets and great men will only be Indians. Nonetheless, Aryans were not Indians they came from outside India. Veda is their scripture. The fact is God sends new prophets with new scriptures and instructions, whenever, the earlier religion is corrupted, the scripture is corrupted and the world submerges in vice and immorality. Those that egotistically deny the Messenger of God and his new religion invite destruction unto them and are limited by superstitions. On the contrary, those that accept the new prophet and his religion attain deliverance.
48 Dr. Ved Prakash Upadhaya, MA (Sanskrit Veda), D. Phil. (Religious Studies), Dip. in German: Research Scholar, Department of Sanskrit, University of Prayaga and Director Sharshtaya Vedanta Prakash Shanghaya. Dr. Asit Kumar Bandapadhaya and Dr Gauri Battacharya, translated his books: ‗Narashansah and Antim Rishi‘, ‗Kalki Avatar and Muhammad Sahib‘ and Ved o Puranayer Drishthi tay Ekotar Joti and published them together entitled as, ‗Veday Muhammad‘ (Muhammad in the Vedas).

33

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Analyzing the scriptures of the world, it becomes apparent that some of them remained obscured, lost or hidden for a few hundred or thousand years from the world. Aryans proscribed non-Aryans reading or even hearing Veda, their scripture. The Bible was almost destroyed by the enemies. The authenticity of these scriptures is therefore, sometimes questioned even by their followers. On the contrary, the Holy Qur‘än has never been obscured from the sight of the world. If the other scriptures are lost it is impossible to recover them completely, but the Qur‘än. Since, Qur‘än, this majestic book has been committed to memory by thousands and thousands of people around the world, and immortal it dwells in their hearts. The Qur‘än, therefore, remains as it is, without the slightest alteration or addition, as pure as it was fourteen hundred years ago. This purity is unique and is a challenge to all other religious scriptures, which cannot be met by any of them. Thus, Qur‘än can claim to be the true, pure and eternal book of God. India and the world are impatiently waiting for the ‗Kalki‘ the last of the prophets. In various scriptures, his advent is described variously and the signs to recognize him are given. In our Veda Purana, in many places, the description is there. Muslims contend that the ‗Kalki‘ of the Veda Purana is Muhammad (PBUH). According to the research findings of Dr. Ved Prakash Upadhaya, his advent has been foretold in four ways. Firstly, ‗Narashansah‘ meaning ‗the Praised‘ has been shown as the meaning of ‗Muhammad‘. Secondly, as the ‗last Rishi‘: the Qur‘än has described Muhammad (PBUH) as the last Prophet. Thirdly, as the ‗Kalki Avatar‘, i.e. he will be the Prophet of the last epoch, and Muhammad (PBUH) has come in the last era of the world. Fourthly, he is mentioned with his name in the Veda. Therefore, all indications surely lead to Muhammad (PBUH). Dr. Ved Prakash Upadhaya has written three books, namely: ‗Narashansah Aur Antim Rishi‘ (Narashansah and the last Rishi), ‗Kalki Avatar Aur Muhammad Sahib‘ (Kalki Avatar and Mr. Muhammad), and ‗Veda o Purana Ki Drishthi Mai Dharmia Ekata Ki Joti‘ (The Light Of Religious Unity According to Veda And Purana). I have translated those three books, and put them together as, ―Hazrat Muhammad in Veda and Purana‖ (Veda o Puranai Hazrat Muhammad). I conclude with the prayers that let true knowledge flourish, let there be friendship and love between the Hindus and the Muslims, and may God
34

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

grant us all wisdom and strength to understand and accept the truth without any hesitation.
MAHATMA GANDHI: THE FATHER OF MODERN INDIA:

It is very interesting to note what Mahatma Gandhi had to say about selfeffacement, privations of Muhammad (PBUH) and advancement of Islam. The Mahatma says, ―Islam in its glorious days was not intolerant. It commanded the admiration of the world. When the West was sunk in darkness, a bright star rose in the eastern firmament and gave light and comfort to the groaning world. Islam is not a false religion. Let Hindus study it reverently and they will love it even as I do (Young India).‖ The Mahatma remarks: ―Hazrat Muhammad was a great Prophet. He was brave and feared no man but God alone. He was never found to say one thing and do another. He acted as he felt. The prophet was a fakir. He could have commanded wealth if he had so desired. I shed tears when I read of the privations, he and his family and companions suffered voluntarily. How can a truth-seeker like me help respecting one whose mind was constantly fixed on God, who ever walked in God‘s fear and who had boundless compassion for mankind. It was the rigid simplicity, utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission: that and not the sword carried every thing before them and surmounted every obstacle.‖
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE: THE EMPEROR OF FRANCE:

Napoleon Bonaparte in his book ‗Autobiography‘ says about Islam and its prophet: ―Arabia was idolatrous when, six centuries after Jesus, Muhammad introduced the worship of the God of Abraham, of Ishmael, of Moses and Jesus. The Aryans and some other sects disturbed the tranquility of the East by agitating the question of the nature of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Muhammad declared that there was none but one God who had no father, no son, and that the Trinity imported the idea of idolatry...‖ He wrote on the flyleaf of the Qur‘än: ―There is no god but God.‖ ―I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on

35

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

the principles of the Qur‘än which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness.‖49 In an assembly of savants, governors and nobles at Cairo, Napoleon declared: ―Surely I have told you on different occasions that I have intimated to you by various discourses that I am an Unitarian ‗Musalman‘ and I glorify the prophet, Muhammad.‖50
PUNDIT JAWAHERLAL NEHRU:

The First Prime Minister of India, Nehru said that the sudden rise of Arab Muslims and the influence of their advanced education, culture and civilization on Asia, Europe and Africa are wonderful chapter in the history of the world. Greatly strengthened by the ideology and the principal doctrine of Islam, the Arab Muslims gained in confidence and transformed into a very powerful nation. When people in Egypt, China or Indian subcontinent did not know the application of scientific methods, Greeks were a bit enlightened and the Romans were totally ignorant: the Arab Muslims earned the knowledge and expertise to apply scientific methods. Therefore, they are called the father of modern science.51
SIR RADHA KRISHNAN:

Former President of India, Late Sir Radha Krishnan said: ―We cannot deny that the conception of brotherhood in Islam transcends all barriers of race and nationality, a feature, which does not characterize any other religion.‖52
PROFESSOR KS RAMA KRISHNA RAO:
53

Rao in his book, ‗Muhammad the Prophet of Islam‘ said, ―The personality of Muhammad is most difficult to get into the whole truth of it. Only a glimpse of it can. What a dramatic succession of picture scenes! There is Muhammad the General, the Prophet, the King, the Warrior, the Businessman, the Preacher, the Philosopher, the Statesman, the Orator, the Reformer, the Protector of Slaves, the Emancipator of Women, the Judge, the Saint. And in all these roles and in all these departments of human activities, he is like a hero.‖
49 50 51 52 53 Bonaparte et l‘ Islam - by Cherfils, Paris. Religious Faith of Napoleon, JD Jenkins. Glimpses of World History, Pundit Jawaherlal Nehru, London 1931. East and West in Religion, London 1933. Government College for Women, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

36

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE THE GREAT HINDU SAVANT MN ROY:

The great Hindu thinker and writer, MN Roy, in his famous book ‗Historical Role of Islam‘ writes: ―Islam first of all introduced the idea of social equality, which was unknown in all the lands of ancient civilizations. At the Beginning of this book, Roy remarks, ―The historical role Islam was primarily due to its revolutionary significance and its ability to lead the masses out of the hopeless situation created by the decay of antique civilizations not only of Greece and Rome but of Persia, China and India. The sword of Islam wielded ostensibly at the service of God actually contributed to the victory of a new force the blossoming of a new intellectual life which eventually dug the grave of all other religions and faiths.‖ MN Roy goes on to write: ―The apparently sudden rise and dramatic expansion of Muhammadanism constitutes a most fascinating chapter in the history of mankind.‖ Then again, he writes: ―Every prophet establishes his pretension by the performance of miracles. On that token, Muhammad must be recognized as by far the greatest of all prophets before or after him. The expansion of Islam is the most miraculous of all miracles. The Roman Empire of Augustus, enlarged by the valiant Trojans, was the result of the rarest and glorious victories, won over a period of 700 years; still it had not attained the proportions of the Arabian Empire, established in less than a century.‖
SAROJINI NAIDU:
54

Sarojini Naidu says: ―It was the first religion that preached and practiced democracy. For in the mosque when the minaret is sounded and the worshippers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied five times a day, when the peasant and king kneel side by side and proclaim God alone is great. I have been struck over again by this indivisible unity of Islam that makes a man instinctively a brother.‖
TULSHI DAS:

Tulshi Das says, ―I will not add anything from my own: but whatever is in Veda and in the Purana (Ancient Scripture) that is true, and truth I will say. There will descend a shining Star in Arabia who will demonstrate many memorable and phenomenal feats, in the darkest night, a brilliance of four
54 Former President of Indian National Congress.

37

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Suns will emanate from him. He will have four devoted Disciples. With quick propagation, his religion will expand fast. There will be no way to reach God other than Muhammad.‖55
ACHARYA PRAFULLA CHANDRA ROY:

The famous Professor and Chemist, Sir P.C. Roy says, ―It is the Peculiar privilege of Islam that it makes no difference between man and man. It was the equality and brotherhood and not the sword of iron which attracted many Hindus to Islam.‖ He further says: ―Muhammad, the Great man abolishing the gap between the affluent and the indigent established an universal fraternity. The serene light of brotherhood that abolished class system through Islam is a lofty ideal for the world. He destroyed all distinction between the fair and the dark, poor and the rich, high and the low, Aryans and non-Aryans, male and the female and between servants and masters. All are equal before God. I do not know of a religion that has this characteristic of universal brotherhood. Hinduism is choked by the curse of caste system. Christianity, the great proponent of equality also has not been able to create such an ideal system. As soon as one confesses faith in Islam, he becomes the member of a universal fraternity, where he is equal to all other members. The King and the subject are equals. If this idea of a universal fraternity is not noble then no religion on earth can exit vibrantly.‖
REV. MAHENDRA NATH:
56

Like a heavenly fire mighty Muhammad (PBUH) endowed with God‘s message, in the sixth century came shaking the Arab land and adored the barbarians with civility and religion, and taught them that ‗there is no god but Allah.‘ The world would never forget, the way the small-minded souls blinded by communalism denied and hated Abdullah‘s son and his religion, and has been doing so, without any valid reason. That Islam has descended with direct and indirect benefits for human can only be denied by the insane, history is the unfailing witness to that. At a time when Europe was immersed in the curse of the Dark Ages, culture of knowledge and learning was almost extinguished; when not mentioning others the Christians were plunged in superstition, idolatry and vices, Islam came with relief. It
55 56 Bajra Bhandar Tulsi Dasi Ramayana chapter xii:211.(Translated by this translator). Editor of ‗the Unity‘ and a ‗Minister‘ and ‗Preacher‘ of Brahmanism.

38

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

established its supremacy in almost whole of Africa, Arabia, Turkey, Persia, Tartar, Afghanistan and Spain by demolishing idolatry, fire and Sun worshipping. ‗There is no god but Allah‘, became synonymous with the reign of the Caliphs. Even the staunchest enemy of Islam does not deny that ‗culture of knowledge‘, the pride and crown of Europe and the western world, was revived by the Muslims. In the darkest time, it held derailed Europe in its lap, like the Mother Earth. We are helplessly unable to comprehend what a great instrument of benefit it is in the hands God, for the welfare of the Worlds.57
PANDIT DHARMANANDA MAHABHARATI:

How great is the Arabian Muhammad? Is he an ordinary man? If a human being, can he do so much? He is a superman in the shape of a man. He is an immortal great man descended from the heaven. If not endowed with Godly-power, can one be so powerful, so completely able, so magnanimous? Muhammad (PBUH) was endowed with kindness, altruism, benevolence, chivalry, truthfulness, independence, God worshipping, devotion to God, etc. He has accomplished many supernatural things, benefited countless people of this world, created a new religion, and illuminated this captivating, ignorant and visionless world with spiritual light of knowledge. Removing oppression, tyranny, injustice, superstition, ignorance and vice, he saved the then central Asia from destruction. Fakir Muhammad (PBUH) is a principal Jewel in the Crown of the earth, he is a divine being from the heavens, not a human of this elusive earth.
PANDIT GOPAL CHANDRA SHASTRI:

In Arabic the most important book is al-Qur‘än or Qur‘än Sherif, the other name is Fur‘qän. This is a wonderful thing, a phenomenal priceless book. This book is to be read and taught and to learn and train. I am a Hindu, but still I can praise this book unreservedly. In a nutshell, al- Qur‘än is a priceless jewel, that who has not seen this gem, he does not have complete right to enter the realm of spirituality.
BHAI GIRISH CHANDRA SEN:

That who has occupied the hearts of millions of men and women and influenced their lives, and liberating them from the shackles of idolatry
57 Cited from Nanak Prakash.

39

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

brought them under the domain of one and only God, is he an ordinary soul? That who has tied the rich and the poor, man and woman, young and old to the worship of God five times a day, is he an ordinary man? Who is praised in thousands and thousands of houses of God proudly standing erect around the world, thousands and thousands of saints, savants, dervishes are whose disciple, is he an ordinary human being? Who would not accept him as a divine great man? Without the Will of God and divine power, can anybody do such great deeds? Being only an illiterate ordinary man of moderate financial condition only through his steadfast conviction and divine power, heralding monotheism he has shaken the world. This is Divine. This kind of mighty deed cannot be done with mundane knowledge and wisdom.
SWAMI BIBEKANANDA:

Muhammad is an Acharya (saint) of Equality. He is the prophet preaching universal fraternity. All Avatars, prophets and the messengers of God brought specific true messages. Muhammad through his own lifestyle taught that there should be total equality and goodwill among the Muslims and there cannot be any distinction of caste, creed or sex. The Turkish Sultan may buy a slave in the African market and bring him to Turkey in chains, but if he is capable and endowed with good qualities, he may marry the daughter of the Sultan. And what the Hindus do? If a missionary touches the food of a chaste Hindu, he would throw the food immediately. Here is the difference between the Muslims and others-irrespective of caste and creed all are treated equal- this is the majestic grandeur of Islam.
JOSEPH HALE:

Muhammad is such a great man that without him the world would have been incomplete. He is his own example. Annals of his magnificent achievements have created a glorious chapter in human history.
PROFESSOR MAX MULLER:

How much resemblance is there between Christianity and Islam? On this subject, Max Muller has written in an article in ‗Nineteenth Century‘. In the beginning, he has said: ―There are certain things of Muslims, which are superior to us. Among them, the lower and middle classes are independent but free of the vice of drinking. If I am to believe my Turkish friends then their womenfolk (Muslim) are clean of open corruption. The religion that
40

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

can treat and cure drinking and corruption, definitely, deserve our deference. He again says: ―After elaborate debate and deliberations we had to generally admit that mainly there are little differences between these two religions. If there were not so much bickering, earlier these two could have merged. All admit that if the six main points of the Qur‘än namely: ‗Unity of God‘, ‗recognition of the Bible‘, ‗recognition of few others specific divine scriptures‘, ‗the Day of Judgement‘ and the commandments of God, are the principal doctrines of Islam then there is nothing to quarrel. That Muhammad (PBUH) has dedicated his life to preach the truth, justice and welfare of the people. That he has been able to express God through Truth is a testimony of his being a prophet.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA:

The writer of the article ‗Koran‘ in the Encyclopedia Britannica remarks: ―Muhammad is the most successful of all Prophets and religious personalities. ... There is no doubt Muhammad was a man of extraordinary insight and deep reflection. Though without a book learning, he had a deep knowledge of man and possessed a grasp of the eternal ground of all religions.‖
GOETHE, THE GREATEST GERMAN POET:

While speaking about the Holy Qur‘än declared: ―This book will go on exercising through all ages a most potent influence.‖ He once while reviewing Islam as an educational force, said to Eckermann, ―you see these teachings never fail: with all our systems we cannot go, and generally speaking no man goes, farther than that.‖
J.W. DRAPER:
58

Draper in his book: ‗A History of Intellectual Development of Europe‘ wrote: ―Four years after the death of Justinian (AC 569) was born at Mecca, in Arabia, the man who of all men has exercised the greatest influence upon the human race.‖ He is further quoted as saying: ―Islam admitted the salvation of men of any form and faith provided they were virtuous.‖ J.W. Draper, in his book, ‗A History of Intellectual Development of Europe‘ says, ―It is altogether a misconception to assume that the Arabian
58 History of the intellectual Development of Europe: JW Draper, Vol.-I. pp. 332-33.

41

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

progress was due to the sword alone. The sword may change an acknowledged creed, but it cannot affect the conscience of men. Profound though its argument is, something more profound was demanded before Muhammadanism came pervading the domestic life of Asia and Africa.‖
THOMAS CARLYLE-A FAMOUS HISTORIAN AND ESSAYIST:

Mr. Carlyle in his book ‗Heroes and Hero-worship‘ writes: ―But from an early age he had been remarked as a thoughtful man. His companions named him ‗Al-Amin‘ i.e., faithful a man of truth and fidelity, true in what he did, in what he spoke and thought. Carlyle further writes about Muhammad (PBUH): ―I say the great man was a lightning out of heaven; the rest of man waited for him like fuel and then they would flame.‖
JOHN DAVENPORT- ENGLISH WRITER:

John Davenport in his book ‗The Message of the Qur‘än‘ writes: ―The religion thus established by the Qur‘än is a stern and severe monotheism; it has nothing abstract and indistinct in its primary notion of Godhead.‖ He also wrote that the piety of Moses and Christ rejoiced in an assurance at a future Prophet (Muhammad) more illustrious than themselves, and the Evangelists promise of the Paraclete on Holy ghosts, the comforter, was prefigured in the name, and accomplished in person of the greatest and last of the Prophets.59 He further elaborates: ―Islam never interfered with the dogmas of any faith never established and acquisition.
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW:

George Bernard Shaw writes, ―I believe that if a man like Muhammad were to assume the dictatorship of the Modern World he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it, its much needed peace and happiness. I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be accepted to the Europe of today. If any religion has the chance of ruling over England nay Europe within next hundred years it can only be Islam. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess the assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make its appeal to every age.‖

59

Life of Muhammad.

42

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE LORD BERTRAND RUSSELL:

Lord Russell said about Islam: ―In the Mohammedan world Christians and Jewish were not molested so long as they paid the tribute, but throughout Christendom death was the usual penalty for even the smallest dentition from orthodox.‖
WILLIAM MUIR:

In his book ‗Life of Muhammad‘, he writes: ―The Qur‘än is unapproachable as regards convincing power, eloquence and even composition. To it was due undoubtedly, the marvelous development of all branches of science in the Muslim world ...it created a civilized nation, out of savage tribes and shot a fresh wool into the old warp of history.‖ Muir further writes: ―There is probably in the world no other work which has remained twelve centuries with so pure a text as the Qur‘än. Efforts of European scholars to prove the existence of later interpolation in the Qur‘än have failed (vide also article ‗Qur‘än‘ in the Encyclopedia Britannica).‖
HISTORIAN EDWARD GIBBON:

In ‗The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire‘ Gibbon writes: ―The author of the mighty revolution appears to have been endowed with a pious and contemplative disposition. Good sense of Muhammad despised the pomp of royalty; he kindled the fire, swept the floor, milked the cows and mended with his own hands his shoes and his garments ...but in his domestic life many weeks will lapse without a fire being kindled in the hearth of the prophet.‖ He further said, ―A pernicious tenet has been imputed to the Mohammadans the duty of extirpating all the religions by sword. Gibbon distinguished the expansion of Islam as ―one of the most memorable revolutions...‖
R.V.C. BODLEY:

Bodley in his book, ‗The Messenger‘ (The life of Muhammad) writes refuting critics of Prophet Muhammad, ―Muhammad was shown as a feudal lord who took Christian holy orders. He was created a Cardinal, but failing to be elected to the papacy revenged himself by starting a new religion.‖ Bodley narrates: ―Muhammad said, ‗He who wrongs a Jew or a Christian will have me as accuser,‘ and repeatedly recommends this tolerance towards the faith, which resembled his own. In all his treaties with the Christians, he invariably guaranteed their right of worship. Bodley narrates: ―When Omar became Caliph and captured Jerusalem, he gave rigid injunctions that
43

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

neither Christian nor their church should be harmed. When they invaded Spain in the eighth century, everything Christian was respected. It continued to be so until the disintegration of the Arab rule in Europe during the fifteenth century.‖ Bodley writes: ―Muhammad‘s order relating to the Muslim attitude towards Christianity has, with few exceptions, been maintained.‖ This is contrary to the European who professes a religion or faith, which is not Christian, is wrong. Even within the Christian fold, the various denominations consider each other as respectively misguided. There is little tolerance between church and chapel. This is not so with Islam. When the Muslim faith unconditionally condemns idolatry, it unreservedly recognizes Christianity. Bodley describes: ―No Jew or Buddhist or Christian ever say that his faith grew before him with such miraculous rapidity. No other religious leader was ever so rewarded in his lifetime. It seems as if God had wished to emphasize that Muhammad were the last of His prophets and ‗Islam the last of His religions‘.‖ Writes Bodley: ―One of Muhammad‘s last requests before he died was. ‗O, Lord let not my tomb be ever an object of worship‘.‖
HISTORIAN STANLEY LANE-POOLE:

Lane-Poole states: ―No emperor with his tiaras was obeyed as this man, with a cloak of his own counting. He had the gift of influencing man and he had the nobility only to influence them for good.‖ Lane-Poole further says, ―The frank friendship, the noble generosity, the dauntless courage and hope of the man, all tend to melt criticism in admiration.‖ Lane-Poole writes again: ―His whole life is a long argument for his loyalty to truth. He had but one answer for his worshippers ‗I am no more than a man I am only human‘.‖ Stanley Lane Poole in his book ‗The speeches and Table Talk of Muhammad‘ writes: ―He is more modest than a virgin behind her curtain it was said of him. He was most indulgent to his inferiors and would never allow his little ‗page‘ to be scolded whatever he did. ‗Ten years‘ said Anas, as his servant, I was about the prophet and he never said as much as ‗Uff‘ to me.‖ Poole further writes: ―When asked to curse someone he replied: ‗I have no t been sent to curse, but to be a mercy to mankind‘. Those who saw him have
44

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

suddenly filled with reverence; those who come near him lived him and they who described him would say: ‗I have never seen his like either before or after‘.‖
WASHINGTON IRVING:

In his book ‗Muhammad‘ Washington Irving writes: ―His (Muhammad‘s) Military triumphs awakened no pride or vainglory, as they would have done had they been effected for selfish motives. In the time of his greatest power, he maintained the simplicity of manner and appearance as in the days of adversity. ... If he aimed at universal dominion, it was the dominion of faith. Regarding the Holy Qur‘än Irving writes: ―The Qur‘än contains pure, elevated and benignant precepts...‖
VENKATA RATNAM:

Venkata Ratnam in his famous book ‗An Essay on Islam‘ (1922 Edition, Madras) writes, ―Finally it may be noted that Islam is the most tolerant faith…‖ Venkata Ratnam again writes: ―The Islam of Muhammad with its stern discipline and stern morality proved itself the only practical religion. Muhammad, the Prophet of God has done more good to the world than any other man.‖
ANNIE BESANT:

Annie Besant60 in her book: ‗Life and Teachings of Muhammad,‘ writes about freedom and status of women and property in Islam. She writes: ―I often think woman is free in Islam than in Christianity woman is more protected by Islam than the by the faith which preaches monogamy. In alQur‘än, the law about woman is more just and liberal. It is only in England in the last 26 years that Christians have recognized the right of woman to property while Islam has assured this right from, old times. It is a slander to say that Islam preaches that woman has no soul.‖ ―Islam is often unfairly attacked because it was utterly misunderstood as to the greatness of its Prophet and the nobility of his teachings to the world.‖ ―It is true that today Islam does not stand before the World as the exponent of high learning, or great intellectual endeavors; but, that is not due to the fault of the teachings; but, rather to the neglect of them. Islam has suffered

60

Life and Teachings of Muhammad: Annie Besant, Madras, 1932: pp. 3.

45

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

as all the other religions of the world have suffered because its followers are unworthy of its founders.‖ She continues: ―Now Islam differs from the other religions of the world in one important fact. With regard to its founder, the Prophet, there is not intermixture in his history of the mythic elements, which surround the other great religious teachers. His life was led in times that are regarded as historical. In the seventh century of the Christian era this Man was born and lived out his life in lands, the history of which is known.‖ Annie Besant goes on to write: ―It is noteworthy that when he came back from that cave one night when the Angel of the Lord had bidden him. ‗Rise Prophet of God and go forth and cry to the people‘ he shivered ‗Who am I, what am I that I should go as prophet of the Lord.‘ It was then that his wife cheered him up bidding him to obey the call. ‗Fear not,‘ she said, ‗art thou not the Trustworthy? Never will God deceive a man trusted by men.‘ Nowhere can there be a fairer testimony to a prophet. Then he went forth to his great mission. The wife of his bosom was his first disciple, that dearest and noblest of women who lived with this leader of men for twenty-six years of perfect married life. Such was the character of the man as judged by her who knew him best.‖
H.G. WELLS:

H.G. Wells had no genuine regard for Islam. For all his writings, his history, his resources were the Christian Missionaries, as he had no access to Arabic texts to get to know the Holy Prophet Muhammad and Islam. Therefore in his book: ‗Outline of History‘, he expounded about Islam and its Prophet from a prejudiced and biased view of Christian writers. Still he could not but admit the truths. He writes in his ‗Outline of History‘: ―Can a man who has no good qualities hold a friend? Those who knew Muhammad the best believed in him most. Khadija for all her days believed in him. Abu Bakr is a better witness and he never wavered in his devotion. Abu Bakr believed in the Prophet and it is very hard for any one who reads the history of these times not to believe in Abu Bakr. Ali repeatedly risked his life for the Prophet in his darkest days. Well writes in his ‗Outline of History‘: ―Islam created a society more free from widespread cruelty and social oppression than any society had ever been in the world before.‖

46

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE LOTHROP STODDARD:

Lothrop Stoddard in his book ‗Clasping of Tides of Color‘ writes: ―Broadly speaking, the Near East possesses a fundamental unity, that of Islam. The native Christians and Jewish minorities are local survivals from the lost past times. Now Islam is more than a creed, it is a culture and way of life. However radically it may be modified by Westernism, Islam will remain the basis upon which new development will repose. Also Islam is not ossified or decadent as many Westerners assume. It is very much alive and it has long been in genuine evolution. The Islamic world touched its lowest depth or decrepitude two centuries ago. Thereafter began the movement known as the Muhammadan Revival a spiritual leaven which never ceased to work, which continues to work, and which continues to produce the important effect. This revival, be it noted was not due to western impact. It sprang from Islam‘s own vitality. The rapid rise of Islam to a great intent is due to its sublime practicability and its promise for balanced life.‖
HAVELL:

Havell in his book ‗Aryan Role in India‘, says, ―It was not philosophy of Islam but its sociological program which won so many converts in India. The social program of the prophet gave every true believer an equal spiritual status, made Islam a political and social synthesis, and gave it an imperial mission. Islam was a rule of life sufficient for happiness of average humanity content to take the world as it is.‖
LAURA VECCIA VOGLURI:
61

Vogluri in his book ‗Apologie de Islamism‘ writes: ―On the whole we find in it (Qur‘än) a collection of wisdom which can be adopted by the most intelligent of men; the greatest of philosophers and the most skilful of politicians. But there is another proof of Divinity of the Qur‘än; it is the fact that it has been preserved intact through the ages since the time of its Revelation till the present day. Read and re-read the book does not rouse in the faithful any weariness; It rather through repetition is more loved every day. It gives rise to a profound feeling of awe and respect in the one who reads it, or listens to it.‖

61

Apologie de Islamism: Laura Veccia Vogluri - the famous Italian Arabist.

47

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE THE DAILY EXPRESS:
62

The Daily Express in its editorial column wrote: ―If the test of a great man‘s inspiration is the reverence which his words inspire in those who acknowledge their divine origin, then Muhammad must be remembered among the greatest. But if this is right and it is right that Muhammad is a unique character. Seeing that no other reformer, prophet nor even God incarnate could have claimed that love, devotion and obedience that came to Muhammad from his followers who were not of low station or of inferior mental caliber, but men of position, rank, wealth and culture; and from his own kith and kin, who knew ins and outs of his life. For twelve years, the early Muslims suffered frightful persecution at the hands of the idolaters and yet their number steadily increased. The community was scattered and many were driven into exile, yet it went on growing. Though members were subjected to most cruel tortures, there were few apostates and many converts to the faith of God. Did the personality of Muhammad the most charming that the world has ever produced count for nothing in that steadfast and enduring growth?‖
W. HUNTER:

W.W. Hunter in his book, ‗The Indian Musalman‘ says, ―It is one of the glories of Islam that its temples are not made with halls, its ceremonies can be performed anywhere in God‘s earth, or under the heaven by any man.‖
DR. B. RAM KRISHNA RAO:
63

In a speech he on October 7, 1957 on birth anniversary of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), said, ―The message of great teachers like Muhammad is intended for the whole world.‖ He further elaborated: ―Islam is essentially a religion which propagated democracy and social equality and it is one of the greatest religions which taught the fundamentals of life.‖
DR. JOHN CLERK ARCHER:
64

Dr. Archer writes, ―But there is convincing evidence of originality in the very exercise of sensitive acquisitive, selective, and creative powers, such as Islam had and exercised both in Arabia and beyond. Wise choices and definite rejections were made repeatedly in the course of Islam‘s broadening
62 63 64 The editorial column of the Daily Express of London: November 10, 1925. Dr. B. Ram Krishna Rao: Former Governor of Kerala, India; (Speech delivered on the October 7, 1957 on the birth anniversary of the Holy Prophet) Dr. John Clerk Archer, Emeritus Professor of Comparative Religion: Yale University, New Haven, USA: Our Debt to the Muslim World: Published in the Islamic Review: July 1957.

48

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

experiences. Take the case of Fiqh or canon law or call it simply law since in early Islam the State and the Church was one. It gave full play, in matters not precluded by Koranic statement to the full exercise of judgement (rayopinion) to the use of common sense on a judge‘s (Kazi‘s) part.
PROFESSOR JOSEPH HILL:

Joseph Hill in his book, ‗Arabic Civilization‘ writes: ―Islam was the first religion in the history of mankind to utilize the tremendous power of public congregational prayer as a unifying agent... The regular meeting of all the faithful at common prayer nourished the spirit of solidarity implanting the feeling of unity of man.‖ Joseph further says, ―Muhammad is that Great man without whom the Universe would have been incomplete. He is only comparable to himself. His accomplishment is a brilliant chapter in the history of humankind.‖ Joseph Hill praises the spirit of discipline created by Islam in men in these words: ―So excellent indeed, was the discipline at the time, in the Muslim army that Khalid, without the least hesitation surrendered the chief command to Muthanna.‖
PROF. RAMESH CHANDRA GHOSH:
65

Professor Ghosh in the introduction to his book ‗Constitutional Development in the Islamic World‘ remarks: ―Of all the world religions Islam is the latest. And yet, no other religion has so emphatically and persistently, in word and action, pointed out the one-ness of God and equality of men. The prophet said, ‗The white man is not above the black, nor the black above the yellow; all men are equal before the master‘.‖
AC BOUQUET:
66

AC Bouquet in his well-known book ‗Comparative Religion‘ writes: ―Muhammad succeeded in fastening upon his people and extending throughout the Middle-East a broader, cleaner, fresher and more vigorous political and social ideal than that of the decadent ‗Byzantine Empire‘. ...Muhammad expressly rejected all claims to work miracles and he despised grandeur and lived on principle an extremely frugal life though he was no ascetic ...He is reputed to have behaved very simply and there is no reason for not supposing that he did. He performed the most menial task
65 66 Prof. Ramesh Chandra Ghosh, MA B.L.: Constitutional Development in the Islamic World: AC Bouquet: Comparative Religion: Penguin Books Ltd., Middlesex, 1954.

49

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

with his own hands and was essentially puritan saying that the Divine Revelation forbade him to wear gold or silk.‖
SELWYN GURNEY AND DOROTHY SHORT:
67

In their ‗Readings from world Religion‘ remark: ―His (Muhammad‘s) belief in force has encouraged comparison with some of the dictators of later times who have also been single-hearted and personally abstemious. But the answer is that such men tend to fall, whereas Muhammad founded a religion, which has guided millions of men of many nationalities for thirteen hundred years and which is until in the increase. Mere powerseeking fanatics are unable to influence later generations no longer subject to their personal magnetism. After the death of Muhammad, there was one of the most remarkable outbursts of conquests, the world has ever seen.‖
MAJOR ARTHUR GLYN LEONARD:
68

Arthur Glyn Leonard in his book, ‗Islam-Her moral and Spiritual Value‘ writes: ―To thoroughly comprehend, the spirit of Muhammad or the soul of Islam, the student himself must at the outset recognize that Muhammad was no mere spiritual peddler, no vulgar time serving vagrant, but one of the most profoundly sincere and earnest spirits of any age, or epoch. A man not only great but one of the greatest (i.e. truest) men that humanity had ever produced. Great not simply as a prophet, but as a patriot constructed a great nation, a greater empire and more even than all three -a still greater Faith, true, moreover, because he was true to himself, his people and above all to his God. Recognizing this, he will thus acknowledge that Islam is a profound and true cult strives to uplift its votaries from the depth of human darkness upward into the higher realm of ‗Light and Truth‘.‖
C.W. LEITNER:
69

Leitner in his book, ‗Muhammadanism‘ writes: ―Muhammad himself did not claim infallibility. On one occasion, he had a revelation censuring him severely for having turned away from a beggar in order to speak to an illustrious person of the Commonwealth and he published this revelation. The very last thing, which he would have done had he been an imposter, as the ignorant Christians call the great Arab prophet.‖
67 68 69 Selwyn Gurney and Dorothy Sho rt: in their ‗Readings from world Religion‘: London, 1951. Islam-Her moral and Spiritual Value: (London 1927): Major Arthur Glyn Leonard: C.W. Leitner, LL.D., MA, Ph.D., DL., Muhammadanism: Lahore, 1893.

50

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE PROFESSOR C. PARAMESHWAR:
70

Professor Parameshwar in an article ‗The Guilt of Man‘ writes about Islam and its prophet: ―Islam recognizes sources of all religion in God. With regard to Islam, this much can be said at least, that however, malpractised its structure and general outlines remain uncorrupted until today, the true Islam is yet luckily readily distinguishable from false Islam. That is the only credit we claim for this religion. We are afraid the same cannot be said of other religions.‖
REV. CANON ISAAC TAYLOR:

Rev. Taylor in his speech delivered at the Church Congress of England said, ―The strictly regulated polygamy of all Muslim land is infinitely less degrading to women and less injurious to men than the promiscuous polyandry which is the curse of Christian cities and which is absolutely unknown in Islam.‖
LAMARTINE:
71

Lamartine in his book, ‗His toise de la Turquie‘ wrote: ―If the grandeur of the design, the scantiness of means, the immensity of the results, are the three measures of genius of the man, who will dare compare in humanity any great man of modern history with Muhammad?‖
JD COCKBAIN:

JD. Cockbain in an article entitled: ‗The Islamic Faith‘ writes about Islam: ―The strength of Islam in its early days as today is that it knows nothing of race or color prejudice. ...The main purpose of the Qur‘än is to awaken in the man the higher consciousness of his manifold relations with God and with Universe.‖
LALA LAJPAT RAI:

Rai, the great Indian Congress leader, says, ―I have not the least hesitation in declaring that I entertain the highest respect for the prophet of Islam. In my opinion he holds the highest rank among the Religious Teachers and Reformers.‖
TL VASWANI:

Vaswani, the famous Indian Philosopher, says, ―I salute Muhammad as one of the world force, a mighty power for the uplift of many people. Consider for a moment what the faith he preached has achieved. Islam abolished
70 71 Published in Islamic Review: October 1940. A great French poet and politician.

51

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

infanticide in Arabia. Islam enjoined on the faithful abstinence from drink. Islam emphasized the great qualities of faith: courage, endurance and selfsacrifice. Islam introduced a vigorous Puritanism into Asia and Europe deprecating even dancing and card playing. Who is a Muslim? Says the Qur‘än, ‗He who seeketh after the right way‘.‖
EDWARD A. FARMER:

Farmer is among those writers who tried their best to discredit and vulgarize, in the most perverted way Islam and its Holy Prophet. Even he could not camouflage the truth and brilliance of Islam and the pure dazzling majestic character of its Prophet. He is clearly overwhelmed by the facts. He writes in ‗A History of the Conquests of the Saracens‘: ―...the great Arabian legislator, who was destined to change so completely the face of the world in his own age and to exercise so important and influence upon it for all times.‖ ―I reverence the man who could gather the scattered tribes of his people into one great and united nation, who could sweep away the idols of the heathens from the ancient temple of Divine Unity.‖ Farmer writes: ―He at last rose far above the vulgar claims, either of temporal conquerors or of spiritual pretenders. He was still the servant and apostle of God and claimed no homage in any other character. A vulgar impostor would have claimed miraculous powers or decked himself in the pomp of earthly loyalty.‖ Farmer again narrates: ―It remained for him to appear in the character of universal Prophet and universal conqueror. ‗There is no god but God and Muhammad is the apostle of God.‘ If these indeed are the words of saving truth, it is not to the sons of Ishmael alone that they must be proclaimed. It is not within the Arabian Peninsula alone obedience is due to him. The Persians must no longer divide his homage between good and evil but must return to the worship of one Almighty Lord, Who reigns alone over the just and the unjust.‖ Farmer under the weight of evidence admitted the truth and the falsehood of his own statement that Muhammad chose sword and force as weapons for spreading of Islam. He writes: ―According to the morality of his own age and nation, there was absolutely nothing to censure in his public, very little in his private life. Even judging him by a higher and severer standard, we may fairly say that few men have risen from a private station to a sovereign
52

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

power with so noble an end before them and with so little of recorded crime.‖ Farmer continues: ―No man, they tell us is a hero to his valet de chamber, but in his noble freed man Zaid, Muhammad found one in whose eyes he was emphatically a hero. The confidence and affection of a wife to whom he owed his position and one fifteen years older than himself, the constant confidence and affection of his men of most opposite characters, the calm Abu Bakr, the chivalrous Ali and the fiery Omar certainly show that the personal character of Muhammad in no way gave lie to his lofty pretensions. To say with Prideau that his early life was ‗very wicked and licentious‘ is a mere calumny without proof.‖ Farmer goes on to state: ―He wrought great reform and that on the whole with what his fellow men regarded as noble means. For corrupt, debasing and sanguinary idolatry, he substituted the worship of one God, who was Almighty and All-righteous, alike. He gathered his people together into one nation and gave them civil and moral precepts; imperfect indeed, but far better than any they had previously possessed. Their revolting practice of infanticide he utterly abolished. Others as polygamy and private revenge he subjected to stringent regulations. In some respects as prohibition of wine the character of his teaching was positively ascetic.‖
E. ROYSTON PIKE:

E. Royston Pike in his book ‗Muhammad‘72 writes: ―From this it will be clear that Muhammad taught that Islam was a continuation of the religions that had gone before. He did not look upon himself as the Founder of a new religion, but as one who had been commissioned by Allah to reform the faith in all its original purity that Allah had revealed to Adam and Abraham and their successors in the line of prophets‖
NON-MUSLIM SCHOLARS ON ISLAM: ISLAMIC LAW AND CONSTITUTION: ROBERT HOUGH WONT JACKSON:

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in his foreword to the book ‗Law in the Middle Ages‘ writes about Islam and the Islamic shariat: ―To the Americans the most fundamental difference lies in the relation between law and religion. America does not prescribe religious duties, indeed it consciously omits them.... Indeed one may be a law72 Roy Publisher Inc.: New York.

53

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

abiding citizen and a thoroughly shabby character at the same time. Islamic law on the contrary, finds its chief sources in the Will of Allah as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. ...Religion, not nationalism or geography is the proper cohesion force. The state itself is subordinate to the Qur‘än which have little room for additional legislation, none for criticism or discussion. It is not possible to separate political or juristic theories from the teachings of the prophet, which establish rules of conduct concerning religion, domestic, social or political life. But the fact is that this system (shariat) which seems so unworkable to us has an amazing record of accomplishment.‖
PROFESSOR JOSEPH SCHACHT:

Professor Schacht in the book: ‗Law in the Middle East‘ writes ab out Islamic law: ―The sphere of law had been permeated with the religious and ethical standard proper to Islam.‖
V. FITZERALD:

Fitzerald remarks: ―Finally and above all, the Qur‘än converted the heathen Arabs to the idea that law is the direct command of God and since it is the cardinal tenet of Islam that God is one, it follows that His law must be a single whole.
PROFESSOR HENRY CATTAN:

Professor Cattan writes: ―More than one thousand years ago, long before the birth of the doctrine of uses and trusts in English law, Islamic law recognized and developed a legal expedient under the name of wakf, which permitted an owner to settle his property to the use of beneficiaries in perpetuity.‖
PROFESSOR THOMAS ARNOLD:

Professor Thomas Arnold, Professor of Logic of Lahore Government College, writing ‗Preaching Islam,‘ has shown the civilized world that only Muslim traders have propagated religion through sermons in the world. In Europe, Asia and the Pacific Islands Islam spread silently without a ripple. Since like Christianity there are no specially appointed clerics to preach religion, every Muslim-traders in their leisure, lectured and invited people to Islam. Their words matched with their good example gradually gained ground and Islam flourished. In China where the Muslims never went as conquerors, Islam took root among one fourth of the population of the Empire. Was that through the sword?
54

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

With hundreds of examples, he establishes that Islam did not flourish through might. Arab traders worked hard and relentlessly to spread Islam in Java, Borneo, Sumatra and in African continent. In all these places, the Muslims went not as conquerors but as merchants. Arnold writes again: ―Reading the history of Islam it is easily discerned that under Islamic rule other religious groups of communities enjoyed complete and unhindered freedom to exercise their own beliefs. That was not so under any Christian rule. Opposition in religious groups to the ruling clan or community always has been mercilessly persecuted under other rules than Islam. Hostile to Islam George Shale a translator of the Holy Qur‘än in the preface wrote: ―Christians have shown in the matter of religion much more ruthlessness than Muslims and the Jewish.‖ If we take the example of the Indian subcontinent, we see that during the Muslim rule here non-Muslims occupied place of honor and power. Religion was no obstacle in their advancement, which is not true for any other country now or then. Muhammad (PBUH) preached Islam with Holy Qur‘än in one hand and the sword in the other: is a falsehood. Due to the hostile English writer, this kind of unfounded non-historic utterance made wrong impressions on the minds of the innocent peoples. Professor Arnold said again: ―Whatever the race, color and antecedents of the worshipper he is received into the brotherhood of believers as equal among equals. Islam is a great political power whose effects the world will feel more and more in proportions as the earth is brought closer and closer together. Islam which claims the allegiance of the seven hundred million souls is the only solution for all the ills of the world.‖
JOULES MESSERMANN:
73

In an article entitled: ‗Where are the leaders‘ published in ‗Time‘ Messermann writes in the conclusion ―Muhammad was the greatest leader of all the times.‖ He in spite of being a Jewish placed Muhammad before Moses.
MUHAMMAD (PBUH) IN THE BOOK ‘THE HUNDRED’ :
74

The present time is an age of scientific and technological accomplishments. In these days of scientific achievements in the city New York populated by
73 74 PSYCHOANALYST: USA. Michael H. Hart, The 100; A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, New York, pp. 33, 3940.

55

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Jewish and the Christians, with the cooperation of a group of historianscientists and historians Michael H. Hart, an American has short-listed two hundred greatest men that have ever lived on this earth. Michael H. Hart is an Astronomer, Mathematician, Writer and Researcher preparing the said list considered all the activities of the people that lived on the earth from its inception until the present time. Then the group of researcher and writers deliberated upon, analyzed the list for a long, long time after long, and came up with one hundred names. Thereafter, comparing the enlisted great-men, by weighing their contributions and achievements, they arranged them according to their gradations. The 527 page book entitled: ‗The Hundred‗ was inaugurated before a gathering of leading politicians, writers, journalists, clerics, educationists, lawyers and other leading intellectuals by A.W. Publishers. These were a people belonging to Judaism, Christianity and other religions of the world. Muhammad (PBUH) was leading the list. Christ and Moses occupied the third and the sixteenth places, respectively. Buddha held the fourth place and second went to Isaac Newton. It is prolix to mention that most of the people involved with the process were either Christians or Jewish. There was no criticism inside the auditorium or outside. In the beginning of the book, Hart says: ―My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world‘s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both religious and secular levels….‖ The prophet (PBUH) said: ―Among men, he is the best by whom the humanity is benefited (Hadith).‖

56

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Chapter II
MECCAN PERIOD BIRTH:

In the Meccan noble Quraish family, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) (PBUH) was born to Amina, on April 20, 570 AD. It was a Monday, fifty-two years before the year of Hijrat (migration)75. His Mother called him Ahmed (PBUH), meaning the Admirer, and his Grand Father named him, Muhammad (PBUH), meaning the Admirable (Praiseworthy).
FATHER’S DEATH:

While returning from Syria to Mecca from a business trip, Muhammad‘s (PBUH) father, Abdullah suddenly fell ill near Medïna, and died at the young age of twenty, before Muhammad (PBUH) was born. Therefore, after his birth Abdul Muttalib, the elderly Patriarch of the Quraish and grandfather of Muhammad (PBUH) took over the responsibility of raising him. The Grand old man found solace for the pain of losing a son, in his prime, in the upbringing of his grandson, Muhammad (PBUH).
WET NURSE:

According to Arabian custom, Muhammad (PBUH) was given to Bedouin wet nurse Halima of Hawâzin family of the Bani-Sa‘ad tribe. He was brought up at Halima‘s dwelling with great love and care. At Amina‘s house, infant Muhammad (PBUH) was also breast-fed by Abu Lahab‘s slave, Suwaibah. In his wet nurse‘s home, Muhammad (PBUH) when being breast-fed sucked on one breast and left the other for Halima‘s own child. Bibi Halima and Suwaibah were highly revered by the Apostle (PBUH) all his life. He played with Halima‘s sons and daughters, while he was staying with her and held them dear all his life. On the arrival of Muhammad (PBUH), Halima‘s health improved, and unexpectedly, she began to prosper. By the grace of God, the Apostle (PBUH) was very healthy, at two months; he could stand on his feet, could walk at five and talk at nine. Hawâzins spoke pure Arabic and was famous for their eloquence, thus brought up with Hawâzins, Muhammad (PBUH), before attaining prophethood, earned name and fame as an orator.
75 Muhammad (PBUH) migrated to Medïna in 622 AD, along with some of his followers to avoid Quraish persecution that become intolerable and from thence, the Hegira year is counted.

57

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE MOTHER’S DEATH:

Five years old, Muhammad (PBUH) returned to his mother. A year after his return, Amina traveled to Medïna with her beloved son, Muhammad (PBUH). Mother and son reached Medïna, travelling through 250 miles of desolate, hot and arid-desert, on a camel with only Umme-Aymon (RA), a slave woman. This was child Muhammad‘s (PBUH) first experience of journeying long distance. Staying a few days with his maternal relations, they went on to visit his father‘s (Abdullah) tomb. At Abdullah‘s grave, Allah witnessed the heartrending scene of a poor, wretched widow and a helpless child paying respect, and writhing in pain, which left a deep impression on child Muhammad‘s (PBUH) tender mind. While returning from this visit, Amina, the loving mother, suddenly fell sick at a place called ‗Abwa‘. Following the sickness, she died far away from all her kith and keen, in the desert, living her beloved child Muhammad (PBUH) to mourn. In the desolate, endless desert, Muhammad (PBUH) with excruciating pain and sorrow rolled on the hot sand, crying mother, mother, and mother . . .! Only Umme-Aymon (RA), the slave woman was there at his side to comfort and nobody else. What a heart aching sight! With this, in the life of Muhammad (PBUH), began the long tale of pain and sorrow.
SLAVE UMME-AYMON (RA):

Umme-Aymon (RA) nursed child Muhammad (PBUH) with great love and tenderness. Muhammad (PBUH) never forgot that love and care, poured on him in his childhood. Later he got Umme-Aymon (RA) married to his adopted son Zaid (RA), the same Zaid (RA) who was appointed commander of the Syrian Expedition against the Romans, famous as the ‗Muta Campaign,‘ in history.
DEATH OF GRANDFATHER:

Child Muhammad (PBUH), just losing his mother, returned to the care of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, in Mecca with Umme-Aymon (RA). Allah wished otherwise; he could not enjoy the company of his grandfather for long. In 579 AD, when Muhammad (PBUH) was only nine, his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib left this mundane world at the age of eighty-two. At his deathbed, he gave Muhammad‘s (PBUH) charge to his third son Abu Talib, the father of Ali (RA).

58

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE CHILDHOOD:

Death of his nearest and dearest ones in his childhood left a deep scare on the tenderhearted Muhammad (PBUH). Intimate personal experiences of heartbreaking pain made him sensitive to the pain of others, in similar situations. The pain and anguish of the poor, shelterless and the orphans, Muhammad (PBUH) could feel within, being through all those states himself early in life. His deep understanding of human misery made him sacrifice his own and his family‘s ease and comfort for others. For this Allah declared him Rahmatullil Al-Amin (Mercy of the universe: Al-Qur‘än - 21: 107) in the Holy Qur‘än.
LIFE AT ABU TALIB’S HOUSE, JOURNEYS:

Adolescent Muhammad (PBUH) began his domestic life at Uncle Abu Talib‘s house. Abu Talib brought up his dearest nephew Muhammad (PBUH) as his own son with great love and care. Apostle Muhammad (PBUH) had great respect for his Uncle Abu Talib and helped him in his household work. Muhammad (PBUH) used to shop and market for him and looked after Abu Talib‘s cattle along with other shepherds of his age. At the tender age of twelve, Muhammad (PBUH) traveled to many countries with his uncle on business trips. On these trips, he met with peoples from different cultures and beliefs. Traveling to Syria, Hejaj, Basra and Yemen, he met Jewish, Christians and Zoroastrians. He learned about their cultures, religions and heritages.
EXPERIENCES OF EARLY LIFE, GUIDANCE FOR LATER LIFE:

He passed his childhood at his wet nurse‘s house in the desert and played with his foster-sisters and brothers under the open sky, on the boundless desert. Returning to his mother‘s care from the foster-home, first he lost his beloved mother and then the grandfather, early in life. Under the loving care of Uncle Abu Talib, he then took shelter. In Basra, he saw the green fields, filled with crops and the cool gardens, teeming with trees and flowers, where birds sang in the bushes. He was moved by the contrast to his known world, the barren, arid and hot desert. The music of falling waters from fountains flowing into rivers and rivers meeting the sea impressed Muhammad (PBUH). On the way to Syria, he saw the ruins of cities inhabited by Äds and Thamüds. He learned about their misfortunes. They were destroyed because they disobeyed Allah. The

59

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

great diversity in God‘s creation and the horror of His wrath, for disobeying Him, left a deep impression on Muhammad‘s (PBUH) tender soul. All these varied experiences were lessons for him. In this way, he learned and gained knowledge about this temporal life. He experienced pains and hardships of worldly life very intimately. Nobody was his teacher but Allah, and since Allah taught Muhammad (PBUH), there was no need for a formal education. Under the direct Guidance of Allah, Muhammad (PBUH) attained perfection in knowledge and wisdom. Consequently, he is the most learned and talented man ever descended on the earth, as the greatest teacher ever sent by Allah. That the Apostle (PBUH) was the most learned and the most wise has been attested by Allah in the Holy Qur‘än. Allah said,
33. H AVEN ‘ T W E E XPANDED ( WITH KNOWLEDGE AND W ISDOM ) THEE THY BREAST ? A ND REMOVED FROM THEE T HY BURDEN (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 94:1).

Earlier Apostle Muhammad (PBUH) with utmost devotion prayed to God, the All Knowing, Exalted in Power, Most Gracious and Most Merciful, ―O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge (Al-Qur‘än - 20: 114).‖ The Apostle (PBUH) was greatly perturbed by the pitiful state of the poor, elderly, widows, orphans and the slaves, in the superstitious society, ruled by the powerful, tyrannous tribal leaders. He contemplated social reforms to relieve their miseries at the outset. Benevolence and compassion were prominent traits of Apostle Muhammad‘s (PBUH) character. Returning to Mecca in his adolescence to Uncle Abu Talib‘s house, he focussed on household work. Therefore, tragedies, one after another, made him more tender and sensitive rather than cold and unresponsive. In his adolescence, magnanimity, simplicity, uprightness and benevolence were manifest in his character. He treated everybody equally with respect. Human suffering was very painful for softhearted Muhammad (PBUH) who always wished well for others. Receiving news of sickness, he immediately visited the sick and began nursing and comforting the patient. To rescue the debtor by taking over the liability, helping the poor, attending guests and helping people in distress were all-important parts of his daily activities.
OKÂZ FARE:

In the desert between Tayef and Nakhla in Arabia, every year in the month of Zul-Qadh, an international fare was held with great pomp and grandeur. This is famous as Okâz Fare in the history of Arabia. Here people earned
60

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

money and enjoyed themselves through trade, commerce, business, entertainment and recitation. Songsters from Egypt and Persia came to entertain the desert-youth by their lilting rhymes. The whole of Arabia hailed the poet whose poetry was adjudged the best. Apostle Muhammad (PBUH) saw the poets and scholars sing the glory of their own family and tribe. These were contests for eminence. He saw these rivalries turning into bloody battles. Once, many tribes were entangled in a war that followed from a minor issue, between the Quraish and the Quiyas tribes. This battle is known as the ‗Battle of Fizar.‘ Habar bin Ommeyya was appointed as the commander, and Zubair bin Muttalib as the flag bearer of the Quraish. Just returning from Syria, young Muhammad (PBUH) joined his uncle Zubair. Many people died in this five-year long war; weakened both the parties were forced to a truce. Pain and agony suffered by the people saddened Muhammad (PBUH) and caused him great pain. He was greatly moved, because, thousands of women were widowed and lost their sons in this war. Thousands of children become fatherless, hundreds of families perish and localities turn into graveyards in these futile wars. The air thickens with cries of pain and agony. In the resulting chaos, peace and tranquility are disturbed; looting, theft and burglary increase manifolds. Witnessing deaths, destruction, killing, looting and the havoc wrought by wars, Muhammad (PBUH) began searching for ways to bring peace. He kept praying to God to help him prevent these massacres and devastation.
HILFUL FUDHUL:

The Great Apostle (PBUH) did not idle away time contemplating. He formed Hilful Fudhul, a social welfare organization, with like-minded youths. The objective was to redress the sufferings of the distressed, oppressed, deprived, wretched and the sick. Volunteers of the organization took an oath in the name of God that they will:
56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

S E RV E RESIST HELP

T HE DE STIT UTE A ND T HE D IST RESSED ; TY RA NN Y WIT H A LL T HEI R MIG HT ;

S I C K LY A N D T H E O P P R E S S E D ; P E A C E , LAW A N D O RD E R I N T HE C O U N T RY ; PEACE AND HARMONY AMONG T RIBE S.

M A I N TA I N E S TA B L I S H

Besides those, they also had vowed to help and serve humanity in few other matters. In the service of the organization to serve and help the destitute, sick and helpless, the Apostle (PBUH) used to stroll through the streets of
61

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Mecca. Enlightened and imbued by his magnanimous efforts, other Meccan young men took up humanitarian services to help the sick and the needy. At the inception of an Islamic state, this pioneering attempt at social reform and social welfare became a model, which still guides the world. Irrespective of caste, creed and religion the whole world has been benefited by emulating this noble idea of the great Apostle (PBUH). This is the very first social welfare and social development organization in the world.
MARRIAGE WITH BIBI KHADIJA (RADIALLAHU-ANHA):

Bibi Khadija (RA), the crown Jewel of the ladies, has been acclaimed in the history of Islam for her saintly charming nature and piousness. Rasulullah (Messenger of God) found strength anew, marrying Khadijatul-Kubra, a learned, very intelligent rich lady. Khadija‘s inspiration gave him strength to devote himself to the service of Islam. She was a devoted, talented and faithful wife, friend, counsel and life partner. Imbued with the humanitarian spirit of the Messenger of God, the Compassionate, she dedicated herself to the cause of humanity. A very devoted lady to her husband, she handed over all her movable and immovable properties, jewelry and cash to the Apostle (PBUH), with the consent of her relatives and guardians. The Holy Messenger of God distributed all the wealth among the poor and needy with the permission of his devout wife, Khadija (RA). He liberated all the slaves and thus the king of the Worlds began the life of a hermit with his wife, Khadija (RA) who accepted the arrangement very gladly. This great lady is the very first convert to the Muslim faith. Therefore, the honor to be the first Muslim belongs to a woman. Bibi Khadija ‘s contribution and moral support guided the spread of Islam, like the Polestar. In the difficult days of Islam Khadija‘s unflinching support earned her a special niche in the annals of Islam, and is a matter of great pride for all the women. At a time when there were no friends, no followers, no sympathizers; and dark hopelessness was prevailing all over, Bibi Khadija (RA), without any reservation, accepted Muhammad (PBUH) as a Prophet (PBUH) and embraced Islam. This moral support relieved the Prophet (PBUH) of the anxiety and strengthened his esprit de corps. At the beginning of his search of truth, Rasulullah (Harbinger of God) found an inalienable friend in his wife. She was an ideal life partner and during her lifetime, Rasulullah did not take another wife.

62

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

He had three sons, Qasim, Tyyib and Tahir and four daughters, Joynab, Rokayya Umme-Kulthum and Fatima (RAs) from Khadija (RA). All his sons died in their childhood. The eldest daughter, Joynab was married to her maternal cousin, Abul Äs, Rokayya and Umme-Kulthum were married to Abu Lahab‘s sons, Othba and Othyba, respectively, and Fatima (RA) was married to Ali. After the battle of Badr, Abul Äs accepted Islam and migrated to Medïna where Joynab died after a few days. Othba and Othyba at the behest of their anti- Islamic father, Abu Lahab divorced Rokayya and Umme-Kulthum. Othman first married Rokayya and at her death during the battle of Badr, married Kulthum. Kulthum died in the 9th year of Hegira. Only Fatima (RA) stayed alive to see the golden age of Islam until the death of the Prophet (PBUH).
LIVELIHOOD:

Before attaining Prophet-hood, Muhammad (PBUH), in his domestic life, got involved in various worldly affairs. He liked trade and commerce as a means of livelihood, from the early days of his life. In his professional life, he achieved fame as a devoted businessperson. Because of trade and commerce, most of the time, he had to stay in foreign lands. The Messenger of God was bestowed with qualities like honesty, commitment, truthfulness and mild manners, which were rare among the business communities. He used to deal with people with utmost honesty. His reputation as a gentle and a pure soul spread everywhere. Everybody, who had business dealings with him, unanimously lauded his sincere and simple manners.
RESTORATION OF THE KA’ABA (HOUSE OF THE LORD):

Restoration of Ka‘aba had been due for a long time. In repairing the Ka‘aba the Quraish played a pioneering role. During the restoration of Ka‘aba, replacement of the holy Black Stone (Hajre-Aswad) provoked argument about the right to place the holy stone at its new site. Every chief of tribe claimed the right to place the stone himself. The Emissary of God was asked to arbitrate. He placed the black stone on his cloak and let all the tribe-chiefs hold that from all around and carry the stone. The stone was thus carried to the selected site and Muhammad (PBUH), himself placed the stone at the Southeastern corner of the Ka‘aba. Everybody was pleased and thus the Meccan avoided a serious confrontation. Naturally, Muhammad (PBUH) was born in a family of diehard idolaters. From his childhood to adolescence, he lived in a superstitious chaotic
63

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

society. Even before attaining prophet-hood, he neither worshiped idols nor equated God with anything or anyone, directly or indirectly. Once a member of the Quraish tribe gave him some meat of an animal, sacrificed in the name of a deity, he refused.
THE FIRST STEP TO ABOLISH SLAVERY:

After the wedding, Khadijatul-Kubra gave her fifteen years old slave, Zaid bin Haris (RA) to her husband as a wedding gift. The Prophet (PBUH) set him free. Zaid (RA) was so moved by the kindness of the Prophet (PBUH) that instead of moving to his father‘s house he stayed back, to live in the Prophet‘s (PBUH) divine company. The Messenger of God loved him like his own son. Zaid (RA) is known in history as the adopted son of Muhammad (PBUH), whom he tied into marriage to his own beautiful cousin Joynab. There shall be no slaves. Fourteen hundred years ago Muhammad (PBUH) had shown the world by not only setting Zaid (RA) free, but also getting him married with a relation. This is how the Great Apostle (PBUH) had shown that all human beings are equal, nobody is superior due to birth, complexion or otherwise. Towards the abolishment of slavery, this is his very first step.
DEDICATION TO HUMAN WELFARE WORLDWIDE:

The evidence of the mission for which God the Sustainer Has created Muhammad Mustafa (PBUH), began to manifest itself and gradually became known to the world. He was blessed with a faithful, devoted wife like Khadija (RA) who had sacrificed her wealth at his call. Meccans loved and respected him and moved by his truthfulness, the Quraish glorified him with such titles as ‗Al-Amin‘ and ‗As-Sadique,‘ meaning the ‗Dependable‘ and the ‗Truthful‘, respectively. His reputation as an honest businessperson began spreading in Mecca and throughout the Arab world. His house glowed with the radiance of his beautiful daughters with which Allah blessed him. His mentors were Amir Hamza, the valiant Quraish and uncle like Abu Talib, who sheltered him under their loving care. Ali was his constant companion. Muhammad (PBUH) was at the prime of his life in all respects. It was the proper time for him to enjoy the charms and bliss of temporal life. In spite of all these glory and wealth at his command, he still felt hollow within. Muhammad (PBUH) had no peace of mind since he wanted peace and prosperity for all the humankind, not possessions and comforts for himself. He was engrossed in thoughts of providing relief to
64

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

the shelterless, wretched, orphans and the poor since he experienced the pain and sorrow of living through all those states early in life. All the mundane activities of this temporal life seemed very trivial to him. The worldly calisthenics and pleasures appeared worthless. He enjoyed being alone and therefore, often stayed very deeply engaged in meditation in a cave, three miles away from Mecca at mount Hira. For days, he would remain thus absorbed in meditation. Bibi Khadija (RA) carried food and water for him at intervals, during these meditations. He only prayed for peace and well-being of the human race, since, the desire for worldly and spiritual advancement and welfare of the human beings inspired him to contemplate, in the cave at mount Hira. During such a prayer, one night Gabriel descended from the heaven with the first divine message to Muhammad (PBUH), the Messenger of God, while he was deeply immersed in worshiping God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds. The time was the Night of Power (Lailatul Kadr), the 27th of Ramadhan, 610 AD when Muhammad (PBUH) was forty years old. Gabriel appeared before Muhammad (PBUH) and said he, ―Read!‖ Muhammad (PBUH) replied, ―I can‘t Read.‖ Gabriel said again, ―Read!‖ Muhammad (PBUH), repeated, ―I cannot Read.‖ Gabriel said again, ―Read!‖ Muhammad (PBUH) answered, ―I cannot Read.‖ Gabriel now, embraced Muhammad (PBUH) three times, saying ‗Read‘ each of the time. Muhammad (PBUH), gradually with each of the embrace got enlightened and he recited:
34. R EAD ! I N THE NAME O F THY L ORD AND C HERISHER , W HO CREATED C REATED MAN OUT OF A ( MERE ) CLOT O F CONGEALED BLOOD : P ROCLAIM ! A ND THY L ORD I S M OST B OUNTIFUL - H E W HO TAUGHT (T HE USE OF ) THE P EN , - TAUGHT MAN THAT W HICH HE KNEW NOT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 96: 1-5) REVELATION OF THE FIRST DIVINE MESSAGE:

This is the first proclamation of God, revealed unto Muhammad (PBUH). The instant that it was decreed unto him he attained Prophet-hood, and expressed himself to the people as the Messenger of God. Gabriel descended with the revelation through which the beloved Muhammad (PBUH) the As-Sadique, Al-Amin of the Meccans was ordained as the Prophet (PBUH). The whole world reverberated with ―There is no God but Allah and Muhammad (PBUH) is His Messenger (La Ilaha Illallahu, Muhammadur Rasulullah).‖ After that for long twenty-three years, the Holy
65

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Qur‘än was gradually revealed to Muhammad (PBUH), and he spread that among all. Strictly abiding by the covenants and commands of the divine messages, Muhammad (PBUH) created such examples, which no other great man could. These divine verses, recited by the Great Prophet (PBUH), have been preserved in the Holy Qur‘än in writing and in the hearts of those millions of peoples, all over the world, who committed these Holy Verses to memory. No other Holy Book could be committed to memory, like the Holy Qur‘än has been. At the attainment of Prophet-hood, Muhammad (PBUH) also became the Messenger of God (Rasulullah). Allah Commanded, ―O Apostle! Proclaim the message which has been sent to thee from thy Lord (Al-Qur‘än - 5:70).‖ Hence, the Great Prophet (PBUH) revealed himself unto the people as the Messenger and Ambassador of God the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds, and so began his divine duties. Muhammad‘s (PBUH) divine duty and responsibility was to proclaim to the Worlds the Commands of God, Most Exalted, and carry those to the doorsteps of the people. The Great Prophet (PBUH) ignoring the ease and comforts of this mundane life strictly carried out God‘s Commands until the end of his life.
PROMOTION OF EDUCATION AMONG MUSLIMS:

To urge his companions to acquire knowledge and wisdom were his very first act to accomplish his mission of preaching the truth. As instructed by God, the Cherisher and Sustainer, through the first revelation (Al-Qur‘än Süra Iqraa), the Prophet (PBUH) establishes the First School. At the foot of Mount Safa, in one of his companion‘s residence, the school begins. Necessary arrangements are done there to teach Muslim men and women. Besides that the Prophet (PBUH), goes to the dwellings of his companions (Sahabas) and recites the revealed messages about education. At the behest of God, he teaches and trains, as he did before divinity, through Hilful Fudhul. For long ten years, he preaches untiringly, the ‗Oneness of Allah,‘ inviting the Meccans to the true faith (Islamic Faith). Simultaneously, he devises appropriate measures to educate and enlighten his followers. Consequently, his disciples not only contributed as Religious leaders, but also left their mark as Rulers, Judges, Commanders, Educators and Physicians par excellence. Wherever they went, they left their mark in administration and social activities. Their achievements are written in history in golden letters.
66

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE BEGINNING OF ISLAM: INTRODUCTION OF SALAT (PRAYERS):

Islam begins in the house of the Prophet (PBUH). The very first believer in Islam is Muhammad‘s (PBUH) wife, the Cradle Bearer, the Mother of the Muslim Nation, Hazrat Khadija (RA). Without any doubt, this great lady by being the very first to place her faith in Islam has etched out an incomparable status, in Islam. Immediately after her, Hazrat Ali (RA) pledged faith in Islam. He is the first Muslim Man. The revelation of the Holy Qur‘än continues. Immediately after the revelation of ‗Süra Fatiha‘ Gabriel teaches Muhammad (PBUH), the ritual of Salat (prayer). The great Prophet (PBUH) first teaches the process of Salat to Bibi Khadija (RA) and then Hazrat Ali (RA). Those who adopted Islam after the earliest believers are: Zaid (RA), the adopted son of the Prophet (PBUH), Hazrats Bellal, Abu Bakr Siddique, Othman, UmmeAymon, Zubair bin Awas, Talha bin Obaidullah, Sa‘ad bin Wakkas, Abdullah bin Masoud, Abdur Rahman (RAs), and few others. A few ladies, including Hazrat Abu Bakr‘s (RA) daughter Asma (RA), Hazrat Omar‘s sister Fatima (RA) and Hazrat Abbas‘ wife Umme-Fadhal (RA), are among those who have pledged their faith in Islam in its early days. At the outset of Islam, Rasulullah began preaching secretly, among his very obedient disciples. New Believers lived in Mecca, under constant threat of reprisals from the Quraish. They could not pray or discuss religion, openly. Apprehension of brutality of the Quraish and the love of relatives deterred many Meccans from accepting Islam. This is the reason that Prophet‘s (PBUH) uncle, Abu Talib, the paramount benefactor of Islam has not abandoned his ancestral religion. However, his Uncle Hazrat Abbas embraces Islam much later he has been dispatching reports of activities of the enemy, to the Prophet (PBUH) in Medïna from Mecca.
DECLARATION: QURAISH HOSTILITY AND REPRISALS ON NEW BELIEVERS:

The Messenger faces extreme difficulties, performing his duties as the Prophet (PBUH). His duty was to illuminate the Arab world, nay the whole world with the brilliance of Faith. In the age of idolatry, Arabs, specially the Meccans, establishing themselves as superiors by their image of icon worshippers, gave leadership to the whole country. To suddenly convert them or persuade them to leave their ancestral religion and adopt Islam was a very difficult task. It meant stripping them of leadership, authority, aristocracy, wealth and other mundane facilities and comfort. For ages, the
67

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Hashemites and Ommayyeds had been engaged in fights for supremacy. In this instance, the mighty and powerful Ommayyed leader, Abu Sufiyan, was the sworn enemy of the Hashemite Prophet (PBUH) and Islam. Anticipating strong opposition, at every step, the Prophet (PBUH) very secretly continues preaching the truth, slowly but steadily. After secretly promoting Islam during the first three years, the number of Muslims has grown to about forty. Then at the behest of God, the Prophet (PBUH) gathers the Meccans and his relatives, in the courtyard of the Ka‘aba (House of God). There he declares, unequivocally, in a serene voice, ―There is no God, but Allah and Muhammad (PBUH) is His Messenger‖ (La Ilaha Illallahu Muhammadur Rasulullah) and so he invites them to the faith of Islam. This extremely enrages the Meccan idolaters. It was beyond their imagination that some young man from among them could invite them to abandon their generations old ancestral faith. Offended the non-Muslims take it as a grave insult to the House of the Lord. Invitation to abandon their ancient customs and religion highly displeased them. Only displeasure was not the end, rude and ill treatment of the Messenger of God followed. Later, this misbehavior turned into intolerable taunting and torture, which made the Prophet‘s (PBUH) life miserable. Thence begins the bloody and inhuman persecution of the Muslims. Quraish non-Muslims swear to resist the handful of Muslims, and even tyrannize them. Indeed, no master even flipped their eyelids while inhumanly torturing, even killing the Muslims, at their command. New converts, generally, the slaves or those employed with the rich, suffer most. Among them, many die of starvation or savage beatings. Abu Jahl very cruelly killed Yasir and Sumaiya, the father and mother of Ammar a fresh Muslim, respectively. While, Hazrat Bellal‘s master was savagely torturing him, Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) bought him, paying a handsome amount, and set him free. Not only slaves and servants were persecuted, but the Quraish idolaters thus persecuted also all new converts. Hazrat Zubair (RA), Hazrat Sa‘ad bin Wakkas (RA), even powerful persons like Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), Hazrat Omar (RA), and the Prophet (PBUH), were not spared by the heathens. They threw decomposed guts of a camel onto him while he was praying in the Ka‘aba. Five years old, Fatima removed the guts. Once, when he was praying, they tried to kill him by strangling him with a cloak. Unexpectedly, Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) appeared on the scene and saved the Prophet
68

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH). Enraged the Quraish attacked Abu Bakr (RA) and battered him. Quraish heathens made loud noises to interfere with the recitation of the Holy Qur‘än. For glorifying the monotheist doctrine and describing the emptiness of idolatry, the infidel Quraish attack the Prophet (PBUH), in the House of the Lord. Just then realizing that the Prophet (PBUH) is under armed attack, Haris the son of Khadija (RA) from her earlier husband intervenes. He is beaten to death on the spot. Haris is the first martyr of the conflict between truth and false. Islam is glorified by the tribute of his sacred blood.
QURAISH TEMPTATION & THREAT: UNWAVERING ABU TALIB:

These indescribable oppression, torture and death threats could not dissuade Muhammad (PBUH) from his duty. This makes the Quraish more desperate. Since many of them disagree to strike the Prophet (PBUH) with all their might, they change their strategy. A proposal is sent to Abu Talib, the eminent leader of Mecca, the father of Ali (RA) and Muhammad‘s (PBUH) mentor and uncle. It proposes that if Muhammad (PBUH) refrains from his mission, he shall be wedded with the most beautiful lady in Arabia. He also shall be made the King of Mecca along with enormous wealth and a Palace to live in, permanently. Pressure is put on Abu Talib to deter Muhammad (PBUH) from his path or accept their proposal. Abu Talib is familiar with the savage and revengeful nature of the Quraish. Therefore, naturally, perturbed and worried he requests Muhammad (PBUH) to stop his mission. In reply, the Prophet (PBUH) says that he shall not deviate from his mission of righteousness. Not even if he were rewarded with the Sun in one hand and the Moon in the other. Either Allah Shall reward him with victory or he shall perish. Abu Talib is temporarily dumbfounded, at the firmness of the Apostle (PBUH) and the unwavering faith of his followers in monotheism. He loves his beloved nephew Muhammad (PBUH) very much. Apprehending the imminent danger to the Apostle (PBUH) and his disciples, he decides his strategy. ―If anybody harms my nephew Muhammad (PBUH),‖ he unequivocally warns them, ―as long as I live, I shall appropriately take revenge.‖ Immediately afterwards he urgently confers with all the Hashemites and the Muttalibs and they unanimously vow to protect Muhammad (PBUH), at any cost.

69

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE THE FIRST AND SECOND HIJRAT TO ABYSSINIA:

Thus, in this way, five years have elapsed. The intensity of persecution by the heathen Quraish increased day by day. Consequently, the faithful could not easily observe their religious rites. Muhammad (PBUH) after consulting his followers thought it better to move away from the oppressors. Abyssinian Christian Emperor Najjasi (Negus) was renowned for his righteousness and fairness outside his country. For trade and commerce, the Arabs used to travel via the sea to Abyssinia. A group of Muslims, comprising men and women, was allowed to migrate to far away Abyssinia, by the Prophet (PBUH). Rokayya and Othman (RA) the daughter and sonin-law of Muhammad (PBUH), respectively, were among them. Emperor Najjasi allows these new Muslims to live in his country on their arrival. This is a rare occasion, of which there are not many examples that people have braved the sea, just for their faith in God, the Almighty. Informed of the migration, the Quraish sent an emissary to try to bring them back but did not succeed. After a few days, one hundred more migrated to Abyssinia, at Prophet‘s (PBUH) command, along with Ja‘afar, the younger brother of Ali (RA). Quraish infidels try to prevent them from leaving but fail. Enraged they intensify their persecution of the Meccan Muslims. At the time of the migration to Abyssinia, Muslims are few but their morale is very high. Faith in God, the Almighty is their only hope: they have no other support. Greed or temptation is unknown to them. Since they have weakened the foundation of the ancient religion, votaries newly ordained into Islam are subjected to persecution, torture, insults and invectives. Many lost their wealth and fortune, others were wounded or maimed and many were killed. Nevertheless, not only men, many women abandoning their generations old belief accepted the new faith. To advance the cause of Islam, these pioneers respond to the call of Muhammad (PBUH) and risk treading a precariously dangerous path. They were firm in their faith and determination, nothing, not even all the extreme torture and punishment of the infidel Quraish, could deter them from the path of God. History will remember them for their courage, tolerance and determination.
HAMZA (RA) AND OMAR’S (RA) ORDINATION IN ISLAM:

Crossing the sea, Islam spread in the African continent, endowed with Jungles, mountains and desert. On the other hand, in Muhammad‘s (PBUH) own country, Mecca, persecution of the handful of Muslims and Uncle Abu
70

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Talib continues with more vigor. Abu Jahl‘s group does not even spare the non-Muslim Hashemites and Muttalibs. One day the Prophet (PBUH) was stoned by Abu Jahl while he was praying in the house of the Lord. He was wounded with blood oozing out from the wounds. Hamza informed about the incident taught Jahl a lesson and the same day accepted Islam. Within a few days of Hamza‘s conversion, Omar (RA) the second Caliph of Islam accepts Islam. These incidences enormously enhance the morale of the Muslims. They prayed at Ka‘aba to thank God. Incensed by their success, the infidel Quraish escalates persecution of the Muslims. Nonetheless, the Prophet (PBUH) continues his mission. Encouraged by the induction of Hazrat Hamza (RA) and Hazrat Omar (RA), the Muslims begin praying at Ka‘aba openly. During the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) every year, the Prophet (PBUH) explains the monotheist doctrine of Islam to all pilgrims, coming from different tribes and countries. He then invites them to adopt Islam. On the other hand, the infidels change their strategy when all the attempts and conspiracy to assassinate the Prophet (PBUH) fail. They boycotted the Muslims and stopped all social, commercial and other exchanges with them.
THE VALLEY OF SHIABAY:

When the persecution by the heathens became intolerable, Abu Talib with the Hashemites, Muttalibs and the Prophet (PBUH) with his disciples, took shelter at the valley of Shiabay, near Mecca. Here they lived like prisoners for three years (otherwise two years). Non-Muslims put the valley under siege and stop supply of food and water. Near famine, condition prevails at the camp and inhabitants are forced to eat leaves or dry skin. The air fills with cries of starving women and children but alas, the heartless Quraish is unmoved. The Prophet (PBUH) and his followers face starvation, death, destruction and misery with courage and determination and do not budge a bit from their faith in God. In the face of all the persecution, torture and extreme odds, they do not lose their hearts, on the contrary, their faith deepened. They kept their march on with their morale high. At the end of three years, in the tenth year of divinity, disagreement among the infidels causes the end of the siege. Abu Talib returns with Muhammad (PBUH) and all his followers, the Hashemite and the Muttalibs to Mecca.

71

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE DEATH OF ABU TALIB AND UMMUL MUMININ KHADIJA (RA):

Released from the siege of Shiabay, the Prophet (PBUH) could not live in peace for long. In the Tenth year of the divinity, his ardent protector and well-wisher, Uncle Abu Talib dies at the age of eighty-five. Though he did not adopt Islam, Islam prospered and strengthened on his support. The Messenger of God loses his last trusted refuge, even before he recovers from this shock, his beloved wife, Ummul Muminin (Mother of the Muslim Nation) Khadija (RA) dies. She dies in Ramadhan, the same year, at the age of sixty-five, leaving Muhammad (PBUH) among savage enemies to mourn. She is the first to adopt Islam and was a constant companion of the Prophet (PBUH) in the turbulent days of Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) buries her with his own sacred hands, at a place called Jihun in Mecca. This is the most trying and saddest time in the Prophet‘s (PBUH) life. Nobody is there to comfort him. For Islam it is the most difficult period and the Prophet (PBUH) passes this year as ‗Amul Huzn‘ the year of Mourning. Deaths of the two dearest persons intensely sadden Muhammad (PBUH), then in his fiftieth year. There is nobody, very near and very dear to call his own, at the deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija (RA). After Abdul Muttalib, Uncle Abu Talib was his great mentor and protector. After marriage, Khadija (RA) was his best friend, sympathizer, inspirer and trusted companion for long twenty-five years. Memories of his blissful married life with an angelic lady, who sacrificed all her wealth at his feet, constantly torments him. A constant guide, a friend, a comforter, an inspirer, Khadija (RA), always comforted the Prophet (PBUH). She would comfort him whenever he became sad, hopeless and dejected due to the perpetual persecution by the Quraish unbelievers. Khadija (RA) told the Prophet (PBUH) that a man like him who helped the oppressed, shelterless, rescued those in danger or debt, surely succeed in the mission of God. ―Allah Shall Help you, His will shall be done,‖ Khadija (RA) would tell the Prophet (PBUH). This intelligent, learned lady of many qualities is the first to discern greatness in Muhammad (PBUH). She rightly spots him to be the chosen one and marries Muhammad (PBUH). The departure of such an incomparable life partner, forever to heaven, is very painful. In this great calamity, nobody is there to comfort him, but these trial, tribulations and sufferings are blessings from God. Muhammad (PBUH) without any hesitation accepted God‘s Will.
72

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE RENEWED PERSECUTION BY THE PAGAN QURAISH:

The heathens initiated heinous schemes with renewed vigor at the deaths of Khadija (RA) and Abu Talib, to harass the Prophet (PBUH). Until now Abu Talib and Khadija‘s presence checked the unbelievers from doing anything drastic to harm Muhammad (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH) is now totally unprotected. In this state, the non-Muslims very eagerly begin harassment and persecution of the Prophet (PBUH) with greater zeal. The Apostle (PBUH) becomes the target of continuous harassment, invectives, taunts and obscenities. To injure him they spread thorns in his way, threw rotten, smelly garbage at him and mix excreta in his food. Once while, he was praying at Ka‘aba, a non-Muslim tried to kill him by strangling with a sheet of cloth. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) appeared there in time to save him. Enraged the pagans attacked Abu Bakr (RA) and beaten him mercilessly. Unbridled, the persecution of Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers continued. Helpless, the Prophet (PBUH) remembers his mentor and protector, dear Uncle Abu Talib and the beloved consort Khadija (RA). Those that sheltered him from the wrath of the enemies are no more in this world. No adult issues are there to come to his help, only adolescent daughters, who can only shed tears at their father‘s plight. Disciples are not in better conditions. Under these circumstances, the Prophet (PBUH) advises his followers to bear all the hardships by keeping faith in God and to pray for better days.
JOURNEY TO TAYEF TO PREACH: PERSECUTION BY TAYEFIANS:

When the tyranny of the Meccans surpassed all bounds and it became very risky to stay in Mecca he decided to move. To preach Islam anew outside Mecca, he started towards Tayef a city seventy miles to the Northwest of Mecca. He traveled with his adopted son Zaid (RA). Crossing difficult mountainous terrain, he reached Tayef and met the leaders. He invited them to Islam. In markets, bazaars he preached and even from door to door, he went to invite Tayefians. He requested them for support and sought their cooperation and compassion for his mission of Truth of God. Tayefians did not respond kindly to the Prophet‘s (PBUH) invitation. Infuriated, they insulted and tormented the Apostle (PBUH) of God. They proved more savage than the Meccans and were very rude and disrespectful to the Prophet (PBUH). Throwing stones, they mercilessly wounded the Messenger of God. Zaid (RA) carried his bloodied body to a nearby orchid
73

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

and nursed him. Feeling a bit better, he prayed to God to forgive those who caused him pain. He asked God to give them good sense and prayed for their well-being. Oh God, show them the path of truth, he prayed! Dejected the Apostle (PBUH) was returning to Mecca. On the way through emissaries, he requested Muathem, an infidel for help. On humanitarian consideration, Muathem‘s people escorted Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions to their homes in Mecca. After that, the Apostle (PBUH) started preaching Islam in the markets and bazaars. He told people about the Unity of God and invited them to accept Islam. This infuriated the Quraish, and they desperately tried to destroy the Prophet (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH) kept praying to God for them.
MUHAMMAD’S (PBUH) SECOND AND THE THIRD MARRIAGES:

After the death of Khadija (RA), the Prophet (PBUH) mostly stayed busy outside preaching and there was nobody to look after his young daughters and household chores. He therefore, married Hazrat Shawda (RA), a fiftyfive years old widow. She was vulnerable to taunts, torments, and lived helplessly at the death of her husband. Muhammad (PBUH) provided the much needed support and refuge to Hazrat Shawda (RA). He made her the mistress of the house. Around this time at the earnest request of his friend Abu Bakr (RA), Muhammad (PBUH) married his six-year old daughter, Ayesha (RA). Apparently, it looked incompatible, because, Muhammad (PBUH) was 51 years old, but later the world immensely benefited from God‘s design.
ME’RÄJ AND INTRODUCTION OF SALAT (PRAYERS):

Few years before the emigration to Medïna, while he was with Shawda (RA), Muhammad (PBUH) went on Me‘räj (Audience with Allah) for an audience with Allah the Master of the Worlds. In the Holy Qur‘än God has said,
35. G LORY TO (G OD ) W HO DID TAKE H IS S ERVANT FOR A J OURNEY BY 76 NIGHT FROM THE S ACRED M OSQUE TO THE FARTHEST M OSQUE , WHOSE PRECINCTS W E DID B LESS , - IN ORDER THAT W E MIGHT SHOW HIM SOME OF O UR S IGNS : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17: 1).

In the Süra called, Najm God Said,
76 Almost all the interpreters of the Holy Qur'än are of the opinion that by the Farthest Mosque, Baitul Mukaddas has been referred to but I think by the Farthest Mosque God has not meant Baitul Mukaddas. It is difficult to understand why the Farthest Mosque should mean Baitul Mukaddas. If Baitul Mamur is referred to as the Farthest Mosque, the meaning becomes consistent.

74

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 36. B Y THE S TAR W HEN IT GOES DOWN , - Y OUR C OMPANION IS NEITHER A STRAY NOR BEING MISLED . N OR DOES HE SAY ( AUGHT ) O F ( HIS OWN ) D ESIRE . I T IS NO LESS THAN I NSPIRATION SENT DOWN TO HIM : H E WAS TAUGHT BY ONE M IGHTY IN P OWER , E NDUED WITH W ISDOM : F OR HE APPEARED (I N STATELY FORM ) W HILE HE WAS IN T HE HIGHEST PART O F THE HORIZON : T HEN HE APPROACHED A ND CAME CLOSER , A ND WAS AT A DISTANCE O F BUT TWO BOW - LENGTHS O R ( EVEN ) NEARER ; S O DID (G OD ) CONVEY T HE INSPIRATION TO H IS S ERVANT- (C ONVEYED ) WHAT H E ( MEANT ) T O CONVEY. T HE (P ROPHET ‘ S )( MIND AND ) HEART I N NO WAY FALSIFIED T HAT WHICH HE SAW. W ILL YE THEN DISPUTE W ITH HIM CONCERNING W HAT HE SAW ? F OR INDEED HE SAW HIM AT A SECOND DESCENT, N EAR THE L OTE - TREE B EYOND WH ICH NONE MAY PASS : N EAR IT IS THE G ARDEN O F A BODE . B EHOLD , THE L OTE - TREE WAS SHROUDED (I N MYSTERY UNSPEAKABLE !) (H IS ) SIGHT NEVER SWERVED , N OR DID IT GO WRONG ! F OR TRULY DID HE SEE , O F THE S IGNS OF HIS L ORD , T HE G REATEST ! (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 53: 1-18).

It was midnight, everywhere it was darkness, there were no sounds, complete silence ruled. Nature stood still with an unusual calmness. The Prophet (PBUH) was sleeping in the courtyard of the Ka‘aba, somebody called Muhammad (PBUH). He woke up and saw Gabriel standing at his head. A little, further ‗Buraq‘ a curiously glowing transport was waiting. This fast-moving transport looked like a winged horse. Gabriel examined Muhammad‘s (PBUH) heart. He caused his mind to strengthen for the journey. Then Gabriel asked the Prophet (PBUH) to mount the ‗Buraq‘. The Prophet (PBUH) mounted the Buraq. In an instant, it flew Muhammad (PBUH) to Jerusalem. Gabriel nodded at Muhammad (PBUH) to dismount there. He entered the Mosque and prayed with devotion. This Mosque at Jerusalem built by Hazrat Solaiman (Solomon) bears the memories of Hazrat Musa (Moses) and Hazrat Isa (Jesus Christ). Muhammad (PBUH) all the while prayed facing this Mosque and was delighted to see it for the first time. From here, Gabriel raced into the space with Muhammad (PBUH). Within moments, they reached the door of the First Sky. They knocked at the door. ―Who is there?‖ asked somebody from within. ―It‘s I,‖ said Gabriel. ―Who is with you? Is he ordained?‖ asked the voice again. Gabriel answered, ―He is Muhammad (PBUH) the Messenger of God. The door opened immediately and Muhammad (PBUH) entered. Gabriel introduced him to Hazrat Adam (Alaihe Wasallam) (AS) and asked Muhammad (PBUH) to salute him. Muhammad (PBUH) saluted him with respect. In reply, Adam embraced him and warmly welcomed him saying, ―Welcome the Glory of my family.‖
75

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Then Gabriel along with Muhammad (PBUH) reached the Second Sky. There they met Jesus Christ (AS). After exchanges of salutations, Christ welcomed him saying, ―Welcome, Oh, righteous Brother!‖ In that manner, they traveled to the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh sky. There they met Hazrats Yusuf (AS), Idris (AS), Haroon (AS), Musa (AS) and Ibrahim (AS), respectively. Muhammad (PBUH) exchanged salutations with them and they were all delighted to meet him. Muhammad (PBUH) then climbed to ‗Sidratulmuntaha‘.77 Gabriel could not travel beyond ‗Sidratulmuntaha‘. However, Muhammad (PBUH) did not stop; he kept on advancing at the behest of an unseen force. This may be the first journey of a man beyond Space. What a beautiful sight! How daring the Journey into the Cosmos! All alone guided by some mystic force Muhammad (PBUH) is moving forward to meet Allah. Buraq is his carrier, faster than light. Into the unending space they went, where will it stop who knows. Strange and mysterious was the journey beyond human perception. The mind stopped, only he moved on filled with a heavenly feeling, inspired by God. The Buraq stopped at Baitul Mamur. Baitul Mamur is the Noumenon of the Ka‘aba. It is situated exactly at the same place as the Ka‘aba on the Seventh Sky. Angels are always busy praying here. The place radiates with a divine glow very soothing and pleasant. Here Muhammad (PBUH) was granted an audience with Allah. Allah revealed Himself to Muhammad (PBUH) removing a curtain. They talked about many confidential matters. This audience made Muhammad (PBUH) to comprehend the truth properly about the Creator and His creations. He could fully comprehend that it was beyond him before. His understanding and perception of Allah and His creations was blessed with perfection and was complete. At this rendezvous with God, he was also blessed with the covenant of Salat (prayer) five times a day, and he returned a content man with knowledge that was beyond all other souls.

77

Sidratulmuntaha: (Space Frontier). This audience with God has been described in the Holy Qur‘än and in Al-Mishkat. This great event occurred on the 27th of Rajab (Hegira), the tenth year of divination of Muhammad (PBUH) when he was fifty. Fourteen hundred years ago ignorant non-Muslims could not believe the event; it was beyond their comprehension. Today science has proved that Me‘räj is possible (Time, Space and Speed: the theory of Relativity. (The Translation and Meaning of the Glorious Qur ‘än by Ali, Abdullah Yusuf.)

76

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE THE FIRST PLEDGE OF AQABA:

The Quraish idolaters did not believe in Me‘räj. They called him a maniac and tauntingly asked him questions. An appropriate reply did not satisfy them and they brushed aside all answers laughingly. Quraish infidels continued their persecution and opposition to the Prophet (PBUH). In spite of everything, the Apostle (PBUH) continued with his mission of preaching ‗Oneness‘ of God. The number of his followers kept on increasing. He preached at the Quraish-exhibitions at Okâz and Majanna. In their attempt to discredit Muhammad (PBUH), they tried to confuse people by calling him an Astrologer. Abu Lahab even threw stones at the Prophet (PBUH) but not all these humiliations could deter Muhammad (PBUH) from the path of truth. Besides, the regular exhibitions, Muhammad (PBUH) began preaching from door to door. His efforts were awarded with many conversions from among tribe-chiefs, poets and the rich. In the eleventh year of the divinity, during the Hajj season, thousands of people from various tribes gathered at the courtyard of Ka‘aba in Mecca, from all around Arabia. At this time, Muhammad (PBUH) went wandering to the annual exhibition at the Aqaba valley, near Mecca. Here, he met a group of visitors from Medïna and invited them to Islam. A few leaders, among them, very eagerly responded to the invitation and accepted Islam. They entered a friendly pact with the Prophet (PBUH) and took the following oath:
61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66.

WE WE WE WE WE WE

W I L L O N LY W O R S H I P

ALLAH

AND WILL NOT COMPROMISE

HIS ‗ONENESS‘,

W I L L S H U N A D U LT E R Y A N D F O R N I C AT I O N , WILL SHUN STEALING, W I L L S H U N I N FA N T I C I D E , W I L L A B S TA I N F R O M C A L U M N Y A N D S L A N D E R , WILL ABIDE BY

GOD

AND

HIS PROPHET (PBUH)

IN

E V E RY

HONEST

E N D E AV O R A N D 67.

WE

WILL NOT OPPOSE THE

P RO PHET (PB UH )

IN AN Y RI G HTEO US DEE D S.

The First Pledge of Aqaba at Aqaba is a historically important and memorable event in the Prophet‘s (PBUH) life. This was the first ray of hope in the darkness. The triumphant march forward of Islam actually began from here. It should be borne in the mind that the Prophet (PBUH) did not ask for any self- aggrandizing clause from the new converts. The only demand he made was obedience of his honest actions. This bears
77

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

testimony to his honesty, courage and magnanimity. In the eleventh year of divinity, few more Medinease accepted Islam. They requested the Prophet (PBUH) for a competent teacher, to teach them the rules and rituals of Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) sent Musayeb bin Omar, one of his disciples to Medïna. Due to him, the light of Islam illuminated the dwellings of the Medinease. Many tribe-chiefs, at this time embraced Islam with their tribes and Abujor Gifari (RA) was among them.
THE SECOND PLEDGE OF AQABA AND PREPARATION FOR MIGRATION (HIJRAT):

Next year, the twelfth of divinity, five hundred Medinease came to Mecca for business and pilgrimage in the Hajj season. There were seventy-three new Muslim men and women among them. Both parties met at the Aqaba valley, held discussion in a cordial atmosphere. Listening to Muhammad‘s (PBUH) divine discourse, the Medinease were so impressed that they invited the Apostle (PBUH) to Medïna. Their leaders wanted to take Muhammad (PBUH) along with them to Medïna. He agreed to migrate to Medïna if all his followers were allowed to settle in Medïna and given all the support to preach the Truth of God. Gladly they accepted the proposal and took the following oath:
68. 69.

ALL MECCAN MUSLIM IN

B R E T H R E N W I L L B E S H E LT E R E D I N

MEDÏNA,

L I F E A N D D E AT H T H E Y

(MEDINEASE

AND

MECCANS)

WI LL STIC K TOGE THE R,

I G N O R I N G A L L O B S T A C L E S O R D I F F I C U LT I E S , 70.

FO R ALMI G HT Y GO D
L I F E A N D P R O P E R T Y,

AND

HI S P RO PHET ( PB UH),

T HE Y WILL SAC RIFICE THEI R

71.

IF

NEEDED, T HE Y SHA LL FIG HT T HE ENEMIES O F

ISLAM.

This is famous in history as the Second Byaat (Pledge) of Aqaba. All other clauses of the First Pledge of Aqaba remained in force. In 622 AD, in the month of Zul-Hajj, the Prophet (PBUH) appointed twelve representatives, selected by the Medinease, from among the new Muslims. The power and influence of these representatives helped propagate Islam. Consequently, all the Ansars (Helpers) accepted Islam. By welcoming and giving shelter to Meccan Muslims and nurturing the nascent Islamic faith, Medinease Muslims created a permanent niche in the heart of the Meccans. Muhammad (PBUH) will remain theirs‘ forever. In this way, Medïna became the foremost sanctuary of the Muslims. Instructed by the Prophet (PBUH), Meccans migrated to Medïna leaving all their wealth, friends and relatives behind for the sake of Islam. However, they migrated secretly but
78

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

words leaked and many were caught and tortured by the heathen Quraish. In spite of concerted effort by the infidels to stop them, they kept on migrating to Medïna. Only Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), Hazrat Ali (RA) and the Prophet (PBUH) waited in Mecca for Allah‘s instructions. When in the beginning of the thirteenth year of divinity, almost all disciples had migrated to Medïna, Muhammad (PBUH), instructed by God, prepared to leave Mecca.
RETURN OF AMANATS (ENTRUSTED DEPOSITS): HIJRAT:

Those very idolaters who forced Muhammad (PBUH) to leave his birthplace used to entrust him with their valuables for safekeeping. He was their Al-Amin (The Truthful) and As-Sadique (The Dependable). Muhammad therefore, assigned Hazrat Ali (RA) with the duty to return those deposited valuables to their owners. Leaving Ali (RA) behind in his own house, Muhammad (PBUH) accompanied by Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), in the darkness of the night, left Mecca for Medïna. This is the Historic Hijrat (Migration), every Muslim remembers, reverently. From the day of this event, the Hegira year is counted. The great Prophet (PBUH) migrated on fourth of Rabiul Awwal, 622 AD After seventeen years of this event, the second Caliph of Islam, Hazrat Omar (RA), enforced the Hegira Calendar from the month of Muharram of the lunar year. That Calendar is still followed around the world. Meanwhile, Meccan Quraish non-Muslims conspired to assassinate the Prophet (PBUH). During the night they cordoned his house and waited. In the morning, they entered the house to kill him and were disappointed to find Ali (RA) in his bed. Frustrated, they announced that the captor of Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) dead or alive would be rewarded with hundred camels. Meanwhile, according to their plans, Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) left the house at night. They took refuge in a cave at Jabel Sawor (Sawor Hills). Mercenaries sent to kill or arrest them returned failing to locate them, searching around the cave. After three days and three nights in the cave, Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) proceeded to Medïna along the Red Sea. They traveled on camels brought by Abu Bakr‘s (RA) son Abdullah. Amr bin Fuhaiera, the freed slave of Abu Bakr (RA) accompanied them. Suraka, a hardhearted ferocious Arab rider, renowned for his speed and skill, followed them for the reward. However, nearing them he fell from his horse, he rode again and fell again, and thus falling repeatedly fear seized him. Admitting his sin to Muhammad
79

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH), he prayed for forgiveness. Muhammad (PBUH) not only forgave him but also granted him written assurance of protection (Farman-e-Aman), so that the Muslims did not subject him to revenge for his unscrupulous act. Prophet‘s (PBUH) predicament was not over. He encountered Chieftain Baridah. Baridah with seventy Arab Bedouins blocked his way lured by Reward. However, they were awed and enamoured by the sweet rhythmic recitation of the Holy Qur‘än by the Prophet (PBUH). Their souls shivered with fear and they abandoning their mission accepted Islam and with the consent of the Prophet (PBUH) joined him as fellow travelers. The Prophet (PBUH) riding in the middle, escorted by Baridah leading his mercenaries, flying a flag made with his turban tied at the top end of his spear was a remarkable sight. Muhammad (PBUH) was given a rousing reception at Medïna. Thousands of people male, female and children turned out to greet him in a festive atmosphere. They waited at gate of the city to welcome the Prophet (PBUH).

80

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE MEDINEASE PERIOD THE FIRST HEGIRA MEDÏNA BEFORE THE ARRIVAL OF MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

Allah the Provider of the Worlds has selected Medïna as the place whereto His beloved friend Muhammad (PBUH) will migrate and settle. Until the Doom‘s Day, this will remain as the main spiritual capital of Islam. God has honored this ancient city as the final resting- place of Muhammad (PBUH). Medïna is situated at a height of 619 meters from the sea level on the ancient trade route linking the Holy Mecca to Syria. Decorated with abundant date palms, this was a prosperous city from the olden days, named Yathrib. ‗Yathrib‘ is the Arabic of Egyptian ‗Thermos‘. In 1600 BC a section of Amalik tribe were driven out from Egypt who came and settled here. One of them named ‗Thermos‘ built this city from thence the name ‗Yathrib‘. 78 In time, the Amaliks became very powerful in Hejaj. A group of preachers sent by Moses defeated these autocratic Amaliks and thus came and settled the Banu Israelis to this region (Wafah al-Wafah). There is evidence in history that when Bukht-Nasr occupied Babylon, the defeated Jewish people fled from there and came to settle in Yathrib. Abu Huraira (RA) narrates that when the Jewish was defeated in Babylon, they met together to decide on the future. Their priests convinced them to move to Hejaj as they concluded that according to their scripture the ‗promised last prophet‘ would come in Hejaj. They prophesied that he would settle in a city adorned with ‗Date Palms‘ and it would become the center of all his activities. Therefore, they left their birthplace and started for Hejaj. On the way, they settled in Yathrib since, they identified it as the prophesied city of their scripture, surrounded with date palms. Before everybody else, Hazrat Haroon‘s (Aaron) descendents came and settled in Yathrib. Gradually, many other tribes came to settle there resulting into expansion of the settlement spreading to Khaibar and surrounding areas. Any priest, leader or prominent person would advice their descendents to become the first to follow the last prophet, if he came in their lifetimes. They warned them to be careful not to disobey the last prophet or oppose him, under any circumstances.
78 Tariqul Ambia, Ibn Khuldun, Part-I.

81

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Alas! What a change of heart, when the last prophet really came, then this very Jewish could not overcome their ego and opposed the prophet. Consequently, defeated, they were thrown out of Yathrib and adjacent areas (Rahatul Kulub, Wafah al-Wafah). Before the Jewish, the tribe that came and settled in Yathrib was the descendents of Hazrat Ishmael. They were the progeny of two brothers named, ‗Aus‘ and ‗Khajraz‘. At first, they were in Yemen and hit by the great flood of 115 BC, they left their country and started for Syria. On the way, they found Yathrib suitable and settled there. (Kassasul Qur‘än, partIII). Business was the main occupation of the Jewish of Torah. They were also cultured and literate. Therefore, they were among the wealthy and the influential. On the other hand, like the Meccans the Medinease were Aus and Khajraz idolaters. Medinease were mainly shepherds and farmers, but they had little land to till and rear cattle. Therefore, they depended heavily on borrowed money from the Jewish rich. As a result, they became subservient and their status lay them bare to exploitation by the Jewish. Occasionally, they rose in protest. Threatened, the Jewish pacified them with the prospect of grave consequences, when the last Prophet came. They told them that the last Prophet would come and establish supremacy over the Arab land. Since they would be his principal companions, they would punish the Medinease for their audacity. Nevertheless, surprisingly, when the time came, and the promised Prophet arrived among them migrating from Mecca, the Medinease idolaters accepted and helped the Prophet (PBUH). Waiting for generations, for this event, the Jewish turned their face and became sworn enemies. Moreover, they were defeated and driven away from the land. (Tarik-e-Medïna, Maulana Abdul Ma‘abood).
HISTORIC MEDÏNA:

Seven hundred years before the arrival of Muhammad (PBUH), one Asad ibn Karab was the king of Yemen. This powerful King on an expedition to Syria, on the way came to Yathrib and subjugated it. Leaving his son behind as his representative, he went on. As soon as he left, the city rose in revolt and killed the Yemeni prince. The King returned on hearing that and raged the city to the ground.

82

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

To help the city dwellers, some scholarly Jewish priests met the King. They tried to impress upon him the importance of the city of Yathrib and its divinity. They told the King that they had concluded interpreting prophecies and other divine signs that Yathrib was the city the last Prophet (PBUH) would migrate to. From thence, this would be his abode from where he would direct his mission and this would be the last resting- place of the chosen one, until the ‗Day of Judgement‘. The city would be named ‗Tyeba‘ meaning Sacred. Angels protect the city and whosoever tries to destroy it would be destroyed. After that, they described the qualities of the last Prophet (PBUH) and the distinction his religion will enjoy until the Day of Judgement. The King was an honest, noble and large-hearted man. Believing in the words of the learned priests, he took up the true religion of the time. Later, he built a Palace in the town and given that to an heir with a bequeathal advice to the descendents that would occupy the palace at the time of the advent of the promised prophet. He was advised to present himself before the Prophet (PBUH) and request him to kindly consent to live in the palace, since it was built for him. Thence on an heir lived in the palace waiting for the promised one. When the time came and the Prophet (PBUH) arrived, Hazrat Ayub Ansari was the occupant of this palace. On hearing the news of Hazrat Muhammad‘s (PBUH) arrival, he rushed to the spot and invited the Prophet (PBUH) to occupy the palace. Hazrat Ayub Ansari lived a few yards away from where Muhammad‘s (PBUH) camel rested on the ground. The Prophet (PBUH) gracefully accepted the invitation. On the first occasion, Hazrat Ayub Ansari gave the bequeathal letter of his ancestor king to the Prophet (PBUH). Whence it was written in the King‘s own handwriting: ―I declare that Ahmed is the Messenger of God. If I were alive and met him I certainly would be his servant and cooperate with him‖ (Wafah al-Wafah, part-I, zuzbul Kulub). It is noteworthy that, later, the King went to Mecca with a delegation of Savants and laid a cover on the Ka‘aba made of Yemeni fabric, for the first time. From Then on, it became a custom to cover the House of the Lord, which continues until today (Kassasul Qur‘än). According to the bequeathal letter, Hazrat Ayub Ansari wanted to give the whole house to the Prophet (PBUH), but Muhammad (PBUH) disagreed.
83

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Then Hazrat Ansari requested him to occupy the first floor, but the Prophet (PBUH) keeping his companions‘ comfort in the mind chose the ground floor (Wafah al-Wafah).
ARRIVAL IN MEDÏNA: REACHING KOBBA AND BUILDING THE FIRST MOSQUE:

According to Rabiul Awwal 8, in the thirteenth year of divinity, on September 20, 622 AD, Muhammad (PBUH) set his foot in Medïna. On reaching Medïna, he accepted the invitation of an Ansar couple to stay with them at a village called Kobba. This was three miles from Medïna town. Meanwhile, Hazrat Ali (RA), Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) and his son Abdullah joined him at Kobba. The Prophet (PBUH) built a Mosque here, called the ‗Kobba Mosque‘, which is still situated at the same place at Kobba. This is the First Mosque of Islam. Staying there for fourteen days, the Prophet (PBUH) started for Medïna town with his disciples.
RECEPTION AT MEDÏNA:

In the meantime, All the Medinease irrespective of age, sex, caste and creed came out of their houses to welcome Muhammad (PBUH) and his entourage. The town reverberated with slogans of Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar … (God is Great, God is Great …) and wore a festive look. Irrespective of caste, creed and gender, everybody, accorded the entourage of the Prophet (PBUH) a warm welcome. Ladies on the roof and children on the streets danced with delight chanting, God is Great, God is Great …. The Ansars, delightedly, presented themselves before the Prophet (PBUH) and each of them invited him to his home. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) expressed his gratefulness and prayed for them. Praying, he advanced through the crowd, as it was a Friday, the Prophet (PBUH) said his Friday prayers at the entrance of the town.
SETTLEMENT AT MEDÏNA AND ARRIVAL OF FAMILIES FROM MECCA:

At last, the Camel carrying the Prophet (PBUH) stopped at Hazrat Ayub Ansari‘s (RA) courtyard. Since everybody wanted the Prophet (PBUH), as his guest, earlier he declared that he would stay at the house where his Camel stops. He therefore, accepted Hazrat Ayub Ansari‘s (RA) invitation and stayed there for seven months. Then he bought a piece of land to build Masjidun Nabubi (Mosque of the Prophet) and a house for the family. At this time, Zaid (RA) was sent to bring the families of the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) who were still living in Mecca, to Medïna.
84

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muhammad‘s (PBUH) family included his second wife Shawda (RA) and his two daughters, Hazrats Fatima (RA) and Umme-Kulthum (RA). Of the other two daughters, Hazrat Joynab were forced to stay with her husband who was still a non-Muslim, in Mecca, and Hazrat Rokayya (RA) was in Abyssinia with husband Othman (RA). In the family of Abu Bakr (RA) were his wife Umme-Rumman (RA) and his daughters, Asma (RA), Ayesha (RA) and others. Ayesha (RA) until now did not live with the Prophet (PBUH). The Quraish did not stop them and they arrived in Medïna in time. Before finding a place for himself, the great Prophet (PBUH) ensured accommodation for all his followers. Nobody faced any difficulty, as the Medinease cooperated, wholeheartedly, a unique example in history. From here started Muhammad‘s (PBUH) duel roles as the religious head and the head of state.
REMINISCENCE AND THANKS GIVING:

Though Muhammad (PBUH) was accepted wholeheartedly by the Medinease and respected by all, he could not forget his days in Mecca. Memories of nearest and dearest relatives in Mecca came flooding into his mind whenever he got an opportunity to relax. Everything, from the Quraish persecution, childhood, adolescent, youth to his blissful married life began to crawl back to his mind. He thanked and prayed to God for His kindness, reflecting on life in Medïna.
ESTABLISHMENT OF MASJIDUN NABUBI AND AZAN:

After the Masjidun Nabubi was built, prayers five times a day in the Mosque were introduced. Also, introduced was Azan (the Call to Prayers) for the first time. These rules are still followed today throughout the world. Next to the Mosque, at a place called Ashab-e-Saffa, a shelter was built and shelterless disciples were housed there. Madrasa-e-Saffa (Saffa-School) was built at the same premises where the Prophet (PBUH) taught his followerstudents. Later, at the same site, along with the Madrasa (School), a hospital was opened to treat soldiers wounded in battles. Hazrat Bellal (RA) was appointed as the first Muezzin (Reciter) of Islam to recite the call to prayers. In the same year, Hazrat Salman Farsi took shelter under the umbrella of Islam, at the age of two-fifty years (otherwise three hundred).

85

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE MUHAJIRUN
79

(MIGRANTS) AND ANSARS

80

(HELPERS):

Those Muslims, who came to Medïna like beggars, leaving behind all their properties and wealth in Mecca are called Muhajirun (migrants). Medinease Muslims, who offered them food and shelter, are called Ansars (Helpers). Besides that a leading tribe in Medïna, was also called Ansars. While, the Medinease were farmers, the Meccans were traders. Since the Meccans were innovative, they soon began to earn their own bread. However, they never hesitated to express their gratitude to the Ansars for their selfsacrifice and broadness. Within a short time Meccans established themselves as traders and businessperson and became self-sufficient. Many of them were counted among the leading businesspeople, in Medïna.
FOUNDATION OF AN ISLAMIC STATE AND THE CALIPHATE:

The arrival of the great Prophet (PBUH) in Medïna unveiled a new horizon for Islam and the Medinease. As the Spiritual leader of the Muslims and the recognized leader of the Medinease, Muhammad‘s (PBUH) very first task was to unite the tribes. He, in fact, performed the duties of a Head of State. Muhammad (PBUH) concluded a peace agreement with the non-Muslims, specially, the Jewish and the Medinease idolaters. To improve the social system, he reformed the system by equally dividing the wealth among the citizens. For creating a peaceful atmosphere, he arranged for realization of all just dues. In this manner at the outset of the Islamic-state, he focussed on building a strong ideal state by unifying and integrating the Muslims. Near the Ohud hills, two-fifty miles to the North of Mecca, surrounded by three hilly ranges was the city of Yathrib, named after its founder. With the arrival of Muhammad (PBUH), this city became Medïnatun Nabi or Medïna Munawwara, now known as Medïna. The Golden era of Islam began here in this sacred city. This is the first capital of the Pan Islamic nation where Muhammad (PBUH) assumed the duties of a head of state. A sizable number of idolaters and Jewish lived in and around Yathrib (Medïna), before the arrival of the Muslims. Like the Meccan Idolaters, the idolaters were the natives of Yathrib. They were illiterates and generally depended on farming for a livelihood. Their neighbors, the Jewish, came and settled here from Egypt, Rome, Greece, Iraq and Palestine. These
79 80 Meccans those who migrated with the Prophet to Medïna. Medinease residents who gave shelter and helped the Meccans.

86

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Jewish people were ousted from their homelands for their misdeeds. As they were educated, intelligent and wealthy, they were an advanced and strong community. They controlled trade and commerce and they had strong influence in the management of the society and the state. They were not only crafty and clever but also greedy of wealth and selfish. Their source of strength was, even today is, unity and living together as a community. Due to their superior qualities, they enjoyed unusual influence on the idolaters of Medïna, in all spheres of life, which continued for some time even after the arrival of the Muslims. The Muslims started living in Medïna as the third community with the Idolaters and the Jewish. A few Jewish accepted Islamic faith besides, the Meccan Muslims and the new converts of Medïna. A few among these Jewish converts were Munafiques (pretenders). Though outwardly known as Muslims, they were in fact sworn enemies of Islam. These three communities were very different from each other and on top of that, hatred among groups was intense. The rise of Islam as a force made them envy Muhammad (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) observed and realized that mutual understanding among the communities is very important for peace and stability of a country. This is more important in a country where many communities, belonging to different religion, live together. The basic principle to follow in the citizens‘ life is ―Live and let live.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) did not get this basic right from the Quraish. Therefore, he could feel the need for ―Live and let live‖ much more in Medïna. He realized that discipline is necessary for peace to flourish in the country and it is essential that law should be enacted and enforced irrespective of caste and creed. As mentioned above there were pretenders among the newly initiated Muslims from the Jewish, who were secretly conspiring against the Prophet (PBUH) and Islam, from the outset. The Prophet (PBUH) knew about them but did not take any strong action against them. He tried to win them through love, tolerance, kindness and equality rather than by force, for coercion was not his way and is not tolerated by Islam. His purpose was to unite all the people divided into various caste and creed. Recognizing everybody as equal, he granted citizenship to all, irrespective of race and religion. For a diverse population, he proceeded to establish a welfare state in Medïna. So that people of different race, religion, tribe and ethnicity may live there, side by side, keeping intact their culture and heritage.
87

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

In the Meccan period, Muhammad (PBUH) taught his disciples religious rules, regulations and precepts. By examples and recitation of divine messages, he motivated his disciples to engage in social work and mass education programs. He inspired them to be benevolent, honest, ideal, virtuous and enlightened. In Mecca, the number of Muslims was much lesser than that in Medïna. Muhammad (PBUH) is now the Head of a State founded by him in Medïna. Besides the Muslims, many other communities of diverse culture and heritage live here. This is the Islamic welfare state, he had envisioned long ago. He discussed and deliberated on, the political and social structure of this very state with his followers. God gave him the opportunity now, to realize that holy vision. Given the opportunity, the very first task that he took unto himself was to establish peace among the communities, in the nascent state. Immediately, he devoted himself to solving the inter-communal conflicts by uniting the citizens.
MEDÏNA SANAD (PACT OF MEDÏNA) AND ESTABLISHMENT OF INTER-COMMUNITY PEACE:

The great Prophet (PBUH) called a convention of the leaders of the idolaters and Jewish of Medïna. In the presence of the leaders, he discussed the law and order situation in the country to make them comprehend the need of communal harmony, for peace and tranquillity. He laid before the convention his well-considered and honest proposals for the purpose. On unanimous agreement, he presented the draft of a written agreement containing the duties of the citizens. All leaders agreeing to the terms signed the agreement. Muhammad (PBUH) also put his signature on the document. Through this pact, Muhammad (PBUH) brought harmony among the various communities. This is an important historic Pact, known as the ‗Medïna Sanad‘ (Medïna Pact). In this region, nay in the world, nobody has ever before concluded such an agreement. This event is a perfect demonstration of his political acumen and farsightedness, in international affairs. Leaders attending the convention took the following oath:
72.

ALL

C OMMUN ITY

LEADERS

SIGNING

T HIS

COVENANT

ALONG

WITH

THEI R

COMMUNITIE S, IRRE SPECTIVE OF CAST E AND CREED, SHALL BE CONSIDERE D T H E C I T I Z E N S O F A S I N G L E S T AT E . 73.

ALL

CITI ZEN S, IRRE SPECTIVE OF G ENDE R, SHA LL ENJOY EQ UA L RI G HT S AN D

LIVE I N HA RMO NY A ND PE ACE . 74.

EACH

COMMUNITY

SHALL

ENJOY T HE

RIGHT

TO

ITS

OWN

RELIGION.

T HEY

SHA LL NOT INTE RFE RE IN EAC H OT H ER‘ S RELI GI ON.

88

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
75.

T HE Y

SHALL NOT

S H E LT E R A D V E R S A R I E S

OF

E AC H OT HE R AND

SHALL NOT

E N T E R I N T O A N Y PA C T W I T H O U T T H E C O N S E N T O F T H E O T H E R S . 76.

ALL

T HE

P A RT I E S

SHALL

U N I T E D LY

FIGHT

AGAINST

ANY

EXTERNAL

A G G R E S S I O N A N D A L L C O M M U N I T I E S S H A L L B E A R T H E E X P E N S E S O F WA R S

This practice of international pacts initiated by the Prophet (PBUH), fourteen hundred years ago, is an integral part of international trade, commerce and diplomacy today. He laid the foundation of a true Islamic Welfare State based on benevolence and universal fellowship. The Prophet (PBUH) ensured peace and harmony in this multi-racial and multi-religious state. Nobody until today could give so much privilege, specially, to the minorities. Many non-Muslim Arabs searching for the Truth could now comprehend the sublime qualities of the state of Medïna and took shelter under the umbrella of Islam. They were thankful to God for providing them the opportunity. The Prophet (PBUH) ensuring equality, peace and fraternity among the communities of the new state marched onwards. Thus, the new state advanced steadily and surely to peace, prosperity and strength.
EXPANSION OF EDUCATION IN MEDINEASE MALES AND FEMALES:

To stablish a new social order, the Prophet (PBUH) had to eradicate the old superstitious beliefs from the minds of the desert Arabs. Given their stubborn and cruel nature, to persuade them to discard the customs of their ancestors was a challenging task, even for a renowned leader. Muhammad (PBUH) did that by educating the people, irrespective of age and gender. Through mass education, he made them see the disadvantages of superstitious practices. Since the new generation is the future of a nation, the Prophet (PBUH) initiated an education system for the children, hitherto unknown to the Arabs. He made the parents, primarily, responsible for the education and upbringing of the children. The Prophet (PBUH) through his own example taught the parents the skill of raising children to become honest, responsible and ideal citizens. He instructed his followers on the methods of teaching the children, the appropriate conduct with the parents and elders and about their rights and duties. So, that the future citizens could competently do their duties and meet their obligations, toward the society and the country. Therefore, earn deliverance in both the Worlds and bring laurels for their nation. Parents, guardians and elders should possess ideal characters; he emphasized, to develop the children into ideal citizens. They must be pious, truthful, honest, righteous and diligent. Elder citizens
89

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

must live an honest and clean life and behave kindly with everyone. Naturally, the good, honest and the virtuous beget good, honest and virtuous children. Muhammad (PBUH) gave extensive sermon to Muslims on mundane and spiritual matters for the peace and welfare of the world. Today even the non-Muslims benefit by these elaborate instructions and examples.
ADMINISTRATION:

The great Prophet (PBUH) founding the Islamic nation in Medïna, shouldered the heavy burden of running its affairs until the end of his life. He executed duties of a Head of a State, Spiritual Leader, Chief Justice and Supreme Military Commander. Appointments of administrators, ambassadors, and judges for arbitration in tribal conflicts and disagreements among communities or parties, enactment and enforcement of law, etc., were all done personally by him. He appointed some of his disciples as his representatives to the distant provinces, but kept the administration of Medïna and the adjoining areas in his own hand. These representatives administered the provinces on his behalf. Though he personally, interpreted the Islamic doctrines and answered inquiries, he appointed some of his disciples to give rulings (Fatwah) on religious matters. To settle disputes, he established courts of law. Muhammad (PBUH), individually, settled disputes in Medïna and its surrounding areas, and appointed some of his disciple as judges for the purpose. For distant provinces, he appointed additional Kazis (Judges). To establish camaraderie among the Arabs, the Prophet (PBUH) always gave priority on litigating disputes, differences and disagreements among them, over all other matters. Maintenance of law and order in the country was entrusted to the police. Separate departments were created for Zakat (tithe), Zizia (capitulation tax), Taxation, Excise & Tariff and Land Settlement. By awarding ownership of fallow lands to the tillers, the Apostle (PBUH) encouraged his disciples to farm. Distributing land among the land-less people, Muhammad (PBUH) ended to feudal system where landlords ruled supreme. To enforce truth and honesty in trade, commerce and all other transactions he established Anti Corruption Department. Clerks and other employees were appointed to announce Government ordinances, to keep records of divine sayings, and to
90

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

maintain military register. The Prophet (PBUH) founded a system of mass education to tutor the people. He built Mosques in villages and appointed Imams (Head Priest) and Muezzins (Deputy to the Imam) with strict instruction to do their duties, truthfully. Mosques were used as Madrasas (schools) to teach men, women and children by teachers deputed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He prepared Law inheritance so that the surviving family members like - wife, sons, daughters, parents, brothers, and sisters can inherit the deceased property. He introduced the systems of Wasiat Nama (Bequest) and Wakf (Charitable Endowment). Statutes of marriage and divorce were given. In addition, ordinances were promulgated about Haram (Forbidden) and Halal (Permitted) foods. He stopped all anti social activities by banning Gambling, Alcoholic beverages and interest on loans, etc. All this was done strictly, according to the Qur‘än.81 Muhammad (PBUH) thoroughly revolutionizing the method of administration, through social, administrative and judicial reforms, became an example for the world. The Apostle (PBUH) made tremendous development, in advancing peace and prosperity, by enforcing law and order, and concluding friendly agreements and international pacts with many countries. The world, not only remembers his contribution with gratitude, but also follows his tradition. Among his legacies, Islamic Inheritance Law has earned the accolade of the lawyers and jurists, alike. By enacting such laws, he has benefited the average person so much that no other Preacher, Social Reformer or Spiritual Leaders have done before.
CONSPIRACY OF THE ENEMY: RECOURSE TO ARMS FOR DEFENSE:

While, the Prophet (PBUH) was busy consolidating the foundation of the new state, the enemy, out of spite, was conspiring to unsettle his efforts. The Jewish in collaboration with the non-Muslim Quraish and the Medinease Munafiques (Pretenders) conspired against the new state, being jealous of Muhammad‘s (PBUH) success. In Mecca, the only opposition was from the infidel Quraish, but now in Medïna, with them joined the Jewish and the Pretenders. These three forces left no stone unturned to make the Prophet‘s (PBUH) life miserable by their heinous schemes. At every turn, they opposed the Prophet (PBUH) but Muhammad (PBUH) was well prepared to deal with them. Since, his informers kept him informed of
81 Please bear in mind that the Prophet (PBUH) did nothing or said nothing without Allah‘s direction.

91

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

the hideous designs of his enemies he successfully foiled all their conspiracies. Now that he is the Head of State of Medïna, unlike, Mecca where a few adherents only surrounded him, he is responsible for the whole population. Their life and wellbeing depended on him. Responsible for the whole of the population, he could no longer silently brush aside the provocative and oppressive acts of the enemies. Now, if he quietly endures the oppression of the Jewish, Quraish and the Pretenders, thousands of innocent men, women and children would suffer at the hands of these cruel, heartless adversaries. Like Mecca, people will die mercilessly at the hands of these barbarous enemies. On the other hand, it is simply cowardice to suffer at the hands of the enemy without rising to protest. Opposing the enemy collectively would cause a war but he was against wars, for he witnessed the horror of war in and at the battle of Fizar. His whole life, he tried hard to unite the humanity through love and affection, to bring peace and happiness. For the peace and prosperity of the people, he shunned the way of discord and preached the message of love and tolerance. With that ideal of Love, Peace and Happiness, the thought of war and chaos was totally out of place. Therefore, he prayed to the Almighty for divine guidance. At this time, God had sent guidance to him through His revelations (Al-Qur‘än - 2: 190, 191 & 193).) . In the first two verses (2: 190, 191, Al-Qur‘än) God allowed the Muslims, if attacked, to take up arms against the enemy and fight even in the confines of the Ka‘aba. In a later verse (Al-Qur‘än - 2: 216), God said that though some injunctions, apparently, seem enigmatic but great benefits are hidden in them, which has been proven in the later events of conflicts, time and again. On receiving these divine injunctions, the Prophet (PBUH) saw the ray of hope. Getting divine guidance, he understood that love, compassion and forgiveness are great virtues of man. However, to tread the path of truth, it is our sacred duty to resist the tyrants, to protect the lives and properties of the innocent citizens. To reach his goal of Love, Peace and Prosperity, falsehood, tyranny and oppression should be resisted. ‗Slapped on one cheek turn the other‘, would only encourage the wicked, and their oppression would continue unbridled. Peace would not be achieved. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) realized that defense is a sacred duty, and in doing so, the rule of the game is to destroy the enemy. To ensure mere
92

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

existence, there was no option other than to follow this basic condition, in the face of threats. That is why the civilized world follow this natural Qur‘änic law, in times of wars. The first and foremost duty of the Muslims is to establish the Truth, but if anybody attacks to destroy them, they should resist, for the sake of peace and tranquility. Fight, they must to enforce peace by defeating the evil forces. Dropping of atomic bombs on Japan by America was justified on that ground by the Allied Forces.
CHANGE OF QIBLA:

The Muslims, at first, prayed (performed salat) facing Jerusalem (Al-Aqsa Mosque). Once, in the middle of a prayer, the Prophet (PBUH) received divine instruction (Al-Qur‘än - 2: 144) to face Baitullah (the House of God) or Ka‘aba, from thence the Muslims have been praying, facing the Ka‘aba.
THE SECOND HEGIRA:

The Great Apostle remembers his days in Mecca. There, just because his adherents wanted to worship the only and one God and live a peaceful mundane life, the heathen Quraish mercilessly persecuted them. Neither did the Muslims interfere with their faith nor did they attack them. Nevertheless, they were tortured, tormented, killed and had to leave their place of birth to seek refuge in Medïna, leaving all their belongings, property and wealth behind. Even the migration to Medïna, did not pacify the Quraish and they continued to conspire to destroy the Muslims. There were no Muslims in Mecca, but even then, they were not left alone in Medïna. Constantly, the Quraish in collaboration with the Pretenders and the Jewish were hatching schemes to exterminate them. News of those conspiracies worried the Prophet (PBUH). Sensing their nefarious schemes, he realized that the Muslims had to fight to establish their faith in ‗Oneness‘ of Allah. He therefore, began preparing his adherents. In this way, through trials and tribulations the new state gained experience, and established itself as an unconquerable and leading nation in the world.
THE BATTLE OF BADR:

The Meccan Quraish were displeased with the Medinease for sheltering Muhammad (PBUH) and his Companions, and prepared to take revenge. They began with sudden raids into the suburbs of Medïna. They would attack villages and flee with the booties. Occasionally, getting the opportunity, they would raid the farming land, haul herds of cattle, and
93

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

disappear. Korj bin Jaber, a Meccan leader looted a few domestic animals of the Prophet (PBUH). Sensing their purpose, the Messenger (PBUH) of God entered into friendly pacts with some tribes, living between Mecca and Medïna. At first, Muhammad (PBUH) sent his emissaries to the leaders of the Johaina tribe and himself met the Bani-Jumra tribe at Abwa, where his mother rests forever. Muhammad (PBUH) concluded friendly treaties with these tribes. He also entered into friendly alliances with Bani-Mujdila and Bani-Jumra tribes. All the parties agreed to help each other against any foreign assault. The Apostle (PBUH) constituted four surveillance teams, headed by four of his celebrated Companions. From among them, a team led by Abdullah ibn Ahas went towards Nakhla. On the way, they fought Omar bin Alhajrani and his comrades, in which fight Hajrani was killed and his comrades were taken to Medïna as prisoners, in the month of Rajab. The Prophet (PBUH) was irritated because, Rajab was a month of peace. Just at this point, descended the Qur‘änic verse (Al-Qur‘än - 2: 217), where God has allowed war, in spite of the ban, against enemies who taking the opportunity of the holy month, attack the Muslims. God‘s support to Abdullah‘s actions pacified the Prophet (PBUH), and stopped the other critics. Nevertheless, the Meccan Quraish got furious, and thus began preparation to attack Medïna. Abu Sufiyan was sent to Syria to obtain arms, ammunition and provisions. Since, the Meccans had to pass Medïna on the way to Syria, it was decided that Abu Jahl, advancing from Mecca would meet with Abu Sufiyan and attack Medïna, together. Accordingly, the Quraish idolaters start with their entourage towards Medïna. The Prophet (PBUH) gets news of their movement through his spies. Consulting with the Muhajirs and Ansars, he decides to face them before they reach Medïna. Muslims neither are properly trained for warfare nor do they have the required strength, nevertheless, the Apostle gathers a small band of 313 Muhajirs and Ansars included among them is an teenager. They come out of Medïna and advancing about sixty miles, block the Quraish army of Abu Sufiyan, at a place called Badr. Abu Jahl along with a thousand well-equipped soldiers awaits Abu Sufiyan, at Badr. On the other hand, Abu Sufiyan avoiding the advancing Muslim troops reached Mecca, without ever joining Abu Jahl. Abu Jahl deciding that he can defeat the handful of Muslims, easily, engages them in battle against the advice of the other leaders with him.
94

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Ramadhan 18, the second Hegira, is a memorable day for the Muslims. On this day, they met the infidel Quraish in an armed battle for the first time. Muhammad (PBUH), the great Messenger of God, with only 313 Muhajirs and Ansars engaged in a battle, renowned in history as the ‗Battle of Badr‘. He and his companions fought for the cause of the truth, against a formidable army consisting of their relatives and friends. Muslims fought against their Brothers, Fathers, Nephews, Uncles and other relatives who were the targets of their swords. It was an extremely demanding task but the Muslims succeeded with courage and determination. Only for the true believers, such a daunting task is possible. For God, no sacrifice was impossible for them. They only kept those relations that God asked them to and severed all others, howsoever dearest. When his own tribe, the infidel Quraish advanced to wipe him out, he had no other option than to resist them. Muslims encountered the toughest test of their Faith. They were not only outnumbered by a great margin but were also poorly armed and armored. Many of them did not have arms and mounts. Against an army three times larger and thrice well armed, their only inspiration was fighting against the falsehood. Depending only and only on God to establish the truth and monotheism, they affronted the enemy, bravely. According to the custom of Arabia, Hazrats Hamza (RA), Ali (RA) and Obaidah accepted challenges to single combats and defeated three nonbelievers. Abu Jahl then ordered his forces to attack the Muslims in a body. Both the forces fought fiercely. The great Prophet (PBUH) detailed troops in such a way that the enemy could not penetrate formation. In this war, close relatives fought against each other, as never before. However, the Muslims were numerically outnumbered overwhelmingly; they were totally committed to their cause of upholding the truth. Emboldened by the passion of their faith, they had no fear of death. They fought to attain martyrdom and in the end, the Truth won. With a much larger and better-armored army, the heathen Quraish suffered a crushing defeat. Seventy infidels, including their Commanders Abu Jahl and Othba died. Abbas, the uncle and Abul Äs, the son-in-law of the Prophet (PBUH) and Ali‘s (RA) brother Aquil along with seventy enemy soldiers were taken prisoners. Rest of the Quraish troops fled to Mecca. Muslims suffered fourteen dead, including Abu Obaidah, a relative of the Apostle (PBUH).
95

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Burying the dead, the Prophet (PBUH) returned to Medïna and held thanksgiving prayers. Determination, commitment, perseverance and above all, unflinching faith in God decided the out come, not the numerical strength of the opposing troops. The lessons of ‗Badr‘ are unique in the history of the world. On the instruction of the Prophet (PBUH), the prisoners were treated with such kindness that they never expected. Prisoners bought their freedom with ransom, which was not very harsh. Some even bought their freedom by promising to bear the expenses of education for ten Muslims. Returning from Badr, Muhammad (PBUH) concentrated on the administration of the new state, as the Head of State. On the one hand, he was busy building the nation, and on the other was constantly perturbed by the conspiracy of the defeated forces. They made forays into the suburbs of Medïna and fled when confronted. Abu Sufiyan contacted the Jewish and connived with them against the Muslims. In spite of the friendly treaty, the Jewish embarrassed Muhammad (PBUH) by their collusion with the enemy. Muhammad (PBUH) was forced to fight the Jewish and at last defeated they fled from Medïna.
HAZRAT FATIMA’S (RA) MARRIAGE AND INTRODUCTION OF FASTING:

The youngest daughter of the Prophet (PBUH), Fatima Zohra (RA) was married to Ali (RA) in a very simple ceremony in the month of Zul-Qadh of the second Hegira. The same year Siam (fasting) for a month in Ramadhan was introduced. Siam does not simply mean fasting; it also has a connotation of self-sacrifice and self-restraint. This is one of the five pillars of Islam. Regulations, regarding Fitra (Charity) on Eidul-Fitr, at the end of Ramadhan and Qur‘bani (Oblation) on Eidul-Azha, on the tenth of Zul-Hajj were issued at the same time.
THE THIRD HEGIRA: BATTLE OF OHUD:

The nation so revengeful that one single murder causes sanguinary wars for years, which does not know compassion, kindness and benevolence cannot forget a humiliating defeat, like Badr. Lacking tolerance and self-control whose only motto in life is killing and destroying the enemy- a nation cannot but contemplate revenge. Therefore, the defeated Quraish, returning to Mecca, began preparation afresh for another war to avenge defeat. News
96

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

of the crushing defeat at Badr caused Abu Lahab great pains and consequently, he fell ill and died within a week. At the death of all the famous warriors, Abu Sufiyan assumed the leadership of the Meccans. His wife Hinda and Ikrama, the son of Abu Jahl, joined the band. Ikrama joined to avenge the death of his father. Abu Sufiyan in the third Hegira went to Medïna with a troop of three thousand strong, well-armed soldiers. At the head of the 200-mounted legion was Khalid, the great warrior. With the strong armored corps comprising 700 soldiers, they brought huge reserve of armors and provisions. Aristocratic ladies like, Hinda, Abu Sufiyan‘s wife, Abu Jahl‘s daughter, Ikrama‘s wife and Khalid‘s sister, accompanied the expedition to spur the troops with stimulating war tunes. Abu Sufiyan, along with his forces, reached the Ohud Plains near Medïna. Informed about the enemy‘s movement, in advance, Muhammad (PBUH) with one thousand soldiers marched past the Ohud hills to face the enemy. He advanced to confront the Quraish forces, after Juma prayers on the fourteenth of Shawwal, the third year of Hegira, at the head of his army. On the way, Abdullah bin Obey, the Munafique (Hypocrite) leader, deserted him with three hundred men under his command, on the pretexts that the proceedings were not to his liking. At Ohud, female volunteers were recruited, for the first time, to participate in a war. They treated the wounded, fetched water for the thirsty, gathered arrows from the field and handed those over to the Muslim warriors (Bukhari). At last with seven hundred soldiers including two mounted and seventy armored men, the Prophet (PBUH), fought the infidels at the plains of Ohud. Keeping the Ohud hills behind, the Apostle (PBUH) placed his men to form a cordon. The Quraish forces fought a fierce battle with the Muslims. Just at the beginning, Talha, the flag bearer of the Quraish was killed, infuriated, they attacked the Muslims. The enemy forces were completely disarrayed, unable to withstand fierce counter attack by the Muslims, and began fleeing from the field. At this stage, some Muslim warriors anticipating the enemy‘s defeat ran to plunder, leaving their posts. Before the battle commenced, Muhammad (PBUH) carefully prepared his strategy, and deployed his troops. He placed archers, particularly, on top of the hills to guard the rear with strict instructions for them not to leave their positions under any condition. Disobeying the injunction of the Prophet (PBUH),
97

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

archers went after booties, bypassing the archer-leader, Abdullah bin Zubair. One Commander of the Quraish in many, Khalid bin Walid, realizing that the rear was unguarded, attacked the Muslim forces from the behind. The Muslims were trapped into an immensely disadvantageous situation. Thus, an imminent victory was turned into the humiliation of a failure. Muhammad (PBUH), noticing the reversal, called upon his troops to regroup, but by then they were already disoriented. The heathen Quraish attacked the Prophet (PBUH) with renewed vigor. His Companions surrounded him and took the arrows and the blows on their own persons, protecting the Prophet (PBUH) with all their might. Among them was Hazrat Umme-Ammar (RA), a lady. Temptation caused neglect of duty and that led to the misfortune. Many brave warriors were martyred; among them was the uncle of the Prophet (PBUH), Hamza (RA) the bravest of the brave. Muhammad (PBUH) was injured too, and lost four teeth. Despite his injury, depending on God, he kept his position and led his Companions in repulsing the attack of the enemy. He truly acted like a General, in dire adversity. Repeatedly, the Quraish tried to kill the Prophet (PBUH); but he raised his hand and prayed for them, ―Oh God! They are ignorant; they are misguided, forgive them.‖ Defiance of the order of the Commander brought failure of the army, but God saved the honor of His Beloved Prophet (PBUH). For no Muslims were forced to surrender, no looting occurred or no women were molested, since the troop realized their mistake, and fought gallantly to save their honor; though, they did not win, they could hold back, and save themselves from a humiliating defeat. The Quraish unable to force a decisive defeat lost the courage to attack Medïna. They left without further consolidating their advantage, against a spirited Defense; but before leaving the Ohud plains, they savagely dismembered the bodies of the martyrs, to quench their thirst of vengeance. Abu Sufiyan‘s wife Hinda, tore out the heart of Hazrat Hamza (RA) and others, and made earrings and bracelets with the ears and noses of the dead. Before leaving for Mecca, Abu Sufiyan threatened to return the next year, with his forces. Muhammad‘s (PBUH) army suffered a loss of seventy dead men, while the Quraish infidels incurred a loss of twenty-two or twenty-three dead men. Prominent Muslim ladies like, Hazrats Ayesha (RA), Umme-Salma (RA), Umme-Ammar (RA) and Umme-Aymon (RA), etc. participated in the war
98

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

for the first time. They not only nursed the wounded but also even took up arms. This was a farsighted move by the Prophet (PBUH) of Islam. Disobedience under temptation was the reason for the debacle suffered by the Muslims. That greed engenders disaster has been amply epitomized, at Ohud. Tombs of the Shaheeds (Martyrs) at the foot of the Ohud hills, are a tribute to the brave warriors, who laid their lives for the Truth. The cemetery, where the seventy Shaheeds including Hazrat Hamza (RA) are buried, is a holy place of the Muslims. After the Quraish left the plains of Ohud, the Prophet (PBUH) burying the slain, returned to Medïna, before dusk. Medïna was in mourning; the air was thick with wailing for the slain. Muhammad (PBUH), after Asar Prayers, went around and consoled the bereaved families. Entreated them to endure their pain, in the name of God, and took precautionary measures to protect Medïna from further attacks. In the third Hegira, Hazrat Imam Hassan (RA), the first child of Fatima (RA) was born. The same year, Hazrat Othman (RA) married Hazrat Kulthum (RA), the daughter of the Prophet (PBUH). Hazrat Omar‘s (RA) daughter Hazrat Hafsa (RA) lost her husband in the war. The Prophet (PBUH) took her as his wife. Under the same condition, Joynab bint Khujayma (RA) was also married to Muhammad (PBUH). Within three months of this marriage, Joynab (RA) died. At this time, injunction regarding the heirs of the dead was issued, and marriage with idolaters, without conversion, was prohibited.
THE FOURTH HEGIRA: BETRAYAL BY THE IDOLATERS AT RAJEE AND BEER-E-MOWNA:

After the Battle of Ohud, in the fourth year of Hegira, Abu Sufiyan advanced to attack Medïna, but went back to Mecca, after marching eight miles toward Medïna. Receiving prior information through his informers, Muhammad (PBUH) advanced to Badr Plains and waited for the enemy. After eight days, he returned with his army to Medïna. This is known as the second Badr Expedition. The Apostle (PBUH) sent a few of his followers to preach Islam in the nonMuslim villagers as requested by some Munafiques. Unfortunately, the treacherous infidels killed these emissaries sent by the Prophet (PBUH) at a place called, Rajee and Beer-e-Mowna.

99

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE REASON OF THE JEWISH HOSTILITY:

On the arrival of Muhammad (PBUH) in Medïna, all the tribal leaders agreed and signed a Pact. A clause of the pact was to confront any external enemy together, not providing any help to the enemy and not cooperating with the aliens, against their country. In spite of this accord, the Jewish repeatedly conspired and intrigued against the state and Islam, in collusion with the enemy. Their only intent was to kill the Prophet (PBUH) and to destroy Islam by misleading his followers from the path of God. Primarily, the Jewish were antagonistic to Islam and its Prophet (PBUH). While Muhammad (PBUH) recognized all the prophets before him, and praised and honored them, the Yiddish insulted Jesus Christ (AS) by branding him illegitimate and cursed. Contrary to that, Muhammad (PBUH) acknowledged Jesus (AS) and his mother Mary, and praised and proclaimed their nobility and sanctity. Adultery and booze were common among Jewish elite class. Their paid priest and religious leaders had no courage to protest. Usury was common among them, and they mainly did business with the poor farmers of Medïna. Inability to repay loans would result in, not only the appropriation of the borrowers‘ property, but even their women to satiate the lascivious nature of the Jewish. In this manner, the Jewish had been economically enslaving the Medinease Idolaters and Christians. Against the personal stakes of the Jewish people, Muhammad (PBUH) declared both borrowing and lending with interest, illegal. Usury was condemned as a sin. He did not stop only at protesting against adultery, oppression and all illegal activities, but took stern measures to eliminate them. Severe punishments were prescribed for all breaches; adultery was made punishable by death. Measures were taken to lend interest free loans to the poor from the Baitul Mal (Treasury). All these social and monetary reforms went against the rich and powerful Jewish aristocracy. Freed from the shackles of rapidly multiplying loans and threat of confiscation of properties, the Medinease started to prosper. Due to Muhammad‘s (PBUH) Social, Political and Administrative reforms, Medinease shunning conflicts and disputes lived in peace and harmony. That caused jealousy and heartaches among the clever and influential Jewish merchants. Usury, adultery, intrigue, treachery, tyrannies, etc., were inherent traits of the Jewish. They realized that Muhammad (PBUH) with his reforms was a threat to their hegemony, through intrigue, conspiracy, treachery,
100

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

suppression and oppression. With him around, they could never divide and rule. Therefore, they conspired to unsettle Muhammad‘s (PBUH) efforts at reforms. However, openly they agreed to cooperate with the Prophet (PBUH), in all his righteous efforts, but secretly they connived to assassinate him. In these circumstances, the Quraish sought help from the Jewish to destroy the Muslims; the Jewish did not hesitate to seize the opportunity and gladly consented. Consequently, the infidel Quraish and the monotheist Jewish of Medïna and the adjacent areas collaborated to blight the Muslims, openly or stealthily advancing on them. With them joined a few Medinease Idolaters and some Bedouin Christians; simultaneously, the rich Nazr Jewish tribe rose in revolt at their behest, to hasten the end of the nascent Muslim Commonwealth. They also plotted to kill the Prophet (PBUH), luring him to their territory. Getting intelligence in advance, through his agents, the Prophet (PBUH) always took precautionary measures and survived. In this year God‘s divine message descended, prohibiting alcohol and Muhammad (PBUH) married helpless widow Umme-Salimah (RA).
THE FIFTH HEGIRA: DEFIANCE OF CHARTER AND REBELLION BY THE JEWISH:

When the Jewish Bani-Nazr tribe openly denounced the charter and rebelled, the Prophet was constrained to act against them. The Muslim army laid siege to the fortress of the Bani-Nazr. When neither the Meccan Quraish, nor any other Medinease tribes came to their rescue, they begged permission to leave Medïna, abandoning hostility. Softhearted Muhammad (PBUH) could not contemplate revenge and so, he granted their prayers. He even did not demand reparation from the vanquished. The Yiddish voluntarily left Medïna, with all their movable properties, cattle and even doors and windows of their houses, excluding weapons. Repeatedly, the Jewish people broke promises, breached agreements and hatched schemes, to exterminate the Prophet (PBUH) and destroy his adherents but the Prophet (PBUH) repeatedly had shown them clemency. Idolaters killed Muslims, mercilessly, and the Jewish collaborated. Taking the opportunity of the Prophet‘s (PBUH) magnanimity, the leader of the Bani-Mustâlik, Haris bin Abu Zirâr took preparation to attack Medïna. Knowing that, the Prophet (PBUH) along with his adherents, advanced to confront him, on the second of Shaban, the fifth Hegira, overwhelmed with fear, Haris fled, but
101

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

the Mustâliks attacked the Muslims with arrows. Defeating them, the Muslims took two hundred prisoners of war; among them was Harith‘s daughter, Juwaiera (RA) whose husband died in the battle. She was given to Sabeth ibn Quiyas, as a share in war booties, but she demanded freedom by ransom. Unable to pay the ransom, she sought help from the Prophet (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) arranged for her ransom and got her freed. Impressed by this act of kindness, she expressed her desire to stay with him. Muhammad (PBUH) complied by granting her, her wish; he accepted her as his wife. United in marital relation with the Bani-Mustâliks, the Muslims freed all the prisoners and returned all their properties. Thus, the BaniMustâliks turned into an ally through marriage. Joynab bint Jahash (RA) was divorced and Muhammad (PBUH), instructed by God took her as his wife, in the same year.
THE LAST BID OF ABU SUFIYAN: THE BATTLE OF KHANDAQ (DITCH):

Unsuccessful at Badr and Ohud, Abu Sufiyan organized a rebellion, in Arabia, against the Muslims. After Badr and Ohud, the Apostle (PBUH) brought the perpetually conniving Jewish, in and around Medïna, under control. Defeated, they surrendered and entreated for forgiveness; the Prophet (PBUH) granted them clemency. In the name of God, Huyai bin Akhtab, Sallam bin Abu‘l Hukaik, Kinana bin Rabi, etc., the leaders of the Bani-Nazr tribe, pledged in writing not to collaborate with adversaries of Islam. Nevertheless, as wretched and lowly as they were, they betrayed and again joined the enemy forces to hatch secret plans. As their hearts filled with fear at the bravery, tenacity, perseverance, spirit of sacrifice of the Muslim soldiers with high morale, they became restless. They thought that if the Muslims were not destroyed then, given their peculiar unity and discipline would soon be an irresistible force. If their advancement continued unchecked, in the future it would be hard, save destroying, even to confront this formidable force. Therefore, the exiled Banu-Nazr leader, Huyai bin Akhtab went to Mecca to discuss with the Quraish. Kinana ibn Rabi went to Bani-Ghatafân tribe and incited them against the Muslims. In this way, they provoked the other Yiddish tribes, including the Bani-Kuraizha, who pledged peace with the Muslims, and others like them were instigated to attack the Muslims. Confronted with open mutiny of the Bani-Kuraizha tribe, the Prophet
102

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH) sent Sa‘ad bin Mu‘âz and Sa‘ad bin Ubâda to them. They were sent to remind them their pledge and request them to shun conflict and abide by their vow. However, Ka‘ab bin Asad and Huyai bin Akhtab haughtily refused to listen to them. This encouraged and an elated Abu Sufiyan organized the opposing forces to raise a well-armed army of ten thousand soldiers. At the head of this strong army, he advanced toward Medïna to defeat Muhammad (PBUH) and his religion decisively. Muhammad (PBUH) through his secret agents was constantly monitoring enemy movements. He sat with his Companions to decide the strategy to affront the enemy. Decision was taken to fight the opposing army from within the city of Medïna. As recommended by Hazrat Salman Farsi (RA), it was resolved to dig a trench encircling the city. In the north of Medïna was an open field; therefore, the digging began from that side. The side, protected by trees, orchards and enclosures or walls, was reinforced by check-posts. Medïna‘s boundary inhabited by the Jewish and the nonMuslims were put under surveillance, and the walls were joined and reinforced. Enough food, water and provisions were stocked. Women and the children were moved to a comparatively safer fortress. In length, the northern trench was more than three and half miles long. Taking advantage of the natural landscape, the trench was dug only in open spaces. Naturally, elevated and depressed contour of the valley was deftly used to construct the barrier. Consequently, the natural barricades made up a large section of the trench. Alwal hills were situated at the Western side of Medïna, which well protected that border. A trench ten feet deep by ten feet wide was dug so that mounted-troops could not jump across into the city. Three thousand men working day and night for three weeks completed the moat. With soil obtained by digging, the inner side of the trench was raised and boulders were placed there, to use against the opponent. The Apostle (PBUH) worked along with his men. On the Shila hills, Muhammad (PBUH) set his headquarters, and tents were put between Shila and Khabab mounts, in a protected zone. A mosque has been built there, in memory of this event. Three thousand men were divided into different groups and were given specific duties to protect the city. Archers took position on top of the hills; while some soldiers were on patrol duties, the rest stayed at the base waiting for orders from the Commander103

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

in-Chief, the Prophet (PBUH). Salma bin Aslam and Zaid bin Haris were given the charge of maintaining law and order of the city. Abu Sufiyan, on the other hand, with a large strong of ten thousand men pompously marched toward Medïna. Flaunting countless horses, camels, men and provisions, the Quraish camped near Medïna. The Medinease never before saw such a large force. Abu Sufiyan was happy to see that the Muslims did not come out, of the city, to confront him. He thought, he could destroy Medïna in a day. The unforeseen trench sent his mind twirling as he was forced to camp just outside Medïna. Pertinent to Arabian convention, first they engaged in debating contests, then followed the single combat and then brick batting and dart throwing continued from both the sides of the trench. By crossing the trench, the pagan forces tried to invade Medïna but failed. Amr bin Abdud Zirâr, Zobira and Nawfal crossed the trench with their mounts but were subdued by Ali (RA). Repeatedly, throughout the day, Abu Sufiyan‘s men tried hard to negotiate the trench but without success. Meanwhile, the Jewish Bani-Kuraizha sent a spy to gather information to plan an onslaught on the fortress occupied by Muslim women and children. Muhammad‘s (PBUH) Aunt Hazrat Safiya (RA) killed the spy with a boulder and threw the dead body outside the fortress. That acted as a deterrent for the Jewish who lost the courage to attack. In this battle, female volunteers were employed, as well. A lady called Rafida (RA) was engaged to nurse the wounded soldiers in the battlefield. A month went by without any outcome. Days after days went by, but the Quraish could not attain their dream of conquering and exterminating the Muslims, once for all. Their provisions began to dwindle and the Jewish collaborators could not come to their help. It was a terribly cold winter and suddenly the nature turned cruel. Dark clouds covered the wintry sky, rain and blizzard played havoc in the pagan camp. Totally dislodged by the natural calamity, losing all their horses, camels and provisions, the Quraish was compelled to retreat to Mecca. God‘s curse fell on the heathen enemy and they were bewildered by the ferocity of the blizzard. Abu Sufiyan withdrawing to Mecca saved himself. Bani-Ghatafân and the other tribes followed him. Jewish people in and around Medïna took refuge in their citadels. Arab idolaters were destroyed and were silenced for good. The Medinease Jewish were put on trial for treason and were found guilty. According to the Torah, men found guilty of treason were condemned to
104

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

death and the women and children were reduced to slavery. All their properties were distributed among the Muslim soldiers.
THE SIXTH HEGIRA: HUDAIBIYA PACT:

The infidel Quraish and the treacherous Jewish were permanently silenced by the defeat in the Battle of Khandaq. Meanwhile, six years had passed. The Meccan Muhajirs who sacrificed all their worldly possessions and migrated from their birthplace, petitioned the Prophet (PBUH) to visit Mecca. Though they were very comfortable and had no complaints in Medïna, they were eager to visit Mecca, the dearest place of their birth. Mecca had the added attraction of the Ka‘aba, the house of the Lord. When Islam was only nineteen years old, the Prophet (PBUH) decided to perform Hajj (Pilgrimage) and instructed fifteen hundred companions to accompany him. The Prophet (PBUH) and members of his entourage dressed in Ihram (Cloth for Pilgrimage). Save a sword, the men were prohibited to carry any other weapon. Muhammad (PBUH) advised his followers that the purpose was nonpolitical, nonmilitary and purely religious. The great Prophet (PBUH) took seventy camels to sacrifice and went to Mecca. Nearing Mecca, Muhammad (PBUH) camped at Hudaibiya and sent his emissaries to appraise the reaction of the Quraish. Through them, he came to know that the Quraish infidels are readying for war, to prevent him from entering the Ka‘aba. Representatives of both the parties met to discuss the tense situation to avoid a bloody conflict. The heathen Meccan Quraish, initially, refused to listen to the Muslims. The Prophet (PBUH) through his envoys told the Quraish that he had no intention other than to perform Hajj. At last, he sent Hazrat Othman (RA) and expressed his willingness to conclude a peace pact with the Quraish. He told them, if they could come to an understanding, it would be beneficial for all the parties. Abu Sufiyan, the Quraish leader and other leading Quraish infidels, after their repeated failures to vanquish the Muslims, could realize that it was a difficult proposition to conquer them. Therefore, they agreed to a Peace Pact subject with the following conditions:
77.

T H AT

THE

M USLI MS HAJJ.

WOULD

RET URN

TO

MEDÏNA

T HI S

YEAR

WI THO UT

PERFORMING

105

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
78.

T H AT
YEAR

T HEY WO ULD BE A LLOWE D TO VISIT AND TO S TAY T HE RE FOR T HREE

MECCA

TO PE RFORM THOSE

HAJJ
D AY S ,

NEXT THE

D AY S ,

DURING

MECCANS
79.

WO ULD MO VE TO T HE HI LLS A RO UND

MECCA. ‗ S C I M I TA R S

T H AT

T HE

MUSLIMS

WO UL D NOT C A R RY AN Y A RM S E XC E PT T HE I R

I N S H E AT H S . ‘ 80.

T H AT

ANYONE COMING TO

MEDÏNA

FROM

MECCA,

WIT HO UT T HE PE RMI SSI ON

F R O M T HE C HI E F TA I N S , S H O U L D B E R E T U R N E D T O T HE I N F I D E L ANY 81.

MECCANS;

BUT

MUSLIM
NO

CROSSING OVER TO WOULD

MECCA

WOULD NOT BE RE T URNED. RE S I D E N T- M U S LI M IN

T H AT

MEDINEASE

TA K E

ANY

MECCA MECCA.

TO

MEDÏNA
82.

AND WOULD NOT PREVENT ANY

M USLI M

F R O M S TAY I N G I N

T H AT

ANY INDEPENDENT

ARAB

TRIBE WILLING TO ENTER AN OR

ALLIANCE,

WITH

E I T H E R O F T H E P A RT I E S , SO. 83.

QURAISH

MUSLIM

W O U L D B E AT L I B E RT Y T O D O

T H AT

T HE RE WO ULD BE T RUCE FO R TEN YEA RS BETWEEN T HE

MUSLIMS

AND

T H E H E AT H E N

MECCAN QURAISH,

D URIN G WHIC H ALL HO STI LITIES WO ULD BE

K E P T I N A B E YA N C E .

Discontent in the Companions of Muhammad (PBUH) was widespread, about the seemingly derogatory elements of the Pact. Only Abu Bakr (RA) kept silent. The Prophet (PBUH) of the Worlds took it as Allah‘s Wish and struck to his decision. This pact is famous as the Hudaibiya Pact. Allah in the Qur‘än, described it as the Great Victory (Fathum Mubin). Due to this Peace Pact, the atrocity, hatred, jealousy and malevolence of Quraish was defeated by the Love, Kindness and Magnanimity of the Prophet (PBUH).

Benefits of Hudaibiya:

The manifestly disparaging Peace Treaty was a blessing in disguise for the propagation of Islam. Due to this treaty, the respite offered was deftly used by the Muslims to advance their cause. At last, the heathens realized that the Prophet (PBUH) had no other motive but peace for concluding such an apparently derogatory pact. That mellowed their fierce opposition to the Messenger of God. This change in attitude was well used by the Muslims; they preached Islam among the pagans successfully, and quickly gained ground. With great success, they continued trade and commerce with the other nations and thus ensured economic stability of the new nation. Unhindered they made great strides in their missionary and commercial
106

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

endeavors. Medïna again was in the center of peaceful activities. The rupture between Mecca and Medïna healed; they began to live together, which replaced hatred with love, affection and understanding of each other. Meccans began to accept Islam spontaneously, impressed by the glorious nobility of the religion of God.
CONVERSION OF KHALID BIN WALID AND AMR BIN ÄS:

It was a miracle that the great warriors Khalid bin Walid and Amr bin Äs voluntarily accepted Islam, at the hands of Muhammad (PBUH). For chivalry and courage, they became renowned in the annals of Islam and Khalid was bestowed with the title of the ‗Sword of Allah.‘ They went on to conquer Syria (Rome) and Egypt, which made them famous all over the world.
DEPUTATION TO OTHER COUNTRIES:

Right from the beginning of the human race on the earth, prophets, sages and great reformers, came with missions to improve the temporal and enrich the spiritual lives of their respective peoples, tribes or nations. To Hindu religious leaders, sages and reformers, India was the world; their vision did not reach beyond that. Activities of the Hindus and the Zoroastrians were confined to India and Persia, respectively. Similarly, the activities of the Ahle Kitabs (nations bestowed with divine books) were limited to their own people. Before Muhammad (PBUH), prophets belonging to one race did not preach to others. Jesus Christ said, ―I have descended only for the misguided Israelis.‖ None of the divine books declared any of the prophets as a universal messenger, except Muhammad (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) was declared as the Prophet of whole humanity and called the ‗Mercy of the Universe‘ (Rahmatullil Al-Amin). Therefore, his mission cannot be restricted to only Arabia. He came for the whole world, for all the time to come, to bring the human race to the ‗True and Righteous Path‘. To the eternal path of the Almighty God, he called the people of the earth, irrespective of their caste, creed, age and sex. Peace was his mission. To establish peace and harmony by exterminating all the causes of rivalry, disparity and divisions was his duty. Therefore, when he was given the ministry, he put all his might into his divine duty. After the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiya, the threat from the enemies of Islam was effectively extinguished. Freed from the nagging opposition of the
107

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Quraish and the Jewish, the Prophet (PBUH) now concentrated on the duties of the state. Administrative reforms, land distribution and social reforms, etc. were at the top of his agenda. He was extremely busy, yet he had to send ambassadors to different nations, seeking their friendship and cooperation. To propagate God‘s Message to everybody, to every nation, he had to educate the world about Tawhid (the Unity of Godhead). Therefore, he wrote letters to Emperors, Kings and Head of States, explaining the concept of Islam and finally inviting them to the true Faith. He wrote to the Roman emperor Heracleus. He dictated all the letters and at the end, he stamped them with his personal seal. ‗Allah‘ ( ‫)ﷲﺍ‬, ‗Rasul‘ (‫ )ﻝﻮﺳر‬and ‗Muhammad‘ were engraved on the seal, meaning, Muhammad (PBUH), the Messenger of God. In the letter to Hercules, he wrote: “Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim(Begin in the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful). From: Muhammad, the Servant of God and His Messenger To: The Roman Emperor, Heracleus: Peace (Salam) is on those that are searching for the ‗Truth‘. Then I am inviting you to Islam. Accept Islam, and you shall profit. If you shall accept Islam, Allah Shall amply Reward you. However, if you refuse, you shall be held responsible for the sins of your subjects.‖ Similarly, he wrote to the Persian King Khusru Perviz, Abyssinian Emperor Najjasi (Negus), Egypt‘s Mukawookis, Bahrain‘s Munzir, Oman‘s Abdoo Ja‘afar, Yemen‘s Hawza and Damascus‘s Ghassani. Besides that Muhammad (PBUH) sent deputation around Arabia, to all the Chieftains, Leaders and Kings inviting them and their subjects and people to adopt Islam. Many Arab traders had trading relations with the countries and regions where Muhammad (PBUH) sent his deputation with the invitation to adopt Islam. Emperor Heracleus received Muhammad‘s (PBUH) message while he was on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Abu Sufiyan was also present there. Heracleus asked him about Muhammad‘s (PBUH) disposition, character and mission. Heracleus was satisfied that Muhammad (PBUH) was the Messenger of God with a divine mission. With a respectful reply, he had sent befitting gifts for the Prophet (PBUH) of God. All but the Kings of Persia and Damascus, received Muhammad‘s envoy with due respect and returned them with gifts in the honor of the Prophet (PBUH).
108

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Egypt‘s King sent two (in some historian‘s opinion three) aristocrat maidens (otherwise princesses), one horse and dresses as gifts. Of the two maidens, one was Maria (RA) whom the Prophet (PBUH) accepted as a wife. She bore him a son, Ibrahim (RA). The horse was called Dul-Dul. Muhammad (PBUH) once rode to a battle on Dul-Dul. The King of Abyssinia was on good terms with the Muslims from before; he sheltered the followers of Islam earlier and treated them with kindness. He received and treated Muhammad‘s (PBUH) envoys very courteously, and adopted Islam. Slowly but steadily, in this way, Muhammad (PBUH) spread Islam in Asia, Africa and even in Europe. The Message of Islam had revolutionized the intellect of the human race. Emperors, Kings and renowned personalities sought protection of Islam and adopted Islam. Inconspicuously from Medïna, the Apostle (PBUH) of God silently conquered the hearts of the people through the propagation of Allah‘s Message. A silent revolution was set in motion, which continues until today.
MARRIAGE WITH UMME-HABIBA (RA):

Umme-Habiba (RA) migrated to Abyssinia with her Husband, and became destitute on her husband‘s death. Knowing of her plight, the Prophet (PBUH) took her under his protection as a wife.
THE SEVENTH HEGIRA: THE BATTLE OF KHAIBAR:

The Jewish expelled from Medïna for their treacherous collaboration with the pagan Quraish, violating their pledge, took up residence in well-fortified fortresses at Khaibar. Settled there at approximately one hundred miles away from Medïna, the Jewish in their characteristic way began to intrigue against the Muslims. From Khaibar, they were planning an invasion of the commonwealth of Medïna; for which they were working on a coalition of the enemy forces. News of this conspiratorial move, prompted the Prophet (PBUH) to take action against the Jewish. He quickly raised an army and swiftly marched to Khaibar. Reaching Khaibar the Prophet (PBUH) offered conditions for truce to the enemy but the treacherous Jewish arrogantly declined. So began the battle of Khaibar. On the first day, Muhammad (PBUH) gave command of his troops to Abu Bakr (RA). As he could not succeed in forcing a defeat, the next day Omar
109

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(RA) assumed the mantle of the commander. Omar also was unsuccessful and thus Ali (RA) was called upon to command the Muslim forces on the third day. Ali (RA) lived up to his reputation and finally conquered the strongly fortified fortresses at Khaibar. Defeated the Jewish prayed for truce, the Prophet (PBUH) for the sake of Peace, agreed. Chieftain Kinana of the Jewish was killed and his widow was taken prisoner among others. Fascinated by the magnanimity and kindness of the Apostle of God, Kinana‘s widow expressed her desire to become his spouse. Muhammad (PBUH) granted her, her wish and accepted her as his bride. She is Safiya (RA), the Jewish princess and a descendant of Moses and Haroon. Ummul Muminin (Mother of the Faithful) Hazrat Safiya (RA), thus, earned the coveted distinction of being a daughter and a wife of a prophet.
A JEWISH WOMAN POISONS THE PROPHET (PBUH):

In spite of the crushing defeat, the Jewish did not give up their quest of killing the Messenger of God. A Jewish woman named Joynab invited the Prophet (PBUH) and his Companions to eat at her home and served poisoned food. Muhammad (PBUH) tasting the first helping knew that the food was poisoned. Unfortunately, before he could warn, a Companion had already eaten and as a result died instantly. At the trial, the Jewish woman admitted that, she poisoned the food out of hatred for the Muslims and was condemned to death.
PILGRIMAGE (HAJJ):

Returning to Medïna from the Khaibar campaign, the Harbinger of God begins preparation for pilgrimage to Mecca. A year has passed, the Zul-Hajj moon has been sighted and according to Hudaibiya Pact this year, the Muslims shall be allowed in Mecca. Accordingly, the Prophet (PBUH) starts for Mecca with two thousand Companions to perform Hajj. He took sixty camels to sacrifice. Complying with the treaty, the Muslims carried no weapons but only sheathed swords. The Prophet (PBUH) led the two thousand followers to Mecca and at the sight of the Ka‘aba recited ‗Labbaik‘ (O God! We have come), ‗Labbaik‘, all the members of his entourage excitedly repeated, ‗Labbaik‘, ‗Labbaik‘, after him. After long seven years, Muhammad (PBUH) returns to his place of birth. Everything is there, the Houses, the Ka‘aba, the Hira, everything; only missing are the days bygone. Missing are his mother, his grandfather Abdul
110

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muttalib, uncle Abu Talib and his dearest wife, companion and friend Khadija (RA). For some moments, the Prophet (PBUH) is overwhelmed with thoughts of the past, but quickly regains himself. Since the whole world was depending on him for guidance, he did not have time for self-indulgence. As Muslims approach Mecca, the Quraish Meccans evacuate the city, and take residence on the surrounding hills. From there, they observe the rituals of Hajj, intently. Muhammad (PBUH) enters Ka‘aba with all his followers. Hazrat Bellal gives the call (Azan) for public prayers from the rooftop. Muslims from Mecca join the pilgrims from Medïna in the midday (Zohr) prayers and together they pray. They make the circuits round the Ka‘aba and perform the rapid running between Safa and Marwa hills. At last, the ritual of Hajj concludes with sacrifice of camels and the three days end as stipulated in the Hudaibiya Treaty. During these three days, the Muhajir-Muslims stayed in the tents outside the city, and did not visit their vacated houses or their relatives but talked freely with them. At this time a distant relative of the Apostle (PBUH), Maimuna (RA) aged over fifty years, offered herself in marriage to Muhammad (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) granted her desire and took her as his last wife.
THE EIGHT HEGIRA: THE BATTLE OF MUTA:

On his return From Mecca to Medïna, Muhammad (PBUH) came to know that the Byzantine governor of Basra has murdered Haris bin Omayer, his favorite disciple. The murder of an envoy was a flagrant violation of international diplomatic norms and thus justice demands punishment. An expedition of three thousand men sent under the command of Zaid bin Haris, the first husband of Hazrat Joynab (RA), to exact reparation. Emperor Heracleus who earlier had always shown deference to the Prophet (PBUH) turned into an enemy due to adverse influences. Anyway, it is notable that despite the presence of the famous and the renowned leaders like, Khalid bin Walid (RA) and Ali‘s (RA) brother Ja‘afar (RA), Zaid bin Haris, the freed slave was put in charge. The Prophet (PBUH) thus, created a glorious precedence of equality in Islam. He gave instructions that if Zaid (RA) attained martyrdom, Ja‘afar (RA) would take over and on his martyrdom, Abdullah bin Rawwaha would assume the
111

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

mantle of the commander. In case, all the three embraced martyrdom, the soldiers would elect one of them as their General. Farther, he enjoined his army not to kill needlessly, not to kill women or children, not to burn, plunder, or fell trees; but only to fight the enemies of Allah. Be afraid of God, was his orders. Reaching the Syrian borders, Zaid (RA) found that the Roman Emperor himself has come with a strong army of hundred thousand, to obliterate the Muslims. In the name of Allah, inspired by their Faith in the Almighty, the Muslim warriors gallantly confronted the massive Byzantine army, at Muta. Thus, commenced an unprecedented event - three thousand warriors fight an incredible one hundred thousand strong detachment. Enormously outnumbered, Muslim soldiers fought relentlessly, the whole day with courage and chivalry. In the process three Generals, Zaid (RA), Ja‘afar (RA) and Abdullah bin Rawwaha, embraced martyrdom. At their martyrdom, the Muslims elected Khalid bin Walid the commander. Muhammad (PBUH) speedily sent reinforcement to the war front. Fierce fighting continued. Strengthened, the Muslim army fought valiantly to destroy the enemy. The Byzantine army under extreme pressure dispersed and fled from the field. Victorious the faithful returned to Medïna. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) conferred the title of ‗Saifullah‘ (the Saber o f Allah) on Khalid bin Walid.
THE CONQUEST OF MECCA:

Bani-Bakr and Bani-Khuza‘a two rival tribes perpetually at daggers‘ end with each other was protected by the Quraish and the Muslims, respectively. Contrary to the expectation of the Quraish, Hudaibiya Treaty proved propitious for the Muslims. Medinease taking the opportunity of the peace flourished commercially and in their mission of truth. Pagan Meccan impressed by the spiritual and mundane superiority of the Islamiccommonwealth began adopting Islam. The number of Muslims quickly multiplied. This caused heartburn of the Quraish. They provoked the BaniBakr to attack Bani-Khuza‘a, and supplied them with weapons, violating Hudaibiya Pact. Massacred by the Quraish and the Bani-Bakr, the BaniKhuza‘a sought redress from the Prophet (PBUH). Entreated thus, the Apostle (PBUH) reminding the Quraish of the Hudaibiya Truce sent his envoy with the following proposals:
112

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
84.

BANI-BAKR
OF

S H O U L D PA Y R E L AT I V E S A P P R O P R I AT E L Y F O R E A C H O F T H E D E A D

B A N I - K H U Z A‘ A .
CASE OF FA I L U R E T O PAY , T H E

85.

IN

Q URAISH

WOULD

SEVER A LL TIES WITH

BANI-BAKR.
86.

A LT E R N AT I V E LY ,

AN N UL T HE

T R E AT Y

OF

H U D A I B I YA .

The Quraish was waiting for this chance. They accepted the third proposal and declared the Hudaibiya Pact void. Clearly therefore, the Quraish took the blame of massacring the Bani-Khuza‘a, on them. Without any delay, the Prophet (PBUH) with a force of ten thousand men marched toward Mecca to teach the Quraish a lesson. Before the Quraish could suspect anything, on the tenth of Ramadhan, 8th Hegira (January 630 AD) camping at Maruz Zahra, the Prophet (PBUH) laid siege on Mecca. Maruz Zahra valley reverberated with thundering slogans of Allahu Akbar (God is Great) of the Muslims. Torches were lighted in the check-posts on hilltops and the hearths made the valley a beautiful sight to watch and induced terror in the hearts of the heathen Meccans.
CONVERSION OF ABU SUFIYAN:

Abu Sufiyan along with two accomplices was caught spying by a patrolling team, led by Omar (RA). When he was brought before the great Prophet (PBUH), Omar (RA) asked for death penalty for the Quraish Abu Sufiyan, the bitterest enemy of Islam. None of the allies of the Quraish came forth to help them, since they were subdued by the fear of the valiant Muslims. They were too engrossed in devising ways to protect themselves from the wrath of the great Muslim warriors. At the imprisonment of their prime leader, the pagan Meccan Quraish were stupefied and were terrified and worried about their security. However, a captive Abu Sufiyan refused to surrender completely to the Prophet (PBUH) and prayed for time. He wished to continue as before maintaining the status quo. Abbas (RA) pleaded for mercy for the Quraish chief. The Prophet (PBUH) granted him time but Abu Sufiyan had a change in feeling, he adopted Islam and was pardoned by Muhammad (PBUH). Hazrat Abbas (RA), the uncle of the Messenger of God, acted as an informer for him, in heart a Muslim for a long time, now openly declared his faith. He requested the Prophet (PBUH) to treat Abu Sufiyan gracefully as the leader of the Quraish. Muhammad (PBUH) did so, declaring that anybody taking shelter in the Ka‘aba or in their own homes or with Abu
113

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Sufiyan or provoke his name would not be touched. At this the panic-stricken Meccan heathens hastened to take refuge in safe places as proclaimed.
ENTERING MECCA AND DECLARATION OF GENERAL AMNESTY:

The next day at dawn the Prophet (PBUH) entered Mecca. He instructed his forces not to take recourse to arms. Leaders were ordered to approach Mecca from different sides. Accordingly, they entered the city loudly chanting Allahu-Akbar. The Prophet (PBUH) from a high ground supervised the proceedings. Some Munafiques and a few Quraish blinded by jealousy attacked Khalid (RA) and his men killing two Muslims. Muslim soldiers were forced to defend and in the skirmishes when some Quraish infidels were killed, they retreated. With Osama bin Zaid beside him on a camel, the Apostle of God silently marched through the city. This is the city from where he was forced into exile with his helpless disciples. They were not only forced to migrate but also subjected to inhuman torture, suppression and repression. However, today Muhammad (PBUH) was not contemplating reveng; neither was he planing to convert people by coercion. His heart was only filled with compassion, benevolence and love. At last, Truth had triumphed over falsehood; this is not his victory this is the victory of an ideal. This is a great victory; a victory that had began a new era. The Prophet of God, the Harbinger of truth overcomes and forgets all the inhuman treatment, barbarous persecution, calumny, vociferous tirades and violations. He felt indebted to the Almighty for His Kindness. With his entourage, he circumverated the Ka‘aba seven times. Ka‘aba reverberated with the slogan of Allahu-Akbar (Allah is Great). Then he performed the public prayers at Ka‘aba with all the Muslims. His heart was filled with compassion and pity, thinking of the mighty Meccans, trembling with fear and anticipation of revenge. Muhammad‘s magnanimity came to their rescue; addressing them, he announced a general amnesty. He told them, ―Today I have no complaints against you: all your past misdeeds are forgiven; you are set free and would enjoy freedom as you did before.‖ Meccan idolaters were flabbergasted; they could not believe their ears. Are they awake? Are they dreaming? They simply could not comprehend. In an unprecedented move, Muhammad let the enemy go free. He only asked
114

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

them to become one, rich and poor, by abandoning the pride of aristocracy. To shake off misconceptions of the Age of Ignorance he asked them to recognize that all people are born-equal. Addressing the city dwellers, he declared general amnesty and offered them sanctuary. Within the city-limits killing was prohibited. The Prophet (PBUH) again established the claim as the Harbinger of Peace. The world has never before seen such an act of magnanimity; it is unique in the history of humankind. No plunder, burning, revenge killing, torture or violation of women occurred; the victory was peaceful and serene. Muhammad (PBUH) repairing the Ka‘aba, retained all those who were entrusted with the management of Ka‘aba. Meccans were rejuvenated with love and they could perceive the dawn of a new era. In this way, Love conquered hatred. Truth triumphed over Falsehood; Benevolence won over Malevolence and Light dislodged Darkness. People en masse adopted Islam and the Quraish again regrouped, bonded by fellowship. The Ansars and the Muhajirs revoking old enmity became friends with the Quraish. Muhammad (PBUH) pardoned Hinda, wife of Abu Sufiyan and a Muslim hater like Ikrama bin Abu Jahl, Abdullah bin Jabra and Safwan bin Ommeyya, though she displayed extreme audacity during her first meeting with the Prophet (PBUH). Those not willing to adopt Islam were left alone. For Islam do not allow coercion and Muhammad (PBUH) in all matters, strictly followed the injunctions of the Holy Qur‘än. After passing fifteen days in Mecca, appointing Mu‘âz bin Jabal as the Muallim and Attar as the Governor of Mecca, the Prophet (PBUH) left for Medïna. Joynab, the eldest daughter of the Prophet (PBUH) died this year.
THE BATTLE OF HUNAIAN:

In the eighth Hegira, after the conquest of Mecca, all the tribes from around Mecca began accepting Islam. Nevertheless, the formidable Hawâzin and Thakif tribes continued to oppose Muhammad (PBUH). They were preparing for armed battle with the Muslims. Informed of their plan, the Prophet (PBUH) marched with twelve thousand soldiers to meet the enemy. The Muslims were inspired by their recent conquest of Mecca and was a bit proud of their might, as well. They were overconfident, and at the particular stage relied more on their strength than on Allah. Their greed betrayed them
115

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

at the Battle of Ohud; here, their pride made them complacent. Consequently, the Bedouins almost defeated the Muslim army, but for Muhammad (PBUH) whose clarion call rallied his forces back; they came to their senses and was rewarded with victory. Thus, God had taught them again not to deviate away from Him. The moment they realized their mistake and repented God helped them. In the Battle of Hunaian, the Muslims took hundreds of prisoners and huge quantities of booties. All these wealth were distributed among the war veterans. Knowing that among the prisoners were his foster-sister Shayma, the Prophet (PBUH) set her free and sent her back to her tribe with gifts. Later he also set the other Hawâzins free. These acts of kindness caused en masse conversion of the Hawâzins to Islam.
THE SIEGE OF TAYEF:

From Hunaian the Prophet (PBUH) marched to Tayef and besieged the city. Without stiff resistance, the Tayefians were not expected to surrender, given their obstinate nature. These ferocious, cruel Tayefians had already shown their savage character in persecuting the Prophet (PBUH) and his Companions. Though afraid to face the Muslim-warriors, the Tayefians resisted from within the city. In three weeks, numbers of soldiers were killed. This greatly pained the Prophet (PBUH) and to avoid further bloodshed, the Apostle (PBUH) returned to Medïna. Thus, a sanguinary encounter was avoided, but the Tayefians became hostile to their former allies, the Hawâzins, because of their acceptance of Islam. Thus weakened, later in their hearts, the Tayefians softened toward Islam and entered the religion of God in scores.
THE NINTH HEGIRA: THE EXPEDITION OF TABUK:

In the month of Rajab, the Ninth Hegira, Muhammad (PBUH) receives intelligence that the Roman Emperor with his mighty army is coming to destroy the commonwealth. Muhammad (PBUH) appealed to his nation to contribute to the war fund and hastened to raise an army and to obtain armor and provisions. At his call, the citizens unhesitatingly subscribed to the War Fund. According to the chroniclers, Abu Bakr (RA) deposited all his wealth, Omar (RA) contributed half of his properties and Othman (RA) gave three hundred camels to the War Fund. Before proceeding to war,
116

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muhammad (PBUH) appointed Ali (RA) his Caliph at Medïna. At this, the Munafiques misconstrued the purpose to hurt Ali (RA) and by their propaganda, Ali (RA) was deeply perturbed. Muhammad (PBUH) consoled and said, ―You are to me, like Haroon was to Musa.‖ Due to drought and desiccation of the summer, Arabia was stricken by a famine, at this time. The Munafiques and the non-Muslims, violating the terms of the pledge, backed out of the campaign. Including some Muslims, they were frightened of the powerful Roman Emperor, the conqueror of the Persian Empire, miles away from Medïna. In spite of that the Prophet (PBUH) raised a grand army of twenty thousand infantry and ten thousand cavalrymen. Leading, this strong army, Muhammad (PBUH) advanced toward the Syrian border in the month of Rajab, the ninth Hegira (635 AD). Between Medïna and Damascus, the Muslim forces camped at Tabuk. Muhammad (PBUH) stayed there for three weeks. The Roman Emperor pusillanimously venerated the Prophet (PBUH) and in his heart was convinced of his prophet-hood. His mystic power and grace of character impressed him. Therefore, the Emperor did not confront the Prophet (PBUH) and went back to his capital. Observing the Romans retreat, the Christian and the Yiddish inhabitants, of Tabuk and the adjacent areas, were petrified. Frightened, they instantly appeared before Muhammad (PBUH) to submit to him. If he wanted, the Apostle (PBUH) could kill them and occupy their land and properties. He could easily enslave their men and women, according to the custom of the day. However, the Prophet (PBUH) not intended to subjugate the people, for his only aim was to promote Peace and Truth. With that goal in his mind, the Prophet (PBUH) stayed there for sometime. Due to the healthy weather and climatic condition, the health of Muslim soldiers improved a lot, also the animals gained strength. Then beaming with joy and gloriously motivated, the Prophet (PBUH) returned to Medïna.
USURY PROHIBITED AND INTRODUCTION OF ZAKAT (REGULAR CHARITY):

To the Arabs, the Ka‘aba had been a holy place for ages. It has been an inspiration for the Arabs. They would circumverate the Ka‘aba seven times before going on a mission and after coming back. However, some of them would make the circuit nakedly in an intoxicated state. It all shows the great respect and attachment the Arab had for the Ka‘aba. Muhammad (PBUH)
117

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Islamized the reverence of Ka‘aba. Naked circumveration was prohibited and non-Muslims were debarred from the Ka‘aba. At the end of the Ninth Hegira, the Prophet (PBUH) Islamized the circuits of Ka‘aba and made Hajj mandatory, with certain conditions, for the Muslims. Around this time, the idolaters began flocking to Muhammad (PBUH) to adopt Islam. Consequently, there were no heathens left in Mecca. Rivalry to Islam, thus, died a natural death. Peace and tranquillity had returned to tumultuous Arabia. This year usury was prohibited and zakat (Regular Charity), compulsory tax payable by only Muslims was introduced. Meanwhile, delegation after delegation from different tribes continued to come in procession to Muhammad (PBUH) pay their allegiance to him and to accept Islam. In this way, the whole of Arabia came under Islam. Muhammad (PBUH) sent his companions to different provinces to teach the new converts, the basics of the new religion. Thus, the ignorant pagan Arabs, living in abysmal depths of moral and spiritual deprivation, were lifted to an unforeseen state of refinements. Hazrat Umme-Kulthum, the wife of Hazrat Othman (RA) and the 3rd daughter of Muhammad (PBUH) died this year.
THE TENTH HEGIRA: THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE:

Accomplishing his mission, the Prophet (PBUH) anticipating the approaching end, decides to perform the Hajj.82 Accordingly, on a Saturday, Zul-Qadh 26, 10 AH, he starts for Mecca, along with his wives and a hundred thousand followers. At Zul Halifah, about six miles from Medïna, his entourage rests for the night. After bathing and saying their prayers (two raka‘at-two units) in the morning, they go into Ihram83 (two pieces of seamless cloth). Then riding a camel, named Kaswa, Muhammad (PBUH) advances toward Ka‘aba (Baitullah: House of the Lord), reciting, Allahumma Labbaik . . . Labbaik. His companions now numbering two hundred thousand (people joined his entourage on the way), follow him. On Sunday, Zul-Hajj 4, 10 AH, Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers reach Mecca.
82 83 Hajj: Hajj is conventionally translated Pilgrimage, but the meaning is far richer and signifies much more. It means directing oneself toward one God, to endeavor to shun all desires and ego. Ihram: Ihram is the simplest garments consist of two unsewn pieces of cloth, a loin clothe and a shoulder cover.

118

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Ali (RA) was in Yemen, he joined the Pilgrims in Mecca. Mecca wore a festive look; it was a gloriously beautiful sight. Entering the city, Muhammad (PBUH) raised his hands and with a heavy voice prayed for Ka‘aba, and the people circumambulating Ka‘aba. He made seven mandatory rounds of the Ka‘aba and said prayers (two units) at the ‗Sanctuary of Ibrahim‘ (Mukam-e-Ibrahim), then ran seven times between Es-Safa and Marwa. After that, raising his hands, the Prophet (PBUH) proclaimed the Unity of God: ―There is no god but Allah; He is Unique and Complete; He is the Lord of the worlds, He Gives and Takes life. He is the Almighty: There is no god but Allah; He is the One and Only God. He Has Kept His promise, helped His servant and destroyed the enemy.‖ On Thursday, Zul-Hajj 8, 10 AH, the Prophet (PBUH) stayed at Mina and after the Morning-prayers (Fazr) reached Arafat. On Friday, Zul-Hajj 9, 10 AH, at noon, mounted on a camel, named Kaswa, he delivered his famous ‗Farewell Sermon‘. A pillar built at the site, standing where the Prophet (PBUH) delivered the famous speech, immortalizes the event. The place is famous as the ‗Jabalul-Rahmat‘. The plains at the foot the hills, where the Prophet (PBUH) rested beneath the shade of a bush, have been carrying his sacred memory, ever since. Before completing all the rites of Hajj, the Prophet (PBUH) addressed the gathering from Jabalul-Rahmat. Famous as the ‗Farewell Sermon‘, the speech still guides the Muslim world:
The Farewell Sermon: 84

―Ye people! Listen to my word, for I know not whether another year will be vouchsafed to me this year to find myself amongst you at this place.‖ ―Yours lives and property are sacred and inviolable among one another until ye appear before the Lord, as this day and this month is sacred for all; and (remember) Ye shall have to appear before your Lord, who shall demand from you an account of all your actions. ...Ye people, ye have rights over your wives, and your wives have rights over you. ... Treat your wives with kindness and love. Verily you have taken them on the security of God, and have made their persons lawful unto you by the words of God.‖ ―Keep always faithful to the trust reposed in you, and avoid sins.‖
84 Syed Amir Ali, The Spirit of Islam; pp. 113-115.

119

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

―Usury is forbidden. The debtor shall return only principal; and the beginning will be made with (the loans of) my uncle Abbas, son of Abdul Muttalib. ...Henceforth the vengeance of blood practiced in the days of paganism (Jahilyat) is prohibited; and all blood-feud abolished, commencing with the murder of Ibn Rabia son of Haris son of Abdul Muttalib…‖ ―And your slaves, see that ye feed them with such food as ye eat yourselves, and clothe them with the stuff ye wear; and if they commit a fault which ye are not inclined to forgive, then part from them, for they are the servants of the Lord, and not to be harshly treated.‖ ―Ye people! Listen to my words and understand the same. Know that all Muslims are brothers unto one another. Ye are one brotherhood. Nothing, which belongs to another, is lawful unto his brother, unless freely given out of goodwill. Guard yourselves from committing injustice.‖ ―Let him that is present tell it unto him that is absent. Haply he that shall be told may remember it better than he who hath heard it.‖ This Sermon on the Mount, less poetically beautiful, certainly less mystical, than the other, appeals by its practicality and strong common sense to higher minds, and is adapted to the capacity and demands of inferior natures, which require positive and comprehensible directions for moral guidance. Toward the conclusion of the sermon, the Prophet (PBUH), overcome by the sight of the intense enthusiasm of the people as they drank in his words, exclaimed, ―O Lord! I have delivered my message and accomplished my work.‖ The assembled host below with one voice cried, ―Yea, verily thou hast.‖ ―O Lord, I beseech Thee bear Thou witness unto it.‖ With these words, the Prophet (PBUH) concluded his address, which, according to the traditions, was remarkable for its length, its eloquence, and enthusiasm. Soon after the necessary rites of the pilgrimage finished, the Prophet (PBUH) returned with his followers to Medïna.
DESCENT OF THE LAST DIVINE MESSAGE (WAHY):

After the ‗Farewell Speech‘, the last divine message from God descended on Muhammad (PBUH): ―Ye (Muhammad)! Perfected today is your religion and My Reward on you is Absolute. Islam is ordained your religion (Al-Qur‘än - 5:4).‖ ―This day have I Perfected your religion for you,
120

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

completed My favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (Al-Qur‘än - 5:3).‖ Comprehending the implication, Abu Bakr (RA) started crying. He understood the sign of the approaching end of the Prophet‘s (PBUH) life, since he has completed his mission. The Prophet (PBUH), after the sermon, said both the Zohr (Midday) and Asr (Afternoon) prayers, along with his disciples. Then mounted on the camel, facing the Ka‘aba supplicated to God for the emancipation and wellbeing of his Umma (Followers). Before sunset, he started for Muzdalifa, where he said the Isha (Night) prayers, immediately after the Maghrib (Dusk) prayers and stayed there overnight.
APOSTLE’S ADDRESS AT GADIR-E-KHAM AND ADMIRATION OF ALI (RA):

The next day, Zul-Hajj 10, 10 AH, early in the morning, the Prophet (PBUH) left Muzdalifa, and reached Jumra, the Stone Column; and threw pebbles at the Column. Then arriving at Mina sacrificed 100 Camels and distributed the meat. Afterwards, shaving their heads they returned to Mecca from Mina. On their return they performed circumambience (Tawaf)85 of Ka‘aba and drank the water of Zamzam (a natural spring), facing the West. Back to Mina, they said their Zohr (Midday) prayers and stayed there until the twelfth of Zul-Hajj, every day they threw pebbles at the Stone Column, at midday. On Zul-Hajj 13, at dawn they performed tawaf of the Ka‘aba and said their Fazr (Morning) prayers. Then with his entourage of Ansars and Muhajirs, the Prophet (PBUH) started for Medïna. On the way, they rested at Gadir-e-Kham and the Prophet (PBUH) delivered the following sermon: ―Ye people! Listen, I am a human being just as you are, and probably soon the Angel of the Lord will arrive, and I will have to taste death. I am leaving behind two things amongst you, one is the Holy Qur‘än, the light that will lead you to the Truth, the other is my Traditions; hold these firmly in your heart, and you will not stray.‖ Here, when delivering his sermon, the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Of whom I am the Master, Ali is also the Master.‖ Remembering the earlier pronouncement, the Shiites all over the world commemorate the event as ―Eid-e-Gadir.‖

85

Tawaf: making circuit of the Ka'aba: This is done seven times.

121

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

It is notable that the Prophet (PBUH) at different times placed Ali (RA), in order of precedence, before all others. Once all the doors facing Masjidun Nabubi were closed, except Ali‘s door. At this, all the Companions complained to the Apostle (PBUH). Even Hamza (RA) said, ―O Prophet (PBUH)! You have retained Ali (RA) at the expense of your Uncle.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) replied, ―I am told to do so by Allah, and have no right to do otherwise.‖ Prophet‘s (PBUH) assertion that He was the House of Knowledge and Ali was the Gate; put Ali (RA) on a much higher pedestal than others. It is noteworthy that while the Companions rated Abu Bakr (RA), Omar (RA) and Othman (RA) in that order, Omar described otherwise. He said, ―If Allah had given even one of the three qualities that He bestowed on Ali (RA), I would think myself as the best in the world.‖ The three qualities, according to Omar (RA), were:
87. 88. 89.

T H AT T H AT T H AT

HE IS MA RRIED TO T HE ALL T HE DO O RS TO T HE

PROPHET‘S (PBUH) MO SQ UE

DA UG HTE R, WIT H I SSU ES;

WE RE CLOSED EXCE PT

ALI‘S;

O N T H E D A Y O F V I C T O R Y AT

KHAIBAR, ALI

WA S T H E F L A G B E A R E R . 86

Once, the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Allah through a divine message instructed Musa to build a Mosque; where, except Musa, his brother Haroon and his sons, Shabbor and Shabbir, nobody else would be allowed. Thus, God through His divine message asked me to build a Mosque, where nobody else will be accommodated except Ali and his sons, Hassan and Husseina and me.87 Another tradition has it that once the Prophet (PBUH) sitting on a blanket invited Hazrat Ali (RA), Fatima (RA), Hassan (RA) and Hussein (RA) to join him. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was interested to join but the Apostle (PBUH) stopped her, saying that the place was reserved only for those five, already seated there. The descendants of Muhammad (PBUH), through Hazrat Ali (RA) and Fatima (RA), are known as Ahlu‘l-bait (the Household of the Holy Prophet). About the Ahlu‘l-bait, a verse of the Qur‘än descended on Muhammad (PBUH) at Ummul Muminin Hazrat Salma‘s room. Calling Fatima (RA),
86 87 Zazbul-Kulub Ila Dyaril Mahbub: Maulana Shah Abdul Haq Muhaddis-e-Dehlavi: Translation Muhammad Abdul Jabbar, Pir Sahib Baitus-Sharaf, Chittagong). Zazbul-Kulub Ila Dyaril Mahbub: Maulana Shah Abdul Haq Muhaddis-e-Dehlavi: Translation Muhammad Abdul Jabbar, Pir Sahib Baitus-Sharaf, Chittagong).

122

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Hassan (RA) and Hussein (RA) to him, the Prophet (PBUH) holding them together under his blanket prayed ―O God! They are the members of my house (Ahlu‘l-bait), protect them and cleanse them of any impurity. Hearing that Hazrat Umme-Salama inquired if she was also included in the Ahlu‘lbait, the Prophet (PBUH) replied: ―you are at the right place and are well there.‖ After the descent of the above verse of the holy Qur‘än followers asked: ―O Rasulullah who are those people nearest to your soul that deserve our love?‖ The Prophet (PBUH) replied: ―Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussein.‖ Another historic fact about Ali (RA) is that the Abbaside Caliph of Baghdad, Mamoon ar-Rashid decreed: ―After the Prophet (PBUH) Ali is the best creation of God,‖ in 826 AD (211 AH).
RETURN TO MEDÏNA:

Completing his sermon Muhammad (PBUH) with his entourage reached Zul-Halifah and resting there for the night and arrived in Medïna the next morning.
MISSION COMPLETED:

Concluding his mission as has been attested by divine message (Al-Qur‘än 5: 3)88 after his Farewell speech during Hajj, the Prophet (PBUH) began preparation for the eternal journey. God informed the Apostle (PBUH) that his mission was concluded and it was time to leave the mundane life. After accomplishing his mission, the Prophet (PBUH) on different occasions suggested about his impending journey to the heavens. The wiser among the companions, could interpret the hints properly and was saddened, deep in their hearts. Muhammad (PBUH) immersed in furnishing final strokes to his temporal assignments and committed himself more and more to saying prayers. He prayed for the martyrs of Ohud and went to Jannatul Baki graveyard to pray for the departed souls. After the Farewell Hajj, Muhammad (PBUH) lived for only three months. During this period, the Messenger of God engaged himself in teaching the covenants of Islam, focussing on the new converts. Dreams of his youth, of an ideal society based on truth, took shape during his lifetime. Accomplished is the great mission, for which Muhammad
88 ‗Ye (Muhammad)! Perfected today is your religion; and My Reward on you is Absolute. Islam is ordained your religion.‘

123

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH) came to earth, with great perfection. He came to establish peace, prosperity, happiness and universal Muslim brotherhood that he did in a short span of ten years. Muhammad (PBUH) established a commonwealth, which rose to eminence in every respect, in his lifetime of which there is no example.
THE ELEVENTH HEGIRA: DEATH:

God in the Qur‘än said,
37. T RULY THOU WILT DIE ( ONE DAY ), AND TRULY THEY ( TOO ) WILL DIE ( ONE DAY ), (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 39: 30).

Wednesday, Safar 19, 11 AH, at night in Maimuna‘s (RA) room, Muhammad started feeling sick. Generally, the Prophet (PBUH) by rotation stayed with his wives and it was Maimuna‘s (RA) turn. In also his private life, Muhammad (PBUH) practiced justice that is an example for his followers. He never strayed from this except with the permission of the respective wife. Five days passed, the Apostle was due to leave Ayesha‘s (RA) room, but because of aggravation of ailment, with the acquiescence of all his wives, he stayed with Ayesha (RA). Even during his illness, the Prophet (PBUH) led the public prayers, until Maghrib prayers on the day. He had high fever accompanied with headache and was even unable to support himself on his legs. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) led the Isha prayers and from thence, he became the Imam of the Muslims. Prophet‘s (PBUH) life was fast approaching its end but still if strength allowed he lectured his Companions.
THE LAST KHUTBA (SERMON) OF THE PROPHET (PBUH): (DELIVERED IN THE MASJIDUNNABUBI):
90. 91.

T HE

FOLLOWING

TRADITIONS

A RE Q UOTED FROM T HE LA ST

K HUT BA:

ALLAH

G AV E A P E R S O N T O C H O O S E B E T W E E N T H E W E A LT H , O P U L E N C E A N D

C O M F O RT S O F T H I S W O R L D , A N D T H E C O N T E N T M E N T , L U X U R Y A N D A B U N D A N C E OF 92.

HE REAFTER,

WHICH IS KEPT IN

HIS I

C U S T O D Y.

HE

C H O S E T H E L AT E R .

BY

W H O S E W E A LT H A N D C O M PA N Y

H AV E B E E N B E N E F I T E D T H E M O S T , I S

ABU

BAKR. IF I
BEEN

H A D B E F R I E N D E D A N Y B O D Y H E R E I N T H I S W O R L D I T W O U L D H AV E BUT T HE BON D OF

ABU BAKR;

ISLAM
DOORS

I S S O T H AT I T I S E N O U G H T O F O R M WIT H T HE

A N Y F R I E N D S H I P.

CLOSE

A LL THE

MOSQ UE

EXCEPT

ABU

B A K R ‘ S . 89

89

According to the learned religious doctors, this is the door of the Caliphate, i.e., an indication that Abu Bakr would be the vice-regent of the Prophet after his death.

124

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
93.

LISTEN,

B E F O R E Y O U M A N Y N AT I O N S T U R N E D T H E I R P R O P H E T S ‘ T O M B S I N T O

PLACES O F WO RSHI PIN G. T H AT . ARE

BE

CA UT I O US,

I

AM FORBIDDING YOU; NEVER DO

THOSE

WHO T URN THE SE PULC HER O F SAI NTS IN TO RE LI GIO US SHRINES L O AT H E D BY

T HE

MOST

GOD. DO

NOT

W O R S H I P M Y G R AV E .

MANY

A

N AT I O N S H AV E B E E N R U I N E D F O R T H I S S I N . 94.

D UTIES

OF

T HE

PRO P HETS

ARE

TO

CONVEY

T HE

INSTRUCTIONS

OF

GOD

T H R O U G H T H E I R S AY I N G S A N D D O I N G S , T O T H E P E O P L E . OT HE R PROPHETS C ON SI DE RED T HE M AS T HE

T HE

FOLLOWERS OF

O R I G I N AT O R S O F C O V E N A N T S ;

A N D E V E N D I D T H E S I N O F A S S O C I AT I N G T H E M W I T H A PA R T O F 95.

GOD

BY HO LDIN G T HEM AS

GOD.
CONSIDER ME AS AN AUTHORIT Y O N LY ON

DO

NOT

HA RAM (PRO HI BITION )
T HE

AND G AV E

HALAL (PERMISSION), I
INJUNCTIONS AS

H AV E

FOLLOWED

QUR‘ÄN

AND

H ARAM

AND

HALAL,

A C C O R D I N G LY .

Every man will reap the fruits of his deeds and God, nobody else will be of any help to him. There will be no privileges as to this matter. To clarify the point the Prophet (PBUH) then said: O Fatima, daughter of the Prophet (PBUH), O Safiya, aunt of the Prophet (PBUH), do deeds acceptable to God, for I myself could not save you from the wrath of God. Rabiul Awwal 11, 11 AH the Prophet‘s (PBUH) condition does not show any sign of improvement but kept on deteriorating. He comes back to his senses fleetingly and again relapses back into slumber. In this condition suddenly, remembering that a gold coin was kept with Ayesha (RA), he asked to give that in charity, immediately. His dearest daughter Fatima (RA) was weeping at the sight of the Prophet (PBUH) in pain. The Apostle (PBUH) said something in her ear and she wept, then the Prophet (PBUH) again said something and she smiled. Later, Fatima (RA) narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) first told her about his imminent death, hearing which she wept. The second time consoling her, he asked her not to weep, as she would be the first in the family to meet him in heaven, after his death. It is needless to say, that the Prophet‘s (PBUH) prediction came true and Fatima (RA) died within six months of his death. Instructed by Prophet (PBUH) on that day, Abu Bakr (RA) led the Isha prayers. The Rasul (PBUH) said his prayers sitting beside Abu Bakr (RA). Islamic religious doctors believe that that was an indication to evolution of leadership of the Muslims, after him. After the prayers, the Messenger of God addressed the gathering as follows: ―O! My disciples, I am leaving you to Allah. Follow His instructions and He will protect you. Farewell ...‖
125

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Sunday, Rabiul Awwal 11, Muhammad (PBUH) was in much distress and the next morning, the twelfth, he was unable to leave his bed. As he could not attend the morning prayers, Abu Bakr (RA) led the prayers. When in the beginning of the day he felt comparatively better, he told his followers: ―All prophets are given the choice to choose between this World and the Hereafter. But I would stay with them on whom God had bestowed His generosity.‖ Almost at the end of his life, the Prophet (PBUH) asked for divine blessings for his disciples. He prayed, ―O the faithful! May God grant you peace! And be pleased on you! By His Grace, He may grant you success in your lives and occupations. Be safe in uninhibited prosperity. Let me convey my Salaam and Blessings to all the Muslims, until the end of this world, through you.‖ Muhammad‘s (PBUH), the greatest of the great apostles, condition deteriorated every moment, he uttered, ―O Allah, my Greatest Comrade . . .!‖ In one of the fleeting moments, between journeys into consciousness and unconsciousness, seeing Omar (RA), the Prophet (PBUH) asked for ‗pen and ink‘. He apparently wanted to leave behind certain written instructions. Nevertheless, Omar (RA) discouraged him from doing so, saying: ―O Rasulullah, (Messenger of God) what is the need for written instructions? For us the Qur‘än and your sayings, are adequately enough.‖ Then at the Apostle‘s request Ayesha (RA) cleaned his teeth with a Mishawka (stick used for brushing tooth). Gradually, the Prophet (PBUH) lost his strength and his soul left his temporal body and took the eternal flight to God (Innalillahe Wa Inna Ilaihe Raziu‘un). Before the end came, the Prophet (PBUH) kept on whispering, ―I want nothing but the company of the Greatest Benefactor: O the Great Friend, the Most Intimate, take me to You.‖ Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (PBUH) left this world on Monday, June 7, 632 AD, Rabiul Awwal 12, 11 AH He was buried on the next day (June 8, 632 AD, Rabiul Awwal 13, 11 AH). In these twenty-four hours, the Muslims took two important decisions: First, where to bury the Prophet (PBUH) and the second, the successor of the Prophet (PBUH) as the head of the Muslim world. According to Hadith, ‗prophets are buried where they die‘ and thus, Muhammad (PBUH) was buried in Ayesha‘s (RA) room.
126

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

With the Concurrence of most of the Muslims, Abu Bakr (RA), the oldest among them, was elected the Caliph. Ali (RA) and Abbas (RA) bathed the dead body of Muhammad (PBUH); Aus ibn Khawla Ansari fetched water for the rite. Ali (RA) held the body, while Abbas (RA) and his two sons, Qasim and Fazl helped. On the anointed body of the Prophet (PBUH) Osama (RA) poured water. After the Gusal (Bath), the body was covered with three pieces of white cotton cloth. First, the males said the Funeral Prayers (Janajah) and then followed women and children. They all said their prayers, individually, in small groups without any Imams. Meanwhile, Abu Talha (RA) dug the grave. Ali (RA), Fazl ibn Abbas (RA), Osama ibn Zaid (RA) and Abdur Rahman ibn Auf (RA), lowered the body of Muhammad (PBUH) in the grave. Before the body was laid in the grave, the first Caliph, Abu Bakr (RA) along with all the Muslims prayed for the departed soul: ―O Rasulullah! May God bless your divine soul with eternal peace! We affirm that you have properly delivered the Divine Message of God, and fought (Jihad) with all the might until victory kissed your feet. Moreover, you have taught us that ‗There is no god but Allah‘. You have brought us to Allah and have always been kind to the Faithful. Never have you claimed any return for dispatching God‘s Message from door to door and have not sold religion to anybody. O the benevolent friend, May Allah wrap your soul in His Eternal Kindness! Amen!‖

127

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

pter IV
MUHAMMAD’S PERSONALITY: DIVINE REVELATIONS:

God repeatedly sent verses of the Holy Qur‘än, to elucidate the attributes of Muhammad (PBUH). The Qur‘än says,
38. W E HAVE INDEED IN THE A POSTLE OF G OD A BEAUTIFUL PATTERN ( OF CONDUCT ) FOR ANY ONE WHOSE HOPE IS IN G OD AND THE F INAL D AY, AND WHO ENGAGES MUCH IN PRAISE OF G OD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33: 21). A ND THOU ( STANDEST ) ON AN EXALTED STANDARD OF CHARACTER (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 68: 4). G OD HATH CHOSEN HIM ABOVE YOU , AND HATH GIFTED HIM ABUNDANTLY WITH KNOW LEDGE AND BODILY PROWESS : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2: 247). W E SENT THEE NOT, BUT AS A M ERCY FOR ALL CREATURES (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21: 107). V ERILY THOU ART ONE OF THE A POSTLES (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 252).

39. 40.

41. 42.

PHYSIQUE, DRESS, FOOD HABITS, PREFERENCES AND BEHAVIOR:

Hazrat Ahmed Mujtaba Muhammad Mustafa (PBUH), the Prophet of the Worlds, is the Apostle of Serenity. He was the noblest of the noble creation of God, the light of the Worlds that illuminated the path to the Ultimate Truth. Muhammad (PBUH) was the perfect, the most handsome, the exalted in character and the most ideal human being. Allah has declared him as Rahmatullil Al-Amin (Mercy of the Universe). Every detail of his life, till today, is an example for the devout Muslim. In his childhood, he was the ideal child, and in his adulthood, he was so pure of heart, and so refined in behavior that he was an example for others. Nobody was equal to Muhammad in Benevolence, Compassion, Purity of Behavior, and Truthfulness. His countenance radiated with a serene glow, which was so soothing and beautiful that onlookers were instantly captivated by the charm. He had a very balanced physique; not very tall with well formed shoulders, wide breasts, long reach, sharp nose, deep black eyes emanating a divine brilliance, and charming eyebrows set below a broad forehead. There was none with such a handsome, well proportionate body, having such a noble and charming personality as was Muhammad‘s (PBUH). Everything about him was perfect, so beautiful, so serene and charming that anybody meeting him immediately experienced love and respect for him. His face always beaming with a disarming smile glowed
128

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

divinely. Never he talked with anybody harshly, nor struck anybody in his whole life. Tender, benevolent and compassionate, Muhammad (PBUH), was endowed with a pure heart and an excellent sense of duty. He was tender and softhearted, but stern to the extent of severity to the defaulters. With strong, forceful and fiery disposition was combined his tenderness of heart. Muhammad (PBUH) walked, slightly bent forward, as if climbing down a hill. Fragrance emanating from his body heralded his arrival and even his perspiration bore a sweet aroma. He is the most handsome, most courageous, most benevolent and compassionate human being. The Messenger of God talked with a clear voice and always addressed his audience with a captivating smile. Endowed with a gratifying conversational style, Muhammad (PBUH) addressed a gathering with a charmingly heavy tone. The Prophet of the Worlds lived a very simple life. His dress, living quarters and food habits, everything, exuded simplicity. Ruling over a vast land, Muhammad (PBUH), the King of the Worlds lived like a hermit. There was no manifestation of extravagant grandeur either in his public or private lives. Simplicity was his way and he enjoined others to do so. The Apostle wore ash or white clothes and disliked red. His headgear, the Turban was worn over a cap and besides he used shawls, blankets and ‗Abas‘ (an Arab garment). Rings were the only ornaments, the Messenger of God used. Muhammad (PBUH), during war adorned helmets and armor. He also used shoes with laces and stocking. Horse riding was his favorite but he rode on donkeys, mules and camels too; generally, camels were his main carriers. Averse to formalities, Muhammad (PBUH) with simple food habits would eat whatever was available. Unless the pieces of meat were large, Muhammad (PBUH) ate with his hands, otherwise, used a knife to cut them in smaller pieces. Vinegar, honey, confection, olive oil and gourd were his favorites. Muhammad (PBUH) liked lamb, chicken, birds, mutton and camel‘s meat and crushed dates and watermelons were his favorites too. The Great Prophet (PBUH) loved perfumes and used perfumes free of alcohol (attar). He said, ―Man will use perfumes, not colors, and women will ware color not perfumes.‖ The Apostle (PBUH) was a person of very sophisticated taste and he hated uncleanness. The greatest of the great prophets, Muhammad (PBUH) disliked pomp and grandeur, and lavish
129

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

compliments, even if they were true. He said, ―Personal adulation induces pride and that is the undoing of a person.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) did not allow Celibacy for his Companions. He said, ―Islam is not a religion of Asceticism; Islam does not allow Celibacy.‖ Therefore, the Apostle set s examples by practicing all that is permissible in religion.
EXCHANGES OF GIFTS:

The Great Messenger of God would gladly receive gifts and distribute money in charity to the deserving poor. He said, ―Exchange gifts among yourselves that deepens friendly bonds.‖ In return the Prophet (PBUH) sent gifts to all those that had sent gifts. He sent gifts to the Syrian Sovereign, the Egyptian King, the Roman Emperor, and the Ruler of Yemen, in return. Regularly he sent gifts for his Companions and neighbors. As he disliked being in debt to others, so, if anybody gifted a camel, he always would send a better camel in return.
ALMS:

Muhammad (PBUH) was very liberal in benefaction, but he despised begging. Said he: ―It is better to gather wood and sell to earn a livelihood than to live on charity. If anybody prayed to God for deliverance, from a despised act like begging, God grants him, his wish. That who is selfsufficient and prays to God, He retains him so, and that who remains patient under duress, God endows him with forbearance.‖
EXCHANGING GREETINGS:

On meeting any person, the Apostle (PBUH) would be the first to greet him with a smile, and shook hands. He never withdrew his hands first and never was the first to turn away. Children were gladdened to see him and he loved them very much. Muhammad (PBUH) was always the first to salute others, irrespective of their age and status. Without exchanging greetings (Salaam) and permission of the inmates, he would not enter a house. Those who served the Prophet (PBUH) of God, even for long periods, had never been scolded by him. Instead of them serving the Apostle (PBUH), the Harbinger of God had served them more, according to their testimony. Never was he displeased with them or even harsh to them. He chatted with them freely and kept them cheerful.

130

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE FELLOWSHIP WITH THE COMPANIONS:

When he worked with his Companions, he worked as an ordinary laborer. During the construction of the Mosque in Medïna, he carried bricks and stones on his back. At times of war, he dug trenches along with others without any hesitation. During a journey, work was divided in the Companions for preparing and cooking food, Muhammad (PBUH) gathered wood from the jungle. Companions requested him not to do hard work saying, ―We can do it for you.‖ The Harbinger of God, Muhammad (PBUH) answered, ―I know you can. But, I do not want to make myself unique among you, for God does not like those who make them distinct from their fellow wayfarers.‖
OBEDIENCE OF GOD:

Rasulullah (Messenger of God) meticulously followed the very first divine instruction, ―Read! And gather knowledge.‖ Immediately after receiving Allah‘s directions, Muhammad (PBUH) made education mandatory for all Muslims, males and females. He then establishing the first Madrasa (school) in one of his Companion‘s abode and ordered all Muslims to study in the Madrasa. After the migration to Medïna, he opened a Madrasa with the Masjidun Nabubi. Rasulullah (PBUH) was the Head of both the institutions at Mecca and Medïna. With the establishment of a new commonwealth at Medïna, demands increased for educated executives and officers to run the various government departments. Taught and trained by the Prophet (PBUH) his Companions spread all over, in the villages and in the tribes; gradually under the guidance of the Prophet (PBUH) literacy rapidly increased among the Muslims. Because of the Apostle‘s hard work at educating his followers, they later made their mark in different occupations. Their names are etched in golden letters in the annals of the world.
EQUALITY OF STATUS:

To the Messenger of God, everybody was equal, irrespective of caste, creed, age and gender. Rich and poor, Friend and foe, Muslims, non-Muslims, Relatives and strangers, all, all were equal to him. He treated everybody equally kindly, but his preferences tilted toward the poor. In congregations, the Prophet (PBUH) would always sit with the poor and the wretched. Even the poorest of the poor could approach him unhesitatingly. Apostle Muhammad (PBUH) would attend to them and solve their problems, and
131

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

only then attend to other businesses. He disapproved of conspicuous demonstration of respects to him. Allah in the Qur‘än said: ―We sent thee not, but As a Mercy for all creatures‖ (Al-Qur‘än - 21:107). Very appropriately, Muhammad was indeed the all-embracing Compassion for all the creation of God, incomprehensible to ordinary minds. In spite of inhuman persecution by the enemies, he never cursed anybody; on the contrary, he prayed to God, to bless them with good sense, and to bring them to the Path of the Truth. He said, ―I have been sent as a Mercy for all in the Worlds.‖ ―Do not harbor hatred for each other or turn your face from each other: Be brothers to each other and choose that for others, which you would choose for yourself and you would become a complete Muslim:‖ said the Prophet (PBUH). In charity, he was generous, and did not discriminate between Friend and foe, Muslims and non-Muslims. Always sensitive to the wellbeing of his neighbors, he visited the sick, comforted them and arranged for their treatments, irrespective of their caste and creed. Respectfully, he stood up whenever a funeral procession passed and joined the procession and advised his followers to do so. Enjoined upon them to follow, if not, at least, keep standing until the dead body was carried away.
HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT:

Muhammad (PBUH) liked to work with his right hand. While wearing shoes, stepping in the Mosque or distributing something, he began from the right. The Prophet (PBUH) did all the household chores, like, repairing, cleaning and maintaining the house, repairing and stitching cloths, milking and shopping, etc. Taking care of the domestic animals was also included in his daily chores. In the Masjidun Nabubi, after Fazr prayers, he answered questions from the Companions. Then after the Cha‘aste-prayers (an optional prayer after Sunrise), he went to his apartments. And after inquiring about healths and needs of his wives busied himself in the daily chores. After Asr-prayers he stayed with one of his wives, scheduled to stay with him that night. In this way, the Prophet (PBUH) ensured exercise of equality, in conjugal life. After Isha prayers, he went to bed.

132

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE LIFESTYLE:

The Greatest of the great Prophet‘s (PBUH) life, his actions and reactions has been recorded in great details. Unlike the previous prophets, no aspect of his life is shrouded in mystery. His habits, Behavior, physical qualities, stature, complexion, gait, liking and disliking, everything, have been recorded with minute details, nothing has eluded the observation of his immediate Companions, actions, decisions, judgements, interactions, reactions, conversations and communications, nothing is left untouched. Even the private life of the Prophet (PBUH) is recounted faithfully in detail, from the most significant to the seemingly most insignificant actions and activities of the Prophet (PBUH) have been transcribed by the Companions faithfully. A great Warrior, Muhammad (PBUH) was a great General, as well. A Planner of the highest order, he was a great Statesman, Jurist, Lawgiver, Economist, Educator and Governor. The last Prophet (PBUH) excelled in every discipline of Government and Management. Greatest of the great Reformers, therefore, has been awarded with successes, unforeseen, as he established a prime commonwealth that outshone all others in a short time of ten years. He is the only reformer who saw his dream come true and his mission accomplished, in his lifetime. His character ideal was in every respect as God said, ―And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) was a loving and caring husband and family man. For twenty-five years, he remained married with Khadija (RA) in a blissful, happy married life. In her lifetime, he did not take any other wives. Never in this long period of twenty-five years, he behaved harshly with Khadija (RA). After her death, he was constrained by circumstances, to take other wives. To all his wives, he was equally loving and caring. All of them were given permission to describe, everything, which they observed about the Prophet (PBUH) in the secrecy of privacy. To record his actions, activities and sayings, his followers took great pains to follow him everywhere, and like the earnest researchers, kept a watch on him, always. Committed their findings to their hearts and transcribed those in innumerable books, available today all around the world.
RELATIVES’ PERCEPTION OF MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

When Muhammad (PBUH) received divine revelations at the age of forty, he had already enjoyed a fifteen-year-long blissful married life with Khadija
133

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(RA). Naturally, in such a long period, one gets a comprehensive insight into the partner‘s character. Bibi Khadija (RA) was not an ordinary woman: she was educated, wise, intelligent and farsighted. Therefore, she very early realized that Muhammad (PBUH) was destined to be a great man. Realizing that Muhammad (PBUH) is God‘s Messenger; she accepted his faith and constantly inspired and supported him in his mission. A perturbed Muhammad at the thought of the majestic burden of prophet-hood found courage in Khadija‘s (RA) encouragement and patronage. She comforted him saying, ―Do not worry, Allah shall not abandon you helpless, because you always give relatives their dues: relieve debtors by paying their debts, help the poor and needy, care for the guests: support the righteous and help those in peril (Al-Bukhari).‖ All these qualities were manifest in his nature, long before he was decreed a prophet. Hazrat Ali (RA), among his relatives, was a constant companion of the Prophet (PBUH), from his childhood; naturally, none else knew more about the exalted character of the Apostle (PBUH). Ali (RA) said, ―Muhammad (PBUH), had a lively countenance, always brightened with a smile. Good natured, well behaved and kind, Muhammad (Peace on him) was of mild temperament. Never he used any profane language and was not bellicose to anybody. Finding faults with others was not in his nature. He would try his best to satisfy people‘s importunate requests, but never did anything inappropriate. Remaining silent, he would avoid saying ‗No‘ for he could not dishearten anybody. Never, he has indulged in unnecessary arguments or gibberish. He was averse to aimless persuasion, prying into private lives of others, and blaming others; and said only what is beneficial to the people: because, he did not like to hurt or dishearten any one. He would listen to a person until he finished and would not stop him in the middle.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) was a genuine and sincere friend of the people; comforting distressed human soul was the purpose of his life. Hazrat Ali (RA) said, ―He was very Righteous, Generous, Truthful and Tender Hearted. People‘s hearts filled with joy in his presence. At first sight people felt awed, but gradually the audience started basking in the glow of the sweetness of his manner, slowly their adulation turned into love and reverence. Never has he shown any contempt to his fellow man: and he would laugh with them and sympathize with their emotion. Silently suffered audacity but protested anything untrue. The Messenger of God cooperated
134

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

in personal matters of anybody, irrespective of his nature and manners. Disliked personal adulation and he happily acknowledged thanks. Never abandoned any work in the middle, faithfully pursued the job undertaken until completion. He did not shame anybody, admonishing in the presence of others, but conveyed his disliking through others if occasion so warranted. The staunch enemy of Islam, the Jewish continually conspired against him, but the Prophet (Peace on him) always treated them nicely, in spite of all their heinous actions.‖ Once some Companions asked Ayesha (RA) about Muhammad‘s (PBUH) character, she replied: ―Qur‘än is the Character of Rasulullah (PBUH).‖90 Truly the Qur‘än literally abounds with the explanation of the Prophet‘s (PBUH) holy character. He never scolded anybody or misbehaved with anybody, not even with the servants. Never he raised hands on anybody, nor even struck any animals. He fulfilled any logical and valid requests; he never disheartened anybody. By name, he never cursed any person, never used expletives, and always entered a home with a smile on his face and never set among friends with legs spread. He talked softly and slowly. The Prophet (PBUH) never tried to cover up any truth, any event or incidence in his life. Without any pretension, he expressed himself onto the people and let himself be known to them truthfully. Even today, he is known, as he was, in his time without any alterations. His beloved wife Bibi Ayesha (RA), stayed with him for long nine years and she said of him: ―If anybody says that Muhammad has suppressed any of Allah‘s commandments, do not believe him, for God has Himself said,
43. O A POSTLE ! P ROCLAIM THE (M ESSAGE ) WHICH HATH BEEN SENT TO THEE FROM THY LORD . I F THOU DIDST NOT, THOU WOULDST NOT HAVE FULFILLED AND PROCLAIMED HIS M ISSION (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5: 70).

Regarding this verse Imam Bukhari has said: ―Nobody in this world likes to let others know the smallest weakness of their own; this is more so when the concerned is a religious or political leader. Nevertheless, in the Qur‘än there are numerous verses where the Prophet (PBUH) has been admonished for his apparent lapses. The Prophet (PBUH), nevertheless, did not suppress those from his people. Those verses have been repeatedly recited from the pulpit of Mosques around the world and numerous followers of the Apostle committed those to their memories. All these verses are recited in places
90 Abu-Dawood

135

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

wherever his followers are there. However, if the Qur‘än has not mentioned them these would have been forgotten long ago and nobody would have known them. To the ignorant Arabs, the Prophet (PBUH) marrying his adopted son‘s wife, was an offensive act. In the Qur‘än this incident has been narrated in details. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) says, ―If Rasulullah (PBUH) wanted to suppress any verse of the Qur‘än, he would have suppressed the verse narrating the incidence of this marriage.‖91 Rasulullah could have suppressed this incidence of marriage and people would have no ground to object, but he chose otherwise. This proves that the Prophet (PBUH) did not want any aspect of his sacred life shrouded in secrecy, and kept hidden from his followers. Like a foster child to the Prophet (PBUH), Hazrat Hind (RA) a daughter of Bibi Khadija (RA) from her first husband says, ―He was mild tempered and not irritable in nature. Muhammad (PBUH) never said anything that could hurt anybody‘s feelings or could belittle anybody. Thanked for the smallest cause and ate anything that was put before him without any comments. For personal matters, he did not loose temper and never took revenge and disliked disheartening anybody. But he opposed anything untrue and strongly supported Righteousness and Truthfulness.‖92 The Apostle of God always very reverently received his wet nurse Bibi Halima (RA) and her husband and children, whenever they came to meet him. Always with a smile, he would stand up to show them respect and would spread his cloak for them to sit on. A kindhearted father, the Prophet (PBUH) wept at the premature death of his infant son. As People expressed their surprise, the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―I am a human being of flesh and blood, like you all.‖ Because of the same reason, he took medicine during his last illness.
WORSHIPING (IBADAH):

The great Prophet (PBUH) enjoined his followers to pray five times a day, while, he prayed eight times. After the Fazr prayers, when the sun rises, the Apostle (PBUH) said Ishraq prayers: and then when the day advanced a bit more, he said the Cha‘aste prayers, before the Zohr prayers. While, the
91 92 Hadith Masnad-e-Ibn Hanbal: Chapter iii, p. 230. An open letter to the Pope: Shamael; Islamic Foundation Press, Baitul Mukarram, Dhaka.

136

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Harbinger of God prayed no less than fifty or sixty Raka‘ats a day, for the common citizenry only seventeen Raka‘ats, were made compulsory93. After prayers, five-times a day, were introduced for the Muslims, Tahajjud94 became elective. Yet the Prophet (PBUH) continued the practice until his death. He would pray all night and at times, his legs would swell from standing on them for hours. Once Hazrat Ayesha (RA) asked: ―Why do you toil so much on prayers, since God Has cleansed you of all sins? ― The Prophet (PBUH) replied: ―Should not I be His grateful servant?‖ Apparently, he prayed not for the fear of God but for His love. At times, the Prophet (PBUH) stayed such a long time in the ‗Ruku‘95 that it seemed as if he had forgotten to Prostrate (Sajdah): But he did not enforce this demanding rule upon his Companions. A prominent Companion used to lead prayers at a Mosque: once a fellow complained to the Prophet (PBUH) that it was arduous to pray behind him, as he protracted the prayers. Such a complaint annoyed the Prophet (PBUH), and in an irritated tone said he: ―Some people annoys others by their deeds.‖ ―Those among you that lead prayers make them brief; since, in the congregations are suckling mothers, old, weak and persons having other duties.‖ Right from the beginning of his Ministry, the Prophet (PBUH) prayed regularly. In spite of threats from the heathens, he openly prayed at the Ka‘aba. Several times the enemy attacked him during prayers but that did not sway him from his path. At battlefields during fierce fighting, the Prophet (PBUH) would prostrate himself in prayers. All his life he very devotedly prayed but for two units (raka‘ats) he never had defaulted.96 Once during the Battle of Khandaq, the pagans caused him to say his prayers later. Another time, while, returning from a battle, journeying the whole night, the convoy fell asleep, and missed the morning prayers. Later they said Kadha (praying later for a missed prayer). Even when the Apostle (PBUH) was weakened by his last illness, he took part in the public prayers
93 Two-Raka'ats Fazr (Morning-prayers); four-Raka'ats Zohr (Midday-prayers); four-Raka'ats Asr (Afternoon-prayers); three-raka'ats Maghrib (Dusk-prayers) and four-Raka'ats Isha (Early nightPrayers). One raka'at consists of bowing (ruku) once and prostrating, in close successions, twice before God, after reciting verses from the holy Qur'än, in an erect position with the right hand over the left, placed below the chest. Prayer after mid-night before Fazr A part of Genuflection - leaning and touching the knees with the palms of hands He said Kadha, i.e., saying prayers later if unable to pray at the prescribed time.

94 95 96

137

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

with the help of his companions. Only three days before his death, the Prophet (PBUH) tried to join the public prayers and his legs would not support him. Thus, he thrice tried and thrice he fell down unconscious and could not take part in the prayers. He gave directives for fasting to his followers. For the Muslims, normally, thirty days of fasting has been made mandatory. However, the Prophet (PBUH) did fast every week round the year. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) said, ―When the Prophet (PBUH) began fasting, it seemed as if he would not stop fasting.‖ The Apostle advised his followers not to fast beyond the day light hours, he himself fasted two three days without eating anything. If the Companions tried to follow him in fasting, he would say: ―My Lord feeds me, who is there among you that can follow me in this matter?‖ In a year, in Shaban and in Ramadhan, the Messenger of God fasted, the whole periods. Almost all the moonlit nights and ten days in Muharram and six days in Shawwal, the Prophet (PBUH) fasted. Besides, he was in the habit of fasting on Mondays and Thursdays. This was how the Prophet (PBUH) taught man, the Love of God. Every moment of his life in every state of his existence, the Harbinger of God kept remembering his Creator.
PATIENCE AND TENACITY:

In the Qur‘än Allah said, ―Hold your patience as the other prophets did.‖ Muhammad, the Prophet of God, in the face of strong resistance and persistent cruelty of the Quraish did not sway from preaching the Truth. In a nation blinded by ignorance and fiercely cruel by nature, he dauntlessly carried on his mission. He prayed in the Ka‘aba in front of the leaders holding discussion there. Muhammad (PBUH) fearlessly, announced God‘s Message from the top of mount Safa when directed by God. When his life long patron, uncle Abu Talib, fearing reprisal hinted at withdrawing his support, the Prophet‘s (PBUH) inspired reply was: ―If even I am given the moon in one hand and the sun in the other I will not deviate from my duty.‖ At the later stage of Meccan life, his entire tribe was forced into confinement, in the Shiabay Valley for three years. All contact was cut off with the outside world. Children died of starvation, mothers embraced death mourning for their children. The enemies planned, at last, to kill him; yet, the Prophet (PBUH) remained steadfast in his mission.
138

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

To help others, he even borrowed. Always cheerful, the Prophet (PBUH) endured the harsh behavior of creditors and never misbehaved with them. People that traded with him before his ministry praised his honesty in transaction. The Quraish became his enemy only because he propagated ‗Unity of Godhead‘. Otherwise, they would trust him with their lives. These heathens bestowed him with the title of ‗As-Sadique‘ and ‗Al-Amin‘. In spite of their intense dislike of his mission, they would keep their money and valuables with Muhammad (PBUH). While the Apostle (PBUH) left for Medïna, he left Ali (RA) behind to return those entrusted money and commodities to their owners. The enemies tried in every possible method to assassinate the Apostle (PBUH). They cordoned his house and remained vigilant the whole night not to let him out unnoticed. Similarly, the Tayefians stoned him bloody, which he never could forget, but the Prophet (PBUH) of God shown mercy to all after they were vanquished. He did not take revenge on anybody and did not enslave anyone, as was the custom, those days. Even the killer of his beloved uncle, Hamza (RA) was forgiven. He only asked them not to appear before him frequently as that reminds him of uncle Hamza‘s death and other such acts. The Quraish enemies talked to him in uncouth language and tried to harass him, but he never took revenge on personal grounds. For long thirteen years, the pagan barbarians perpetuated unspeakable persecution of Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers. Kept them confined for three long years in the barren valley of Shiabay, where supplies were not allowed. When children died and mothers moaned in agony, the heathen delighted in their misery and laughed aloud. The night the Prophet (PBUH) migrated, they planned to kill him, even then, he allowed them a general amnesty at the fall of Mecca. To avoid his enemies during the migrating sojourn, the Prophet (PBUH) took refuge in a cave. Searching, the armed bloodthirsty Quraish came to the entrance of the cave within a few yards of unarmed Muhammad (PBUH) and his companion. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), the lone company of the Prophet (PBUH) was terrified and said, ―Oh Rasulullah! We are only two against the armed blood hounds.‖ Calmly from the other side came the reply: ―Abu Bakr (RA) we are not two, do not be afraid, Allah is with us.‖
139

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

When the leaders of the Quraish came to know that the Prophet (PBUH) had left Mecca, they promptly declared a reward of one hundred camels for anybody who could bring the head of Muhammad (PBUH). For the reward Suraka ibn Jasm arming himself mounted a swift-footed stallion and hastened after the Apostle (PBUH). He quickly gained on them. When he almost reached the Harbinger of God, Abu Bakr (RA) became worried, but the Prophet (PBUH) calmly prayed and miraculously Suraka could not advance any further. His carrier stuck its foot in the sand, Suraka tried to find out the result of his pursuit astrologically with his arrow, thrice, and thrice the result was negative. He was warned not to follow. He realized that Muhammad (PBUH) truly was the Messenger of God and was weakened mentally. Suraka thus devastated, expressed himself to the Prophet (PBUH) and beseeched him for mercy. The Messenger of God not only pardoned Suraka but also gave him written assurance of protection for the future. When Mecca was conquered and Suraka was taken captive, Muhammad even did not ask him: ―Suraka what should be your punishment?‖
BENEVOLENCE:

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) lived a very simple private and public life, and taught his followers to do so. When he sent any military expedition, he would advise his commanders to be kind to the soldiers, be pious and care about the people under their commands. He enjoined them to wage war only on those that defied the ‗Unity of God‘ and threatened peace. Killing women and children were forbidden. Prohibited was also the destruction of trees, plants and standing crops. Strict order was given not to break any treaty. When the Prophet (PBUH) commanded his forces, he always maintained these basic humanitarian rules. After expressing his gratitude to God for His help, the Harbinger of God thanked Him and promptly enforced law and order in the vanquished land. He treated the defeated enemy with utmost kindness and compassion. For the sake of peace and tranquility, he signed Peace pacts with them on gracious terms. All these magnanimous acts earned him many friends and many sworn adversaries of Islam were easily won over. Not only that many Muslim warriors influenced deeply by these acts of compassion but also did such magnanimous act that no other religion can boast of.

140

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

In 1191, Christian world declared war on the Muslims, which became known in history as the Crusades. Two chief protagonists of these series of wars were King Richard, the lion hearted of England and the French King Philip Augustus. Both of them fell seriously ill at the battlefield. Salahuddin, the Great, the Muslim Commander, instead of exploiting the situation to his benefit, took a totally uncharted course. He entered the enemy camps in disguise and treated his adversaries until they recovered. He even sent a swift-footed horse for Richard, the lion hearted, when he lost his mount. Later, in face-to-face encounter, he defeated the Crusaders, comprehensively. The annals of the Muslims abound in such episodes.
EQUALITY:

Self-sacrifice was one of the most prominent qualities of Muhammad (PBUH). He had profound love for his children and in them he loved Fatima (RA), the most. On seeing her, he would glow with happiness and invariably stood up to greet her. Moreover, always bestowed a kiss on the forehead and seated her beside him. However, this beloved daughter of the king of the kings lived a very simple life. She had no servants and helpers. She did all the household chores. Once Fatima expressed her desire for a servant, the Prophet (PBUH) declined saying how could he provide comfort to his daughter without ensuring the same for many others. Fatima (RA) never again raised the issue. To Muhammad (PBUH) the rich and the poor, friend and foe, Muslims, non-Muslims, relatives and strangers, all, all were equal to him. He treated everybody equally kindly. He accorded importance based on good deeds done by a person. Similarly, punishments were awarded irrespective of standing and influence of a person in the society. Those Companions who were slaves earlier had the same standing before Muhammad (PBUH) and enjoined the same status as a Quraish Chieftain. Even the most wretched and the poor would find Muhammad (PBUH) at their bedside in sickness comforting them. Nobody was neglected for his social status. Nursing the sick and burying the dead was declared a religious duty. He said to his Companions, ―To help the sick and suffering is the duty of every Muslim.‖ Adi the son of Hatem Tai, the chieftain of the Tai tribe was a Christian by faith. He came to the court of the Prophet (PBUH) and was baffled at the
141

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

reverence shown to the Apostle (PBUH) and the simplicity. Adi was unable to decide if Muhammad (PBUH) was a prophet or an emperor. When he was in two minds, suddenly a slave girl appeared there and requested the Prophet (PBUH) to accompany her. He did follow the slave-woman and came back to his court only after solving her problem. This left no doubt in the mind of Adi that Muhammad (PBUH) was surely a prophet. He embraced Islam, immediately. Once a Bedouin stopped the Prophet (PBUH) by holding his cloak from behind while he was on his way to the public prayers and Muhammad (PBUH) was mildly hurt. He demanded the reason for doing so from the Bedouin. The Bedouin requested the Prophet for a solution of a problem. The Prophet (PBUH) said his prayers only after meeting his demand. All these epitomize the greatness of Muhammad (PBUH), and his passion for the welfare of the humankind.
SPARTAN LIFE:

The Apostle‘s (PBUH) pure disposition is the true reflection of the Holy Qur‘än. He meticulously obeyed edicts that descended upon him. Faith, Belief in one God, Prayer, Fasting, Poor Tax, Alms, Religious war, Renunciation, Sacrifice, Steadfastness, Perseverance, Gratefulness, Manners and other good qualities ordained by God, he was the first to comply with, before preaching them. His life was not only a reflection of the Qur‘än but it became alive through him. Peoples were urged to donate and give poor tax, and he was the first to exercise charity. Hazrat Khadija says, ―To help the indebted, clear their loans and helping destitute has become a habit of the Prophet (PBUH) but he does not ask his followers to dole out everything and fall behind him. They are only asked to spend part of their wealth in benefaction.‖ ―Wamimma Rajaknahum Iunfikun ( Donate a portion in the name of Allah from what Allah has given you.)‖: he reminded people of this injunction of Allah. In his own case, he donated everything that came his way. After the Battle of Khaibar, in the seventh Hegira, the system of dividing food grains for the whole year, among the Ummul Muminins was introduced. Long before the year passed, the stock of grains was spent in benefaction. Hazrat ibn Abbas (RA) says, ―Rasulullah (PBUH) was the most charitable person and his charitable activities would increase during Ramadhan. He
142

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

never refused anybody anything. Whatever he ate, he shared with all present, irrespective of the quantity. Muhammad said, ‗If anybody died indebted inform me, I will pay his loans; and if he had left any property, his inheritors will also inherit the debt‘.‖ Once a Bedouin came and told the Prophet (PBUH): ―These food grains do not belong to you or your father, showing the stacked up grains in front; load these on to my camel.‖ The Prophet (PBUH), without any hesitation loaded the grains on the camel. He did not mind the Bedouin‘s harsh remarks for he always said, ―I am only the custodian and distributor, God is the Giver.‖ Late in the night when all the worlds were immersed in silence Ayesha (RA) once saw the Prophet (PBUH) deeply engrossed in prayers. She heard him pray to God: ―O God, keep me poor, and give me death in this condition and raise me with the poor on the day of Judgement.‖ Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) told Ummul Muminin, Ayesha (RA): ―Never send away poor and wretched beggars empty handed. Even if it is a piece of date, give him that. Be kind and affectionate to the poor and let them sit beside you.‖ For ladies silk and gold jewelry are permitted, yet, the Prophet (PBUH) asked his wives to avoid those since, they hint at pomp and grandeur. He did not like resplendence in his abode. Hazrat Abujor Gifari (RA) said, ―One night I was walking with the Prophet (PBUH) and he suddenly said, ‗Abujor if the Ohud hills turn into gold for me this night, I would not keep a bit of it. Before the night passes away, I would get rid of it, but yes, if I have to pay debt, I would keep some‘.‖ One day from Bahrain came in camels laden with riches; the Prophet (PBUH) ordered them to be unloaded on the terrace of the Mosque. Witnesses say that without paying any attention to the wealth, the Prophet (PBUH) went inside the Mosque to lead prayers. After saying prayers, he came and sat beside the huge wealth and began distribution. When he rose, there was nothing left but the dirt on his clothes to brush off. Once, four camels laden with food grains came from Fedak. Some of these grains were used to meet loan-payment and some were distributed among the people. Bellal (RA) on being asked of the status of di sbursement replied: ―Still some grains are left, as there are none to take.‖ To that the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―I cannot leave this place till this worldly wealth is with me.‖ In fact, he stayed back in the Mosque that night. In the morning, Hazrat Bellal (RA)
143

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

gave him the good news: ―O Prophet (PBUH), God Has Relieved you of the responsibility, the leftover has been distributed.‖ Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) once after Asr (evening) prayers surprised his Companions by retuning immediately after retiring to his residential quarters. The Prophet (PBUH) explained: ―I remembered while praying that I have a piece of gold at home and I was afraid that night might descend before I could get rid of it.‖ Ummul Muminin Umme-Salma says, ―Once the Prophet (PBUH) came home, depressed. I asked him the reason. He replied: ‗Umme -Salma, yesterday, the seven dinars that we received are still with us, I am worried as we could not distribute those before the darkness of the night‘.‖ Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) would feel uncomfortable, until he could disburse things that came to his possession. Whatever he received as revenue, zakat (poor tax), zizia (tax on non-Muslims instead of zakat97), gifts or donations, he would distribute those immediately, irrespective of number or quantity, among the needy. At his deathbed, he was feeling restless. Then he, all of a sudden, remembered that some gold coins were there, still, in his possession. He immediately ordered to distribute them and said, ―Would Muhammad meet his Creator in this state when still after his death there were gold coins in his home?‖ However, despite being the temporal and spiritual leader of the Muslims, he led a simple pious life without any pomp or grandeur of a royalty. A man high above all kings and commanding a powerful nation that was on its wings, he led a life of a Dervish. After Prophet Muhammad‘s (PBUH) death Ayesha (RA), while eating said, ―Whenever I eat with satisfaction, I cannot hold my tears.‖ She replied on being asked the reason by a female student: ―Because I remember the Prophet‘s (PBUH) death: and that, by God, he never ate bread and meat twice a day.‖ He asked and taught people to live modestly and observe austerity. The Emperor of all Emperors, in spite of receiving and distributing huge amount of wealth dispatched from various districts of Arabia, as taxes and donations, lived a simple life. In the home of the King of Arabia, poverty reigned supreme. Fasting and misery was the norm. Ayesha (RA) said, ―The day the Prophet (PBUH) died there was nothing
97 Zakat is only payable by the Muslims, non-Muslims are required to pay Zizia (capitulation tax) in lieu of military services.

144

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

but a bit of barley for the day: and his armor was mortgaged with a Jewish man for a few kilograms of barley.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) used to say: ―Adam‘s progeny do not have any right other than to own a hut to hide his head and a cloak to cover his body and a few loaves of bread to satisfy his hunger.‖ He did not only preach simple living but he set example by living as he advocated. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) lived in a mud hut with roof covered with date-palm-leaves. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) said, ―His apparel was never retained folded, meaning he had no extra garments to keep folded.‖ Once, a beggar came for food, he asked his wives to give something to eat to the beggar. All replied that they had nothing but water at their disposal. Hazrat Abu Talha says, ―Once, he saw the Prophet (PBUH) lying on the floor of the Mosque and rolling from side to side due to hunger. A Companion came and informed him about his fasting and showed him a boulder tied to his belly, at this the Prophet (PBUH) showed him two.‖ Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was fasting for two days. Often, the Apostle lost his voice due to hunger. Once, Muhammad (PBUH) fasting, went to Ayub Ansari‘s (RA) house. Ayub Ansari (RA) from his own share of Dates gave some to the Prophet (PBUH). On being served with food, Muhammad (PBUH) put some meat on breads and sent them to Hazrat Fatima (RA), saying that she was fasting for days. It is well known that the Prophet (PBUH) loved his daughter and her sons, Hassan and Hussein, very much. However, he never expressed his love for them by allotting them extra food or sending them valuable gifts. Seeing a gold chain on Hazrat Fatima (RA), which was given by Ali (RA), the Apostle of God said, ―Do you want the people to say that Muhammad‘s daughter has put on a fire band around her neck?‖ Fatima (RA) immediately sold the chain and with the money bought freedom for a slave. Similarly, seeing Ayesha (RA) wearing gold bangles, he said, ―These do not suit Muhammad‘s wife.‖ He said, ―A person in this world needs only that much as is needed for a sojourner.‖ Once, seeing marks from the mat, he was laying on, on his person, some Companions expressed their desire to make mattresses for the Prophet (PBUH). He declined by saying: ―My association with this world is of a rider who rests a while under the shade of a tree and restarts on his journey.‖
145

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

He never preached anything that he did not practice. The most revered, most loved and most powerful man on the earth, the King of Arabia lived a simple, pious and righteous life, without any hint of pomposity or grandeur. Without any attention to his own needs, he distributed all the huge wealth and riches that came to him as taxes, donations and war winnings, in the people and led a puritan life. A shanty house with a roof of date palm leaves and camel hairs and mud walls was his palace. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) devoted all his energy in preaching Allah‘s messages and enacting His wishes for the benefit of the humanity. He single handedly roused a people bereft of all morality and sunk deeply in sins, to become the most virtuous and prosperous nation in the world. Once, a female Companion of Prophet (PBUH) gave him a woolen cloak, as he had none to cover himself. ―O how beautiful!‖ Another companion praised the Prophet (PBUH) without any hesitation gave him the cloak. One of the Companions had nothing in his house to celebrate some event, Muhammad (PBUH) told him: ―Go and bring the basket of wheat from Ayesha.‖ On that day, for the night, the basket of wheat was the only food in the Prophet‘s (PBUH) house. On another occasion, he brought along a few poor Companions from Saffa to Ayesha‘s (RA) room and asked for food. Bread prepared with the residue of pulses was brought. Since, the quantity was not sufficient, the Prophet (PBUH) requested for more. This time some confectionery made of dates was brought and then a bawl of milk came. That was all, the Prophet (PBUH), a mighty leader of the Arabs had for the guest. These are examples of his simple and austere lifestyle. Hazrat Bellal was charged with looking after guests coming to meet the Prophet (PBUH). None was returned without according due hospitality. At his deathbed, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) advised: ―Give visitors gifts, as I did.‖
RELIANCE ON GOD:

Several times, in the face of great adversities with such intensity that even his Companions were baffled, the Prophet (PBUH) kept unwavering faith in God. During the battle of Ohud, most of the Muslim army had to retreat but Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did not budge from his position. Aggressors‘ weapons were raining on him, as a result, a few of his teeth were broken (martyred) and he was bleeding all over. He did not lose his heart and was
146

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

firm in his belief that God will protect him. In the battle of Hunaian, Muslims withdrew, in the face of fierce attack by enemy archers. Arrows were flying all over and in the middle, the Prophet (PBUH) remained unshaken. From the front scores of unleashed arrows were zooming in and from this side the thundering cry, ―I am the Prophet of God, not a liar, I am a descendant of Muttalib.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) dismounted from his mount and said, ―I am the Apostle of God and his servant,‖ and then he raised his hands in prayer. In the face of terrifying power of the enemy, overwhelmed numerically, he stood his ground unmoved absolutely relying on God. He did not even bother to unsheathe his sword, for he did not need any Defense as he totally surrendered to God, knowing He would protect him. Never before Muhammad (PBUH) had a General been seen relying on God so completely and consummately. In Medïna, the Jewish and the Quraish continuously tried to harm him in any way they could. Therefore, to protect him, followers by rotation kept watch around his tent. Under these circumstances, came the divine message: ―O Rasul, God will Protect you from any harm.‖ Immediately, the Prophet (PBUH) asked the people guarding him to withdraw and to go to sleep. He announced there is no need for any vigilance, for God Has Himself taken over the responsibility.
SELF-CONTROL: COMPASSION: MAGNANIMITY AND FORGIVENESS:

Abu Sufiyan, the protagonist of many wars including Badr, Ohud and Khandaq in which many Muslims lost their lives; often tried, and conspired to kill the Prophet (PBUH). Hazrat Omar (RA) captured the foremost enemy of Islam, before the conquest of Mecca. Along with Hazrat Abbas (RA), he was brought before the Prophet (PBUH) as a prisoner. Though almost all his monstrous crimes against Islam were punishable by death, the Prophet of Benevolence, Mercy and Compassion said to an apprehensive Abu Sufiyan, ―You may have no fear, because, Muhammad is above all desire for Revenge.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) not only had forgiven Sufiyan his crimes but also announced general amnesty for all those who would seek his protection. Abu Sufiyan‘s wife Hinda was a much worse and heinous enemy of Islam. She defiled the body of the beloved uncle of the Prophet (PBUH), Hamza (RA). After the conquest of Mecca, she came veiled before Muhammad (PBUH), and her audacity continued. The
147

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Prophet (PBUH) paid no attention to her provocative antics. She was not asked about her brutal acts even for once. Impressed by this unprecedented display of forgiveness, she instinctively screamed: ―Muhammad earlier your tent was the most detestable in my eyes; today there is nothing dearer to me.‖ Wahsee, the killer of Hazrat Hamza (RA) was a slave of that ferocious Hinda, after the conquest of Tayef, fled to another place, which also fell to the Muslims. He was bewildered and deeply worried, for a safe refuse from the wrath of the Muslims. People told him, ―You do not know Muhammad (PBUH), go and take shelter under him. That is the safest place for you.‖ He did as was asked and appeared before the Prophet (PBUH). Wahsee‘s appearance brought back the sad memory of Hamza to Prophet Muhammad‘s (PBUH) mind and his heart was saddened. Muhammad (PBUH) only lowered his eyes and asked Wahsee not to appear before him as that brings back the sad memory of Hamza‘s death, that was all Wahsee faced for his heinous act. Ikrama son of Abu Jahl, a leading enemy of the Prophet (PBUH) who constantly schemed, conspired and carried out plans to kill, torture and harass Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was also forgiven. Recalling, his own and his family‘s abominable activities against the Prophet (PBUH), Ikrama fled to Yemen after the fall of Mecca to the Muslims. Meanwhile, his wife embraced Islam, and got to know the Prophet (PBUH). She went to Yemen, and convinced Ikrama of Muhammad‘s (PBUH) Compassion. On his return, the Apostle of God welcomed Ikrama, personally. In delightful excitement, he even forgot his Shirt (cloak). All was forgiven and forgotten in a moment, and Ikrama was warmly accepted. After the battle of Badr, at the instigation of some Quraish Chieftain, Omayer ibnul Wahab entered Medïna with a poisoned saber to assassinate the Prophet (PBUH). While waiting for an opportune time, caught by chance, he was brought before the Prophet (PBUH). Though proven guilty, the Prophet (PBUH) set him free without any condition. Omayer was hired by Safwan ibn Ommeyya, who pledged to look after his family and pay his debts, in case of his extermination, during execution of the mission. After the fall of Mecca, Safwan fled to Jeddah, finally, to travel to Yemen by sea. Omayer came to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and told him that Safwan was ready to jump into the sea to escape retribution. The
148

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Messenger of God told him to go and comfort Safwan since he was forgiven. On Omayer‘s request for some proof of his reprieve, the Prophet (PBUH) handed him, his Turban. Yet Safwan said, ―I am afraid to go to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).‖ Astonishingly, the very Omayer who wanted to assassinate Muhammad (PBUH) vouched for his benevolence. Coming to the court of Muhammad (PBUH), Safwan asked: ―Is it true that you assured me safety?‖ The Prophet (PBUH) answered affirmatively. Safwan was given four months, though he prayed for two, for deciding about his conversion to Islam. Much before that, his heart changed, and he embraced Islam. To show compassion to enemies, is very rare a quality in humankind. In Muhammad‘s case, there are many examples of showing unconditional clemency to extremely malevolent enemies. This is unanimously established that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), never, in his life, had taken revenge for personal reasons. His love, compassion and benevolence had defeated the established and accepted practice of revenge. At the fall of Mecca, he had the best opportunity to retaliate, while his sworn enemies were running helter-skelter, for the fear of their life. Those who for long twenty years perpetrated inhuman mental and physical torture, inexpressible harassment, indescribable cruelty on him and his Companions were brought before the Apostle, shivering with fear. Great in kindness and magnanimity, the Messenger of God announced, ―Go, you are free I have no complaints against you.‖ Jewish peoples regularly broke their pledges, and were arrogantly boastful about their betrayal and deception. Muslim men and women caught alone were beaten, tortured, and even killed by them. Their failed attempts on Prophet Muhammad‘s (PBUH) life continued, relentlessly. Yet, when brought before the Prophet (PBUH) defeated as prisoners they begged for forgiveness and were forgiven. To live in peace and harmony with them, the Apostle (PBUH) repeatedly granted them clemency. He advanced as far as marrying among them, but they were incapable of goodness for their hearts were indelibly blackened by evil. At last, they regrouped in the supposedly inaccessible Khaibar Fort, and declared war against the Muslims. Defeated conclusively, they begged for amnesty. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) not only pardoned them but also to improve relations accepted the invitation of a Jewish lady to eat at her place. Accordingly, the Prophet (PBUH) with his
149

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

entourage went and food was served. Forced by nature, the lady served poisoned food. Tasting the food, the Prophet (PBUH) realized that the food was contaminated but before he could warn, a Companion took the food and died. At the host‘s admission of the crime, the prophet forgave her. All the rest of his life, the Prophet (PBUH) suffered from the action of the poison. While returning from the battle of Nazd, on the way, somewhere under a tree, the Prophet (PBUH) was napping with his scimitar hanging from a branch. Other Companions were resting as well, scattered under trees. Meanwhile, a Bedouin who was waiting for an opportunity to assassinate advanced quickly and standing over Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), unsheathed his saber. Just then, the Apostle (PBUH) opened his eyes. Waving his sword, the Bedouin asked: ―Muhammad, who will save you now?‖ ―God,‖ swift the reply came in a serene voice. Because of the firm serenity of the voice, the Bedouin was frightened and placed his saber in the scabbard. In the mean time, Companions arrived at the scene but Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) let the man go away, silently. Once, a heathen prisoner was brought before the Apostle (PBUH), caught, waiting to assassinate him. The man was frightened to death. Apostle Muhammad (PBUH) let him go saying: ―You could not kill me, if God did not want.‖ During the Meccan expedition, Muslims captured eighty soldiers who were waiting to kill Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), attacking him suddenly from behind the hills. Informed about their ulterior motive, he ordered to set them free. When Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), took refuse at Tayef from the persecution of the Meccans, Tayefians did not hesitate to deride and torture him. Brute, inhuman, Tayefians were not even prepared to listen to him. They proved even more cruel and harsher than the Meccans. Abd Al-Yalil tribesmen, severely ridiculed him, and encouraged hooligans to stone him. They pelted stones at Muhammad (PBUH) from both sides of the street that he walked. As a result, he used to get wounds all over his body bleeding profusely and unable to walk he would sit down. Heartless hoodlums would, first help him stand up, and as he restarted again, they would again pelt him with stones. These heartless heathens perpetrated inhuman physical and mental torture on Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). So much so, that even after nine years, when asked about the most dreadful days in his life by Ayesha (RA), he instantly replied: ―Tayef-days.‖ In the 8th Hegira, siege
150

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

was laid on the city of Tayef. It was long and arduous, and the Tayefians did not show any sign of surrendering. During the siege, soldiers were regularly dying on both the sides, which greatly pained the Prophet (PBUH). Irritated, the Companions requested him to curse the Tayefians. On the contrary, the Prophet of Mercy prayed to God: ―O God, give them sense and shelter them beneath the soothing shade of Islam.‖ These same barbarous Tayefians were so cruel that they did not bother to injure the Prophet (PBUH) on the streets pelting stone at him! These people were not even prepared to listen to him! Yet the Prophet (PBUH), prayed for their deliverance. In the battle of Ohud, Muslims were forced to retreat. The enemy surrounded Rasulullah. From all sides, arrows and weapons were rained on him. He lost a few of his tooth. With the thud of a heavy weapon, the protective ring of his headgear pierced his head. Apostle Muhammad (PBUH) was drenched with blood, oozing out from his wounds all over. Even in that state, Muhammad (PBUH) prayed: ―O God, give sense to my people, they are ignorant. A nation that kills their Prophet, how would they be delivered from sins?‖ When a delegation, of the same Abd Yalil tribe of Tayef, came to meet him, he warmly welcomed them. Arrangements were made to house them at the terrace of the Prophet‘s Mosque. Every evening the Prophet (PBUH) would inquire about their well-being. Of all the people, he narrated to them, the brute inhuman Tayefians, the Meccan tragic life. Such was his simplicity! Mecca is conquered. At the courtyard of the Ka‘aba, the same Ka‘aba where the Prophet (PBUH) was harassed, ridiculed and abused, the vanquished Quraish chieftains are assembled. They are waiting their fate, heads lowered in distress. Behold these people; they are the same lot that relentlessly persecuted Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his Companions. Ceaselessly, they conspired, planned and carried out missions to assassinate the Apostle of God. With or without reasons, they killed, beaten, harassed and tortured his relations. Many of his near and dear ones lost their lives at their hands. Poor Muslims were unnecessarily tormented. Laying them on the sand in intolerable desert heat, they put burning logs on them just for the fun of it. They tore their bodies with spears beyond recognition. Today, they are awaiting their punishment; behind them ten thousand Muslim soldiers with thirsty swords are waiting for orders. Sheathing with revenge, they would
151

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

jump on them and tear them apart at a slightest hint from the Prophet (PBUH). Nevertheless, the incarnation of Mercy, embodiment of Compassion, and symbol of Kindness, the Prophet (PBUH) appeared with a smiling face, and said, ―Go anywhere, you want to go. I have no allegations against you. You are free.‖ That is how he proved right, his title of ―Mercy of the Worlds (Rahmatullil Al-Amin).‖
DEVOUT COMPANIONS:

The Most knowledgeable about him and the most intimate people avouched their faith in the Prophet (PBUH), first. The more the familiarity with the Prophet (PBUH), the earlier they took allegiance. This was in complete disagreement with earlier instances, where distant people took allegiance first and then the nearer ones. In Prophet Muhammad‘s (PBUH) case, nearer and dearer ones who knew him best confessed their faith in him first, and then gradually the others. These people confessing suffered with him intolerable hardships. Tough tests of endurance, hardships, tolerance and perseverance, for their faith, were successfully negotiated by them. Hazrat Khadija (RA) stayed for three years interned without food and water in the valley of Shiabay. Surrounded by ferocious enemies, Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) had to travel with Muhammad (PBUH) in the darkness of the night. Ali (RA) slept in the Prophet‘s (PBUH) bed, risking his life to dodge the enemy. Zaid (RA) was the man who did not return to his father to stay with his spiritual father. Muhammad‘s (PBUH) profoundly charismatic divine messages, so intensely inspired his disciples that never before, any other early disciples of any other great men, experienced. When Jesus Christ was crucified, his followers forgot everything, and fled with their lives, leaving Christ alone. A disciple even surrendered Jesus to the enemy, to save himself. Contrary to that, the disciples of Muhammad (PBUH) sacrificed their lives often, to save him. They kept the Prophet (PBUH) surrounded to save him from enemy weapons. In the face of life threatening situations, they had never deserted their beloved leader, and that steadfastness brought laurels after laurels for the Prophet (PBUH) of Islam. His stepson Haris (RA) became the first martyr of Islam. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) and Hazrat Omar Farooq (RA) were beaten and harassed by the Meccan-Quraish nonbelievers while trying to save the Prophet (PBUH) from them. In the battlefield of Ohud, the Prophet (PBUH) was surrounded by the enemy. Seven Ansar
152

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Companions, at once, responded to his call: ―Who is there to give life for me?‖ All of them attained martyrdom, saving their leader sacrificing their own lives. A lady Companion, lost her husband, brother, and son, in the battle, yet she was calm for the Prophet (PBUH) was alive and well. Approaching the field, she saw the Prophet (PBUH) and involuntarily said, ―O Rasulullah you are alive, then nothing matters. We are all ready to die for you.‖ Unending love, intense reverence and sacrificing zeal were the qualities of those disciples who knew him best. If Prophet Muhammad‘s (PBUH) persona was not pure and complete, replete with God‘s blessings than people would not feel bound to him, the way they did. To charismatic Muhammad (PBUH) they were highly deferential. The intimate the relation, the more people revered him. His divine qualities were so overwhelming that none hesitated to sacrifice life for him and his cause. People gave their life happily, distributed their wealth and property for God without even a second thought. In the battlefield, Companions fought courageously, enduring injury and torture, bravely embraced martyrdom. Nothing, the sharpness of the sword, the spear, the trident, could dampen their indomitable spirits. Not belittling their sacrifice, those who died were comparatively better off, for those who survived were relentlessly tortured. They were dragged on the desert by the rope tied around their neck, forced to lie on the red-hot desert sand, while burning logs were put on them; but they kept on chanting the Kalema98 (verse): ―There is no god, but Allah.‖ Nothing could deter them from their faith as their attachment to Muhammad (PBUH) and Allah was very deep and strong. Hazrat Khadija‘s son from her first marriage, Haris‘s (RA) body was sliced into pieces with a sword. Sumaiya, the mother of Hazrat Ammar (RA) lost her life to Abu Jahl‘s spear. Under the impact of inhuman torture by the heathens, Hazrat Yasir (RA) embraced martyrdom. Hazrat Khubaib (RA) lost his life on a trident. Zaid (RA) sacrificed his head under a sword. With sixty-nine comrades, Haram bin Malhan was killed mercilessly at Beer-eMawuna by Rawwal and Jafwan tribes. In the tragic episode of Rajee, Hazrat Wasim and his seven comrades were pierced with arrows rained on them by more than a hundred archers. They all laid their lives,
98 Sentence: Speech: here it is referring to ‗There is no God, but Allah‘.

153

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

unhesitatingly, but never compromised. In the seventh Hegira, Bani-Salem tribe martyred Hazrat ibn Aquil Asuza with forty-eight comrades. Hazrat Ka‘ab bin Usar Gifari (RA) embraced martyrdom with his comrades at Ahlat. For accepting Islam, Hazrat Khabbar was laid on burning coal and was kept thus until the fire died down. Hazrat Bellal (RA) was laid on hot desert sand with a heavy boulder on his chest. Between sessions, he was dragged on the street by a rope tied around his neck. Abu Fakih was dragged by the leg and was tortured with heavy boulders placed on his chest so that he could not breathe freely. Ammar (RA) was laid on the hot desert sand and beaten mercilessly. Zubair‘s uncle laid him on a mat and forced fumes into his nostrils. Said ibn Zaid was beaten severely, hands tied behind. During their confinement in Shiabay valley, Muslims had to eat leaves of trees. Sa‘ad bin Abi Wakkas narrates: ―Once in the night there was nothing to eat. We saw a piece of leather, driven by intolerable hunger boiled and eaten that.‖ Hazrat Othba bin Gazwal (RA) says, ―Eating unnatural food, we developed ulcer in the mouth.‖ Despite all these, the impression created in the minds of the disciples during their tutelage at the Prophet‘s Mosque, kept flourishing and crystallizing in their hearts, as time passed by. So great and deep was the influence of his ideals, that in spite of extreme hardships, they continued advancing them. That is how the Muslims could bring two-thirds of the world under their reign. Because of their unwavering faith in God and His Messenger, they could conquer all hurdles and hardships to establish Islam, firmly on the earth.
MULTI-FACETED PHILOSOPHY:

Every Muslim man and woman should emulate the life of the Prophet (PBUH). There is no example, in history, of a man so endowed with such vast and multi-faceted qualities. No great man has ever before come to this earth with so much talent. A man, who is virtually the Emperor of a vast prosperous Empire, lives like a poor man. His kitchen remains closed, while vast amount of wealth comes to him laden on camels. The General, at whose bidding a small and ill-equipped army fought against a strong and well-armed enemy, never shed any blood. An extremely brave general, who stood alone against formidable enemies, was so kind and compassionate that he signed no war pacts just to avoid further blood shedding. He signed,
154

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

apparently favorable pact to the enemy, while in an advantageous position, commanding a large well-armed army. Prophet Muhammad‘s (PBUH) attachment with people and the land was so deep that he knew them thoroughly. He knew each and everybody, poor, destitute, rich, wealthy, male, female, small and big. For personal reasons, he never punished any one, not even very famously cruel enemies. He wished them well and prayed for them. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) never showed any mercy to anybody disloyal to God. Always reminded them of God‘s fury and Hell and scolded them to bring sense in them. When he was thought to be a brave warrior, he emerged as a pious worshiper of God, who prays all the night. As it was spread that he was an imperialist, hungry to expand his empire, he was found sleeping on rags with half of Arabia under his reign. Fasting at Muhammad‘s home did not stop in spite of huge wealth pouring in from all corners of Arabia that was stacked up at the terrace of Masjidun Nabubi. Prisoners of war are distributed in the Companions to work for them but his beloved daughter hands roughened by domestic works returns empty handed. Islam instructed its followers to emulate the life of its Prophet (PBUH) and described it as the means to earn God‘s love. ―If you claim to love God, emulate me, only then God will Love you (Hadith).‖ Love of God in human are measured by the measure of following him (Al-Qur‘än). To sacrifice life swayed by deep religious fervor is easier, not belittling the sacrifice, than to undergo trials and tribulations of this life, without wavering a little. To keep faith, do everything as has been done by the Prophet (PBUH) without faltering a bit, is indeed a hard task. This is a tough test. Companions and their later generations, the Imams, the Walis (friend) of Allah, all studied the life of the Prophet (PBUH), in details, and then tried to emulate him. They tried to hand the Traditions, unblemished, down to the next generations. It proves that the life of the Prophet (PBUH), in the eyes of the primary votaries of Islam was impeccable. To them therefore, following him was the perfect method of attaining accomplishment in this life, and deliverance in the hereafter. For all the people of the world, not a section or segment, a great man who combines in him, all the good qualities and deeds is needed for guidance. Ideas are crowned with perfection by deliberations and then only execution can attain excellence. Only the man, whose deliberations, actions, decisions,
155

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

customs, faith, truthfulness, righteousness, love, affection, benevolence, chivalry, courage, bravery, sorrow, happiness, private and public lives, spiritualism, prayers, all temporal and spiritual activities are exemplary, can show the world the ‗Right Way‘. With the temporal greatness and sovereignty, the great man who can assure the glory and supremacy in the hereafter, and demonstrates by example, the application of canons, of both the Worlds, in his own life, only can lead the universe to the right destination. Ordinarily, people perceive forgiveness and devotion to duty as the best indications of perfection, in a human. Persons that are found with these qualities are the best teachers and the guides for the humanity. These qualities do not flourish very easily. If we closely scrutinize human nature, we will find that cruelty and compassion; love and anger, sympathy and apathy, satisfaction and desire live here in close proximity. Only, he is a complete human who conquers over all human wants and desires, and focuses that energy in the right direction. Only a well-organized human who could synchronize his natural propensity and restrain his thoughts and actions, might guide the people to the right path. The unique quality of Muhammad (PBUH) was that All Meccans called him Al-Amin and As-Sadique. Valuables were kept in his custody without any hesitation. For his selfless service to the suffering masses, people from all occupations loved him. They loved and respected him very dearly. If he agreed to cancel his mission, he was offered the throne of Mecca, accompanied by beautiful consorts and immeasurable quantity of wealth. He instantly, declined and continued preaching the true religion, in name of one and the only God. Disregarding all allurements and temptations to worldly possessions and enjoyment, he claimed Prophet-hood. The same people who loved him so dearly, and much before any claim to divinity, trusted him with their lives, exploded with rage. They boycotted him, pelted him, abused him, and harassed him continuously. Constantly, they conspired to kill him. He was labeled insane, a poet, and a conjurer. Meccans devised and used all weapons against him but left out the easiest course of defiling his personal character. They did not use an easy ploy to defame anybody, against Muhammad (PBUH), as he was unblemished, even in the eyes of his enemy. Whereas, it was very easy to produce few false witnesses to assassinate his character but even the worst of them did
156

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

not attempt to do so, for they were firm in their belief about his innocence. All the attacks were directed to his claim of Divinity. Wealth, property, people and even children were sacrificed to discredit and defeat Muhammad (PBUH), but not a finger was raised to his impeccable personal character. That testifies to his innocence even in private, beyond the eyes of the people. A human society is composed of people engaged in various trades and professions. If all the people take up the same profession, then the society cannot run; the nation cannot be self-sufficient. If all the people in the world were saints and savants then the world would come to a standstill. Human race would stop growing, flourishing, and pulsating with life. Therefore, to flourish as a prosperous nation, citizens should be trained and educated in different fields of trade and professions. There should be traders, businessperson, landowners, peasants, commoners, nobles, rulers and advisers, etc. The Prophet (PBUH) was a shepherd, a spiritual and temporal leader, an administrator, a general, a soldier, a laborer, a water-carrier, a husband, a father, a teacher, a justice, a jurist, a trader, etc. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) repaired shoes, stitched cloths, did household chores, dug and built, fought and commanded in short, he left his indelible stamp on everything for the people to follow from all lifestyles. He established by personal example rules of conduct, in all spheres of life, for everybody, starting from shepherds to the head of the states, - parents, children, brothers-sisters, husbands-wives, boys-girls, adolescents-adults, ownerstenants, neighbors, friends-foes, rulers-ruled, citizens, workers, intellectuals, justices-complainants, owners-servants, orphans, buyers-sellers, donorsreceivers, rich-poor and fakir-dervish. On one hand, we see him as a family man, living with wives and children among the people, on the other, he is in the cave, Hira, contemplating - a hermit. He migrated to circumvent persecutors, and fought many wars to punish tyrants. On one hand, he vanquishes his enemies as a powerful general, on the other, embraces enemies with affection. We see him taking gifts and then distributing them in the poor. Complete history, of the lives and works of the prophets of all the major religions, except Islam, are nonexistent. In some cases, very sketchy accounts are available. None, but Muhammad (PBUH) saw the accomplishment of his mission, in his lifetime. Ideology and the philosophy
157

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

of the other prophets remained unimplemented into practice, in their life times. It is an undeniable truth that all the prophets were men of very high moral characters. None of them did anything wrong, they did not kill, plunder, harm, hurt or accumulate wealth and build palaces. These lofty but passive qualities may also indicate powerlessness and loses importance, because, actions ensuing out of weakness and lack of authority, do not merit consideration, forgiveness or compassion. Magnanimity is showing mercy prevailing over the desire to take revenge, in spite of the power and strength. To show compassion and mercy to the vanquished is benevolence. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) never hit, hurt or harmed anybody, but all his life devoted himself to uplifting the poor and downtrodden. He protected, saved, and took care of the people in distress. Oppressed and tyrannized found his protection. The Prophet (PBUH) provided security, shelter and provision to the needy. He did not harm, but benefited People. Relentlessly, he distributed wealth and property received by him, as the supreme leader, but never accumulated any for himself or his family. The King of all Kings, Emperor of Arabia on whose feet rolled immense wealth, lived in a hut, dressed very simply, passed days without food, and never accumulated any wealth. Neither, he let his family members, or even his beloved daughter Fatima (RA), to benefit from his position. He was a simple, determined, firm, erudite, compassionate and charitable person; and never sought anything for personal gain. Simplicity exuded from all around him. Pomp and grandeur, pretension and pomposity were not in his nature. Simple and plain living was the way of Muhammad (PBUH), the prophet of all prophets. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) announced loudly: ―Lema Qulna Mala Tafalun (Do not say anything that you cannot practice yourself).‖ Whatev er he said, he showed people by practicing that. In the Qur‘än God says, ―For the Grace of God you are amiable to them, O Muhammad if you were harsh and cruel to them than those gathered around would circumvent you.‖ Again in the Qur‘än God says, ―Certainly, somebody came to you. Rasul (Messenger) is from among you; that which afflict you, torments him; he is very eager for your welfare, very kind to the Faithful.‖ These verses testify that Rasulullah (PBUH) was a well-wisher of all the people, irrespective of caste, creed and color. He was the incarnation of magnanimity and was very
158

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

merciful. Peoples need a universal Person who combines innumerable qualities in him to emulate. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a person who was replete with qualities like a garden, decorated with numerous flowers of different colors and fragrance. All, irrespective of caste, creed and color can emulate him. Beside the vastness of classes, and groups in humankind, there are innumerable types of people, moments, and emotions in life. People do ablution, bathe, dress, move, sleep, cry and laugh, work, eat, defend themselves, worship and pray. Unlimited is the kinds of professions they adopt, like: agriculture, trade, commerce, teaching, fishing, etc. Sometimes, they are hosts, and sometimes guests. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) left guidance with examples, for all these conceivable human activities. Human beings are intelligent creatures; besides, working with physical ability and strength, they apply their mind to do many jobs that require mental prowess. They at different times, under different circumstances, pass through various emotions. With the surroundings, changes their mental status; interactions with people and environment also evoke these changes. Therefore, they go through innumerable mental variations, and influenced by different states of their mind, they act and react variously. Everything around them, influence their behaviors; and changes in their emotions are reflected in their behaviors. Sometimes, they are happy, sometimes sad, since in this life, they go through vicissitudes. Their personal relationships or group relationships also go through changes; sometimes good, and sometimes bad; accordingly, their behavioral patterns fluctuate. Success and failure both are parts of this temporal life; facing these with determination, firmness, faith and truthfulness, is the key to success. Perseverance, endurance, tolerance, conviction, most all dependence on God (Allah) and belief in destiny, is very important to go through the process of life. Keeping mental balance under the trials and tribulations of life gives strength to human character. Under these circumstances, for guidance to overcome hurdles, Muhammad‘s (PBUH) persona is an icon of perfection, to emulate. Such a supreme combination of qualities, in a person, inspired anybody that were exposed to him is not surprising. It rejuvenated, reinvigorated, replenished and refined the mind and body of the people. He easily inspired insatiable desire in the people around him, to earn God‘s satisfaction, in every way they could. So inspired they were that their only
159

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

goal was to ensure welfare of the humankind, in the name of One Supreme God. Irrespective of caste, color, and creed, everybody, with Muhammad‘s (PBUH) divine inspiration believed in one God, in One Qur‘än, in one Rasul, in one religion, and in one Ka‘aba. He is the only man in the annals of human history, who succeeded at both the religious and secular levels. No other great-man, on earth, can claim this honor. The world changed and changed forever, under the influence of Muhammad‘s (PBUH) divine radical ideology.

END OF PART-I

160

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

PART-II Chapter I
ISLAMIC SYSTEM OF EDUCATION THE FIRST STUDENT OF THE WORLD:

His Creator enlightened Adam, right after his creation. Adam, the father of the human race, received the very first lesson. He is the first student in the world and the first man to begin writing. First lessons are given orally and then writing starts. Hadith narrates that before the Most Gracious Allah created His creations, He recorded: ―My Mercy will Prevail over My Wrath.‖ Hadith narrates that God created Pen and ordered it to write. Pen, thus, records everything that occurs on this earth and would do so until the Day of Judgment. There are three kinds of Pen:
96. 97. 98.

T H AT , T H AT T H AT

WHICH WRITES

‗ F AT E . ‘ MEN‘S
DEEDS.

WHICH IS USED BY ANGE LS TO WRITE ACCO UNTS OF

WHIC H IS USED BY HUMA N BEI NGS TO RECO RD T HEI R O WN DEED S.

Pen is a reward from God. Had there been no Pen, there would have been no religion. Without the pen, nothing could have been executed properly on this earth. This is a great kindness of God that He taught His servants, the unknown and led them to Light from the darkness of ignorance.. He encouraged them to write which benefits them greatly. Knowledge, history, science, arts, and even the divine messages are transmitted from one generation to the other through writing; and this will remain so until the end of the earth. All works of this world and hereafter would have suffered, if there were no Pen. In the Qur‘än God says,
44. .... B Y THE P EN A ND BY THE (R ECORD ) W HICH ( MEN ) WRITE , - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 68:1).

Warriors, take oath by their swords, and consider that a great honor. God, swearing by the Pen accorded honor and dignity to the Pen and the Writers. What can be more honorable in this world?
THE FRAMEWORK: THE FIRST ORDINANCE OF GOD:

Gabriel appearing before Muhammad (PBUH), said, ―Iqraa (Read).‖
TRANSLATED FROM BENGALI ‗SHANTIR NABI‘ OF FAZLUR RAHMAN KHAN BY MIR MAHBOOB ALI

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muhammad (PBUH) replied, ―I cannot read.‖ The Archangel said again, ―Read.‖ Muhammad replied again: ―I cannot read.‖ Then the Archangel thrice embraced Muhammad (PBUH), each time saying, ―Read.‖ With each embrace, gradually Muhammad‘s soul enlightened and he recited after Gabriel the following five verses:
45. P ROCLAIM ! ( OR R EAD ) IN THE NAME OF THY L ORD AND C HERISHER , W HO CREATED … ‗…C REATED MAN , OUT OF A ( MERE ) CLOT OF CONGEALED BLOOD P ROCLAIM ! AND THY L ORD IS M OST B OUNTIFUL , … H E W HO TAUGHT ( THE USE OF THE P EN , …) TAUGHT MAN THAT WHICH HE KNEW NOT (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 96: 15).

The verses mentioned above proclaimed three things . . . God, Man and Knowledge. If interpreted, evidently, God is the Lord of the Worlds. He created man and bestowed them with knowledge. If we intensely meditate on those verses, clearly, God is the Creator, and since He is the Creator, all eulogies are for Him. Man should worship God, and only God; and anything created cannot be worthy of worshiping. The Knowledge that made man the supreme creation of God, every Muslim man and woman must seek that. Only by acquiring knowledge, they can establish their supremacy.
THE HOLY QUR’ÄN ON ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE:

While verse after verse, of the Holy Qur‘än, descended from the heaven onto Muhammad (PBUH), reminders came for prayers and acquisition of knowledge, as well. Prayers and acquiring knowledge are compulsory for every Muslim man and woman, because knowledge is as important as are prayers; it is inseparable from all human activities, mundane or divine. Prayers are mandatory for everybody from the age of 8-9, whereas, schooling begins at 4-5. In the Holy Qur‘än, repeatedly, God reminded people about ‗Prayers and Acquisition of knowledge.‘ The Qur‘än abounds in such verses: AlQur‘än says,
46. 47. T HIS IS THE B OOK IN IT IS GUIDANCE SURE , WITHOUT DOUBT TO THO SE WHO FEAR G OD ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:2). H E GRANTETH WISDOM TO WHOM H E PLEASETH ; AND HE TO WHOM WISDOM IS GRANTED RECEIVETH INDEED A BENEF IT OVERFLOWING ; BUT NONE WILL GRASP THE M ESSAGE BUT MEN OF UN DERSTANDING . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:269).

162

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 48. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! WHEN YOU DEAL WITH E ACH OTHER , IN TRANSACTIONS
INVOLVING FUTURE OBLIGATION IN A FIXED PERIOD OF TIME REDUCE THEM TO WRITING LET A SCRIBE WRITE DOWN FAITHFULLY AS BETWEEN THE PARTIES : LET NOT THE SCRIBE REFUGE TO WRITE : AS G OD HAS TAUGHT HIM TO , SO LET HIM WRITE . L ET HIM WHO INCURS THE INABILITY DICTATE , BUT LET HIM FEAR HIS L ORD G OD , AND NOT DIMINISH AUGHT OF WHAT HE OWES (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:282).

49.

50. 51.

52.

53.

54. 55. 56.

57. 58.

N OR SHOULD B ELIEVERS ALL GO FORTH TOGETHER : IF A CONTINGENT FROM EVERY EXPEDITION REM AINED BEHIND , THEY COULD DEVOTE TH EMSELVES TO STUDIES IN RELIGION , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 9:122). O H MY L ORD ! ADVANCE ME IN KNOWLEDGE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 20:114). B EFORE THIS W E WROTE IN TH E P SALMS , AFTER THE M ESSAGE ( GIVEN TO M OSES ): ‗M Y SERVANTS , THE RIGHTEOUS , SHALL INHERIT THE EARTH .‘ (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21:105). T HOSE WHO LISTEN TO THE WORD AND FOLLOW T HE BEST ( MEANING ) IN IT: THOSE ARE THE ONES WHOM G OD HAS GUIDED , THOSE ARE THE ONE ENDUED WITH UNDERSTANDING . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 39:18). (H ERE IS ) A B OOK WHICH WE HAVE SENT DOWN UNTO THEE , FULL OF BLESSINGS , THAT MAY MEDITATE ON ITS S IGNS , AND THAT MEN OF UNDERSTANDING MAY RECEIVE ADMONITION (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 38:29). T HIS IS NO LESS THAN A MESSAGE TO ( ALL ) THE W ORLDS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 38:87). A Q UR ‘ ÄN IN A RABIC FOR PEOPLE WHO UNDERSTAND ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 41:3). B Y THE B OOK THAT MAKES THING S CLEAR , - W E HAVE MADE IT A Q UR ‘ ÄN IN A RABIC , THAT YE MAY BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND ( AND LEARN WISDOM ). A ND VERILY IT IS IN THE MOT HER OF THE B OOK IN OUR P RESENCE , HIGH ( IN DIGNITY ), FULL OF WISDOM . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 43:2-4). T HESE ARE THE CLEAR EVIDENCES TO MEN , AND A GUIDANCE AND M ERCY TO THOSE OF ASSURED FAITH (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 45:20). (G OD ) M OST G RACIOUS ! IT IS HE WHO H AS TAUGHT THE Q UR ‘ ÄN . H E HAS CREATED MAN , H E HAS TAUGHT HIM SPEECH ( AND I NTELLIGENCE ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 55:1-4).

Therefore, if Muslim men and women earn expertise by acquiring knowledge, according to the Qur‘änic instructions, then God has promised, Power, Authority, Supremacy, Wealth and Security to them. The Qur‘än says,
59. G OD HAS PROMISED , TO THOSE AMONG YOU W HO BELIEVE AND WORK RIGHTEOUS DEEDS , THAT H E WILL , OF A SURETY GRANT THEM IN THE LAND , INHERITANCE ( OF POWER ), AS H E GRANTED IT TO THOSE BEFORE THEM , THAT H E WILL ESTABLISH IN AUTHORITY THEIR RELIGION - THE ONE WHICH H E HAS CHOSEN FOR THEM ; AND THAT H E WILL CHANGE ( THEIR STATE ), AFTER THE FEAR IN WHICH THEY ( LIVED ), TO ONE OF SECURITY AND PEACE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 24:55).

Muhammad‘s (PBUH) Commands: Allah has repeatedly exhorted all men and women, in His divine Messages to enlighten them by getting education and knowledge. Following the directions of All Powerful God, Muhammad (PBUH) toiled all his life to eradicate ignorance. He

163

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

encouraged, promoted and patronized the culture of education and science. His efforts attached great importance to learning.
SOME IMPORTANT SAYINGS OF MUHAMMAD (PBUH) ON EDUCATION:
99. 100.

E D U C AT I O N E D U C AT E

I S C OM P ULS O RY FO R A L L ME N AND W O ME N .

Y O U R C H I L D R E N B E C A U S E T H E Y A R E D E S T I N E D T O L I V E I N A N A G E T H AT I S

DIFFE RENT FROM YOURS. 101. 102.

HE, HE

W H O D I E S W H I L E S E A R C H I N G K N O W L E D G E A N D W I S D O M , AT T A I N S M A RT Y R D O M . WHO DIE S SEA RC HI NG FO R K N OWLED GE AND WI SDO M IS A PROPHET BUT FO R A

RANK. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108.

TO

G L E A N K N O W L E D G E , G O E V E N T O D I S TA N T

CHINA.

SC HO LA RS ‘ T H AT O N LY T HE

I N K I S H O L I E R T H A N T H E B L O O D O F A M A RT Y R .

WHO IS LACKING K NOWLEDGE HAS NO ST UD Y CO ULD EN RI C H K NO WLEDGE .

FA I T H .

PLACE OF LEARNING IS LIKE

PA R A D I S E .

LISTENING
RIT UALS

TO T HE LEA R NED A ND STUDYI NG IS BETTER T HAN PRACTICI NG RE LIG IO US A N D B E T T E R T H A N E N F R A N C H I S I N G A T H O U S A N D S L AV E S .

. . .

109. 110.

FIG HT ING T HE
MAN

I G N O R A N C E I S A S I M P O RT A N T A S B AT T L I N G F O R R E L I G I O N

(JIHAD).

SLUMBE R O F A LEA R NED MAN I S BETTER T HAN T HE WO RSHIPI NG OF AN IGN O RA NT

111. 112. 113. 114. 115.

A

H I B E R N AT I N G S A G E I S B E T T E R T H A N A W O R S H I P I N G I D I O T I S . F O R K N O W L E D G E F R O M T H E C R A D L E T O T H E G R AV E .

SE ARCH IT

I S BETTER TO ST UD Y T HAN TO IN D ULGE IN E XCESSIVE WO RSHIPI NG. FOR KNOWLEDGE,‘ ADVISED ST UD Y IS BETTE R

‗YEARN ONE

GOD.
AT T E N D I N G T HE FUNERAL OF A THO USA ND

HOUR‘S

THAN

M A RT Y R S A N D P R AY E R S F O R A T H O U S A N D N I G H T S . 116.

A

L E A R N E D M A N I S A G R E AT E R E N E M Y O F T H E D E V I L

( S AT A N )

T HA N A T HO USA ND PIO US

MEN IS. 117. 118. 119. 120.

KNOWLEDGE TEAC HI NG HE

HE LP DI STIN G UI SH BET WEEN JUSTIC E AN D INJUSTI CE .

A N H O U R I N T H E N I G H T I S L I K E P R AY I N G T H E W H O L E N I G H T .

T H AT R E S P E C T S T H E L E A R N E D P A Y S R E S P E C T T O

GOD. AND
A S V I C E - RE G E N T, T HE Y

T HE LEA RNE D

IS T HE VI CE- REGENT S OF T HE PROPHET S.

L E A R N D I R E C T LY F R O M T H E P R O P H E T S . 121. 122. 123.

HE

WHO HE LPS T HE LEA R NED,

GOD

H E L P S H I M A F T E R D E AT H . W H O T R AV E L S T O F I N D K N O W L E D G E .

GOD T HE

M A K E S H I S WA Y E A S I E R T O

H E AV E N

LE A RNE R IS S UPE RI O R TO T HE IGN O RA NT, LI KE T HE M OO N IS S U PE RIO R TO A L L

S TA R S . 124.

ANGELS

SA LUTE T HE EXP LO RE R OF K NO WLE DGE .

164

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
125. 126.

HE, T HE

W H O L E AV E S H I S H O M E S E E K I N G K N O W L E D G E , T A K E S T H E P AT H O F L E A R N E R T H AT G O E S O U T I N T H E P U R S U A N C E O F K N O W L E D G E ,

GOD.
BESTOWS

GOD

HIS

MERC Y O N HI M. 127.

ALL
THE

T H AT E X I S T S I N T H E

PA R A D I S E

AND O N T HE

E A RT H ,

A ND T HE FISHE S DEEP D O WN IN

SEAS,

P R AY F O R T H E L E A R N E D . T HE AN GELS WILL WELC OME T HOSE WHO SEEK K N OWLEDGE .

128. 129.

IN

T HE

PA R A D I S E ,

T HE

P E R S O N W H O W I L L C O N S I D E R P U R S U I N G K N O W L E D G E H I S L I F E ‘ S M O T T O A N D T H AT ,

WHO ENGA GED HI M TO D O SO, WI LL GO TO 130. 131.

H E AV E N .

ALLAH

W I L L R E WA R D T H A T P E R S O N W H O W I L L E D U C AT E H I S S E RVA N T S . IS OUR FRIE ND IN THE D E S E RT , IN I S O L AT I O N OUR C O M PA N I O N AND

KNOWLEDGE

AGAINST OUR ENEMIES OUR WEAPON. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141.

HE HE HE,

W H O T E A C H E S E A R N S T H E V I RT U E O F D O I N G C H A R I T Y T O T H E P O O R . W H O TA L K S A B O UT P U R S UI N G K N O W L E D G E , HE L O V E S

GOD. GOD.

W H O TA L K S A B O UT T HE P U R S U A N C E O F K N O W L E D G E , P R A I S E S L I G H T S T H E WA Y T O T H E OF

KNOWLEDGE

PA R A D I S E .

T H E S E RVA N T HE, IN

GOD

E A R N S T H E G R E AT E S T G I F T B Y F I N D I N G K N O W L E D G E .

W H O F O U N D K N O W L E D G E , PA I D F O R H I S P A S T S I N S .

T HE Q UE ST OF KNO WLED GE, THE POO R A ND T HE RIC H A RE EQ UA L. ANGE LS BO W TO T HOSE WHO PURSUE KN O WLE DGE. K N O W L E D G E , H E T H AT F I N D S K N O W L E D G E R E S P E C T S LEA RNE D MAN, WHO LI VES WI TH T HE

T HE FIND T HE

GOD.

G R E AT

O N T H I S E A RT H , H E A L S O G A I N S

H A P P I N E S S A F T E R D E AT H .

Once, the Prophet (PBUH) went to the Mosque and observed two groups, one engaged in prayers, the other learning lessons. He joined the group learning lessons, saying: ―I have also been sent as a ‗Teacher‘.‖

NECESSITY OF STUDYING THE QUR’ÄN

AND ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE IN OTHER DISCIPLINES:

The Holy Qur‘än is the complete code of life for the Muslims. Therefore, everybody, rich or poor, big and small, man or woman should study the Holy book and model their lives, accordingly. Everybody, must study the Holy Qur‘än and understand it. If, we understand the Qur‘än properly then we will better comprehend the Most Merciful Allah, the mystery of His creations and Muhammad (PBUH), His Prophet. The Most Merciful, the Most Gracious, Allah in the Qur‘än says,
165

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 60. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! A PPROACH NOT PRAYERS WITH A MIND BEFOGGED , UNTIL YE CAN UNDERSTAND AL L THAT YE SAY, - . . . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:43).

In the intoxicated state people loses the sharpness of the mind and is easily confused. Ignorant persons are like the intoxicated with a foggy mind. It is therefore, necessary for everybody to study the Qur‘än. To do that, i.e., to comprehend the Qur‘än, Arabic lessons are necessary. Because, one should understand, at least, the verses recited, during the prayers. Simultaneously, Muslims should study the modern sciences and learn multiple languages. Without that knowledge, it is impossible to comprehend the Qur‘än, in the light of the Sciences, and the purpose of studying the Qur‘än would be lost. Allah the Lord of the Worlds says: ―by the Qur‘än full of wisdom‖ (36:2). Those studied modern science with proficiency in Arabic, easily understand the Qur‘än‘s contribution to the advancement of human mind and the soul. The Qur‘än descended to guide the human race, to the righteous path and prevent them from going astray. There is no science that the Qur‘än has not touched upon. Mention of all branches of knowledge on earth, from Biology and Medical science to Paleontology and Astrology, is in the Qur‘än. Only a scholar can discern and unravel those. Today western scientists, finding scientific intelligence imbedded in the Qur‘än, are overwhelmed with awe.99 The Muslim world is in deep-pit of ignorance, today. If everybody studied the Qur‘än, the way the Companions did and understood the messages therein, they would have been in a far better situation. The Muslims could save them from the sure destruction to which they are racing forward. Totally, absent are the devotion and the application with which the Companions prayed and did their duties. When in their prayers, nothing, including a piercing arrow would shatter their concentration. These Companions were people of very high caliber who did not only master the Arabic language, but also attained high levels of proficiency in other languages and branches of knowledge. They ruled the intellectual world as they did the mundane earth. It is therefore, an imperative that the Muslims to regain their stature and glory should pursue knowledge.
99 All these has been discussed eloquently in the book entitled, Science in the Holy Qur'än by M. Akbar Ali.

166

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

One important lesson of the Qur‘än is the attainment of knowledge. This is the foundation of the religion, propagated by Muhammad (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) says, ―The Qur‘än is the leash of God (Allah), it is a guide that abounds in sophisticated knowledge and is the ‗straight way‘ (Siratul-Mustaquim).‖ ―That sinner is the worst, who recites the Qur‘än without any attention to its instructions or does not act, accordingly,‖ says the Prophet (PBUH).100 He again says, ―A person who completes reading the Qur‘än in less than three days, does not understand the meaning or cannot grasp the significance of the Qur‘än.‖ He further says, ―Recite the Qur‘än correctly, clearly and try to comprehend its essence.‖ God, the Creator, the Sustainer of the World has given instructions to do thorough research on the Qur‘än. Some verses of the Qur‘än urging research are:
61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. T HIS IS THE B OOK ; IN IT IS GUIDANCE SURE , WITHOUT DOUBT, TO THOSE WHO FEAR G OD ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 2). T HERE HATH COME TO YOU FROM G OD A ( NEW ) LIGHT AND A PERSPICUOUS B OOK , - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5: 17). A ND THIS IS A B OOK WHICH W E REVEALED AS A BLESSING : SO FOLLOW IT AND BE RIGHTEOUS , THAT YE MAY RECEIVE MERCY: (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6: 155). (I N THE BEGINNING OF T HE Q UR ‘ ÄN G OD HAS DECLARED :) T HESE ARE THE VERSES OF THE B OOK OF W ISDOM . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 10: 1). W E HAVE SENT IT DOWN AS AN A RABIC Q UR ‘ ÄN IN ORDER THAT YE MAY LEARN WISDOM . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 12: 2). A B OOK WHICH W E HAVE REVEALED UNTO THEE , IN ORDER THAT THOU MIGHTIEST LEAD MANKIND OUT OF THE DEPTHS OF DARKNESS INTO LIGHT - BY THE LEAVE OF THEIR L ORD - TO THE WAY OF (H IM ) THE E XALTED IN P OWER , WORTHY OF ALL P RAISE ! - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 14: 1). W E HAVE REVEALED FOR YOU ( O MEN !) A BOOK IN WHICH IS A MESSAGE FOR YOU : WILL YE NOT THEN UND ERSTAND ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21: 10). A ND THIS IS A BLESSED MESSAGE WHICH WE HAVE SENT DOWN : WILL YE THEN REJECT IT ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21: 50). V ERILY THIS IS A R EVELATION FROM THE L ORD OF THE W ORLDS : W ITH IT CAME DOWN THE S PIRIT OF FAITH AND T RUTH - TO THY HEART AND MIN D , THAT THOU MAYEST ADMONISH IN THE PERSPICUOUS A RABIC TONGUE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 26: 192-195). (H ERE IS ) A B OOK WHICH WE HAVE SENT DOWN UNTO THEE , FULL OF BLESSINGS , THAT MAY MEDIATE ON ITS S IGNS , AND THAT MEN OF UNDERSTANDING RECEIVE ADMONITION . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 38: 29). G OD HAS REVEALED ( FROM TIME TO TIME ) THE MOST BEAUTIF UL MESSAGE IN THE FORM OF A B OOK , CONSISTENT WITH ITSE LF, (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 39: 23). (I T IS ) A Q UR ‘ ÄN IN A RABIC , WITHOUT ANY CROOKEDNESS ( THEREIN ): IN ORDER THAT THEY MAY GUARD AGAINST E VIL . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 39: 28).
Same as above, p. 131.

67. 68. 69.

70.

71. 72.

100

167

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 73. 74. 75. V ERILY, W E HAVE MADE THIS Q UR ‘ ÄN EASY, IN THY TONGUE , IN ORDER THAT THEY MAY GIVE HEED . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 44: 58). D O THEY NOT THEN EARN ESTLY TRY TO UNDERSTAND THE Q UR ‘ ÄN , OR ARE THEIR HEARTS LOCKED UP BY THEM ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 47: 24). V ERILY THIS IS NO LESS THAN A M ESSAGE TO ( ALL ) THE W ORLDS : (W ITH PROFIT ) TO WHOSOEVER AMONG YOU WILLS TO GO STRAIGHT : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 81: 27-28).

To those this Book is sent, they should study it the way it should be: They are the Faithful. Those who reject it they are in loss.‖ In this way, God has repeatedly, urged the Faithful to study the Qur‘än with complete devotion and application, and learn and enrich their mind and soul. Man is the representative of God on this earth. God has compiled all instructions for man, to act in, and react to, all possible situations, in the Qur‘än. The Code of God guides all actions of man, from the cradle to the grave. Man should abide by that. Therefore, the study and culture of the Qur‘än are very important for every Muslim. The purpose is to understand the meaning of the creation, knowing God and his Prophet (PBUH). What have we got from God? What can we expect from Him? What will we get from Him? All the answers to these questions are there in the Qur‘än. Studying the Qur‘än gives a clue to what to do for the peace, prosperity, and welfare of the human race. It leads man to know, to comprehend, to feel, to witness, to love, to want, and to search for the ultimate Truth. It teaches to adopt nothing but the Truth and only the Truth. Simultaneously, the Qur‘än also urges people to behave nicely with each other and maintain equality in treatment. To strive constantly to establish peace and enforce justice are the solemn duties of every Muslim. As the representative of God, man must conduct himself appropriately. Unshackle himself from any bondage of servitude and get liberated from his own desires, teaches the Qur‘än. The Qur‘än unequivocally says that Pride, Glory, Haughtiness, Lineage, Wealth and Social Status, none, has any value. Man has to get those knowledge and qualities that God has described in the Qur‘än, man ought to have, as the representative of God. Therefore, for proper guidance, it is very necessary to study the Qur‘än thoroughly, with attention and care. Today, the non-Arabic speaking Muslims must study the Arabic language to properly comprehend the Qur‘än. Keeping the Qur‘än reverently bound in expensive Moroccan leather and kissing it a thousand times a
168

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

day may give mental satisfaction, but would not serve the cause of Islam. Even reciting the Qur‘än a thousand times a day would not solve any problems. Therefore, with the knowledge of modern science, Muslim man and woman should study the Arabic language, too, so, that their souls may attain spiritual refinement with worldly knowledge. To accomplish that the Muslims should be sincere, like, the Prophet (PBUH) and the Caliphs about educating every Muslim man and woman. In addition, take effective and firm measures to accomplish that. In the early days of Islam, almost all adherents were Arabs. They therefore, had no difficulty in studying and understanding the divine book. Today, Islam has spread in non-Arab population of the world. The Qur‘än has been translated into the mother tongues of the non-Arabs; still it is necessary to learn Arabic to comprehend the meaning of the Qur‘än, and to gather the scientific intelligence imbedded therein. At the beginning of Islam, Arab Muslims took full advantage of the Arabic Qur‘än, and became experts in Arts and Sciences. They left an indelible mark of their superior qualities in government, politics, diplomacy, warfare, culture, science and arts; they influenced every field, treaded. In the later age, since, the Muslims has relegated education to a secondary position, they are dethroned from their exalted position. Nationalist nonArab leaders, on various pretexts, curtailed the culture of Arabic language in the non-Arab Muslim nations. They advocated only the use of their local tongue for education. Consequently, the learning and culture of the Qur‘änic language has been confined to only ritualistic use. Therefore, ordinary non-Arab Muslims are deprived of the chance to learn Arabic and study the Qur‘än to enrich themselves. They are, hindered by the language barrier, unable to study the Book, in its full glory, packed with scientific information and benefit from it. Education and only education, both mundane and spiritual can bring success, as it did to the early Muslims. The Qur‘än is a glorious treasure teeming with knowledge. To sift that knowledge, a perfect and thorough understanding of the Qur‘än is needed. Muslim men and women should find the way to do precisely that. Today, the non-Muslim scientist researching on the Qur‘än realized that the Qur‘än has many indications which was incomprehensible for the human mind, fourteen hundred years ago. With the development of
169

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

modern science those hidden information are gradually becoming more understandable. With further advancement of science, more of this hidden knowledge would become transparent to the human mind. This is why the Prophet (PBUH) gave so much emphasis on universal education. Every Muslim Man and Woman, as Muhammad (PBUH) wanted, should make ‗Learning‘ his or hers prime duty for which he devoted all his life.
MUHAMMAD (PBUH): THE TEACHER:

The Qur‘än says:
76. G OD DID CONFER A GREAT FAVOR ON THE B ELIEVERS WHEN H E SENT AMONG THEM AN A POSTLE FROM AMONG THEMSELVES , REHEARSING UNTO THEM THE S IGNS OF G OD , SANCTIFYING THEM , AND INSTRUCTING THEM IN S CRIPTURE AND W ISDOM , . . . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3: 164). … A ND W E HAVE SENT DOWN UNTO THEE ( ALSO ) THE M ESSAGE ; THAT THOU MAYEST EXPLAIN CLEAR LY TO MEN WHAT IS SENT FOR THEM , . . . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 16: 44). … AND W E HAVE SENT DOWN TO THEE THE B OOK EXPLAINING ALL T HINGS , . . . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16: 89). W E SENT THEE NOT, BUT AS A M ERCY FOR ALL CREATURES . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21: 107). W E HAVE INDEED IN THE A POSTLE OF G OD A BEAUTIFUL PATTE RN ( OF CONDUCT ) FOR ANY ONE WHOSE HOPE IS IN G OD AND THE F INAL D AY, . . . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33: 21). O P ROPHET ! T RULY W E HAVE SENT THEE AS A W ITNESS , A B EARER OF G LAD T IDINGS , AND A WARNER , - AND ONE WHO INVITES T O G OD ‘ S (G RACE ) BY H IS LEAVE , AND AS L AMP SPREADING L IGHT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33: 45-46). N OR DOES HE SAY ( AUGHT ) OF ( HIS OWN ) D ESIRE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 53: 3). H E WAS TAUGHT BY ONE M IGHTY IN P OWER , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 53: 5). E NDUED WITH W ISDOM : FOR HE APPEARED (I N STATELY FORM ) . . . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 53: 6).

77.

78. 79. 80.

81.

82. 83. 84.

Those verses of the Qur‘än clearly show that Allah directly taught the Prophet (PBUH). He therefore, did not have to depend on any education in a temporal school, under the guidance of a human teacher. In this way, the Almighty God educated the Prophet (PBUH) guiding through His divine messages. All the doors of Knowledge were opened to him, and he learned and earned wisdom, in such a way, that no other human being in the universe could. To educate the people on this earth, on all subjects, ranging from science, arts to religion and morality, he was prepared by none other than Allah Himself. He, Muhammad (PBUH), is the most learned man in the history of humankind. Prophet Muhammad‘s (PBUH) lessons have been illuminating the hearts of the ignorant through all ages and will do so until the doom‘s day. Only the
170

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

lessons given by him are complete and perfect. For the welfare and benefit of the humankind, the method of finding knowledge as prescribed by the Apostle should be adopted and his plan and strategy should be meticulously followed. That will bring peace, prosperity and happiness to all, irrespective of caste, creed and nationality. Muslims may learn other languages, besides, the Qur‘änic Arabic for the sake of enriching themselves. There is no bar on learning languages or studying in other languages in the Qur‘än. That is why the Prophet (PBUH) has instructed us to travel to any length to acquire knowledge. ―To glean knowledge, go even to distant China,‖ said Muhammad (PBUH). Allah in the Qur‘än says,
85. S AY, T RAVEL THROUGH THE EARTH AND SEE HOW G OD DID ORIGINATE CREATION ; . . . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 29: 20).

He again says, ―Seest thou not that God has made subject to you all that is on the earth, and ships that sail through the sea by His command?‖ The Qur‘än abounds in such indications. However, todays‘ Muslims, lacking scientific knowledge, are unable to glean, and expound those to present them in the proper perspectives, for the benefit of the world. They therefore, need an education in modern science with a sound knowledge of the Arabic language. Fourteen hundred years ago, it was very difficult to travel to China from the Arabian Desert. The only way to travel was on foot or by sea. It is very significant that even then the Prophet (PBUH) urged his followers to travel to China to find knowledge in a dissimilar language. The implication of this instruction is extensive. Taking the lead from this the Muslims should not shrink from undergoing any hardship for attainment of Knowledge. Clearly, this is an indication to the Muslims, for not to dissociate themselves from western education and science, which is at its Zenith, today. After the Migration to Medïna, the Prophet (PBUH), like the Ashabe Saffa, established an educational institution called, ―Madrasatul Saffa,‖ there. Here, boarding and lodging were provided for the local and nonlocal students. Besides, Qur‘än, Hadith and Fiqah, Medicine, Astrology, and other subjects were also taught. The Prophet (PBUH) himself took the responsibility to teach here. Lessons, on physical exercise, horse riding and archery were also given here. Taught and prepared here, the
171

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

graduates were sent out of Medïna to teach. People from different tribes came to Medïna to learn. Many Madrasas were opened in different localities, in and outside Medïna. The educational program developed into such a sophisticated system that God sent a divine message saying: ―. . . In transactions involving future obligations in affixed period of time, reduce them to writing. . .‖ (Al-Qur‘än-2: 282). It is clearly perceivable that he wanted the Muslims equally adept in all disciplines. That is obvious from the method of education adopted by the Prophet (PBUH), giving equal emphasis on all branches of knowledge: Religion, Arts, Law, Science, Administration, Management, Finance, Warfare and Trade. He realized that the human race would not attain the perfection God wants them to, unless spiritual and temporal knowledge and accomplishments are combined. If all the Muslims in a country are theologians, they cannot contribute in other fields. In a Muslim country, if all the citizens were clerics then who would run other departments? Such a country would have to depend heavily on non-Muslims experts in other fields. Like, we see today, in the oil rich Arab countries, they are very dependent on alien doctors, engineers and teachers. Most of these experts are from the non-Muslim advanced countries. It is therefore, necessary that some should become engineers, doctors, teachers and lawyers while other should develop expertise in Business, Administration and Commerce. Muslims should devote their time to study, all the branches of knowledge according to the teachings of the Qur‘än. Only then, they could fulfil their duties to Allah and his Prophet (PBUH). In the Qur‘än Allah says,
86. 87. D O THEY NOT CONSIDER THE Q UR ‘ ÄN ( WITH CARE )? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4: 82). D O THEY NOT THEN EARN ESTLY SEEK TO UNDERSTAND THE Q UR ‘ ÄN , OR ARE THEIR HEARTS LOCKED UP BY THEM ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 47: 24).

God again says, In the verses quoted above, Allah invites Muslims to contemplate and research on the Qur‘än, so that they can use the knowledge to the benefit of the humankind. To bring peace and prosperity to the world, otherwise beset with discord and strife, Muslims must enrich themselves with knowledge. They need to delve deeper into the Qur‘än, to gather knowledge, and for that they must study the Book with utmost devotion and excellent understanding of the Arabic language. ―Man is the supreme
172

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

creation of God‖: . . . to do justice to that there is no alternative to learning perpetually. God commands man to ‗Read‘. Receiving God‘s divine instruction, the very first task of Muhammad (PBUH) was to teach his followers and encourage them to learn.
NEED OF EDUCATION AT THE BEGINNING OF ISLAM:

At the advent of Islam, the need to read and write made education very pertinent. Very few Arabs could read or write. Nevertheless, as the divine messages descended, it became necessary to write them down or commit them to memory. Luckily, the illiterate Arabs had very sharp memory, consequently, many of them committed the verses of the Qur‘än to their memory as it was revealed. The literate Companions wrote the verses as they heard and retrieved them from others who committed those to memory. Later, they checked the authenticity with the Prophet (PBUH), before transcribing those in to a book, arranging verses according to his instruction. This is the great holy book of God‘s divine messages, the Qur‘än. In this way, fourteen hundred years ago, Muslims received God‘s injunctions through the holy Qur‘än: A complete code of life. Of these injunctions, ―Read‖ is the first. The Prophet (PBUH) complied with God‘s instructions very faithfully. After the establishment of the Muslim State at Medïna, educating the illiterate population became very necessary. To run the affairs of the nascent state trained and educated staffs were needed. Orders and circulars of the state had to be drafted for circulation. Transactions of the state needed to be recorded. Correspondence within and without the country could not be carried out without educated people to write. The Yiddish used Hebrew, and Correspondence with them had to be done in Hebrew. Besides that, the international languages of the era were Habsi, Persian and Roman; it was therefore, necessary to learn those languages as well. Letters had to be written in different languages and translated from other languages into Arabic. All these were specialized jobs, and trained and literate people were needed for these tasks. There were very few educated individuals in the Arabic speaking population. Muhammad (PBUH), therefore, took necessary measures with particular attention to education. He took steps to educate Muslims, not only in Arabic, but also in other international languages, in use then. So intense was his desire to

173

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

educate his followers that in exchange of teaching the Medinease, freedom was offered to the prisoners of war of Badr. The scheme of educating Muslims began in Mecca. The prophet (PBUH) immediately, on receiving God‘s directions, responded by establishing ―Darul Aqab‖ - a Madrasa - at the foot of Safa hills. Muslim children of both sexes were given regular lessons here. In view of the high illiteracy rate in the adult Arabs, arrangements were made for adult education.
LESSONS TO SERVE THE HUMANITY:

Rasulullah [the Messenger of God (PBUH)] for about twenty years, from the beginning of his adult life to the fortieth year, tirelessly tried to educate his fellow beings. He untiringly tutored his associates and consorts in ethics, righteousness, truthfulness, honesty and fairness, and inspired them to inculcate those in their lives. The greatest of the great men devoted whole of his life to the service of the humanity. Long before attaining the Ministry, he became known and dear to his fellow Arabs as As-Sadique (Dependable) and Al-Amin (Truthful). The heathen Arabs, for the purity of his character, his honesty, and integrity, bestowed these titles on him. For twenty years before the Ministry and then for ten long years afterwards, he had striven hard to build the character of the people. Thus he prepared them, armed them with the necessary wisdom, knowledge and strength of character to perform prayers, before prayers were made compulsory. Clearly, people need to be prepared for the duties entrusted to them. At the age of fifty, the Prophet (PBUH) was granted an audience with Allah, and he traveled (Më‘râj) to the seventh sky to meet his Creator. While he was on tour of the seven skies, the covenant for Salat (prayers) was issued. Long before that when Muhammad (PBUH) at forty received his Ministry with the revelation of the verse ―Read‖, learning was made compulsory for all Muslims, male and female. It therefore, is certain that education was made compulsory for everybody ten years before Salat was made so. In this manner, the Prophet (PBUH), to take his followers to the peak of temporal and spiritual excellence, in succession, drew plans and executed those one after another. At first inducing modesty, politeness, trustworthiness, truthfulness, benevolence, honesty, righteousness, unity, discipline and humanity, he educated and prepared them for prayers. Only when their hearts were enlightened and they were ready, Allah
174

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

commanded them to Pray (Salat), five times a day. (Prayers) were made compulsory. This clearly shows that Salat should be instituted along with the enrichment of the soul by acquiring knowledge.
APPOINTMENT OF SCRIBES: EXPANSION OF EDUCATION

BY THE PROPHET (PBUH):

The Prophet (PBUH) created the jobs of Scribes and appointed important companions at different times in these posts, to write important instruments, documents and letters. Companions like: 1) Abu Bakr, 2) Omar, 3) Othman, 4) Ali, 5) Zubair, 6) Amer ibn Fuhaiya, 7) Amr ibnul Äs, 8) Abdullah, 9) Mu‘äwiyah, 10) Ibn Akram, 11) Sabed, 12) Ibn Kais, 13) Ibn Shamman, 14) Hamza ibn Rabiul Amadi, 15) Mughira ibn Sheba, 16) Abdullah ibn Rawwaha, 17) Khalid ibn Walid, 18) Khalid ibn Said ibnul Äs, 19) Aala ibn Hazrami, 20) Huzaifa ibn Yamam, 21) Zaid ibn Sabeth (RAs) etc., adorned the posts of scribes. Hazrat Ali (RA) drafted the Hudaibiya Pact. Hazrat Amer ibn Fuhaiya (RA) wrote letters to Kings and Emperors and Rulers of other countries; and Ubai ibn Ka‘ab (RA) wrote to the Arab Chieftains. Hazrats Ibn Kais (RA), Zaid ibn Sabeth (RA) performed other general duties of writing letters and documents. The great Prophet (PBUH) did not stop at declaring education compulsory, he established in the desert, schools and libraries, to support his program of mass education. Even today, the Mosques are the living evidences of his efforts in the Arab lands. Here, along with prayers and spiritual exercises, intellectual activities were held and primary education was imparted, under the direct guidance of the Messenger of God. Mosques were the centers of all beneficial activities, besides, the ritual of public prayers. This was only possible for the great wisdom of the Prophet of the prophets, Mohammed (PBUH). He said, ―The main objective and principal aim of learning is, to attain knowledge and insight about God and His creations, to determine the duties to, and relationship of the Creator with His creations, to direct the personal life toward the path of the Truth, to devote to the well being of the world and to advance toward enlightenment from darkness.‖ The Mercy of God, Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) descended on the earth, to propagate and augment Knowledge. For the same purpose, through
175

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

him, the Qur‘än has been revealed. The great Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Acquiring accurate knowledge of the Islamic canons (Shariat) is compulsory, along with that the pursuance of other branches of knowledge is permitted in Islam.‖ He further said, ―As an universal religion and a complete code of life, only Islam can provide comprehensive knowledge and consummate solution of problems.‖ While the Prophet (PBUH) was perfect in religious knowledge, he was an expert in mundane subjects, as well. That knowledge he received through Gabriel from Allah, he bestowed on the Muslim men and women. These divine messages of Allah are recorded in the Qur‘än and Ahadith101 [the sayings of Muhammad (PBUH)], for the guidance of the Muslims and the humankind. During a twenty-three years period, the sacred messages of the Qur‘än descended, one after another. Compilation and collation of these heavenly messages was needed to preserve them, for the posterity. It was therefore, necessary to write them down. In absence of the modern printing facilities, all books and documents were handwritten. Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH) just after the revelation of the first verse established the very first school of Islam, at the foot of the Safa hills, in the house of a Companion, for the disciples to get lessons, there. He went from door to door, to give the message about the importance of education, and told them that education for all males and females are compulsory in Islam. Similarly, on arrival at Medïna, he established a school with the Masjidun Nabubi, called Madrasatul Saffa. In this way, whatever the cost, the Prophet (PBUH) endeavored to educate his followers, to ready them for the celestial and terrestrial life, according to Allah‘s instruction. Education was necessary to build the character of the Companions for their mundane and spiritual duties. Allama Shibli Numani in his book, entitled, ‗Siratun Nabi‘, wrote: ―The religious rituals would not be of any use, if a person were not honest, God fearing, and abides by the norms of Islam. And only the educated, naturally, earns the right to know the Islamic precepts and practices, which the illiterates, generally, do not deserve.‖
101

Ahadith: plural of Al-Hadith

176

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE HAZRAT ALI’S DISCOURSE

ON THE MESSAGE OF THE HOLY QUR‘ÄN:

The first male to accept Islam, Ali (RA), the youngest son-in-law of the Prophet (PBUH), married to his beloved daughter Fatima (RA), the fourth Caliph, gave lectures and sermons and wrote numerous letters. An Arab man of letters, Allama as-Sayyid Abu‘l-Hassan ibn al-Hussein arRadi al-Musawi compiled those and published as a book entitled, ‗Nahjul Balagha‘. Translations of some of them are quoted below: 142.

ALLAH

APPOINTED

MOHAMMED (PBUH), HIS VICE REGENT QUR‘ÄNIC

TO PROCLAIM

T RUT H

ON

T H I S E A RT H .

T HE Q UR‘ ÄN

WA S R E V E A L E D T O H I M S O T H AT T H E H U M A N R A C E C O U L D MESSA GES, A ND T HE IG NO RA NT C O ULD

G AT H E R S T R E N G T H F O L L O W I N G T H E AT T A I N K N O W L E D G E A B O U T 143.

GOD. H O LY B O O K
OF

T HE MESSEN GE R WORLDS; PEOPLE‘S T HI S

OF

GOD

BRO UG HT A

ALLAH,

T HE

SUSTAINE R

OF T HE

IN WHICH EARLIE R DIVINE BOOKS ARE ENDORSE D, AND WHICH BEACONS T HE

PAT H T O T R E A D .

T HI S

G LO RI O US BOOK I S T HE

Q U R ‘ Ä N . W H AT

T HI S BOOK I S ABO UT ?

C O M P R E HE N S I O N A N D UN D E R S TA N D I N G A B O UT T HI S B O O K S H O U L D B E C L E A R . C O N TA I N S TIDINGS OF T HE FUT URE AND T HE PA S T : IT C O N TA I N S

BOOK

P R E S C R I P T I O N F O R T R E AT M E N T O F D I S E A S E S A N D D I R E C T I O N F O R D U T I E S . 144.

IN

T HE

DIVINE

BOOK IS

QUR‘ÄN, GOD

HAS

EXPLAINED

R I G HT, W R O N G , V I C E
T HE

AND

V I RT U E : T H E R E MOHAMMED

GUIDANCE HIS

FO R ALL T HE PEOPLE .

GOD,

ME RCIFUL QUR‘ÄN
BOOK

HAS SENT SOME T HE

(PBUH), T H AT

MESSENGER
SHALL

WITH FOLLOW

T HE

H O LY

AND AND

COMMANDMENTS.

WHO

T HI S

H O LY

C O M M A N D M E N T S W I L L N O T B E D E S T R O Y E D E V E R ; B U T T H O S E W H O W O U L D D I S O B E Y, S U R E W I L L B E A N N I H I L AT E D .

THOSE

WHO INT RO D UCE S NE W IDEA S FRO M O UTSI DE T HE AND

Q U R ‘ Ä N 102,

INVITES

DESTRUCTION,

GOD

PROTECTS

T HO SE

WHO

FOLLOW

HIS

INSTRUCTIONS. FO LLO W T HE

T HE RE

IS SEC URIT Y IN THE OBE DIENCE OF

G O D . T H AT

WHO DO NOT WILL

QUR‘ÄN

AN D ESPO USE INST RUCTI ON S FROM O UT SID E T HE OF

QUR‘ÄN,

BE DEN IED T HE 145.

ME RCY

GOD

O N T H E D AY O F J U D G E M E N T … PRO HI BITS, AN D IT IS SILENT ON SOME M AT T E R S ,

T H E H O LY Q U R ‘ Ä N

COMMANDS,

ELOQ UENT O N OT HE RS.

T HI S

M A G N I F I C E N T B O O K I S T H E P R O C L A M AT I O N O F

GOD

FOR

HIS

C R E AT I O N S .

HE

COM MA NDED HUMA N BEI NG S TO FO LLO W T HI S BOO K IN ALL T HE I R

ACTIVITIES…

102

At the beginning of Islam there appeared a group of clerics who a used ijtihad (exerting one's self to the best of one's ability to attain an object or to form an opinion in a case or to rule of law) in the absence of clear instructions in the Qur'än and the Al-Hadith, on a matter. Mahmudul Hassan, Syed: Islam. p 219; Islamic Foundation of Bangladesh). Because of these ijtihads, ordinary people were confused. Hazrat Ali (RA) says: "Qur'än and Al-Hadith provides solution to all matters. There is no scope in Islam for ijtihad. Nobody is empowered to author anything from outside the Qur'än and Al-Hadith, to reach a decision by deliberations. Solution must be sought if a disagreement arises on the interpretation of a subject; since, the solutions are there in the Qur'än and the Sunnah. There is no scope of disputing the religious instructions. Directions of the Qur'än are so clear that there is no possibility of disagreement, even on the accent. Disagreement arises out of the ignorance and wishful decisions of the people.

177

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
146.

ALLAH,

T HE

M O S T E X A LT E D

HAS

SENT

HIS MESSENGER

WIT H A BRI G HT TO RC H, A

P R O F O U N D L O G I C , A N O P E N WAY A N D A N E N L I G H T E N I N G B O O K .

IN

THIS BOOK,

GOD

HAS

M E N T I O N E D T H E F O R B I D D E N WA Y S A N D T H I N G S T O R E F R A I N F R O M . OF 147.

ALL

INSTRUCTIONS

GOD

H AV E B E E N E X P L A I N E D A N D P R O PA G AT E D T H R O U G H H I M …

W HEN

A N Y D I S P U T E E N S U E A M O N G P E O P L E , W E R E F E R T H AT T O T H E

QUR‘ÄN IT

AS T HE

A R B I T R AT O R N O T M A N . BE READ AND

THIS

B O O K W I T HI N I T S C O V E R S D O E S N O T TA L K . I N T E R P R E T AT I O N .

NEEDS TO BE AN

CO MPRE HE NDED T HR O UG H

E VE RY

MAN

CAN

INTERPRETER O F T HE

Q UR‘ÄN. W HE N ―…AND

THE

QUR‘ÄN

I S C H O S E N A S T H E A D J U D I C AT O R I N

A D I S P U T E T H E N , I T I S O U R D U T Y T O S E A R C H T H I S G R E AT B O O K F O R S O L U T I O N . IN T HE

ALLAH
THE

QUR‘ÄN

S AY S ,

I F Y O U G E T E N TA N G L E D I N A D I S P U T E , G I V E

GOD

B U R D E N O F A R B I T R AT I O N T H E N T O 148.

HIS MESSENGER…‖
FOLLOW T HE

TO

DEPEND

ON OF

GOD, GOD,

MEANS

TO

QUR‘ÄN,

AND

TO

DEPEND

ON

T HE

MESSENGER

M E A N S T O F O L L O W H I S S U N N AT T H I S WAY , IF THE

[PRACTICES
AN D THE

O F S AY I N G S O F T H E IS MADE T HE

P RO PHET ( PB UH )]. IN

QUR‘ÄN

SUNNAH

A R B I T R AT O R , T H E N P E A C E A N D WILL END. THE TRUE

H A P P I N E S S S H A L L P R E VA I L ,

C HAO S A ND CON FUSIO N

GO

TO PE O PLE BA FF LE D WI T HO UT RE AL I Z I N G AN D T RY TO B RI NG T HE M TO

P AT H .

T HE Y

H AV E

S T R AY E D

FROM

T HE

P AT H

OF

T HE

H O LY B O O K

AND

T H E R E F O R E , S WAY E D A WA Y F R O M T H E 149.

P AT H …
THE

HE (GOD,
FOLLOWING

T HE T HE

M O S T E X A LT E D )
MESSAGES

SENT

QUR‘ÄN
COULD

TO

HIS MESSENGER
ST RENGT H

SO AND

T H AT T HE

T HE RE IN,

PEOPLE

G AT H E R

IGNO RAN T CO ULD KNO W A BO UT 150.

GOD…
H AV E N O T N E G L E C T E D A N Y T H I N G I N T H I S B O O K A N D

IN

T HE

QUR‘ÄN, GOD

S AY S ,

―WE

H AV E

NOT

LEFT A NYT HI NG

UNMENTIONED.‖

IT

SHOULD

BE

R E M E M B E R E D T H AT T H E

GL ORY A ND T HE T RE AS U R E OF T HE

QUR‘ÄN

WILL NEVE R DIMINISH, AND WILL REMAIN A

GLOWING EX AMPLE FO R T HE PE OPLE , FO REVE R. 151.

T HE Q UR‘ ÄN

IS T HE ELI XI R OF LIFE FO R T HE DEA D SO UL, LI G HT FO R T HE BLI ND, C HIME

F O R T H E D E A F , A N D WAT E R F O R T H E T H I R S T Y . Y O U C A N S E E , HE A R A N D TA L K .

EMPOWE RED

BY T HIS

H O LY S C R I P T U R E ,

EACH

WORD, SENTENCE, AND SECTION OF THIS BOOK IS

E N T W I N E D W I T H E A C H O T H E R , I N S E P A R A B LY . THE O NENESS OF 152.

THROUGH

T HE

QUR‘ÄN,

WE LEARN ABOUT

GOD, HIS

A N D T H O S E T H AT A R E M I S G U I D E D F I N D T H E T R U E PAT H … SACRE D SCRIPT URE CA UTI ONED HUMAN BEIN GS.

ALLAH

THROUGH

THOSE

WHO

H AV E P U R E S O U L S , U N I M PA I R E D H E A R I N G , F I R M B E L I E F A N D A R E I N T E L L I G E N T O N L Y CO ULD D ISCE RN T HE ME AN ING OF T HESE ADMO NITIO NS. 153.

A

B E L I E V E R A L WAY S F O L L O W S T H E H O L Y

Q UR‘ ÄN. T HE Q UR‘ ÄN

IS HI S G UIDE , AN D HE

DETERMINES HIS ACTI ONS, BASED O N T HE INST RUC TIO NS, O F T HI S SC RI PTURE … 154.

IN

T H E AT T R I B U T E S O F

GOD,

MENTI ONED I N T HE

QUR‘ÄN, HUMANKIND

SHO ULD FI ND

G UID ANCE … 155.

GLEAN

A D VA N T A G E

FROM

T HE

SACRED ORDERS.

MESSAGES ALLAH

OF

GOD.

RESPECT

GOD‘S

ADMONITIONS AND ABIDE BY TRUE P AT H .

HIS

HAS GI VEN PE RFE CT LEAD TO T HE DEEDS

HE

H A S I N F O R M E D E V E RY B O D Y A B O U T A C T S A N D

HE

DISLIKES.

T HE REFO RE ,

Y O U D I S T I N C T LY K N O W W H AT T O F O L L O W …

178

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
156.

GARNE R

K NO WLEDGE FROM T HE

QUR‘ÄN

A N D L E A R N F R O M T H E F AT E O F T H O S E W H O

A BAN DO NED T HE 157.

QUR‘ÄN…

T HO SE
BY

W H O A D O R N T H E S H I E L D O F K N O W L E D G E , A N A LY Z I N G E V E R Y T H I N G , T H E Y A B I D E INSTRUCTIONS, AND WO RK AS T HE R E P R E S E N T AT I V E OF T HE

ALLAH‘S

PROPHET

(PBUH)…

Hadith states that once the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is the door to that city.‖ After the above statement, there should be no question about the depth of knowledge of Hazrat Ali. He (Ali) enthusiastically invited the Muslims to live, and work, according to the laws of the Qur‘än. His valuable advice has not been materialized until today. That is why not only non-Arab Muslims, but also the Arab Muslims are fighting with each other. The unfortunate situation has been prevailing for a long time because of ignorance about the Qur‘än and its teachings. In Islam, there is no scope for monarchy. Democracy that saw its end in the heartland of Islam (Mecca & Medïna), at the death of the fourth Caliph, could not be revived till today. Ignorance and illiteracy of the population is the main reason for that. Therefore, all the men and women of the Muslim world should get educated; only then they would be able to comprehend the meaning of the Qur‘än, and use that to their benefit. It therefore, is necessary for every Muslim to get education, compatible to the modern scientific development and the Qur‘än.
COMMENTS OF DR. MAURICE BUCAILLE

THE FAMOUS FRENCH PHILOSOPHER AND AUTHOR
NO MAN CAN WRITE A BOOK LIKE THE HOLY QUR’ÄN:

Dr. Maurice Bucaille, after intense deliberations and reflections, in his book entitled, ‗The Bible, The Qur‘än and Science‘, wrote: ―If any expert examines the Qur‘än impartially, he will find that some inventions of modern science have almost mystically expounded and consigned heavenly brilliance to some verses (ayats) of the Qur‘än.‖ He further said that, in spite of, the tremendous progress of science in the modern age, most of the scientists, unable to comprehend the Qur‘än, scandalize and attack religion, particularly, Islam. For this reason he has said, ―In today‘s perspective where knowledge is divided into branches it is an imperative that scientists of particular disciplines of knowledge should interpret respective verses of the Holy Qur‘än to better understand and

179

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

fully comprehend those. Without their help, it is impossible to fully understand those verses impregnated with information.‖ He has further said: ―It is necessary for an expert to be well versed in different disciplines of knowledge, so that a study is well coordinated. In his opinion, still there are numerous verses, which are not deciphered completely. Therefore, more intensive scientific research is needed, to fully understand the Holy Qur‘än. He has very firmly asserted that it is impossible for any man to write a book like, the Holy Qur‘än.‖ Another French thinker, Dr. Mardress said about the Holy Qur‘än: ―Surely the narrative style of the Holy Qur‘än is the style of The Creator.‖ ―It can be said without any hesitation that the massages given in the Holy Qur‘än cannot be found in any composition other than that of God‘s own.‖103 Dr. Maurice Bucaille, in the introduction to the chapter ‗Qur‘än and Modern Science‘ of his book mentioned earlier, writes: ―The association between the Qur‘än and Science is a surprise, especially, since it is one of harmony and not of discord. The contradiction between a religious book and secular ideas proclaimed by science is perhaps, in the eyes of many people, today, is something of a paradox. The majority of today‘s scientists, with a small number of exceptions, of course, is indeed bound up in materialistic theories, and has only indifference and contempt for religious questions, which they often consider to be founded on legend. In the West moreover, when science and religion are discussed, people are quite willing to mention Judaism and Christianity among the religions referred to, but they hardly ever think of Islam. So many false Judgments based on inaccurate ideas have indeed been made about Islam, that today, it is very difficult to form an exact notion of the reality of Islam. As a prelude to any confrontation between the Islamic revelation and science, it would seem essential that an outline be given of a religion that is so little known in the West. The very erroneous statements, made about Islam in the West, are sometimes, are the result of ignorance and sometimes of systematic denigration. The most serious of all untruths told about Islam are however, those dealing with facts. For a while, mistaken opinions are
103 Ma‘aref ul-Qur'än: p. 25: King Fahd Publishing Project.

180

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

excusable, but the presentation of facts running contrary to reality, is not. It is disturbing to read blatant untruths in eminently respectable works written by authors who a priori are highly qualified. Whereas monumental errors are found in the Bible, I could not find a single error in the Qur‘än. I had to stop and ask myself: If a man was the author of the Qur‘än, how could he have written facts, in the seventh century AD, that today are found to be in harmony with modern scientific knowledge? There is no doubt about it: the text of the Qur‘än we have today is most definitely the text of the period. It is an established fact that before the time of the Qur‘änic Revelation, i.e., a period of roughly twenty years, scientific knowledge had not progressed for centuries. And the period of activity in the Islamic civilization, with its accompanying scientific upsurge, came after the end of Qur‘änic Revelation. Only ignorance of religious and secular knowledge can lead to the bizarre suggestions that if surprising statements of scientific nature exist in the Qur‘än those may be accounted for by the fact that the Arab scientists were so far ahead of their times, and Muhammad was influenced by their work.‖ Anyone who knows anything about Islamic history is aware that the period of the Middle Ages, which saw the cultural and scientific upsurge in the Arab world came after Muhammad and would not therefore, indulge in such whims. Suggestions of this kind, particularly, are off the mark in that the majority of the scientific facts, which are either suggested or clearly recorded in the Qur‘än have only been confirmed in the modern times. It is easy, therefore, to understand that how for centuries commentators of the Qur‘än (including those writing at the height of Islamic culture) have inevitably made errors of interpretation, in case of certain verses whose exact meaning could not possibly be grasped at that given time. It was not until much later, at a period not far away from our own that it was possible to translate and interpret them correctly. This implies that a thorough linguistic knowledge is not in itself sufficient to understand these verses from the Qur‘än. What is needed along with the knowledge of Arabic is a highly diversified knowledge of science. A study such as the present one embraces many disciplines and is encyclopedic.‖

181

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE DISCOVERIES OF NON-MUSLIM SCIENTISTS:

To fully comprehend the Holy Qur‘än it is necessary to earn expertise in all subjects and then embark on a research. If the Muslims were appropriately educated they could have unveiled the hidden treasure of the Holy Qur‘än to the world. The world has come to know about the truth in the Holy Qur‘än only through a few non-Muslim scientist. Due to lack of education, most Muslims do not know that the modern advanced world i.e. the Christian world follows the scientific invention and discoveries of the lost glorious Muslim era. Consequently, they invented and discovered many outstanding things for the benefit of the human race. In these revolutionary discoveries electricity, locomotives, electrical appliances, airplanes, machinery, water transports and medicines are included. The West has benefited from the works of the Muslim scientists tremendously. Today it has risen to the pinnacle as the West has borrowed knowledge without any inhibition from the past and applied that. On the other hand, Muslims gradually sank in the depth of ignorance and in the name of religion even shunned the western knowledge. Muslims have initiated at least a few of the major inventions of modern science. Lord Bertrand Russell in his book, ―The Reawakening of the East‖ has referred to that. It is thus evident from the writings of the western philosophers and scientists that Muslim scientists and researchers have opened the door to scientific advancement of the modern era. History bears testimony that Muslims were the pioneers in benefiting the world with some major and original inventions and discoveries. They studied and taught Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Biology and Medicine with devotion and zeal in their universities. Because of their ignorance, Muslims around the world do not know of these glorious contributions of their predecessors. The Prophet‘s (PBUH) message, ‗Glean knowledge if even you have to go to China‘ combined with the pursuits of knowledge by the Muslim intelligentsia in the universities amply prove that there is no conflict in Islam with science and technology Prophets had demonstrated many divine magical powers, Muhammad‘s (PBUH) cardinal divine magical power was the Holy Qur‘än. Modern Muslims are ignorant about this great divine magical entity. Lack of proper knowledge, made the Muslims unable to analyze and interpret the
182

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Holy Qur‘än and benefit from it. Taking the opportunity, the enemies of Islam invented ways to keep them ignorant and force them into oblivion. It deserves mention here that Muslim scientists invented and discovered devises for the benefit of the human race while the modern scientists are developing weapons of mass destruction, which can send the human race into untold miseries. These weapons of destruction are killing thousands of innocent people, specially, the Muslims around the world.
THE HOLY QUR’ÄN - A TREASURE OF KNOWLEDGE:

Allah had already told His Prophet (PBUH) through His divine messages, fourteen hundred years ago, that the non-Muslims would rule the world and attain ascendancy over Muslims, armed with education and knowledge. Modern development and understanding about the Sun, Moon, the Solar system, human and plants, everything, had been hinted at fourteen hundred years ago in Holy Qur‘än. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose proved that the plants and trees have lives which has been stated in the Holy Qur‘än. The Holy Qur‘än (Al-Qur‘än - 55:33) also mentioned that Man would conquer the space. Besides that, there are many indications to scientific facts in the Holy Qur‘än that have been proven right by the modern day scientific research. The Holy Qur‘än said about the creation of the universe:
88. A FTER THAT WHEN H E (G OD ) LOOKED AT THE SPACE IT WAS ALL SMOKE (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 41:11).

Only recently, this is discovered by the modern telescopes that before coming into existence the Worlds were a patch of gases. Muslims could not understand Qur‘änic messages due to lack of scientific knowledge, but non-Muslims scientists understood the messages properly. Hundreds (fourteen) of years ago God has told the Prophet (PBUH) through His divine message:
89. A ND H E (G OD ) HAS PUT THE SUN AND THE MOON ORBITING IN THEIR OWN TRAJECTORY UNDER M AN AND ALSO THE N IGHT AND THE D AY (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 14:33).

Through the researches of the modern science, people have come to know of the mysteries of the space. They have learnt that the Sun, the Moon, and other celestial bodies that their ancestors worshiped are nothing but inert materials. Scientists are still arguing about the creation of the Universe, the Solar system and other celestial bodies and among

183

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

many theories, ‗Big Bang‘ theory is a popular theory. This may remain an eternal mystery for the human. The Holy Qur‘än says:
90. D O NOT THE UNBELIEVER S OBSERVE THAT THE H EAVENLY BODIES AND THE EARTH WAS TOGETHER AND THEN I H AVE SEPARATED THEM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 21:30). A ND H E IS THAT C REATOR W HO H AS CREATED DAY AND N IGHT AND THE MOON AND THE SUN THAT MOV E IN THE IR RESPECTIVE ORBITS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21:33).

91.

Before Islam, Christians, the Jewish padre, and other scholars thought that the Sun rotates round the earth and they had included that in their faiths. Allah the Master of the Worlds through His messenger (PBUH) announced:
92. 93. 94. A ND THE SUN MOVES TO ITS DESTINATION , THIS IS UNDER THE CO NTROL OF THE M IGHTIEST AND THE A LL K NOWING (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 38:38). A ND FOR THE MOON I HAVE MARKED DIFFERENT STAGES , AT LAST IT TAKES THE SHAPE OF A DRIED BEN T DATE PALM LEAF (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 36:39). T HE SUN CANNOT CATCH THE MOON AND NIGHT C ANNOT OVERTAKE THE D AY, ALL MOVE IN THEIR RE SPECTIVE ORBITS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 36:40).

Later, Galileo ascertained that the earth is not stationary but moves round the Sun and the Sun is stationary. Much later, scientists have discovered that the Sun is also not stationary but moves in its orbit. Scientists have ascertained that the angle of Sun‘s rays on the moon causes the changes in its shape. We only see the lighted part of the moon by Sun‘s light from the earth and the rest remains dark. Long ago all these information were given to man through the Holy Qur‘än. Facts of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Geology etc. have been mentioned in the Holy Qur‘än.104 Modern scientists believe that millions of millions years ago, in the sea inert elements combined to form protoplasm and that evolved into one celled ameba and thus began life on this earth. God in the Holy Qur‘än fourteen hundred years ago said:
95. A LLAH H AS C REATED ALL BEINGS FROM WATER , SOME OF THEM WALK ON THEIR BELLIES SOME ON TWO LEGS AND SOME ON FOU R (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21:30; 24:45; 25:54).

104

These have been discussed, in: Science in the Qur'än, M. Akbar Ali, Scientific indications in the Holy Qur'än, a committee (of nine prominent scientists of Bangladesh) headed by Dr. M. Shamsher Ali, Shristi Jagater Rahashsha (The Mysteries of the Worlds), K.M.A. Hussain, The Bible, the Holy Qur'än and Science and Origin of man, Dr. Maurice Bucaille, As many other prominent and competent people around the world have discussed.

184

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Dr. Maurice Bucaille‘s description according to the Holy Qur‘än has changed the theory of Darwin regarding the history of origin of man and its form. On the one hand, Biologists, Botanists and Physicists have determined that that all living things are created in pairs. This is a common knowledge to the ordinary people that human beings and animals are created in pairs. However, many do not know that plants also need male and female units to reproduce. Generally, pollens of the male flowers impregnate the female flowers. Plants without one of them do not bear fruits. Similarly, in inert materials, there are negative and positive particles, that bind them together. Until the Middle Ages, this mystery of creation was unknown to science. Modern science has been able to decipher the mystery only partially. Fourteen hundred years ago God in the Holy Qur‘än said:
96. H E IS S ACRED AND H ONORABLE WHO H AS C REATED ALL THINGS IN PAIRS THAT WHICH SPROUT FROM THE SOIL ( PLANT, TREES , HERBS AND SHRUBS ) AND IS BORN ( HUMAN , ANIMALS ) AND THOSE ABOUT WHIC H THEY DO NOT KNOW (I NERT THINGS ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 36:36).

Foremost among all the animals that are created by Allah the Provider of the Worlds are camels, buffaloes, lambs, cows, goats, rams and others that supply us with milks. Scientists, specially, Physiologists have found out how food is digested in the stomach and assimilated in the blood. After digestion the waste product first is ejected from the body as excreta then again the remaining impurities are extracted and expelled as urine. In this way, blood retains the pure and necessary nutrients, which are carried by it to different parts of the body. The organs of the body then assimilate the necessary nutrients as required. Udders that produce milk also receive their ingredients from the blood. From the same food, the digestive system separate waste and the nutrients efficiently and in between the milk is produced. Long ago (fourteen hundred years) this very fact was mentioned in the Holy Qur‘än:
97. A ND VERILY IN CATTLE ( TOO ) W ILL YE FIND AN INSTRUCTIVE S IGN . F ROM WHAT IS WITHIN THEIR BODIES , B ETWEEN EXCRETION AND BLOOD , W E PRODUCE , FOR YOUR DRINK , M ILK , PURE AND AGREEABLE TO THOSE HO DRINK IT (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:66).

God again says:

185

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 98. B EHOLD ! I N THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH ; IN THE ALTERATION OF THE N IGHT AND THE D AY ; I N THE SAILING OF THE SHIPS T HROUGH THE O CEAN FOR THE PROFIT OF MANKIND ; IN THE RAIN WHICH G OD S ENDS DOWN FROM THE SKIES , A ND THE LIFE WHICH H E GIVES THEREWITH T O AN EARTH THAT IS DEAD ; I N THE BEASTS OF ALL KINDS T HAT H E SCATTERS T HROUGH THE EARTH ; I N THE CHANGE OF THE WINDS , A ND THE CLOUDS WHICH THEY T RAIL LIKE THEIR SLAVES B ETWEEN THE SKY AND T HE EARTH ; - (H ERE ) INDEED ARE S IGNS F OR A PEOPLE THAT ARE WISE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:164). A ND W E SENT DOWN I RON , IN WHICH ( MATERIAL FOR ) MIGHTY WAR , AS WELL AS MANY BENEFITS FOR MANKIND , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:25). A ND SENT DOWN RAIN FROM THE HEAVENS ; A ND BROUGHT FORTH HEREWITH F RUITS FOR YOUR SUSTENANCE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:22).

99. 100.

About those plants and animals which produce food for human, God said in Süra 16:66- 69, in Süra 22:5 and Süra 23:14 about the inception of a human fetus in the womb and in Süra 2:164 about rain and grains. God has asked:
101. 102. T HEN DON ‘ T THEY STUDY THE Q UR ‘ ÄN WITH DEVOTION (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 47:24). H E GRANTETH WISDOM TO WHOM H E PLEASETH ; A ND HE TO WHOM WISDOM IS GRANTED RECEIVETH INDEED A BENEFIT OVERFLOWING ; B UT NONE WILL GRASP THE M ESSAGE BUT MEN OF UN DERSTANDING (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:269).

In another verse God said:

God told us to conduct research on the Holy Qur‘än. However, in the modern era as the thoughtful people (non-Muslims) are the most erudite and accomplished in all respects, so consequently, God is bestowing them with power, knowledge (Hikmat) and prosperity. They are recognized as the educated and learned. Fourteen hundred years ago God has said:
103. O YE ASSEMBLY OF J INNS AND MEN ! I F IT WERE Y E CAN PASS BEYOND T HE Z ONES OF THE H EAVENS A ND THE EARTH , PASS YE ! N OT WITHOUT AUTHORITY S HALL YE BE ABLE TO PASS ! (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 55:33).

Peoples other than the Muslims have proven that right by conquering the Moon, since they are the people advanced in knowledge and the most accomplished in other respects. From the above-mentioned verses of the Holy Qur‘än and their coming true, it has been established that the Qur‘än is full of scientific knowledge and intelligence (Al-Qur‘än - 36:2). Those who will toil hard and search for knowledge in this treasure of Knowledge will benefit tremendously and rise to the pinnacle of success and accomplishments.
NEED OF EDUCATION AND KNOWLEDGE:

Hazrat Ali (RA) advised: ―The Holy Qur‘än must be learnt, researched with devotion and passion to become scientists, philosophers and
186

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

experts.‖ This is a very important advice for the Muslims of today. The Prophet (PBUH) knew that to become scientists it is necessary to glean knowledge and become erudite in all fields of learning. Therefore, to begin with he (PBUH) took adequate measures to educate the Muslims, as God wanted. Education and knowledge are the basic requirements to succeed both here and hereafter. None can wish to attain success without knowledge. In this advance scientific era, it is an imperative that we arm ourselves with knowledge to give us any sorts of chances for competing with the advancing west otherwise, with each of their steps toward progress we (Muslims) would conversely go backwards. As properly trained and educated population is an asset, so is the illiterate population is a burden for a nation. Devoid of education and knowledge, people are nothing but animals and they naturally behave like one. Ignorant illiterates do get involved in all sorts of illegal, unlawful and heinous activities, as they do not have a fully developed and mature perception of morality and ethics. They bring in miseries not only in their own lives and their families‘ but also for the society and the nation as a whole. So naturally, the illiterate mass is a curse for the nation. In not only science and technology education and knowledge is needed in all spheres of lives. Educated people are respected as conscientious responsible persons for all practical purposes of a nation. For the refinement of the external and the internal capabilities of a human being, education is essential. Education is prerequisite for both spiritual and material developments of a person. The consciences of individuals are enriched and developed by education and knowledge. Education inspire people for great work and good deeds, it enable them to distinguish between vice and virtue, liberate them from inferiority complex, idleness, ignorance and superstition. For a nation‘s progress, development, stability and viability mass education is necessary. Education sharpens the faculty of thought and refines our attitudes and behaviors making us accomplished human beings. Cultured, refined, purified, wise and prepared human leaps to newer achievements and glory. The more a nation is educated the more it is glorified and respected and adorns leadership of the nations of the world. Education begets knowledge and knowledge enlightens our minds and the souls.

187

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

As the sculptor gives a beautiful shape to shapeless stone so, does education sharpens intellect. Education simply is the backbone of a nation. Among the numerous creation of God human is the only creation with intelligence and conscience and therefore is designated as the greatest creation (Ashraf-ul-Makhlukat) of God. They are also honored as the representative of God on the earth. To do the duties of the vice regent God has given clear instructions to humankind through His Prophet (PBUH) to educate them. Therefore, according to the direction of God, Muhammad (PBUH) has declared learning compulsory for every Muslim man and woman.
THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY:

Before the advent of Islam, the great men who propagated religion did not open their educational institutions to all. These were only open to a class consisting of a nation, a tribe or sometimes a group. No prophet of the Torah went further than Iraq, Syria or Egypt. They remained confined within their respective motherland. They propagated religion only to their own people where others were not welcome. Their invitation was not universal. Preaching for them was restricted to only Israelites. Ancient Arab prophets were responsible for only their own people. Even in the learning places of Jesus Christ, there was no place for Israelites. He only was looking for the lost lamb (Matt. 7:24), and was not prepared under any circumstances to surrender the loaves to the dogs (The Holy Bible). The Indian preachers could not think of leaving the land of the Aryans. They believed in climbing to heaven by the Himalayan Mountains. However, the Buddhists sent messages to the nations outside India, but that was the works of later savants like Christianity. Unlike the examples cited above, in Mecca and Medïna in the Islamic educational institutions under Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) there were outsiders other than Quraish Abu Bakr, Omar, Zubair, Ali, Othman and Talha (RAs). To Mecca and Medïna, came Abujor and Anis of the Gifari tribe of Tohama, Yemenite Huraira, Tufail ibn Amr, Abu Musa Ashari, Ma‘az ibn Jabal, Zomad Salaba from Yazd Kabila. Khabbar ibnul Arat came from Tamim tribe, and from Bahrain Abdul Kais, Munkiz ibn Harban and from Munzir tribe Ibn Ayez. Rais Obeyed and Ja‘afar were from Amman. Ferwai came from the Syrian border- region, Bellal from Abyssinia, Shuaib of the Roman Empire and from the Persian Empire
188

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Salman Farsi. Feroz Dalaimi, Sakhit Markud and many others came from various other countries and studied at same institution. Therefore, the Prophet‘s (PBUH) institution truly assumed an international character where pupils were taught different subjects according to their ability and aptitude. Talented politicians like Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali (RAs) studied at this institution. They held sway over a vast empire from the West to the East reaching from the Africa continent to India with such adroitness that it overshadowed all other great powers like Persian and the Roman Empires. Against the brilliance of their just and dignified reign, Persian and Roman systems lost their radiance and looked ordinary. Their reigns were unique. Great warrior generals like Khalid bin Walid, Sa‘ad bin Abi-Wakkas, Abu Odaida ibn Jarrah, within a few years demolished two great Empires of the East and the West to the benefit of the masses. Even today, people are admiringly dazzled by the account of their chivalrous conquests. While Sa‘ad conquered Iraq and Iran, Khalid and Abu Obaidah expelled the Romans from Syria and Amr ibnul Äs vanquished Egypt. Abdullah ibn Zubair and Ibn Abi Sabah rested vast areas of Africa from the enemies. They are the immortal heroes that history will remember forever. On the other hand, companions like Bazan ibn Saman of Yemen, Idl ibn Saud of Sannah, Muhajir ibn Ommeyya of Kinda, Zaid ibn Lebid of Hadramouth, Amr ibn Hazam of Nazran, Yazid ibn Abu Sufiyan of Taima and Ala bin Hazrami of Bahrain studied at this institution. They, as the administrators of provinces enormously benefited the people by establishing the rule of law. Hadith and Jurisprudence experts, Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali, Abdullah ibn Abbas, Abdullah ibn Masoud, Abdullah ibn Amr ibnul Äs, Ayesha, Umme Salma, Ubai bin Aab, Ma‘az ibn Jabal, Zaid Sabeth and Ibn Zubair, etc., passed out from the Prophet‘s (PBUH) institution. Executives of the caliber of Talha, Zubair, Mughira, Mikdad, Sa‘ad bin Ma‘az, Sa‘ad bin Auf were also students of the same institution. Among the students, there were many prominent businesspersons and wealthy individuals of Mecca and Medïna. At the same time Hadith experts and historians Abu Huraira, Abu Musa Ashari, Anas ibn Malik, Abu Said

189

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Khudri, Ubada ibn Samith, Jaber ibn Abdullah, Barba ibn Azib had passed out from this institution. Similarly, poor companions sheltered at Masjidun Nabubi called Ashabe Saffa, studied here. They had no worldly possessions other than the dresses they wore. In the day, they felled trees in the woods, by selling, those earned their breads, and in the night, they prayed prostrated before God. From this measly earning, they gave alms and when needed they adorned important executive posts. From this same institution passed out great and truthful persons like, Abu Jar Gifari who considered saving, even today‘s food, for tomorrow against the spirit of Dependence on God. From the court of the Prophet (PBUH), he earned the title of Masihul Islam (Jesus of Islam). Student of this institution, Salman Farsi was the embodiment of austerity and Takwa (fear of God). He was like Abdullah ibn Omar a savant who passed long thirty years of his life in worshiping God. When the Caliphate was offered to him, he replied: ―If there is a chance of shedding a drop of blood of a Muslim I do not want the Caliphate.‖ Selfless person like Masab ibn Umayeb was also among the students of this august institution. Before accepting Islam, he never wore anything other than silk and was born with a golden spoon in his mouth but adorned himself with rags after conversion. After he was martyred, due to shortage of covering material, his feet were covered with grass. Othman ibn Mauna, the first Sufi in Islam, was also a student of this institute. During battles between Muslims, he used to say: ―If a Muslim comes to kill me in my tent with a sword, I would not hit him.‖ Another was Abu Darda, who passed his nights praying and the day fasting. In the sixth Hegira, Hudaibiya Pact was concluded. Freed from incessant wars and battles Muslims got a chance to preach religion unhindered. The Prophet (PBUH) sent his messengers to different countries inviting people to Islam. He wrote letters of invitation to Emperors and Kings and rulers. Dahia Kalbi went to Heracleus of Rome, Abdullah ibn Hozafa Sahmi to Khasrou Perviz of Iran, Habit bin Bulta to Makukas of Egypt, Amr ibn Ymaya to Negus of Abyssinia. Suja ibn Ohbul Asadi went to Syrian ruler Rais Haris Ghassani and Salit ibn Amr to Yamaman rulers with letters of the Prophet (PBUH).

190

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Another great man of the Prophet‘s (PBUH) school was the Lion of God, Hazrat Ali (RA); the fourth Caliph and the first male convert to Islam. Collection of Ali‘s speeches ‗Nahjul Balagha‘ transcended time and Ali attained eternity. ‗Nahjul Balagha‘ is a collection of speeches in which Ali implored people to lead their lives according to the instructions of God and the traditions of His Prophet (PBUH). This has been able to attract universal attention, irrespective of any parochialism. Letters written to provincial governors, as the fourth Caliph of Islam, for raising the living standard, welfare, security, peace and brotherhood gave him immortality. In this way, the universality of the Prophet‘s (PBUH) school was manifested from its inception. It attained universality by the very fact that its students came from all over the world and from all occupations. Later, other Islamic institutions at other centers of learning like Baghdad, Cordova, Alexandria and Al-Azhar; all were open to everybody, irrespective of caste and creed. Many non-Muslim religious experts and learned men were among the students and one went on to become a Pope.
ISLAMIC EDUCATION SYSTEM:

DURING THE REIGN OF THE RIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPHS:

After the death of the Prophet (PBUH), replying to the Companions, the first Caliph Abu Bakr (RA) said, ―‗He, who deviates from the path of Knowledge, is an enemy of God and His Prophet (PBUH)‘, was the final message of the last Prophet (PBUH). Interpreting this, the first Caliph said, ‗Knowledge is the robe of the humankind; it is a bridge between this life, the hereafter, the Creator and the creation‘.‖ Accordingly, the reign of the Khulafa-e-Rashedins (the Rightly Guided, first four Caliphs of Islam) saw the spread of education. In keeping with the advice and practice of the Prophet (PBUH), they gave utmost priority to education and did their best to educate every Muslim. They were apprehensive that the Muslims would suffer the same fate as the nations before them did, because of their ignorance. Their apprehension proved right. The second phase of Islamic education started from the reign of Hazrat Omar bin Abdul Aziz. In this period, ordinances were promulgated for expansion of education throughout the Muslim world. For the first time, teachers were made government employees and were paid from the government exchequer. Stipends were arranged for the students.
191

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Textbooks were written and published, putting emphasis on printing shifting the emphasis from memorization. The third phase started during the Abbaside rule. The Caliphs were educated and respected the learned. Passionately, they pursued knowledge and patronized expansion of education in every way they could. Mosques were used until now as educational institutions, but as they were unable to meet the increasing demand, separate school buildings were erected to accommodate students.
SCIENCE IN ISLAM:

A modern prominent scientist Philip Frank Einstein said: ―Science, without religion is lame and religion without science is blind.‖ However, God, the Provider of the Worlds, fourteen hundred years ago, said:
104. B Y THE Q UR ‘ ÄN , F ULL OF W ISDOM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 36:2).

Islam from its inception enjoined its followers to gather knowledge (AlQur‘än - 96:1-5). On the other hand, the Christians disowned science, tortured, and persecuted scientists. To the modern world, the most valuable contribution of Islam is science. One scientist said that the Greeks made science systematic, universal and informative. Investigation, accumulation of positive knowledge, minute methods of science, and continuous prolonged observation these are not Greek or European innovations but very much done by the Arab Muslims. In his opinion for the accomplishment and refinement of European scientific advancement, they are indebted to ‗these Arab Muslims‘.105 Scientists, Briffault106 and George Sarton107 said that when the Western world felt the need and attained the maturity to delve deep into the realm of knowledge for establishing a bridge with the ancient science, they did not look up to the Greeks but to the Arabs. Western historians also mention that when Christianity ignored science, the Muslims, astonishingly, reached the pinnacle within two hundred years of Mohammed‘s (PBUH) passing away. That civilization which the Europeans called the Christian civilization needed fifteen hundred years to reach its present state. In this period, scientists encountered vehement opposition of the clerics and severe persecution by the state and the
105 106 107 Islam and the Arabs, Chapter 10, The Sciences, Page 165 by Rom Landau. Making of Humanity Introduction to the History of Science

192

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

church. Galileo was penalized for his scientific persuasion. The Pope and padres considered scientists as apostates. Scientists reached the end of tolerance by the continued persecution of the church, revolted, and even lost their faith in religion. Thus pushed to atheism they even challenged the existence of God. On the other hand, long (fourteen hundred years) ago God said:
105. 106. B Y THE Q UR ‘ ÄN , F ULL OF W ISDOM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 36:2). (H ERE IS ) A B OOK WHICH W E HAVE SENT DOWN U NTO THEE , FULL OF BLESSINGS , T HAT THEY MAY MEDIATE O N ITS S IGNS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 38:29).

He again said: The Holy Qur‘än is the source of all scientific successes of the Islamic Nation. Muslims in their earnest quest to understand God and His creations and mysteries therein researched with zeal and devotion and earned deep and penetrating knowledge. They through their researches proved that the relevance of this mundane world is not less than the spiritual attainments, but similarly important. This practical method reflects the dispassionate Islamic intellect and manifests their insatiable explorative mind. Islamic religion and science did not take different courses but the former acted as the foundation for the later.
THE FEATURES OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION

(MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE):

Many writers, poets, philosophers, savants and scientists were brought forth by the renaissance of learning in Arabia effected by Islam. All Abbaside Caliphs, particularly, Haroon ar-Rashid and Al-Mamoon were great patrons of learning and education. Under their tutelage many educators, scientists and philosophers flourished. Consequently, the Islamic world saw the birth of many scientists, philosophers, mathematicians, astronomers, physicians, medical scientists and sociologists, noteworthy among them were:
158.

IBN AL-NAÏFS (ALADDIN ABUL HAAS ALI AL-M ASRI : MEDICAL SCIE NTIST,

IBN

ABUL H AAS AL-Q UIRES AL- DAMASHQI L I T T E R AT E U R , JURIST
AND

PHI LOSOPHE R,

T HEO SO PHI ST: 60 7 A.D. - 67 8),
159.

I B N H A YA N ( A B U M U S A J A B E R
AND

IBN

H A YA N : C H E M I S T , M E D I C A L S C I E N T I S T , I N V E N T O R

AST RONOME R: ABDULLAH

B.

776 AD), ABDULLAH MUHAMMAD
IBN D.

160.

ABU

(ABU

MUSA

A L - K H A WA R I J M I :

M AT H E M AT I C I A N , G E O G R A P H E R

A N D F AT H E R O F

ALGE BRA :

840 AD,

193

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
161.

AR-RAZI

(ABU BAKR MUHAMMAD

IBN

ZAKARIA
AND IBN

AR-RAZI: D.

M E D I C A L S C I E N T I S T, 923-24 AD),

M AT H E M AT I C I A N , A S T R O N O M E R , C H E M I S T
162. 163.

P HILOSOPHE R:
IBN

A L - B AT A N I ( A B U A B D U L L A H M U H A M M A D AL-HARANI:

JABE R

S I N A N A L - B AT A N I ) , M AT H E M AT I C I A N
AND

SC I E N T I S T- P H I L O S O P HE R - S A I N T,

AST RONOME R,

AST ROLOGE R: 858 A.D. -930 AD),
164.

AL-BERUNI

(ABU

RA I HA N

MUHAMMAD

IBN AND

AHMED

AL-BERUNI:

P HY S I C I S T,

M AT H E M AT I C I A N , H I S T O R I A N , P H I L O S O P H E R
165.

GEO G RA PHE R: 97 3-1 0 48 AD ), A L - FA R A K H SC I E N T I S T,
IBN

A L - FA R A B I

(ABU

NASSER

MUHAMMAD LOGICIAN,

IBN

A L - FA R A B I :

SUFI-

P HI LO SO PHE R,

SC I E N T I S T,

SOCIAL
AND

MEDICAL
ETC.

S C I E N T I S T, 890 A.D. -

M AT H E M AT I C I A N , P H Y S I C I A N , P S Y C H O L O G I S T 950 AD),
166.

M E TA P HY S I C I A N S ,

A L - FA R G H A N I ( A B U L A B B A S A H M E D AST RONOMER,
D.

IBN

MUHAMMAD

IBN

K AT I R A L - F A R G H A N I :

861 AD),
IBN

167.

A B U L WA F A H ( A B U L W A F A H M U H A M M A D M AT H E M AT I C I A N
AND

Y A H YA

IBN

ISMÄ‘ÏL AL-BUZJANI :

AST RONOME R: 939 A.D.- 997 AD),
IBN

168.

A L - M A WA R D I ( A B U A L - H A S Q A N A L I

MUHAMMAD

IBN

H A B I B A L - M A WA R D I :

PO LITICA L -P HILOS OP HE R, SOC IA L SCIENTIST: 9 72 A.D. -10 58 AD)
169.

IBN SINA (ABU ALI AL-HUSSEIN S C I E N T I S T, E N C Y C L O PA E D I S T ,

IBN

ABDULLAH

IBN

SINA: PHYSICIAN, MEDICAL
AND

M AT H E M AT I C I A N ,

P HILOSOPHE R, AST RONO ME R

GEOLOGIST: 9 80 A.D. -10 37 AD),
170.

AL-HISHAM P HY SICI AN

(ABU

ALI

HASSAN

IBN

AL-HISHAM:

P H Y S I C I S T,

M AT H E M AT I C I A N ,

A N D T H E F AT H E R O F

O P H T H A L M O L O G Y: 9 6 5 A D ) , ABUL F AT E H
AND

171.

OMAR

K H Y YA M

( G H YA S

AL-DIN

OMAR

IBN

IBRA HI M:

P O E T,

M AT H E M AT I C I A N , A S T R O N O M E R , P H Y S I C I A N
172.

P HI LO SO P HE R: 1 0 4 4 A . D . - 11 2 3 A D ) ,

AL-G HA ZZA LI ( ABU M UHAMMA D AL-T USI AL- SHA FIT AL-G HA ZZA LI : T HEO LO GIA N, MYSTI C, SUFI- P HI LO SO PHE R: 10 58 A. D. -112 8 AD),

173.

A B U M A R WA N ( A B U M A R WA N A B D U L M A L I K D I SC OVE RE R, P HYS I C I A N : 1 0 9 4 A. D . - 11 6 2 AD ) ,

IBN

Z A H U R : M E D I C A L SC I E N T I S T,

174.

I B N R U S H D ( A B U L WA L I D M U H A M M A D

IBN

AHMED

IBN

MUHAMMAD

IBN

RUSHD:

P HI L O S O P HE R , M E D I C A L S C I E N T I S T, J U RI S T, P H Y S I C I A N , T H I N K E R : 11 2 8 A. D . - 11 9 8 ) ,
175.

I B N A L - B A I TA R ( A B U M U H A M M A D A B D U L L A H

IBN

AHMED

IBN

A L - B A I TA R Z I A U D D I N
D.

A L - M A L A K I : M E D I C A L S C I E N T I S T, B O TA N I S T, D I S C O V E R , L I N G U I S T:
176.

1248),

A L - T U S I ( A B U J A ' A FA R M U H A M M A D

IBN

MUHAMMAD

IBN

AL-HASSAN NASIRUDDIN

A L - T U S I : M E D I C A L S C I E N T I S T , T H E O S O P H I S T , A S T R O N O M E R , J U R I S T , M AT H E M AT I C I A N
AND 177.

P HI LO SO PHE R: 12 01 A.D. - 12 74 AD ),
IBN

AL-RUMI (JALAL AL-DIN MUHAMMAD AL-R UMI: SUFI- MY STIC, AUT HO R
AND

MUHAMMAD

IBN

MUHAMMAD

IBN

H USSEIN

THINKE R: 1207/8 A. D.-1273 AD),

194

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
178.

IBN

KHULDUN

(ABDUR

RAHMAN

IBN

MUHAMMAD,

P O P U L A R LY

KNOWN

AS

IBN
AND

K H U L D U N : P H I L O S O P H E R , H I S T O R I A N , J U R I S T , M AT H E M AT I C I A N , S O C I O L O G I S T
INVENTO R OF T HE NE W DISC IPLI NE

S O C I A L S C I E N C E ‗ U M R A N I AT ‘ : 1 3 3 2 A . D . - 1 4 0 6

AD)

Besides the above, many more like: Al-Kindi, Thiema, Sheik Sa‘adi, Nizami, Ameer Khasrou, etc., contributed immensely in the field of science, literature and culture. Muslim scholars described Al-Kindi, AlFarabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Baja, Ibn Tufail and Ibn Rushd as the greatest of philosophers. Al-Kindi (Abu Yusuf Yakub ibn Ishak: 813 A.D.-842 AD), was a versatile genius. He wrote on philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, politics, music, etc. He was well versed in Greek, Persian and the Indian languages. Due to these great philosophers, authors, scientists, jurists and theologians, Muslims ruled over intellectual and scientific world for a long time. Zil-abi-Mashar or the Table of Abu Mashar (Albumazar) was one of the chief sources of astronomical knowledge. Research, development, and intellectual activities took prominence at the initiative of the Muslim academicians, scholars and thinkers. The world is deeply indebted to them for their tremendous contributions. Universities followed ‗Kitab Al-Hawi Fittib‘ by Ar-Razi, ‗At-Tasrif‘ by Abul AlJahrvi, ‗Kitab Faydala Fittib‘ by Al-Beruni and ‗Al-Kanun Fittib‘ by Ibn Sina had been by all over the world for centuries (800 A.D.-1500 AD) as the Bibles of Medical Sciences. Ibn Sina is still recognized as the great pundit of all times, has left his indelible mark in Astronomy, Medical Science, Chemistry, Biology and Philosophy. One thousand years ago, he warned the world by determining that Tuberculosis is a waterborne contagious disease. Ibn Rushd discovered light reflected on the retina from objects cause people to see. Moreover, Medical Scientist, Ibn AlNaïfs was the first to discover the blood circulation system in human body. Ibn Nafis wrote many books, among those, ‗Al-Shami Fi Al-Tib‘ was to be of 300 volumes, but death intervened and the project was never materialized. This was the time, when Muslim educational institutions were the heart and soul, of all the intellectual and scientific activities. In these centers of education, many educational institutions grew up, based on distinct disciplines for gaining excellence in research methodology. By the
195

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

eleventh century of the Christian era, the Muslim educational systems had developed so much so that the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Nizamia in Baghdad and the University of Cordova in Spain were considered the best educational institutions in the world. In Spain at Toledo and in Egypt at Alexandria, Universities of high standard were established. In these institutions of very high reputations, scholars and students came from all over the world, irrespective of caste, creed and religion. Many non-Muslim scholars educated in these institutions earned fame later in their lives. The Library in Cordova, the capital of Spain, proudly displayed a collection of 400,000 books. The libraries at Nizamia in Baghdad, at the Al-Azhar in Cairo and in Alexandria, held a collection of several hundred thousand books among them. Students, researchers and teachers from all over the world, converged to these centers of learning per excellence in huge numbers, as we see them today, rushing to the modern advanced countries like, the USA, UK, Australia, Canada and Japan. Muslims attained excellence in all the branches of arts and sciences, but particularly their reputation as medical scientists, physicians and surgeons, spread worldwide. Even, Kings, Queens and Emperors sought them from all over the world, irrespective of caste, creed and nationality. Great centers of learning developed throughout the Muslim world, starting from the birth place of Islam, Mecca and Medïna to Damascus, Kufa, Baghdad, Cairo, Alexandria, Cordova, Grenada, Benghazi, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Sudan, Istanbul, Nishapore, Samarkhand, Bukhara and Gazni, etc. The light that the Muslim scholars illuminated glowed for many centuries and led the world to knowledge and wisdom. Muslims were at the peak of their excellence and their knowledge radiated far beyond their realm and guided intellectuals all over the world. Numerous theories and inventions of the Muslim scholars and thinkers still guide the modern scientific era. Modern science is deeply indebted to the innumerable contributions of the Muslim scholars. Saints like: Data Ganja Baksh of Lahore, Khawja Muinuddin Chisti of Ajmer, Shah Jalal of Sylhet, Muzadidi Al-Fesani of Sarhind, Nizamuddin Aulyia of Delhi, contributed immensely to the advancement of education, both spiritual and mundane in the Indian sub-continent, where millions of non-Muslims became their followers.
196

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE ASTRONOMY AND MATHEMATICS:

Al Khawarijmi (780-850 AD) invented modern algebra and converted numbers into an element expressing a relationship. Al-Bawani using Sine and Tangent began the new subject of trigonometry. Abul Wafah (939 A.D.-997 AD) introduced new table of sine. Al-Beruni (973-1048 AD) introduced Beruni‘s Longitudes and Latitudes determination system. He realized that the universe is a continuous process. Omar Khyyam (1044 A.D.-1123 AD), known and revered as the author of the famous ‗Rubbayat‘ in the Indian subcontinent, was a Mathematician, Astronomer, Physician and Philosopher. Astronomers, Ahmed Al-Naimandi Masallah Simdi ibn Ali, Yahya bin Abi-Nasour Khalid bin Malik Al-Batani, Yusuf Hassan bin Haizam, Omar Khyyam and Ulug Beg, are immortalized by their contributions. Celestial bodies discovered by them bear names that they gave them: Akhir Al-Nahar (Achemar), Fahm Al-Hut (Fomul hut), etc. Muslim scientist, Abu Mashar, nine hundred years before Newton, wrote about the reason of high and low tides. Books on various disciplines of science, particularly, astronomy and physics, Kitab Al-Makhdal Al-Kabir AlInsah an-Nuzum (The Great Introduction of Science of Astrology), Kitab Al-Kinav (Book of Conjunctions), Kitab Tahbil Sini Al-Alas (Book of Revolution of the world years), earned international fame. Three craters on the moon had been named after Al-Beruni, Omar Khyyam and Ibn Sina - the famous Muslim scientists. Al-Beruni was the first to determine the diurnal rotation of the earth and drew the longitudes and latitudes of the earth. Nine hundred years before Newton, he measured the earth accurately, and perceived the phenomenon of Relativity (the Theory of Relativity) almost a thousand years before Einstein. His books ‗Quanoon Al-Masud‘ and ‗Tahdid Nahyat-eAmakin‘ (The Limitation of Space) are even today recognized as a great contribution. Omar Khyyam, though more known as a great poet, was an Astronomer and a Mathematician per excellence. However, his greatest contribution was in Algebra. In geometry, his solutions of cubic equations are exceptional. Khayyam‘s book on Algebra, ‗Fi-Al-Jaber Wa-Al-Mukabila‘ is a masterpiece. He improved and corrected the Old Persian Calendar. Crimoner Jerard and Chester Robert in the twelfth century translated his books, on Mathematics and Astronomy into Latin.
197

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muslims invented number ‗zero‘ and introduced ‗decimal system‘ in the ninth century. For a long two fifty years, up to the twelfth century Europe refused to accept this decimal system.
GEOGRAPHY AND MAPPING:

Caliph Al-Mamoon (813-833 AD) during his reign prepared the measurement of geographic degrees and an illustration of the world by the Muslim scholars. Al-Farghani, astronomer (d. 861 AD), prepared the geographic chart of longitudes and latitudes. Al-Masudi (912-957 AD) was the first to write a scientific Geographic Encyclopedia pregnant with history. Al Idrisi (1099-1166 AD) held that the earth is round and prepared an accurate map of the world. He is the author of the Roger‘s Book and the Geographic Encyclopedia that was published in Rome in 1619. Al-Hamawal (1109-1229 AD) wrote geographic and scientific encyclopedia. Arab theory of ‗Cupola of Arin‘ influenced Christian scholars greatly. Ahmed ibn Majid guided Vasco de Gama from the eastern shores of Africa to the western shores of India. He authored a manual of the routes through the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean and South East Asian Sea routes. Ibn Majid is considered the inventor of the compass.
MEDICINE:

Hunaian ibn Ishak (810-877 AD) was the first to translate Greek books on Medicine into Arabic and wrote some basic books on medicine himself. Ar-Razi (d. 923-24 AD) found the treatment for measles and pox and wrote the most dependable treatise on their treatments. For a long period, he lived in Europe translating books on medicine. His writings influenced the West a great deal. Ibn Sina (Avesena) (980 AD-1037 AD) was the most influential Muslim of his time. He wrote a very valuable and informative book on medicine called ‗the Canon of Medicine‘. Experts of medicine all over the world accepted his treatments described in the book. Its influence can be discerned in the treatments and books of medicine from the 11th to the 17th centuries. Ibn Juhor (Avenjuhar) (1091-1161 AD) was the chief court physician of the Al Nohiv‘s of Morocco. His book ‗The Facilities of Treatment‘ distinctly influenced the European physicians. Ibn Rushd (Averush)(1128 A.D.-1198) was a prominent physician and was famous as a philosopher, as well. Ibn Khatib (1313-1374 AD) was a historian, an executive, a
198

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

physician and a writer all at the same time. His book ‗On the Plague‘ i s an important work. Ibn Khatima (1323-1369 AD) wrote the most important book about Plague in the Middle Ages.
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS:

Jaber ibn Hayan (b. 776 AD) is the Father of Chemistry. He prepared many new chemicals. Ar-Razi (d. 923-24 AD though famed as physician and medical scientists classified matters and chemicals. He was also a prominent Chemist. Watch, waterpower technology and mechanical toys are the main Muslim contributions in Physics where he contributed. Al Haitham (965-1039) is the first scientist who corrected Ptolemy‘s Optical Doctrine. He founded the modern optical science and was the first to use Camera Obscure for the treatment of eyes.
BOTANY: AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO THE CULTURE OF SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE IN EUROPE:

Muslims are the first to introduce Oranges, Lemon, Pitch, Plume, Pomegranate, Saffron and Coffee in Europe. They also introduced sugarcane and rice plantations. Besides that, they have introduced a few herbs and modern irrigation techniques. Ibn Al Awwam (end of the thirteenth century) composed the most important treatise about agriculture of his time. In grafting, use of fertilizer and treatment of plant diseases, he used scientific techniques. All these are written in the books he authored. Principle books among them were translated into French and Spanish and were published in the nineteenth century. Ibn Al-Baitar (d. 1248) was the best Botanist and Pharmacist of the Middle Ages. Beside that, he wrote detailed informative texts on botany, medicine and food. Europe only recognized his importance recently. In horticulture, the main Islamic contributions are introduction of flowers and gardening of Persian and Andalusian flowers. Europeans adopted names of flower extracts and fruit syrups like Julep Syrup and Atar (Fragrance extracted from flowers: alcohol free scent). Arabian and Persian perfumes gained immense popularity in the West. Though the Muslims accomplished excellence in many disciplines, they particularly excelled in medicine, diagnosis and treatment.
ILLITERACY AND IGNORANCE:

THE MAIN ENEMY OF MUSLIMS TODAY:

199

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Ninety-five percent of the followers of that religion which began with the message, ―Read! And gather knowledge,‖ and the preacher of which religion said, ―Learning and attaining knowledge is compulsory for each of the followers,‖ are ignorant, today. Muslims all over the world live in 42 countries as the majority and about 40 % of them live in another 49 countries as the minority. Illiteracy is their main problem and is the main hurdle in their way to progress and prosperity. In spite of their number, at present they are far behind all other religious groups in all respects. Christians, Hindus, Jewish or Buddhists are far ahead of them. In their heyday students from all over the world, came to Islamic educational institutions; today the situation is completely reversed without a sign of any improvement. Cursed by ignorance, the Muslims even forgot Prophet‘s (PBUH) sermon that all Muslims were equal, and among them were no distinctions due to station, status, color or birth.‖ Ignorant as they are, they are fighting among themselves, bringing in their own destruction. Education and only education can save them from this malaise.
EXAMPLES OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN THE MUSLIM WORLD:

Muslim world including Saudi Arabia made remarkable progress in modern education. We hope that if education spreads among the masses all males and females would be enlightened. The oldest educational pulpit in the modern Islamic world, Al Azhar University of Cairo, though still active, but its facilities for modern branches of sciences are inadequate. Besides, the Qur‘änic education Traditions and Islamic Jurisprudence, students do not gain knowledge in any other subjects as those attending the western universities. Asian and African students studying Qur‘än, Hadith and Islamic Jurisprudence remain ignorant about medicine, geography, physics, chemistry and other sciences. In Bangladesh, an Islamic University has been established. We hope that there the students would be taught all disciplines in the light of the Qur‘än. Neither an education devoid of Qur‘än and Hadith nor without modern science and technology is desirable for Muslims. Therefore, efforts should be made to bring about a combination of both strictly in the light of the Qur‘än and Hadith. Islam has not debarred its adherents from learning modern sciences, but encouraged search for the truth.
200

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Today‘s wrong policies divided the educated into two groups: one with modern education ignorant of religion and the other religiously educated without any understanding of modern sciences. These groups are pitted against each other and are constantly at each other‘s throats. As a result, orthodox fundamentalists killed Egyptian the President, Anwar Sadat. Kamal Ataturk, the Father of modern Turkey, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Father of Pakistan and Sir Syed Ahmed, the Founder of Aligarh Muslim University were not looked upon appreciably by many ulemas (Islamic learned man), because of their radicalism. Except Sir Syed Ahmed, the other two probably had not been able to combine Islam and modernism.
THE ROLE OF SAUDI ARABIA:

Under the circumstances, a ray of hope is seen in the country where Islam was born, where in the golden era of Islam, brilliant light of education and knowledge blazed and destroyed ignorance and superstition. This is a proud moment for the Islamic world that Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Islam, the protector of Mecca and Medïna, is establishing itself as a modern country advancing fast in all fields. Fuad Abdul Hamid Al Khatib, the first ambassador of Saudi Arabia to Bangladesh once mentioned that it was mandatory for students to learn recitation of the Qur‘än before starting primary education: while delivering a talk on the educational system in his country. Elaborating he said: ―after that the students according to their ability and choice select subjects and their future careers.‖ Saudi Arabia has no inhibition about education. Boys and girls are provided with equal opportunities in education. Arabic, their language, and English, a foreign language, are taught with equal importance, according to needs. Saudi Arabia by selecting English along with the mother tongue has set an example. They are on the right track to materialize Prophet‘s (PBUH) teaching. We wish them success in their noble endeavor. May God grant them success, resources and strength to lead the Muslims of the world to their former glory! Saudi Arabia has taken a pragmatic measure, by including English in the curriculum, since English has become the Lingua franca of the world. For coordination and cooperation in the fields of science and arts it is a very timely measure. Because of this far-sighted policy, a Saudi prince, Sultan bin Salman has become the first Muslim Astronaut. In 1984, he traveled to the space with other astronauts on ‗Discovery‘. It is hoped that, taking the lead from
201

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Saudi Arabia, other rich Muslim nations would spend their wealth on educating the nation in modern sciences, without wasting it on amusements and other diversions.
KING SAUD BIN ABDUL AZIZ UNIVERSITY: RIYADH:

Saudi youths learning English have established links with the developing world and are benefiting from it tremendously. The King Saud bin Abdul Aziz University in Riyadh is a bright example of that. In this university, twenty thousand pupils can study in a session. The library of the largest University of the World, King Saud University, holds two million books and ten thousand periodicals and magazines. Starting from research facilities to dining, playing, residential facilities and medical treatment everything is available there. Equipped with modern electronic and electrical equipment and instruments, water and sewerage systems and computers, it is one of the most modern educational institutions of the world. Its modern buildings are erected within a beautifully green area, an area larger than half the city of New York. The pride of Muslim nations, this university is the heart of Islamic scientific and intellectual activities. Hopefully, the renaissance of science technology, humanities and other intellectual activities would begin from here, in the Muslim world and they would regain their past glory. To accommodate Arab and non-Arabs, it is hoped that the Saudi government would build universities in the heartland of Islam, Mecca and Medïna, and in other important cities like Tayef, Jeddah and Dhahran. The Muslim Umma is looking up to the Saudi government to fulfil their long cherished dream of revival of their glorious past, where Muslims ruled supreme in the realm of knowledge and wisdom. This great civilization has acted as catalyst to bring out the Europeans from the abyss of Dark Ages. Dormant Europe of the Middle Ages came to life and bust forth with intellectual activities that gave rise to the present day western civilization which has assumed a truly universal character.
EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

IN FEW OTHER MUSLIM COUNTRIES:

Not only Saudi Arabia but oil rich Kuwait and the Arab Emirate also have modern educational facilities that can be of tremendous benefit to the whole of the Muslim Umma. If these facilities are extended to all the Muslims of the world, Islam might again be pulsating with intellectual
202

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

activities changing the face of the world yet again. Countries like Pakistan and Malaysia also have Islamic Universities. However, they cannot afford an education system like Saudi Arabia and similar is the case in almost all other Muslim countries. Muslims, today, throughout the world must learn Arabic, the language of Al-Qur‘än and English to comprehend modern science and contribute taking lead from the Qur‘än and compete and live with honor and dignity with the developed world. Non-Arab Iran, like Saudi Arabia, has also come to the forefront by introducing Islamic shariat. Bangladesh, Indonesia and Pakistan have good educational institutions to teach Qur‘än, Hadith and Fiqah (Jurisprudence) without the modern branches of science and technology. It is the same in Egypt, Sudan and in other African countries. With the addition of respective mother tongues, English and other subjects, the existing Islamic system of education would be impeccable, preparing students for much greater roles in the society. During their reign of eight hundred years, the light of Islamic education that the Muslims lighted in India is still kept alive by the Muslims under very adverse conditions in a non-Muslim state. However, since they are antagonistic to western education, they are lagging behind. It is a pity that Turkey, the Muslim country that ruled over vast areas of Asia, Africa and Europe for eight hundred years and earned laurels in the name of Islam and as Muslims we are still proud of them, has no provision for Islamic education, officially; though they know that knowledge had burst forth from the Qur‘än. Christian clerics opposed science and other intellectual activities, while Islam said: ―By the Qur‘än, Full of Wisdom (Al-Qur‘än - 36:2). Islam prepared the world for the culture of sciences anew and started the modern day advancement in science and technology. Therefore, it is very painful to note that a country like Turkey that has long heritage of Islamic culture and civilization has forced Islam to the backseat. In the end, it is hoped that Saudi Arabia and Iran would enlighten Turkey and other Muslim nations antagonistic to Islam by the blazing light of knowledge. It will open the floodgates of knowledge if modern scientific and technological education is introduced like the King Saud University, Riyadh in other oil rich countries. If same measues were taken at the Al Azhar University in Cairo, the oldest educational pulpit of the Islamic
203

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

world, at the Khartoum University of Sudan, in Algeria, at University King Muhammad-V in Rabat, Morocco, at least, the Muslims of those regions would be benefied. Besides, by establishing universities like King Saud bin Abdul Aziz University in every Muslim country, the curse of ignorance could be eradicated in the vast Islamic population. If the rich Islamic nations restrict their indulgence and divert the savings to poorer Islamic nations, for building educational institutions, the completely gloomy picture would rapidly change. Since, Islam profess simplicity and teaches to shun all ostentation, the money that is spent on building elegant Mosques can be diverted to poverty eradication and educational projects for poor Islamic countries. With a balanced education, again the Muslims would pulsate with vigor and energy and the long night of darkness would lift its veil to welcome the dawn of glory and fame. Walking shoulder to shoulder with the modern world again, they would be able to perform miracles for the benefit of the Humankind.
CONCLUSION:

Appropriately educated the multitude of jobless youth in the poorer Muslim nations could find a purpose in life, if the wealthy Muslim countries invest to establish modern and balanced educational infrastructure in those countries, for teaching science and technology with equal importance and care along with religious sciences. In these institutions, they may get education free or with affordable tuition fees. The Organization of Islamic Countries in consultation with the oil rich countries may take appropriate step in this regard. In this way Physicians, Engineers, Architects, Linguists, Jurists, Accountants, Administrators, Executives, Politician, Traders and Industrialists would be prepared for their mundane businesses having strong footing in religion. A firm knowledge of God‘s injunctions should restrain them from straying and lapse into sinful activities harmful for the Umma. There would be much less chance of them indulging into immoral activities for worldly gains. Pious brethren of the rich Islamic nations could do this with just adjusting their expenditure a bit. They might not spend as much as they do now on fancy Mosques. Where is the scope in Islam to build fancy buildings that induce pride? The Technical Institute, built at Tongi near the capital city of Bangladesh by the financial
204

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

cooperation of the Islamic nations, is a step in the right direction, but it is only a drop in the mighty Ocean. Much, much more has to be done in this regard.

205

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Chapter II
STATUS OF WOMEN IN ISLAM MEN AND WOMEN:

In different countries and in different eras women have been viewed differently. Women have been designated as aspersion on purity of man in the west, in Rome as furniture, in Greece as devils, In the Torah as permanent curses and in Christian church as hurdles to human development. Idolaters and even the Christians accepted women as goddesses. However, Islam‘s view is very different. Islam designated females as the ‗Flowers of Paradise‗, ‗Aroma of Civilization‘ and ‗Symbols of beauty of Mankind‗. The great rebel poet of Bengal, the poet laureate of Bangladesh, Kazi Nazrul Islam, wrote: ―Exquisite and auspicious in this world, whatever, Accomplished by Men and Women together.‖ Allah the Sustainer, the Protector of the Worlds created human beings and divided them in two types, males and females. He created them equals in every respect. God, the Creator of the Worlds, created Adam and Eve, as male and female with the common mission to propagate the human race. Other than the distinction as the male and the female, He has made no exception in them, as they were created from the same basic elements. In the Qur‘än God said,
107. O MANKIND ! R EVERENCE YOUR G UARDIAN -L ORD , WHO CREATED YOU FROM A SINGLE P ERSON , CREATED , OF LIKE NATURE , HIS MATE , AND FROM THEM TWAIN SCATTERED ( LIKE SEEDS ) COUNTLESS MEN AND WO MEN ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:1). A ND AMONG H IS SIGNS IS THIS , THAT H E CREATED YOUR MATES FROM AMONG YOURSELVES , THAT YE MAY DWELL IN TRANQUILLITY WITH TH EM , AND H E HAS PUT LOVE AND MERCY BETWEEN YOUR ( HEARTS ): VERILY IN THAT ARE S IGNS FOR THOSE WHO REFLECT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 30: 21).

God said,
108.

Women have been the source of peace and happiness on this earth and ha they have been created from the same elements, are clearly stated in the Qur‘än. They are not equals in this world only, but in the hereafter, as well. The only yardstick of measuring greatness is their good deeds. Allah said,
109. I F ANY DO DEEDS OF RI GHTEOUSNESS , - BE THEY MALE OR AND FEMALE - AND HAVE FAITH , THEY WILL ENTER H EAVEN , AND NOT THE LEAST IN JUSTICE WILL BE DONE TO THEM . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4: 124).

206

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

They have been made complementary to each other, not subordinate to any one or the other. Each kind is invested with an overwhelming proclivity to attract the other. This mutual attraction is so great that they cannot live apart in peace and happiness. Often this natural loving and caring relationship are destroyed, because of the desire to dominate the other. As the males are physically stronger, women fall prey to this ominous desire, more often than not For ages, women have been treated as cattle and as objects of enjoyment. They have never been recognized as individual entities before Islam. Islam is the first religious order, which has recognized woman as a separate being with a mind and soul. No religious leaders or social reformers, before Muhammad (PBUH) has been able to emancipate women so completely, bestowing great honor on them.
WOMEN IN OTHER RELIGIONS: WOMEN IN HINDUISM:

In the age of Veda, Hindu social system was paternal, where the father was the head of the family. Inheritance laws were created for the males, and for ages, females were totally ignored. Though females enjoyed some very limited rights, they were virtually left to the mercy of the males. ―In the ancient times many females remained spinsters in their father‘s home. While the male wards stayed with their teachers and took classes, the females did the household chores at their father‘s home. Exorbitant dowry was required to marry a daughter, and so, many remained unmarried. After marriage they lost all the rights to their father‘s property, therefore, the brothers took extra pain to marry them. Many married their husband‘s younger brothers on their deaths. Therefore, they are called Debars (Second Husband). Polygamy was common among men.‖ Promiscuity in both men and women was castigated by the society. It was considered chivalrous to marry women by kidnapping. At the request of the brothers-in-law, widows abandoned the pyre and cremated their husbands. Daughters were universally unwanted. Pregnant women and their relations kept praying for male infants. Rich and the powerful had many wives and concubines. The victor enslaved the vanquished. Female members of the dead in a war were forced into concubinage. Sexual

207

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

immorality was pervasive and shamelessly unrestrained. Orphan female child was considered ominous. As outrageous dowry demanded by the groom for marrying a girl, the less affluent could not marry their daughters. These daughters were taken to the marriage market, where a prospective groom or his relatives could even inspect them without any robes. If so desired the girls could be kept for a few nights before a decision was taken.108 It was common for the relatives to pray for a male child when a woman became pregnant. Manu, the author of the basic precepts of Hinduism wrote: ―Women will surrender themselves to their keeper (Men), in all circumstances.‖ Man on the pretext of religious canons governed the woman irrespective of her status of being a virgin, widow or married. Women had no rights or status in the society. At primitive stage of the Indian Civilization, women were treated as slaves. Manu the Hindu sage said,
179.

WOMEN

SHALL NEVER ENJOY INDEPENDENCE.

MEN

S H A L L A L WAY S K E E P T H E M U N D E R

THEI R C ONT RO L 180.

(5-148). SHE

IN HIN D UI SM,

W O M E N H AV E N O R E L I G I O U S , P R O F E S S I O N A L O R S P I R I T U A L R I G H T S .

H A S N O R I G H T T O T R Y O R S T R I V E T O E A R N V I RT U E O R W E A LT H A N D G R AT I F Y D E S I R E

( 4 , 2 - 11 ) .
181.

WOMEN

S H A L L N O T TA L K I N F R O N T O F O T HE R S ; S HO U L D N O T B E G R A N T E D F R E E D O M SHALL NOT ENJOY RE SPITE EXCEPT INSIDE THE HOUSEHOLD

FOR A MOMENT;

(3,2-

39,43).
182.

WIVES

C A N N O T B E A L L O W E D T O A C C O M PA N Y O T H E R S :

T HE Y

A RE T HE SO URCE O F A LL

M I S F O RT U N E S 183.

(3,2,240,241).
TO P R O C R E AT E ; WIT HO UT T HE HUSBAND SHE IS N OT HIN G;

WOMAN

IS

C R E AT E D

W H AT E V E R , H E S AY S , T H E W O M A N S H O U L D A B I D E B Y T H AT , I R R E S P E C T I V E O F R I G H T O R WRONG. 184. 185.

IT

I S T H E N AT U R E O F W O M E N T O D E F I L E M E N I N T H I S W O R L D

(2-213).

SLEEPING,

D R E S S I N G A N D R E S T I N G , PA S S I O N , A N G E R , S P I T E A N D M A L I C I O U S B E H AV I O R

ARE ALL CHARACTERIST ICS OF WOMEN 186.

(9-17).

IN

V I R G I N I T Y T H E F AT H E R , I N T H E Y O U T H T H E H U S B A N D A N D I N T H E O L D A G E T H E S O N

WILL PROTECT A WOMAN.

IN

N O N E O F T H E S T AT E S , S H E S H A L L B E I N D E P E N D E N T .

Vishnu says,
187.

WOMAN (7-10).

I S A T H I N G O F G R AT I F I C AT I O N A N D D E E D S D R A W N B Y W O M E N A R E N O T VA L I D

108

Naba Kollol: 26th year, 4th. issue; Bilupta Bandar; pp. 635; Calcutta; July 1985.

208

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
188. 189.

WOMEN IF

D O N O T H AV E T H E R I G H T T O O W N E R S H I P

( 4 - 11 ) .

S H E D I E S W I T H O U T L I Q U I D AT I N G A L O A N , S H E W I L L B E R E B O R N A S A F O U R F O O T E D

ANIMAL

(4,5,2-579,480).

In this way in the days of Veda, Women had been equated with animals and treated as such. It was said that due to their inherent incoherence of intelligence even a sane woman could not be a witness (8-77). Shukracharjya says, ―Woman like a gambler-thief cannot be innocent.‖ Here women have been compared with thieves!‖ According to the Hindu law, men can marry at will as many wives as he wishes, but women are forbidden to marry more than once in a lifetime. In ancient India starting with Sri Krishna and Indra to Rajas and Maharajahs, it was common to take many wives. Some had hundreds of wives. Most of them had hundreds of concubines to gratify their insatiable lust. On the contrary, women were supposed to live and die for their husbands, if even he was a despotic philanderer or a debauched drunkard. They had no right to religion and prayer, and as such, they had no way to get forgiveness for their sins. According to Hindu religious Gurus, they even had no right to the creators‘ compassion. Woman who remained completely faithful to her husband, all the life, in spite of denials and deprivations, was extolled as the incarnation of piety. They absolutely had no socioeconomic, cultural and inheritance rights. While marriage was a life long bond, men were allowed to marry if widowed, but widows were not allowed to remarry. Widows were treated as the lowest of the low in the society and were considered as a burden by the family and the relatives. Perhaps, to release them from this inhuman inferno, religious leaders invented self-immolation of widows, at the pyre, with their dead husbands. This was also necessitated, according to Greek historians, because of deaths of husbands, due to poisoning by their wives reached an alarming proportion. Since the daughters had no right of inheritance, outrageous dowry was needed to marry them. Therefore, as a measure of relief, female infanticide became widespread. However, the Brahmins had the exclusive right to religion and to the scriptures, but even their women were not allowed to recite from the Holy Scriptures. They were treated as the untouchable. The loving mother, daughter, sister and beloved wife had no social standing. They
209

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

had no say in the choice of husbands. Even today, the condition remains largely the same, in the largest democracy of the world, India, the cradle of Hinduism.
WOMEN AND THE ROMAN CIVILIZATION:

Even during the peak of the Roman Civilization, women were no better treated than they were in India. Never women were independent and lived under the tutelage of their fathers, brothers, sons or other male relatives. Their lives were passed in virtual slavery. Concerning marriage they were completely dependent on their guardians, and were forced to marry men, even if, they were absolutely, unworthy of them. They had no right to conclude agreements, to adopt, guardianship, to be a protector, witness or guarantor (Encyclopedia of Britannica). To the Scandinavian nations in Europe, married or unmarried women were under a permanent protection scheme. If any women had married without the permission of her protector, the protector had the right to enjoy her property during the lifetime of his ward. On marriage, the property of a woman went to her husband and he was free to enjoy such property at his sweet will (The Encyclopedia of America).
WOMEN IN BUDDHISM:

Women were living in a deplorable condition under Buddhist civilization and they were no better than hey were under the Hindu religion or any other system. The Buddha himself had shown great contempt for women by leaving behind his young wife and infant child to embrace celibacy and monk-hood. According to him, women hinder the liberation of human soul. His disciples following him held women in great contempt. One Chinese monk declared that to advance in life one should act against the advice of women. There is no evidence of respect for women in the Buddhist culture. They were no better off than they were under the ancient Hindu religion and culture. The birth of female child was scorned upon while a male birth was a matter of great celebration and honor. In the same time in Japan, the birth of a female child was vilified as ignoble. In Japan or in China like Hinduism, women had no rights or liberty. They were not free to move outside or allowed into the temples. Cohabitation without marriage was common. Since, priests were not allowed marriage immoral sexual activities took root in the temples. Free and easily accessible sex in the temples loosened the institution of
210

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

marriage in the society. Buddhism taking birth in the cradle of Hinduism, could not establish female freedom: like the Hindu religion.
WOMEN IN JUDAISM:

According to the Jewish faith, women are the main cause of transgression. She would address her husband as the master under Judaism. The husband was not bound to take any measure to provide security and safety to his wife. A father could sell his daughter in temporary slavery and usually she would become a concubine. If the husband even without any foundation brought any accusation against his wife‘s character, the father-in-law was bound to requite (Deut. 22-21). If the daughter is over aged, the Talmud prescribes marriage with a freed slave. The father, if deemed it fit, could marry his married daughter to another man. The Jewish could marry as many times as they wished and could keep concubines. Women were referred to along with cattle (Deut. 10th Commandment). One could divorce his wife on the pretext of lack of chastity (Deut. 241). On the other hand, the woman was sentenced to death, if her parents could not satisfy the elders by providing proof of her modesty. In every respect, man took precedence over woman. The female would only inherit her father‘s property, if there were no male issues. Mother was second to the father, in the Jewish religion (Deut. 5 - 16). Because of this inferior status of women, there is no reference to any great lady in the Jewish history.
WOMEN IN CHRISTIANITY:

Taking the cue from Jesus Christ, who was a bachelor, and listening to the glorification of Paradise from him, Christians naturally felt inclined to celibacy. At the height of their debasement, women were squarely blamed for all the ills of the world. The Christians believed that Adam ate the forbidden 'Apple' at the instigation of Eve and that caused their fall from Paradise, otherwise, human race would have been living in Paradise in utter bliss and happiness. Women were viewed as the door to all evils and transgressions, in Christianity. Christian priests styled women as the 'Organ of the Devil'. They were likened to poisonous scorpions, ready to sting. John Stuart Mill in his article ‗Subjection of Women‘ wrote: ―We have repeatedly been told that civilization and Christianity have established women‘s due rights and liberated women, but we see in practice that the
211

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

wife has been reduced to nothing but a maid of her husband, at least, in the eyes of the law.‖ David and Vera Match, in their book entitled: ‗Marriage - East and West‘ wrote: ―Christian Padres, on more occasions than anybody else, have maligned women and debased them.‖ The famous historian, Lake says, ―The laughable effort by a group of priests to debase and malign women clearly shows that the civilized society, specially, the Christians could not assure the right place for women in the society. In the opinion of Christian theologians, woman is the door to hell and is the source of all evils.‖ They also say that women should be ashamed, that they are women. She must always live in repentance, since she is a curse for the world. At the instigation of the Devil, she has beguiled Adam to take the apple for which she has been styled as ‗WOMAN‘, meaning Woe to Man. Christian clerics have always derided women and called them with debasing diminutive epithets. Saint Tartulian said: ―All women are Eves.‖ Comparing women to animals it have been said that in the animals women are the most dangerous. Woman is the doorway to all evils as she uncovered the 'forbidden tree'. She is the violator of God's order and most detrimental to human beings. God's curse continues on them even today, it is their fate. They should be ashamed for their dresses, since they are reminiscent of human fall from the 'Paradise'. They should be ashamed of their beauty as that is the basic provocation to vices. Women have been described as necessarily the basic transgression and anathema. Saint Freistrom said, "Woman is an essential obsession, a natural provocation, a burden, a household embarrassment and embodiment of vice. Saint Paul said, "Let the women remain silent, I cannot let them speak. She is like the poison of a winged serpent." Saint Micreas said, "Women are extremely poisonous serpents." In the opinion of Saint Anthony, 'women are like scorpions, ever ready to bite'. The great Saint Gregory said, "Women are an amalgamation of the devious Bumblebee and the fearsome Python. Saint Jerome said, "Woman is the way to 'Evil' through their devilishness and is like the bite of a Scorpion." Saint Bernhard said, "Women are the spokesperson of the Devil and she opened the door to sufferings for the human race." In this manner, almost all the Christian saints and savants lavishly disparaged women. In their opinion, women should perpetually mourn their role as the harbinger of curse for this world. Until today, it is a
212

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

matter of contention in Christian religion, if women are profane and have souls, if they have the right to paradise or if they are at all human beings. After an intensive research in 601 AD, at a religious gathering of Maculay, it was decided that women would go to heaven but at that time, they would be cleansed of basic womanly characters. In the after world, they would be transformed into a special being devoid of womanhood. She is the eater of forbidden fruit and thus is the reason for human misery. She is the violator of God's will, thus the human race is punished with death, and so Christ had to die. If Satan did not inspire them, they would not have such courage as to defy God. In this way, the Christian Church has always belittled women. They have been burdened with all types of disparaging, belittling, derogatory names. The Church even forfeited whatever little rights they enjoyed before and disrobed them of any respect. Where the Romans were advancing women's cause through enacting laws, Christianity was constantly berating them. They were even enjoying much less privileges compared to the heathen Rome. The Christian religious cannons shackled women in prohibitions. In Christianity, it became impossible for women to own any property. They were only qualified to get married or to become nuns. Christian males with the help of the law degraded and deprived women of all rights and forced them into a miserable state of life. Christian religious leaders engaged into war against nature by glorifying celibacy. The relationship that is created through sacred nuptial ties for the survival of the human race has been discouraged, as profane. It was defamed as the reason for Adam's fall from Paradise. Abstinence was hallowed. Love and affection that grows in marital bond and ultimately contribute in building a happy society was denied by the Christian priests. They were not even prepared to consider the benefits of marriage. Though they recognized marriage as the shield against vices, they thought it an imperative to shun marriage to attain divinity. Saint Jerome urged to axe marriage by celibacy. Resultantly, scores of males and females took residence in the religious cloisters. Consequently, such residences increased rapidly. Subsequently, like the Buddhist missions, Christian cloisters became worse sanctuary of vice than the brothels. In a marriage, if one partner is caught in the whirlwind of extra zeal of religion the strain disrupts the happy union. They live separately even if
213

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

they are not openly separated. Thus, the whole purpose of marriage is defeated. After becoming a father of two issues, Saint Millers started living separately from his wife. Saint Malachi after pleading with his wife for a long time convinced her to sleep in a separate bed. Saint Abraham fled from the conjugal bed. On the night of marriage, Saint Amman convinced his consort to live separately sermonizing her on the demerits of marriage. Saint Gregory wrote an inspiring hymn on virginity. Henry the second, Edward of England and Almadi the second of Spain married in name only. In Christianity, marriage was final and could not be dissolved, irrespective of any conjugal relationship in the marriage. The Bible says: "What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder (St. Mark 10:9)." Christian clerics declared divorce as a sin. The state taking lead from religious cannons enacted oppressive laws to shackle women and forced them to lowly lives. There grew wrong perceptions about women because of all this erratic cannons against women. Not before the end of nineteenth century, these inequality and repressive doctrines were challenged. During the French Revolution, the leaders for the first time recognized equal shares of daughters and sons in their fathers' properties, but did not mention wives' right in their husbands' properties. Through laws enacted in 1870 and 1882, married daughters achieved the right to property, similarly, the unmarried and the divorced were granted rights to property. In the United Kingdom, because of their role in the Industrial Revolution and the Second World War, Christian women earned political and social rights. However, religion has no role in all these advancement. The modern way of life has no likeness to Christianity. In the West from the Grecian time, women were looked down. JP Mahaffy in his book entitled 'Greek Life and Thoughts' wrote, "In the civilized era except Plato all other scholars said that women should be deprived of education and kept as slaves confined to their homes." Aristotle said very strongly that women are inferior to men. In spite of the rise of Christianity women for centuries remained as slaves in the West. Not only in the society but also in their own family they had no honor or dignity. At the footnote of page 222 of the book ‗'The Mothers‘, it is said that in the Nineteenth century England, selling women was very
214

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

normal. At that time, the price was only five Sillings. Miss EA Heckers in her book 'A Story of Women Rights' at page 1818 wrote: "Even in 1941 beating wives were common and normal in England." DL Hobman in his 'Studies in the Emancipation of Women' wrote: "Wives were dipped in water with their hairs tied, and if they protested, they were bridled like horses, gagged and punished. In Russia fathers would give their son-in-laws lashes for using on their daughters. It would hang on the walls of the newly weds room and for even minor faults the bride was whipped. EW Hall in his 'Women in Soviet Russia' wrote, "If wives did not submit to their husbands they were whipped." 'Chickens are not birds and women are not human' is a Russian proverb. Until just before the Second Word War women's condition in France, Germany and other European countries were not satisfactory in comparison to other accomplishments of modern era. Even in the first half of the twentieth century women of the Christian Europe were lagging far behind in education and culture. In the leading countries of the civilized twentieth century like Britain, Germany and France, even in the third decade, no particular efforts were made to educate women. DL Hobman in his 'Studies in the Emancipation of Women' wrote: "Women would not get admission in Oxford and Cambridge even after World War II." Similar was the situation in France and Germany. For female education demand were first raised in the USA in the western countries. That demand reverberated in England but before that, none thought about female education. None of the ‗greats‘ like, Shakespeare, Milton and Rousseau or other scholars and philosophers of the time until before the second World War had championed female education. Even after the 'French Revolution' and 'Industrial Revolution', women were not established in the society. As educated men had no respect for women so they would not tolerate them in any educational commission, board or committee constituted for the uplift of education. It is stated in 'Women Suffrage in Many Lands‘, by Zimmern that in 1840 all members (all were males) of the Anti-slavery Convention Committee of Europe resigned because of the inclusion of a female member in the American delegation. Therefore, the USA was forced to withdraw its female member. During 1832-1942, appalling pictures were projected before various committees about female-labor in the west.
215

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

When in Europe women were so neglected, they were enjoying liberty in every field in the Muslim world. As a result, they contributed to all fields of intellectual activities as well as in the public, private and social sphere. History bears witness to their successful endeavors throughout the Muslim world comprising Turkey, Egypt, most of the North Western Africa, the whole of Middle East, Iran, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, South East Asia and the far East. They also enjoyed similar intellectual and professional liberties in Spain, next to the Dark-Age Europe.
WOMEN IN ARAB HEATHEN RELIGION:

Before the advent of Islam, the Arabs had descended to the lowest pit of barbarity. The society was in complete disarray and lawlessness prevailed everywhere. Women were called the Wand of the Devil and thought to be inauspicious. They were sold like cattle in the market. Desecrating women was very common; they had no social security. Women were simply a commodity of enjoyment and philandering, used to fulfil the insatiable lust of lascivious man. Deprived of even the basic human honor and dignity, they lived a hellish life. After scrutinized by the buyers, they were sold freely in the markets. Debasing, dishonoring and defilement of women were common and almost normal. Female infanticide was widely practiced. At the death of the master of the house, his son inherited all the female members of the household. They used their stepmothers and sometimes, even, mothers and widowed sisters as their concubines. Like the ancient Indian society, in the Arab land a woman were forced to have several husbands, if there was a dearth of females. The guardians of the Christian faith, in the name of religion, lived in celibacy. Many of them either persuaded their wives to live as celibates or left them, for the life of a hermit, all that was done in the name of religion. They impressed upon their female partners the importance of self-denial for spiritual development. In this way, they have negated the law of nature. Eulogizing chastity, they waged a war against the nature. Marriage, the sacred institution that is instituted by God, for the purpose of procreation, had been vilified as the cause of fall of Adam from grace. They have completely ignored the establishment of a peaceful, happy and
216

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

congenial family life that instill many finer qualities in man. Religious leaders blinding themselves to all these positive influences discarded marriage at the altar of celibacy. Marriage, though they recognized as a tool to save people from many vices, they proclaimed as a hindrance to attaining sanctity. Saint Jeremy asked his followers to axe marriage with celibacy.
WOMEN AT THE ADVENT OF ISLAM:

Islam is the only religion that made man and woman equal. Islam has likened women to roses. Islam has raised the status of women tremendously to previously unheard of heights. From mere animals, without a soul, they have been recognized as human beings. This religion of God is the first to consecrate women and reaffirm their state in the society as mothers by declaring that heaven, for the children, lies at the feet of the mother. Motherhood had been glorified and given its true place. The civilized world before that had no conception of the lofty and important place of women in the society. Women for the first time, in the history of the human race, have been established and recognized as individuals with a soul and brain. That is why, we see women in Islam as playing the part of a counselor, consoler, comforter, adviser and companion to man. We see those inspiring men and sharing their sorrows and happiness, as equal partners. Never before, in the history of the humankind this has happened. Islam has not only granted honorable status to women but also made humanized them, strictly and unequivocally, rejecting all the vilification against them. Islam has firmly established them as equals in the society. Describing the state of women in the pre-Islamic era, Hazrat Omar (RA) said, ―In Mecca woman was looked down upon as base, the situation was a bit better in Medïna. After Islam Qur‘änic messages were sent about women and we came to realize their importance (Bukhari).‖ The Prophet (PBUH) of Islam has said, ―Man has been given the responsibility of protecting the family and he will answer for that, woman has been given the responsibility to manage the homestead and she will answer for that (Bukhari).‖ ―Except for the special right you have no supremacy over women (Sunan-e-Ibn Maza).‖ Islam has granted women their right place beside men, whereas the Bible says, ―If you want to walk safe then
217

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

remove women, the obstacle - from the way. The Jewish considers women as a perpetual curse for the human race. Both the Christians and the Jewish consider woman as the thorn of the venomous tree of this earth. However, Islam attributes to women such adjectives as, ‗the Flower of Paradise‘, ‗the Fountain of Serenity and Comfort‘. Low and pitiful state of women in the society tormented the Prophet (PBUH) endlessly. He tried to improve their lot along with all the people of the community. He worked relentlessly to establish women as equals of men in every respect. He firmly established women as a mother, a wife, a sister and a respectable human being. The respect, honor and status that the Prophet (PBUH) decreed for women raised them from the bottom of the society to the highest state. He declared that for children, paradise lies at the feet of their mother. This declaration is a clear manifestation of the eminent place that was granted to women. He had the greatest regard and respect for women. He told people to treat their wives with kindness and love. He declared a good wife is the best reward in this life. After Allah and His Prophet (PBUH), the mother is the most qualified to be respected and honored by her children. To establish daughters as equals to sons, in accordance with God‘s wishes, he declared: ―Anybody who treats his daughters with kindness and love and does not favor his sons to his daughters will go to heaven.‖ He also said, ―To educate and rear female children, properly is a very pious deed.‖ To prepare women with proper education and training to establish them as respected citizens, the Prophet (PBUH) made education compulsory for all Muslims irrespective of gender and status. He urged Muslims to train servants properly in manners and etiquette. Under the guidance of the great Prophet (PBUH), educated women were not at all behind men in their intellectual accomplishments. In the pre-Islamic Arabia, it was most disgraceful to become a father of a female child. In India, female infants were drowned in the river. Widows were forced to die with their husbands at the pyre. Hindu philosophers, intellectuals, in spite of their earnest efforts, could not stop the practice. Later, the government was forced to ban the practice by law, and though it is not practiced in India, it still enjoys support among the fundamentalists. The Prophet (PBUH) long ago outlawed the practice, denouncing it as a loathsome act.
218

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

God, through the Prophet (PBUH), has said,
110. O H MANKIND REVERENCE YOUR G UARDIAN L ORD , W HO CREATED YOU FROM A SINGLE P ERSON , CREATED , OF LIKE NATURE , HIS MATE , AND FROM THEM TWAIN SCATTERED ( LIKE SEEDS ) COUNTLESS MEN AND WO MEN ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:1). (H E IS ) THE C REATOR OF THE HEAVEN S AND THE EARTH : H E HAS MADE FOR YOU PAIRS FROM AMONG YOURSELVES , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 42:11). A ND G OD HAS MADE FOR YOU MATES ( AND C OMPANIONS ) OF YOUR OWN NATURE , AND MADE FOR YOU , OUT OF THEM , SONS AND DAUGHTERS AND GRANDCHILDREN , AND PROVIDED FOR YOU SUSTENANCE OF THE BEST : (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:72). I T IS H E W HO CREATED YOU FROM A SINGLE PERSON , AND MADE MATE OF LIK E NATURE , IN ORDER THAT HE MIG HT DWELL WITH HER ( IN LOVE ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 7:189). A ND AMONG H IS S IGNS IS THIS THAT H E CREATED FOR YOU MATES FROM AMONG YOURSELVES , THAT YE MAY DWELL IN TRANQUILITY WITH THE M , A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 30:21). E VERY SOUL WILL BE ( HELD ) I N PLEDGE FOR ITS DEEDS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 74:38). A ND THEIR L ORD HATH ACCEPT ED OF THEM , AND ANSWERED THEM : ‗N EVER WILL I SUFFER TO BE LOST THE WORK OF ANY OF YOU , BE HE MALE OR FEMALE : YE ARE MEMBERS , ONE OF ANOTHER :‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:195). I F ANY DO DEEDS OF RI GHTEOUSNESS , - BE THEY MALE OR FEMALE - AND HAVE FAITH , THEY WILL ENTER H EAVEN , AND NOT THE LEAST INJUSTICE WILL BE DONE TO THEM . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:124). W HOEVER WORKS RIGHTEO USNESS , MEN OR WOMEN , AND HAS FAITH , VERILY, TO HIM WILL W E GIVE A NEW L IFE , A LIFE THAT IS GOOD AND PURE , AND W E
WILL BESTOW ON SUCH THEIR REWARD ACCORDI NG TO THE BEST OF THEIR ACTIONS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:97).

The Qur‘än further says,
111. 112.

As a confirmation of this basic theme, the Qur‘än again states:
113.

114.

115. 116.

117.

118.

REBUTTAL OF ALLEGATIONS AGAINST EVE:

Islam has firmly established the equality between man and woman by strongly refuting the allegation brought against Eve by Christianity. The holy Qur‘än in unequivocal terms establishes that in the eyes of God man and woman are equal. Like Christianity, Islam has not blamed only Eve for the mistake of eating the forbidden fruit. According to the Qur‘än, both Adam and Eve are equally responsible; since, they were both repentant, God forgave them. The Qur‘än says,
119. T HEN DID S ATAN MAKE THEM SLIP FROM THE (G ARDEN ), AND GET THEM OUT OF THE STATE ( OF FELICITY ) IN WHICH THEY HAD BE EN (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:36). PLACE OF WOMEN ACCORDING TO THE QUR’ÄN AND AHADITH:

Man and woman are created equal according to Islam. The Qur‘än says,
120. T HEY ARE YOUR GARMENT S AND YE ARE THEIR G ARMENTS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2:187). 219

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 121. 122. 123. A ND WOMEN SHALL HAVE RIGHTS SIMILAR TO THE RIGHTS AGAINST THEM , ACCORDING TO WHAT IS EQUITABLE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:228); A ND THEY HAVE THEREIN COMPANIONS PURE ( AND HOLY ); AND THEY ABIDE THEREIN ( FOREVER ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:25). G ARDENS OF PERPETUAL BLISS : THEY SHALL ENTER THE RE , AS WELL AS THE RIGHTEOUS AMONG THEIR FATHERS , THEIR SPOUSES , AND THEIR OFFSPRING : AND ANGELS SHALL E NTER UNTO THEM FROM EVERY GATE ( WITH SALUTATION ): (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 13:23). A ND HE THAT WORKS A R IGHTEOUSNESS DEED - WHETHER MAN OR WOMAN AND IS A B ELIEVER - SUCH WILL ENTER G ARDEN ( OF B LISS ): THEREIN WILL THEY HAVE ABUNDANCE WITHOUT MEASURE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 40:40).

124.

The Prophet (PBUH) says, ―Oh my Lord! I attach much importance to the rights of two types of people, Orphans and Women (Nesai).‖ Above quotations from the Qur‘än amply testifies to the status of women in Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) all his life urged his followers to abide by God‘s instructions and personally never strayed from them. With his own works and deeds, he set examples for his companions. Whatever he preached, he practiced in his own life. The Prophet (PBUH), said, ―You are all kings and queens in your own domains. Therefore, you are responsible for your subjects, as God will question you about them. Like the ruler of a country, men are the rulers of their households and women are to rule over their children.‖ He said, ―He who is liked by his wife is the best among you.‖ In his own life, he was very kind to his wives. He honored them and treated them with utmost kindness and love. To behave properly and respectfully with parents is the second most important thing after prayers. The Qur‘än says, ―Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but Him, and that ye be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor.‖ Mothers have been elevated to the place after Allah and His Prophet (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) was breast-fed by two ladies Suwaibah and Halima and he remained respectful to both of them all his life. He held them in great respect like his own mother. It has been said in the Qur‘än that mothers should be treated kindly and respectfully. ―And We have enjoined on man (To be good) to his parents: In travail upon travail Did his mother bear him, And in years twain Was his weaning: (hear The command), ‗Show gratitude to Me and to thy
220

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

parents: To Me is thy final Goal‘ (Al-Qur‘än - 31:14).‖ The Status of women has been greatly elevated just by placing the mother after Allah and His Prophet (PBUH). Once a man asked the Prophet (PBUH): ―Who is the nearest to me among all the people? Muhammad (PBUH) replied: ―Your mother.‖ On being asked again, he replied: ―Your mother.‖ When he was asked the same for the third time, he replied: ―Your mother.‖ The fourth time, he replied ―Your father‖ (Bukhari and Muslim). He again said, ―For the children, Paradise is under the feet of their mothers.‖ No other religion has accorded such a great honor to mothers. In Islam the gravest sin after shirk (Equating any other thing or person with God), is ‗irritating parents‘. God will forgive man his sins, but children will be punished in this world for disobeying parents. The best way to atone for sins is to care for parents. ―He who wants heaven, should earn the gratification of his parents,‖ said the Prophet (PBUH). He again said, ―For children their parents are the hell and heaven.‖ In this way, Islam is the very first religion that elevated women to the lofty state of honor and reverence. It recognized the role of women as the mother and wife, as very important and necessary. No other women can replace the love and care with which the mother cares of her child and teaches it. Fourteen hundred years ago, God in the Qur‘an, stated the importance of breast-feeding for the infant, which the Prophet (PBUH) announced to the world. Mother is the first spiritual guide and the teacher for the child. The need for educated mothers to build a civilized nation was recognized by the Prophet (PBUH) much before anybody could think of it. From the state of neglect and deprivation, women have been brought to forefront of the society. They were granted equal rights with their male counterparts. In every aspect of life, they are equal to the males. In the days of the Prophet (PBUH), they were even allowed to take part in wars. In the battlefield, they took care of the wounded and the sick and gathered arrows for reusing them. Islam recognized the fact that there is no way to develop, if one part of the society remains in the dark. Therefore, equal emphasis was given to the development of both the parts. Realizing that a nation can only develop into a strong and viable nation, if all the members are equally trained and educated, the Prophet (PBUH) encouraged women to take part even in wars. He (PBUH) is the first to
221

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

divide works in accordance with the physical and mental ability of both the sexes. Fourteen hundred years ago the Prophet (PBUH) therefore, constituted the first nursing corps.
VEIL (HIZAB) IN ISLAM:

Literally veil means cover. This cover, in Islam, separates the male and the female and restricts their free mixing. It applies to both the sexes. They are to exercise certain degree of restraints in dealing with the other sex. Certain definite parts of the body of both sexes are to remain covered. Veil acts as a deterrent to indecorous behavior. Particularly, it protects women from being exposed as a commodity of lust and carnal desire. Therefore, it saves their dignity and honor. Islam has not permitted free mixing of the sexes. Controlled and decent behavior is the way of Islam. In the name of female emancipation, Islam never recommends licentious and unrestricted demonstration of shamelessness. The current movement of female emancipation has crossed all the bounds and has degraded women by sacrificing womanhood at the altar of socalled freedom. Islam proscribes excessive actions, and prescribes middle course. Behavior of both the sexes are controlled and reined in by disallowing total freedom of association and mixing. Therefore, their association have been methodically restricted and systematized, because unhindered behavior causes decadence of civilization rather than growth. As fire is kept away from the inflammable gasoline, so men and women are kept separate in Islam, with limited scope of interaction between the sexes. Free mixing diminishes womanly qualities in women, reduces their beauty and attractiveness and finally makes them shameless. Illicit liaison between the sexes has been strictly forbidden in Islam. The Qur‘än says,
125. T HE WOMAN AND MAN GUI LTY OF ADULTERY AND FORNICATION , FLOG EACH OF THEM WITH A HUNDRED STR IPES : L ET NOT COMPASSION MO VE YOU IN THEIR CASE , IN A MATTER P RESCRIBED BY G OD , IF YE BELIEVE IN G OD AND THE L AST D AY (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:2): S AY TO THE BELIEVING MEN THAT THEY SHOULD LOWER THEIR GAZE AND GUARD THEIR MODESTY: THAT WILL MAKE FOR GREATER PURITY F OR THEM : A ND G OD IS WELL ACQUAINTED WITH ALL THAT THEY DO (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:30).

126.

222

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 127. A ND SAY TO THE BELIEV ING WOMEN THAT THEY SHOULD LOWER THEIR G AZE AND GUARD THEIR MODE STY: THAT THEY SHOULD NOT DISPLAY THEIR BEAUTY AND ORNAMENTS EXCEPT WHAT ( MUST ORDINARILY ) APPEAR THEREOF ; THAT
THEY SHOULD DRAW THE IR VEILS OVER THEIR BOSOMS AND NOT DISPL AY THEIR BEAUTY EXCEPT TO THE IR HUSBANDS , THEIR FATHERS , THEIR HUSBANDS ‘ FATHERS , THEIR SONS , THEIR HUSBANDS ‘ SONS , THEIR BROTHERS AND THEIR BROTHERS ‘ SONS , OR THEIR SISTERS ‘ SONS , OR THEIR WOMEN , OR THE SLAVES WHOM THEIR RIGHT HAN DS POSSESS , OR MALE SERVANTS FREE OF PHYSICAL NEEDS , OR SMALL CHILDREN WH O HAVE NO SENSE OF T HE SHAME OF SEX ; AND THAT THEY SHOULD NOT STRIKE THEIR FEET IN ORDER TO DRAW ATTENT ION TO THEIR HIDDEN ORNAMENTS . A ND O YE B ELIEVERS ! TURN YE ALL TOGETHER TOWARDS G OD THAT YE MAY ATTAIN B LISS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:31).

128.

O P ROPHET ! T ELL THY WIVES AND DAUGHTERS AND THE BELIEVING WOMEN , THAT THEY SHOULD CAST THEIR OUTER GARMEN TS OVER THEIR PERSON S ( WHEN ABROAD ): THAT IS MOST CONVENIENT, THAT THEY SHOULD BE KNOWN ( AS SUCH ) AND NOT MOLESTED AND G OD IS O FT-F ORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33:59).

It is learned from a narration that once Hazrat Asma (RA), a daughter of Abu Bakr (RA) came to visit her younger sister, Ummul Muminin Hazrat Ayesha (RA) and was in her room. Muhammad (PBUH) entering the room saw that the guest‘s body was not covered properly, so he turned his face and said, ―Any lady coming of age cannot reveal any part of her body except this:‖ saying that he indicated to his face and hands (Al Tarabi and Muslim). On another occasion seeing a lady in very thin dress the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Only those wear this kind of dress that do not believe Al-Qur‘än - Süra Nur.‖ These sayings clearly show the importance of keeping women‘s body covered. In Islam, the system of segregation has been introduced to keep the male and the female separated, so that corruption and indecency do not creep into the social fabric. Many a civilization has been totally ruined due to unrestrained lasciviousness. Nevertheless, that in no way means that the fair sex should be confined within the confines of the four walls. Duly dressed women can move as freely as their counterparts can. Islam forbids strictly close contacts between sexes. A Muslim lady can chose any profession she desires, provided the code of mixing is not breached. There are numerous instances where the Muslim women have taken part in wars. In pre-Islamic age women, all over the world in almost all-religious faith led a secluded life. They were nothing more than the objects of sex and enjoyment and were treated like cattle and other worldly possessions by

223

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

men. Greek, Indian, Persian, Roman, Chinese or Japanese all led a life hardly imaginable today.
MARRIAGE IN ISLAM:

In Islam marriage is a social contract between the husband and the wife, entered upon at the complete free will of the two. The purpose of marriage is to make a bridge between the two parts of the society, to make a union of two hearts, where they can fulfil their emotional need and physical requirements to lead a harmonious and peaceful life. The natural need of physical satisfaction has not been discouraged in Islam, as it is a practical religion, unlike Christianity, Hinduism or other religions. Muhammad (PBUH) has said, ―Celibacy is not my way.‖ Human beings can only be liberated by living through the trials and tribulations of family life from some vices. The union of marriage not only legalizes sex between the two sexes, but also promotes disciplined life style and ensures propagation of the human race. It also imposes duties on both the parties. At different time on different occasions the Prophet (PBUH) has categorically, asked his disciples to enter the bond of marriage. He repeatedly denied permission to his disciples to lead a celibate‘s life. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―He who waits in the Mosque for prayers is the best Ascetic.‖ Unlike the other religions, marriage in Islam is a social contract, based on equality and consent of both the parties. In Islam, none can be imposed on the other, as a husband or wife, against his or her will. Both man and woman have equal rights of choice. Not even the father, the mother or any other guardian can force any body to marry against his or her wish. The Qur‘än says,
129. M ARRY THOSE AMONG YOU WHO ARE SINGLE , OR THE VIRTUOUS ONES AMONG YOUR SLAVES , MALE OR FEMALE : I F THEY ARE IN POVERT Y, G OD WILL GIVE THEM MEANS OUT OF H IS GRACE : FOR G OD ENCOMPASSETH ALL , AND H E KNOWETH ALL THINGS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:32).

Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Manners and gentility, using perfumes, cleaning tooth and marriage are four important acts of prophets.‖ Abu Huraira (RA) quotes the Prophet (PBUH) as saying: ―He who enters into marriage to live a pious life is qualified to receive God‘s help (Tirmizi).‖ Once three companions of the Prophet (PBUH) presumed that it is necessary to worship God generously, so one said, ―I will worship God all the night.‖ The second said, ―I will fast all my life.‖ The third said, ―I
224

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

will worship God remaining a celibate without entangling myself in the family life.‖ At this point, the Prophet (PBUH) of God entered the scene and said, ―Remember! By God, I fear God more than you do fear and I keep within limits and sanctity more than you do, and yet I fast and go without fasting as well. I pray in the late nights, sleep and live with my wives. These are my ways and those that will not abide by my ways are not counted in my group (Bukhari).‖ The Prophet (PBUH) once told Ali (RA: ―Never dilly-dally in three matters: a) Prayers, when is necessary, b) Funeral prayers c) and marrying the unmarried when compatible partners are found‖ (Tirmiz i). The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―In the union of marriage the love and affection that engender and flourish between the husband and the wife is unique (Ibn Maza).‖ Ibn Abbas quotes the Prophet (PBUH) as saying: ―Islam does not recognize antipathy to marriage‖ (Abu-Dawood). Ali (RA), the fourth Caliph said, ―In the wealth that God bestowed on man, there is nothing more important than a pious wife after the Faith‖ (Hadith). Once Othman (RA the son of Mawuz requested the Prophet (PBUH): ―O Prophet (PBUH), give me permission to abandon this domestic life to live in celibacy.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) answered: ―No, for my followers abandoning worldly life is not permitted and those that discard are not included in my followers. To fight for the cause of God is the best sacrifice for my followers.‖ Then Othman (RA) requested the permission to live as a celibate. The Prophet (PBUH) replied: ―Those in my assemblage lead a domestic life and wait in the mosque for prayers are the best Hermits.‖ From the above, it is amply proven that Islam does not approve of celibacy. It has on the contrary given a better status to married life, over an ascetic‘s life. In Islam marriage is a social and domestic bond, which legalizes physical relation between the sexes by a practicable and natural covenant. No similar agreements are found in any other religion. This is the way of the Prophet (PBUH). Unlike Christianity, marriage has not been discouraged in Islam.
DOWRY (MEHR) IN ISLAM:

The Qur‘än says,

225

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 130. 131. 132. A ND GIVE THE WOMEN ( ON MARRIAGE ) THEIR DOWER AS A FREE GIFT (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:4). N OR SHOULD YE TREAT THEM WITH HARSHNESS , THAT YE MAY TAKE AWAY PART OF THE DOWER YE HAVE GIVEN THEM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:19). I T IS NOT LAWFUL FOR YOU , ( MEN ), TO TAKE BACK ANY OF YOUR GIFTS ( FROM YOUR WIVES ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:229).

Arabic Mehr means gifts (Gift in cash given to the bride by the bridegroom). In recognition of the wife‘s status, the husband is bound to give her some present valued by the society at the time of marriage, according to Islam. ―This is the expression of respect for the wife by the husband,‖ said the Prophet (PBUH). By giving the present (Mehr), the husband attains the right to sleep with his wife. Without this ‗Mehr‘ marriage is not legal in Islam. In the Muslim world, the Prophet (PBUH) was the very first to enforce a very simple, austere and easy rite, for marriage. Before that, marriage used to be an affair of much fanfare. Muhammad (PBUH) first married a very rich lady Hazrat Khadija (RA), and at his instance she distributed all her immense wealth among the poor. After her death, the Prophet (PBUH) married Abu Bakr‘s (RA) daughter, Ayesha in a simple ceremony and did not take any dowry. Likewise, Othman (RA) married the Prophet‘s (PBUH) second and the third daughters, one after the death of the other without any dowry. Similarly, Ali (RA) married the youngest, Fatima (RA). In this way, the Prophet (PBUH) by example discouraged glittering parties at marriages. The bridegroom is not permitted any dowry. Both the parties will spend according to their own capability. The groom irrespective of the brides‘ status must give Mehr. After the marriage, the groom should entertain the bridal party and others with food, according to his ability. Nowadays, the Mehr, in cases, are very low (however, the situation is not the same all over the Muslim world). It also varies widely among different socioeconomic groups. In the days of Muhammad (PBUH) Mehr, generally, was much higher and the groom was not allowed any endowments. Once Omar (RA), the second Caliph of Islam raising the issue in a gathering of Muslims said that it was rather high and should be reduced. At this, women seating at the back stood up and protested. The Caliph then decided to remain silent on the issue. This clearly shows that at the beginning of Islam, women were given the full right to decide their
226

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

own dowry. When Muhammad (PBUH) married Khadija (RA), he (PBUH) gave a Mehr of twelve Ukhia, gold coins, which was valued at about five hundred dirhams at the time. After fourteen hundred years, the same can be calculated at Tk. 125,000.00 (roughly the same amount in dollars taking into accounts the living standards in the western countries). Token Mehr would be against the tradition of the Prophet (PBUH). ―To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: (Al-Qur‘än - 4:32). Therefore, as soon as marriage is performed Mehr (Gift at the time of marriage, in cash) becomes due and do not delay in paying what is due. This is the teaching of Shariat (Islamic law), Allah‘s command. Money thus given to the bride solely belongs to her, and she may invest it as she pleases, to make herself self-reliant. God in this way provided for a way to emancipate women, economically. In this practice, abide peace, prosperity and happiness and this is the tradition of the Prophet (PBUH) and should be practiced by all Muslims. Currently, particularly, in the subcontinent of India (Indo-PakBangladesh) demands of exorbitant dowry by the bridegroom or his party has made it very difficult for the guardian of a daughter to marry her. It has become a curse in the society. In India and among the Hindus in Bangladesh the practice is widespread and is not very uncommon among Muslims. The situation is different in the Arab-Muslim-countries, where males cannot marry because of exorbitant demands by the parents of the girls. Regularly, at the failure of bride‘s to fulfill the demands of the groom as promised, the man and his family torture the girl. In many cases, this proves fatal. Clearly, the way prescribed by Allah through his Prophet (PBUH) is the best, and should be followed by all without any question.
RIGHTS OF WIVES IN ISLAM:

There is only one King in a country. Two Kings do not rule over a country. If two Kings rule over a land, confusion and anarchy will prevail, since the two sovereigns shall rule, naturally, independently of each other. Even in the modern democratic set up where by definition the country is ruled by consensus, an undisputed leader is needed. Similarly, the family is a kingdom where the husband, wife, children and servants reside together. To keep harmony and peace a leader is required for the family. In no way there can be two leaders in a family, for the very
227

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

reasons stated earlier. As some physical barriers weaken the claim of the female to the leadership, she must willingly resign to the second position. God Has wanted so, and that ensures the peace in the family. Surely, the male does not have any scope to become a despotic autocrat. This has been amply illustrated earlier, discussing right of the sexes and the relationship between the sexes and in the chapter on equality. ―And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; But men have a degree (of advantage) over them (AlQur‘än - 2:228).‖ ―Men are protectors and maintainers of women, because God has given the one more (strength) than the other (Al-Qur‘än - 4:34).‖ Women are incapacitated physically and mentally to lead for a considerable period. Pregnancy, menstruation and the onset of menopause make considerable demand on the body and the mind, and women during these times suffer from physical and mental irritation and weakness. In these periods, their physical strength and mental agility are impaired. God thus, in spite of giving freedom to women and placing them in an exalted place of motherhood, Has subordinated them to men. This is the will of God, and it keeps familial peace and happiness. Today, in the face of financial hardships, men and women are both forced to work for living a decent life, and as a result, both want to exert their supremacy, which culminates into chaos. Therefore, the way of God is the only way to establish serenity in the family. Why we toil to enrich our family income? We toil to increase income simply, to ensure easy living, resulting in peace and happiness of the family. Why then defeat the very purpose, we are laboring to establish? It is an established fact that the male is stronger both physically and mentally and is better prepared to face the harsh world outside. So that harsh outside life should be left to them.
PHYSICAL INABILITY OF WOMEN: MENSTRUATION:

Of the many physical afflictions, menstruation is one of the main regular maladies that women suffer from monthly, after attaining puberty. At this time, they feel pain in the lower abdomen, back and the legs. Some among them for various reasons suffer from irregular or excessive bleeding. Some have very painful periods. Most experience a change in attitude and behavior. Modern science has determined that most women
228

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

undergo a 5-7 days menstruation period. During which they remain sensitive and irritable. Repeated urge to defecate and urinate is a regular feature, the body, and the mind experience changes. The Qur‘än has labeled it as unholy but remember, the woman herself does not become so (Al-Qur‘än - 2:222). Modern experts described menstruation as: ―The monthly course of bleeding from the uterus for 5-7 days for all adult woman during the reproductive period unless pregnancy occurs.‖ Though it is a physiological phenomenon, yet it is not devoid of threats of sudden urge of micturition and defecation. The Qur‘änic statement that it is a discomfort is supported by scientific observations. Wilfrid Shaw109, a famous Gynecologist wrote, ―a feeling of uneasiness during normal menstruation - specially in the lower abdomen is quite common. Some girls get severe pain during the first period, and in some, pain may last throughout life during each menstruation.‖ Dr. John Graham110 wrote, since there is chance of spreading disease and getting infection during menstruation, it cannot be regarded as absolutely normal and physiological.‖ Dr. Katherine Dalton111, a British lady doctor carried out research study to see the effect of menstruation on the performance of young girls in hospitals, hostels, and prisons during 1959-61 in the United Kingdom. She published five papers in the British Medical Journal based on the findings of her study. She observed that just before and during the period, the efficiency and physical fitness of the girls are markedly lowered. Dr. Dalton observed that the lack of interest, inattentiveness, attempt to avoid games and talkativeness increased by 26% to 36%. Those girls who are usually of bad habits, their offenses are increased much more. She further wrote, ―from among the students of 6th grade to 11th grade prefects were selected of age 16 to 18 years, who were empowered to punish the girls who committed offenses in the class. It is interesting to note that these prefects increased punishment during their own menstrual period. They begin to increase punishment at the beginning of their period and continue to increase during the period and again become normal after the
109 110 111 Shaw, W., Text Book of Gynecology, Churchill, London, p. 106, 1948. Graham, J., Any Wife or Any Husband, Heinemann, London, p. 44. 1955 Dalton, K., Porit. Med. J., 1:!48, 1959.

229

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

period.‖ Dr. Dalton then posed a question, if such behavior is true for all the women, specially the teacher, magistrates and others engaged in administration, should they be treated at par with their male colleagues. Dr. Erdely112 of Illinois, U.S.A., studied the effects of menstruation on 729 Hungarian female athletes. He found that their standard in tennis and boat race was markedly reduced during menstruation. So, the above mentioned scientific observations are enough to justify that menstruation is a minor illness when all women should avoid physical labor and risk of infection. Allah forbids sexual intercourse during menstruation, which is also medically justified. During the menstruation, the opening of the uterus (Os-uteri) which normally remains closed by mucus plug becomes open to allow the menstrual blood to flow out. The bleeding occurs due to the necrosis of the lining of the uterus, which thickens during the post menstrual period. If fertilized ovum does not embed there, the newly grown endometrium undergoes necrosis, hence the bleeding. Pregnancy stops this process. As the opening of the uterus remains open, if coitus takes place during menstruation, chances of bacterial infection from outside increases. If the vaginal passage is already infected then infection may spread inside. This is dangerous as the uterus is directly connected with the peritoneal cavity through the two fallopian tubes on two sides of the uterus. So, if there is infection in the vaginal passage, like gonorrhea and syphilis, the infection may readily spread inwards, following coitus resulting into serious diseases viz., endometritis salpingitis, peritonitis and even pelvic cellulitis in the female. If the female suffers from leucorrhoea due to a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis; the male partner may catch Trichomonas urethritis. On the other hand, the female can be infected more easily with venereal diseases during menstruation, through sexual intercourse. Dr. Graham113 opines, ―The reason to forbid coitus during menstrual period is not psychological but hygienic.‖ However, in Islam, menstrual blood is considered unclean, not the menstruating female. Only sexual intercourse is prohibited, but one
112 113 Erdelyi, G.T., Time, New York, p. 40, Dec. 12, 1960. Graham, J., Any Wife Any or Husband, Heinemann, London, p. 44, 1955.

230

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

should not regard the menstruating woman as unclean, as is done in some other societies. All regulations in this regard are scientific and hygienic. Furthermore, during pregnancy and after the birth of a child, women remain weak and unable to labor physically and mentally. Clearly, the above-mentioned scientific discourses have established that the women are physically and mentally impaired. Therefore, they are very naturally not at par with their male counterparts at work. Specially, teachers, accountants, magistrates, physicians, engineers, administrators, and others in important positions cannot do justice to their jobs, during menstruation. God justifiably, thus, Has put man a degree above woman. That in no way diminishes or tarnishes woman‘s position in the society. They have rather been put on a very lofty position when God declared that the children‘s heaven is at the feet of their mothers.
MENOPAUSE: GYNECOLOGIST DR. SUDEEP CHAKRAVARTY:
114

Menopause is the phenomena that reduce the ability of women to compete with men. Generally, in hot climatic condition women attain menopausal state at around 40-45 years. In the hot climatic condition of the Indian sub-continent girls attain puberty or reproductive ability and start menstruating at 12-14 years about two three years earlier than girls in the western colder countries. In the menstrual state women remain below their normal efficiency and similar is the case after menopause. They for few years remain below normal state of physical and mental alertness. In some cases, they become easily irritable, emotional, sensitive, forgetful, sleepless, restless and inattentive. Experts have divided women in menopause in three groups namely, women complaining of burning sensations in the throats, mouths, ears, face and foreheads are severe cases. The medical term for this state is hot flashes. This may happen 20 to 30 times a day and the person will sweat profusely. Within a year or two, this state ends automatically. In the second category are those that experience frequent micturition. Besides, they feel disinterested in sex. In the third are those that experience
114 Dr. Deepannita Hazarika wrote in the Weekly Sananda, under the guidance of Gynecologist Dr. Sudeep Chakravarty, published from Calcutta, India, 8 November 1996.

231

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

thinning of outer skin of the vagina and consequently it becomes painful. They get burning sensation after sex and thus often fearful of sexual intercourse. Calcium in body of the women after menopause decreases and the bones becomes brittle. Probability of heart disease increases after menopause. Skin and hair after menopause lose their luster. Some in their menopause get hints of beard and moustache and lose sweetness of the voice as it thickens. Hormonal imbalance causes problems within the body. Dr. Zebunnessa Marium of Dhaka, Bangladesh said: "After a particular age when women stop menstruating or if their ovaries become inactive, they experience changes within their bodies after a while. The manifestations of these changes are called menopausal syndrome. Generally, menopause occurs between the age 45 to 52 years. The following symptoms are seen:
NERVOUS AND MENTAL SYMPTOMS:

Exhaustion, Lethargy, excitement, nervous weakness, irritation, headache, sleeplessness, lethargic limbs manifest as nervous and mental symptoms.
SYMPTOMS IN THE STOMACH AND DUODENUM:

Symptoms include changes in food habits, digestive irregularity and constipation.
SYMPTOMS OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS:

Temperature with sudden pain in the stomach with hot flashes felt in the face. Excessive sweating and feeling cold with shivering.
GENITAL CONDITION:

Less sexual urge, painful coitus (due to dryness in the vaginal passage), sometimes, excessive sexual urge.
OTHER SYMPTOMS:

Painful breast, joint pain, black spots on the skin (The daily Ittefaq, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Tuesday, March 31, 1998). In this way, women lose their ability to work with efficiency at least for sometime. Therefore, they remain behind man in ability and strength. Modern science has discovered that females are born with only one type of chromosomes i.e. X, while the male has both i.e. XY. It is therefore,

232

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

clearly seen that females are born with singular characteristic while male inherits duality. The above discussion clearly indicates that women are naturally weaker than their male counterparts. Man does not have any structural weaknesses in him while woman have very weak spots in her body like, the rear, the breast and the genital etc. These body parts make her weak, attractive, and defenseless. She needs protection and care. God has made man as the protector and provider to deal with the mundane world and its hazards. He is brave, strong and rugged. Therefore, the male is tailored to be the guardian in this world. Considering these differences in the physiology Islam has granted man advantage over woman (Al-Qur‘än 4: 32 and 124). This grant of advantage does not make woman inferior to man in any way like the other religions of the world. Their status as human beings has not been compromised. Contrarily, she is given a much-respected place in the society. To God they are both equals in respect of their deeds. They will be judged by their respective deeds and not by their sex: God in the Holy Qur‘än says:
133. 134. I F ANY DO DEEDS OF RI GHTEOUSNESS , - BE THEY MALE OR FEMA LE - HAVE FAITH , THEY WILL ENTER H EAVEN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:124). I F ANY DOES GOOD , THE REWARD T O HIM BETTER THAN H IS DEED ; BUT IF ANY D OES EVIL , THE DOERS OF EVIL A RE ONLY PUNISHED ( TO THE EXTENT ) O F THEIR DEEDS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 28:84).

HUSBAND WIFE RELATIONSHIP AND DUTIES: KIND HEARTED WOMEN:

Continuing the discussion in the above section where male strength has been discussed we are discussing female frailties that make them adorable. Woman has been endowed with finer qualities of the heart. With their gentle, tender and kind qualities, they, from the beginning to the end, enrich life as mothers, sisters, wives and companions. They are endowed with the subtle powers of inspiring, enkindling, motivating and manipulating males for great deeds. Therefore, the man is given the duties of looking after the family, while the women are made responsible for supervising the household affairs. They will separately answer for their lapses, in managing their own affairs. In Islam, in this manner, both the sexes are made dependent on each other, but none of them is inferior or superior to the other. Both the segments of human race are inseparably
233

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

made complementary to each other, and are unable to survive without one another. Notwithstanding, the fact that women have been subordinated to men for the sake of smooth functioning of the society, considering their physical and mental capabilities, man protects and woman manages the family. Their complementary status makes them equal, thus ensuring peace, happiness and well-being of the family. God, in the Holy Qur‘än has explained the ideal behavior, dealings with each other and duties and rights of partners for us to achieve conjugal peace and happiness. Islam has further emphasized on the need of compatibility of both the partners. In the selections of brides or grooms, careful comparison of wealth, family status, physical beauty and religiousness should be done. Muhammad (PBUH) instructed that if all other qualities are missing and both the parties are pious then that is enough to tie them in marriage. Otherwise, he (PBUH) warned, the result would be disastrous. The Holy Qur‘än clearly says,
135. A ND AMONG H IS S IGNS IS THIS THAT H E CREATED FOR YOU MATES FROM AMONG YOURSELVES , THAT YE MAY DWELL IN TRANQUILITY WITH THE M , AND H E HAS PUT LOVE AND MERCY B ETWEEN YOUR ( HEARTS ): V ERILY IN THAT ARE S IGNS FOR THOSE WHO REFLECT (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 30:21).

In this, it has been explicitly indicated that the basis of conjugal peace is the love and understanding between the husband and the wife. The wife finds heavenly pleasure in caring for the husband; the husband finds pleasure in her company. In Islam, rules of marriage are very clear, practicable and tuned to human nature. Man and woman have equal rights and are equal in all respects except in physical supremacy and mental leadership. This is perfectly harmonious to human nature. Answering to the question of a disciple Muhammad (PBUH) said: ―Whatever you will eat give the same to your wife. Clothe her with the same kind of cloth that you wear. Do not hit her on the face. Do not defame and malign her and if you are separated due to any dispute keep that private. About a faithful woman, do not harbor any ill feeling. If you are displeased for any fault in your wife, be pleased with her for her other qualities.‖ He (PBUH) further said, ―The man that has more than one wife and does not treat them equally and justly God will punish him at the Day of Judgement.‖ ―Take the opinion of woman, because they are created from
234

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

the rib of Adam, which is curved, and anybody trying to unbend it will break it. And if left alone it will bend further.‖ Therefore, keeping their nature in the mind treat them, appropriately. The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―In all the sanctioned acts divorce is included, nonetheless, God dislikes divorce, the most.‖ On the other hand reminding the wives about their duties, the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―God does not accept the prayers of three types of people:
190. 191. 192. T H E S L AV E T H AT D E S E R T H I S M A S T E R , U N T I L H E S U R R E N D E R S , T H E W I F E W I T H W H O M T H E H U S B A N D I S D I S P L E A S E D F O R VA L I D R E A S O N S ,

AND

T HE D RUN K UNTI L HE REGAI NS HIS CO MPOSURE .‖

He further says, ―Those wives that sleep in separate beds or leave beds without the concurrence of their husbands, invite God‘s displeasure.‖ The great Prophet (PBUH) has not only advised about the duties of the husband but has set example by exercising those in his own life. He has shown that polygamy is not a matter of fun and frolic, but it entails great responsibility, as all the wives should be treated equally and any lapse is a grave sin. A husband must try to assess his wife and deal with her accordingly. He should not be very harsh or give unlimited leash to his wife that may encourage waywardness. Similarly, the Prophet (PBUH) has clearly stated the duties and responsibilities of a wife. God will not accept prayers of the wife, as long as the husband is displeased on her for valid reasons. For an unjust reason, if the wife tarnishes happiness by demanding a divorce, she would be denied the eternal happiness of heaven. The soul of such a woman will not be liberated. However, if the behavior and treatment of the husband crosses limits of tolerance, the wife has the right to seek a divorce. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Man attains immortality by giving life in battles, and woman by caring for her husbands, sons and daughters.‖ The Holy Qur‘än says,
136. A ND WOMEN SHALL HAVE RIGHTS SIMILAR TO THE RIGHTS AGAINST THEM , ACCORDING TO WHAT IS EQUITABLE ; B UT MEN HAVE A DEGREE ( OF ADVANTAGE ) OVER THEM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:228).

This is for the fact that they are responsible for maintenance and protection of the women.
137. M EN ARE PROTECTORS AND MAINTAINERS OF WOM EN , BECAUSE G OD HAS GIVEN THE ONE MORE ( STRENGTH ) THAN THE OTHER (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:34). 235

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Today, women in many trades work side by side with men. They are even travelling to the space and are working in such trades where only men used to work before. Yet they are incapacitated during menstruation and pregnancy and of which men are free. Considering all these, men have been given the role of protectors and providers. This is not to establish the supremacy of men over women but also ensures security and peace in the family. In Islam emphasis has been given on decision regarding family matters by consultation with the wife (wives).
138. I F THEY BOTH DECIDE O N WEANING , BY MUTUAL CONSENT, AND AFTER DUE CONSULTATION , THERE IS NO BLAME ON THEM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:233).

Here clearly the stress is on ―mutual consent and consultations.‖ Above all in the Holy Qur‘än great importance has been attached to the basic rights of women. The Prophet (PBUH) has advised to treat women befittingly and to give them company.
139. I F YOU TAKE A DISLIKE TO THEM IT MAY BE TH AT YE DISLIKE A THING , AND G OD BRINGS ABOUT THROUGH IT A GREAT DEAL OF GOOD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:19).

Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―He is the best among you whose wife considers him good, and I am considered perfect by my wives.‖ ―He is the best Faithful who has a good character and among the faithful he is the best who is liked by his wife/wives, and those are the worst who beat their wives,‖ said, Muhammad (PBUH). In the civilized world, Islam granted equality and dignity to women. It recognized them as independent beings with rights to opinion, control and property. Married, unmarried, widowed or divorced, in all circumstances, women retain the right to property and wealth. Her property or wealth solely belongs to her. In very clear terms, Islam has given women the right to the property and wealth of the husband, father, mother and other relatives. The Qur‘än says,
140.
FROM WHAT IS LEFT BY PARENTS AND THOSE NE AREST RELATED THERE IS A SHARE FOR MEN AND SH ARE FOR WOMEN , WHETHER THE PROPERTY BE SMALL OR LARGE , - A DETERMINATE SHARE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:7).

Females inherit their father‘s property and a share of their husband‘s property goes to them at their deaths. Males after inheriting their father‘s property have no other source than their own labor to increase their property, but they are responsible for providing for their families. Women on the other hand cannot be forced to shoulder the responsibility to provide for the family.
236

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 141. 142. T O MEN IS ALLOTTED WH AT THEY EARN , AND TO WOMEN WHAT THEY EARN (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:32). I F ANY DO DEEDS OF RI GHTEOUSNESS , - BE THEY MALE OR FEMA LE - HAVE FAITH , THEY WILL ENTER H EAVEN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:124).

At the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (PBUH) had declared: ―Be afraid of God while dealing with women. As husbands have rights over their wives, so do the wives.‖ Islam has described husbands and wives, as each other‘s clothes. God about inheritance said in the Holy Qur‘än:
143. G OD THUS DIRECTS YOU AS REGARDS YOUR CHILDREN ‘ S ( INHERITANCE ): TO THE MALE A PORTION EQUAL THAT OF TWO FEMALES : I F ONLY DAUGHTERS , TWO OR MORE , THEIR SHARE IS TWO - THIRDS OF THE INHERITANCE ; I F ONLY ONE HER SHARE IS HALF. F OR PARENTS , A SIXTH SHARE OF INHERITANCE TO EACH , I F THE DECEASED LEFT CHILDREN ; I F NO CHILDREN , AND THE PARENTS THE ONLY ) HEIRS , THE MOTHER HAS A THIRD ; IF THE DECEASED LEFT BROTHERS ( OR SISTERS ) THE MOTHER HAS A SIX TH . (T HE DISTRIBUTION IN A LL CASES IS ) AFTER THE PAYMENT OF LEGACIES AND DEBTS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:11).

As a wife, a woman is made the owner of one eighths of the husband‘s property, if she has children and one fourth if childless. The wife enjoys total and complete control over the dowry money and the husband is responsible for maintenance of minor children. She has rights in her father‘s property as a daughter, determined as half of what her brother gets and similarly, she is given rights in the property of other relations, along with male inheritors. The rights that have been set in the form of inheritance rights of women, fourteen hundred years ago, were unthinkable for the peoples of other religions and beliefs, even two hundred years ago. No such phenomenal milestone as the law of property and inheritance could be found in the history of humankind before, or after the advent of Islam.
POLYGAMY IN ISLAM:

The holy Qur‘än and the sayings (Ahadith) of Muhammad (PBUH) are the codes of Islam, guiding the lives of all Muslim males and females. Following the injunctions of the holy Qur‘än ensures peace and prosperity in this life. One of the gravest sins in Islam is promiscuity. To keep the society free of social laxity and harlotry, Islam has accommodated polygamy. Though it has been permitted, Islam has not encouraged it. Very strict rules have been put down to regulate polygamy and to restrict males to take wives at their sweet will. Allah the Lord of the Worlds strictly ordained in the holy Qur‘än:
237

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 144. B UT IF YE FEAR THAT YE SHALL NOT BE ABLE TO DEAL JUSTLY ( WITH THEM ), THEN ONLY ONE , OR ( A CAPTIVE ) THAT YOUR RIGHT HAND S POSSESS (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:3).

God again says,
145. Y E ARE NEVER ABLE TO BE FAIR AND JUST AS BETWEEN TWO WOMEN , EVEN IF IT IS YOUR ARDENT DESIRE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:129).

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―That man who had two wives and could not maintain equality, would rise with half of his body at the day of Judgement (Mishkat).‖ The Prophet (PBUH) was very displeased at Hazrat Ali‘s (RA) desire to take another wife, while Hazrat Fatima (RA) was still alive. Ali (RA) restrained himself from marrying again. It is clearly established from the previously mentioned citations of the Qur‘än and Ahadith (Traditions), that Islam allowed polygamy only in special circumstances. In the ancient times, in countries like China, Japan, Egypt, and the Indian subcontinent, Persia, the Roman Empire and in Arabia, polygamy was practiced. Emperors, Kings, Landlords, Rich and the famous had hundreds of wives. Besides that, they had filled their Harems with concubines. In this way, the practice of captivating woman behind walls started. Man could marry anytime, at any age, and as many times as they pleased. There were no defined rules or law for that in any country or religion. In the Hindu mythology, and in the holy Bible, gods and prophets are stated to have many wives. As Hindu gods Mahadeva, Sri Krishna, Indra had many goddesses as their consorts so did Abraham, Jacob, Moses and David. Solomon took hundreds of wives. Jesus‘ own people the Jewish; tortured and crucified him and he died before taking a woman and had not said anything in favor or against polygamy. History stands witness to the fact that in this way from time immemorial; polygamy has been practiced in all the societies of Asia, Europe and Africa. Today, law forbids polygamy in the Christian countries of the west. If the husband wants to marry again, he has to divorce his wife first; as Napoleon had to divorce his wife Josephine to marry the princess of Austria on political consideration. The Hindu religion does not forbid polygamy like the Catholics. At present polygamy is socially admonished. However, if the first wife is barren or injured or for reasons of age unable to fulfil the demands of the husband, there is no socially
238

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

acceptable provision to deal with the situation. Naturally, males do turn to illicit relationship or prostitutes. To keep the society from such moral pollution, Islam has made provision for many marriages. A male can take more than one wife. Sex without marriage has been made illegal in almost all religion of the world. Islam has marked it as one of the greatest sins. Sexual permissiveness is responsible for many diseases including killer AIDS. Only in Islam, sex outside marriage has been made punishable by death. By being so harsh, Islam has sought to save the human race from extinction. On the other hand, by allowing multi-marriage, Islam has made it possible to satisfy the sexual desire remaining within a certain limit, in case of extreme necessity. Islam is the only religion that has not prohibited polygamy, but regulated it through strict injunctions; clearly giving a message that polygamy is better than hypocrisy of illicit sex, in the name of probity. All STDs and AIDS are ample proof of that. Due to restrictions on remarriage and polygamy, many unmarried and widowed women, facing adverse circumstances, are forced to leave the house and take shelter in a brothel. In times of war, thousands of men are killed increasing the number of widows, and to keep the balance between the sexes, polygamy becomes an imperative.
NON-MUSLIM THINKERS’ SUPPORT FOR POLYGAMY:

Today many western intellectuals support the notion of polygamy. To cleanse the society of the macabre consequence of sexual laxity, licentiousness and homosexuality, these intellectuals advocate polygamy. They raised the demand to make polygamy legal in England of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries. Dr. Westmark, in his book entitled, ‗The Future of Marriage in Western Civilization‘ wrote elaborately about the benefits of the practice of polygamy. In the ‗Kinsey Report‘, the picture of the whole society has been faithfully depicted. With many other things it said, ―In faithlessness and infidelity American men and women have beaten all the nation of the world.‖ Western scholars, Bernerdo Ochinus, John Milton and Davenport, etc. and other sociologists and sex specialists have supported the concept of polygamy, considering the difference in the physical makeup, physiology and the number of women. They said, ―Monogamy is not scientific and natural.‖ In the real life, there is the need for more than one marriage. It may not
239

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

be ideal to lead the whole life with only one wife, in all circumstances. Sexual crime and illicit relations pollute those societies where multimarriage is not permitted. Males are forced to take illegal concubines as they cannot take more than one wife due to constraints of the society and law. Many females hang on to paramours, in the absence of a legal husband. Pregnancies resulting from such relationships embitter their lives and throw them on the compassion of the society. Since, majority of the societies openly is not supportive of these moral lapses; these ill-fated mothers are forced to live despicably wretched lives. Only Muhammad (PBUH) had the courage and farsightedness of recognizing the need of polygamy, which acts as a safety valve, to eliminate sexual anarchy from the society.
DIVORCE OR ANNULMENT OF MARRIAGE IN ISLAM:

Though divorce is permitted in Islam, it is very strictly governed by canons. The great Prophet (PBUH) of God said, ―Gabriel has drawn my attention to the issues of women and advised me so copiously about them that I believe that women can only be divorced for reasons of proven infidelity or denouncement of Islam (Bukhari).‖ He (PBUH) also said, ―Whatever has God declared as legal in this world, divorce is one of them (Abu-Dawood).‖ The Prophet (PBUH) again declared: ―Marry but do not divorce, because, whenever a divorce occurs, the Throne of the Almighty Allah shakes (Bukhari).‖ Islam considers divorce as loathsome, nevertheless, allowed divorce to its followers. In the holy Qur‘än numerous precautionary measures have been suggested to avoid taking the severe measure of divorcing. According to the holy Qur‘än (Al-Qur‘än - 2:226-234, 236,237, & 241; Al-Qur‘än - 4:34 & 35; Al-Qur‘än - 24:6-9 & 23; Al-Qur‘än - 33:49; AlQur‘än - 58:2-4; Al-Qur‘än - 65:1, 2, 4, 6 & 7), in Islam as the consent of the bride is necessary for marriage, so they have the right to divorce under definite circumstances. However, Islam recognizes divorce as an abominable act. Conditions have been set to make divorce difficult to play with, but marriage has not been made absolute like many other religions. So that, the people involved in desperate situations, are not forced into a miserably intolerable life. Of course, women have not been granted the same rights, as have been the men, regarding divorce. While a man can divorce his wife in front of two witnesses, a woman must
240

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

appear before a court or judge, with definite allegations of misbehavior, neglect, mental and physical torture and impotence, etc. If the charges are proved, annulment of marriage becomes effective. According to Islamic canons for the following reasons, a woman can seek a divorce:
193.

IF

MARRIE D

BEFORE

AT T A I N I N G

P U B E R T Y,

I M M E D I AT E LY ,

AT

T HE

AT T A I N M E N T

OF

P U B E RT Y T H E W I F E M A Y S E E K D I V O R C E F O R N O T L I K I N G H E R S P O U S E . 194.

IN

T HE A BSEN CE OF MAI NTEN ANCE , DIVO RCE CA N BE DEMA N DED.

THE

C O U RT F I R S T

W O U L D D I R E C T T H E H U S B A N D T O P R O V I D E M A I N T E N A N C E A N D AT N O N - C O M P L I A N C E O R INABILIT Y WOULD GRANT A DIVORCE AS REQUE STED. 195.

ON

CON VE RSI ON TO OT HE R RE LI GI ON, IF T HE

M USLIM

WIFE DEMANDS A DIVORCE IT

W O U L D B E E F F E C T I V E , I M M E D I AT E LY . 196.

FOR

REASONS OF IMPOTE NCE, DIVORCE CAN BE DEMAN DED.

IN

T H I S C A S E , T H E C O U RT

M A Y G R A N T T I M E F O R P R O P E R T R E AT M E N T A N D D I R E C T T H E W I F E T O R E M A I N W E D D E D .

IN
197.

CA SE T HE HUSBAN D I S C URED, T HE WIFE WO ULD NOT BE G RANTED A D IVO RCE . R E A S O N S O F G R AV E C O N T A G I O U S D I S E A S E O F T H E H U S B A N D , T H E W I F E M A Y G E T A

FOR

DIVORCE ON DEMAND. 198.

IF

T H E H U S B A N D I S M I S S I N G , T H E W I F E M AY R E Q U E S T A C O U RT O R A

KAZI (JUDGE)

TO

G R A N T A D I V O R C E , B U T W O U L D B E R E Q U I R E D T O WA I T F O R A D E F I N I T E T I M E , B E F O R E T H E P R AY E R I S G R A N T E D .

If the reasons, mentioned above, are proven true, no authority can withhold divorce legally. Ample precautions have been taken to arrest any hasty or playful decision to divorce, by any party. Both male and female aspirants for a divorce are to advance systematically. For any reason if it becomes intolerable to continue remain wedded, the wife may divorce her husband without going to the court; in that case, the husband is directed to seek an amicable solution.
MUSLIM WOMEN’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE WORLD:

Islam has not only elevated women in the household, but also has established them outside the home with honor. Women enrich the family life with love, affection and compassion, as a comrade in sorrow and happiness of their husbands, not only that they have also proved their worth equally deftly, outside the confines of their homes. In every field from politics and statecraft to war and peace, they have left their indelible mark, contributing to the meteoric rise of Islamic power. These Muslim ladies fought in the holy wars, along with their male counterparts, with equal valor and vigor. Mainly, they engaged
241

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

themselves in nursing and other such jobs, but never hesitated to fight the enemy, sword in hand, if needed. In the ‗Battle of Ohud‘, Umme-Amara (RA), a lady companion of the Prophet (PBUH), repulsed the enemy fighting with sword and arrows.115 She also fought against Musailamma, the pretender.116 Hazrat Safiya (RA) an aunt of Muhammad (PBUH) while guarding a citadel, sheltering Muslim women, came across treacherous Jewish attackers. She beheaded one and threw the head outside the fortress, which kept the attackers from advancing further. 117 Umme-Sulaim (RA), in the ‗Battle of Hunaian‘, took up the sword.118 Always one of the wives of Muhammad (PBUH) accompanied him to the battlefield. Among them, the daughter of Hazrat Omar Faruque (RA), Ummul Muminin Hafsa (RA), helped the Prophet (PBUH) in the strategic planning of wars, as she was an expert war strategist. During the reign of Hazrat Omar (RA), Hazrats Asma bint Abu Bakr (RA), Umme-Abban, Umme-Hakim, Khawla, Hind and Ummul Muminin Juwaiera (RA) gave demonstration of their unprecedented courage, in the battle of Yarmuk. Asma bint Yazid alone killed nine Roman soldiers.119 The Muslim ladies had shown so much courage and success in the battle of Yarmuk that they evoked jealousy in minds of their able male colleagues (Tariq Tabarani). Women fighters had shown great valor in the battle of Aznadan with archery and swords. In this battle, when Umme-Abban came to know of her husband‘s death, took up his place and fought with unparalleled valor. Women fought in battles in the Abbaside era. In the battle of Byzantine, the sisters of Abbaside Caliph Mansour took part. Names of female Muslim warriors have been shining brightly in annals of India. South Indian lady warrior, Chand Sultana, embraced martyrdom, fighting against the very powerful Mogul Emperor Akbar, the great. Service to humanity is a part of worshipping God. ―He, who shows compassion to the creatures of God, is serving God,‖ the Prophet (PBUH) not only told the world. He also had made that a reality. The whole world is following his example today. The Prophet (PBUH) knew
115 116 117 118 119 Sirat-e-Ibn Hisham, p. 84. Tabakat-e-Ibn Sa‘ad; part-VI. p. 304. Zarkani; part-II, p. 129. Muslim; part-II, p. 103. Asadul Gaba; part-5, p. 563.

242

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

that women are by nature softhearted. Therefore, they are much more suited to nurse and serve the soldiers in the field. For that reason Muhammad (PBUH) was the first to form volunteer corps with women to serve in times of war. Umme Salem (RA) and many more women volunteers from among the Ansars (Helpers) accompanied the Prophet (PBUH) in the holy wars (Bukhari). Today, we see numerous service organizations, forming women service corps to serve humanity in distress. In Muhammad‘s (PBUH) time, women were recruited to take care of the wounded. They nursed them, fed them and inspired them to fight. In the war field behind the tents, they cooked food, brought water, and fed the soldiers. They collected Arrows thrown by the enemy for reuse. Transporting, the seriously wounded to hospitals behind the front line, was a part of their war duties. In this way, they took part in wars along with the men and contributed immensely, to the cause of Islam. Their bravery and courage were unprecedented.120 After about fourteen hundred years, the allied forces (U.K. the U.S.A. and others) during the First World War (1914-1918), formed the Women‘s Auxiliary Corps to help the Armed Forces. The wives of the Prophet (PBUH) excelled in the knowledge of the Qur‘än and the Traditions of Muhammad (PBUH), and were very masterful in their interpretations. They have narrated innumerable Traditions of Muhammad (PBUH). Hazrat Ayesha (RA), definitely, occupied a special position among them, as she alone narrated, at least, 2210 traditions (Ahadith). Apart from that, Umme-Salama (RA) and others like, Umme-Atiah, Asia bint Abu Bakr, Umme-Hani and Fatima bint Kais narrated 378 sayings of Muhammad (PBUH). So many fatwas (considered decisions) regarding Fiqh were delivered by Ayesha (RA), that volumes of books can be filled with them. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) and Hazrat Omar (RA), during their Caliphates sought advice from Hazrat Ayesha (RA), on important issues of the state. Hazrat Omar (RA) also held Hazrat Safa bint Abdullah‘s opinion in high esteem. He gave most of the responsibilities of governmental procurement to Safa (RA).121
120 121 Bukhari, Abu-Dawood; part-I. p. 252, 270; Kitabuttib, Tabari; part-VI, p. 2317. Kitabul Umme-Shafei; part-I, p. 145, Asadul Gaba; part-V, p. 274 & 489.

243

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Furthermore, Umme-Salma, Hafsa, Umme-Habiba Juwaiera, Maimuna, Fatima Zohra, Umme-Shuaik, Umme-Atiah, Asma bint Abu Bakr, Laila bint Kais, Khawla bint Tabib, Umme-Darda, Atikah bint Zaid, Sahla bint Shuhail, Fatima bint Kais, Joynab bint Abu Salma, Umme-Aymon and Umme-Yusuf (RAs) have narrated so many traditions that volumes and volumes of books can be filled with those.122 Hazrat Umme-Salma was adept in the knowledge of Marifath (the unrevealed). While, Asma bint Sakan (RA) was an expert lecturer and orator, Asma bint Umaish was a specialist in the analysis of dreams. Among the lady companions, most were educated and in them Hazrats Ayesha (RA), Hafsa (RA), UmmeSalma (RA), Safa bint Abdullah (RA), Umme-Kulthum bint Uqbah (RA) and Karima bint Al-Mikdad, etc., were very learned.123 However, in pre-Islamic Arabia both men and women were adept in literature and enjoyed literary activities, but Muslim women excelled in literature and earned many laurels. Regular poetry recitation assemblies were held, where poets read their compositions with great zeal and fanfare. Abu Bakr (RA) was a poet of repute, used to preside over gatherings of poets, and recited his own compositions. His equally competent daughter, Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was also a poetess and composed many poems in her lifetime. She memorized many poems and recited those. Among others, Hazrats Khansha, Shawda, Safiya, Atikah, Imama, Muridia, Hind bint Haris, Joynab bint Awam, Udih, Atikah bint Zaid, Hind bint Anasa, Umme-Aymon, Kanila, Abdbia, Kabsa bint Rafeh, Maimuna Balriah, Neaz and Rokayya (RAs), etc., earned fame. There was none as talented a poetess as Khansha (RA) in those days. Ayesha (RA) was a poetess, historian and an orator of the first order. Educated and inspired by the teachings of Muhammad (PBUH), generally, both the Muslim males and females established themselves in high and honorable positions in the society. Many Muslim-women earned reputation in business, and in other technical trades. Along with the men, the ladies were also occupied in trade, commerce, agriculture, textile, weaving, stitching, metal and leather works, animal husbandry and even in accounting, etc. In those days, almost all-Muslim women, wove cloth
122 123 Tabakat-e-Ibn Sa‘ad part-II, p. 126. Fathul Kuldan Balzuri; p. 477-478..

244

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

at home, which was used to clothe the members of the household. They were also proficient in tanning and coloring leathers. Hazrat Khadija (RA) was the foremost among the Muslim businesswomen. She had big import and export trade with Syria. The Muslim ladies traded in perfumery, as well. While the principal occupation of the Meccans was trade and commerce, the Medinease mainly depended on agriculture. Likewise, their womenfolk also worked in the field along with their males. Muslim ladies knew the use of metal like gold, silver, copper and iron. They also knew how to process these metals chemically to make them useable. Ayesha (RA) learnt the chemical processing of metal from the Prophet (PBUH). In science, especially in chemistry and medicine, she was extraordinarily gifted. The science of chemistry, as all other branches of learning, was not so advanced as it is today. Ayesha (RA) did research in chemistry and taught others. Among her students Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Amir Mu'äwiyah had become famous. He collected all that he learnt from Ayesha (RA) and published those in his book entitled, ‗Ferdousul Hikmat.‘ As a result, Jaber ibn Hayan wrote his now famous ‗Ilmul Kimiah‘, which laid the foundation of the science of chemistry. Till today this book is held with respect and admiration by scientists, all over the world (Ibn Nadeem Al-Fihresht Qasfuzzunun, Al-Waqidi Fe-Tadbir ElKafi). Hazrat Orroa (RA) has said, ―I have not known anybody who is better then Ayesha (RA), in medicine or surgery.‖ Several lady Companions have shown blazing courage, fortitude and glowing boldness, in the war field and equally passionate zeal and adeptness in home-management and other trades. They were at the same time wives, teachers, mothers, companions, friends and advisers. Be it at home or in the war field or in any other occupation like, agriculture, trade, commerce or social work, they always excelled. By attending to their husbands and children, and treating and caring for patients, they gleaned happiness. In spite of being a rich man‘s daughter and brought up like that, Ayesha bint Abu Bakr (RA) was happy to live a Spartan life, as the wife of the Prophet (PBUH). In spite of the fact that they were the queens, the wives of the Prophet (PBUH) lived a humble life, and never desired for the pomp and grandeur associated with this temporal life. They lived ordinarily with the people like one of them. Like the other
245

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

obedient disciples of the Prophet (PBUH), they taught Islamic diction to others. They were the best in compassion, philanthropy, righteousness, duty and charity. Rafida Aslamia, Umme-Muta, Umme-Kabasha, Hamana bint Jahash, Mayaza, Laila, Umayma, Umme-Zaid, Ruby bint Muzawaz, Umme-Atiah and Umme-Salma (RAs) were very adroit in medicine and surgery. Rafida (RA) was entrusted with the supervision of the hospital attached to the Mosque of the Prophet (Masjidun Nabubi). In Arabia, singing and dancing at weddings and other happy occasions were common. There are instances where in the presence of the Prophet (PBUH) poems were recited. With the permission of the Apostle of God, Ayesha (RA) sent a lady called Arnab to sing at a marriage ceremony in Medïna. Besides, at marriages of the orphans raised by the Prophet (PBUH), songs were sung to provide a lively aura, with the consent of the Prophet (PBUH). At these functions, only Muslim women participated. Starting with the dissemination of Islam, numerous learned ladies enriched the religion. In them, the wife of the Prophet (PBUH), Ayesha (RA), was endowed with unfathomable knowledge. Famous companions were her students. It is said about Ayesha (RA) that she was intelligent, erudite, and eloquent with presence of mind. Umme-Salma was a very sharp analyst and interpreter of Islamic canons, as well as, a researcher. In the annals of Islam, the names of Ayesha (RA), Fatima Zohra (RA), Joynab bint Abi-Salma and Sheema, etc. are enshrined forever, as jurists of the foremost caliber. Men and women from all strata of life were inspired and influenced by the zeal and earnestness of the Prophet (PBUH), to acquire knowledge. On many subjects and matters of importance, Abbas (RA) and Jainul Abedin (RA) parleyed and discussed with Rubayyat bint Muawbez bin Arfa (RA). Hafsa (RA) was very enthusiastic about education. Among her male students were Abdullah bin Omar (RA), Hamza bin Abdullah (RA), Haris bin Wahab (RA), Abdur Rahman bin Haris and among the women were Safiya bint Abu Obaidah (RA) were Umme-Mubasha Shaba Ansari (RA), etc. In the time of the second Caliph, Omar (RA), a lady, named Laila bint Abdullah, was the supervisor of the market at Medïna. Fatima bint Kais participated actively at the election of Hazrat Othman (RA) as the third Caliph. Sheema (RA), the adopted sister of Muhammad
246

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH), was a celebrated poetess. Hazrat Sakina, the daughter of Hussein (RA) was an acclaimed litterateur and educationists. Imam Rabeyya Basri was an imminently learned lady. Imam Khaleq and Imam Hassan Basri were her prominent disciples. She used to deliver sermons at mosques and interpreted the holy Qur‘än and Traditions. The consort of the Caliph Haroon ar-Rashid, Zubaidah‘s name would be remembered forever, for her contribution to education and social work. She ensured drinking water for the Meccans by dredging a canal there. The canal is known as the Nahr-e-Zubaidah (Canal of Zubaidah), to the Meccans. At the Cathedral Mosque in Baghdad, Fakhrunnessa delivered lecturers on, literature and literary figurative ornamentation, to big congregations. She is accorded the same status and honor in history as the other Islamic male scholars. Jatul-Hema, who was generally known as Jema, was a very brave woman. This brave lady fought war along with the leading male warriors with equal courage and vigor, as a war leader. Ladies were in the forefront of intellectual and academic activities. In the Abbaside period, Khaijuran, Waliah, Zubaidah and Buran participated in politics. Abul Farez Ispahani described Zubaidah as majestic in moral development and imperial in knowledge, in the period of Mustasim. Fazela was a leading poetess during the reign of Mutawwakkil. Sakina and Sahuda, who lectured in Baghdad on history and literature, were known for their retentive prowess. While Joynab and Ummul Muwayed were jurists and Abul Farez‘s daughter was a famous poetess. The women in Spain of the Muslim era were not confined within the confines of the four walls. Spanish literature was enriched by the able contribution of Nahujan, Joynab, Hamda, Al-Kaliah, Safiya and Mariah. There were many lady doctors, litterateurs or poetesses of eminence. AlWalidah‘s residence was the Mecca of all literary and intellectual activities for scholars of the time. Ariza was a renowned grammarian and Logician. The famous teacher, Silvia Miriam taught poetry and logic. Asmul Ambia, Ummul Hina, Imtiar Ramima and Busnia, etc. were at the forefront of female literacy activities. In those days, scholars from different countries attended seminars addressed by the lady scholars, because of the very high standard of deliberations. Many biographies of these scholarly ladies are found in the famous biographical literatures of Arabia. Eminent biographer, Ibn Sa‘ad
247

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

has included the biography of about two hundred distinguished ladies, in his book ‗Tabakat‘, from the first three hundred years of Islam. Ibn Askari (1105-1175) has published a book of eighty volumes, on the lives of the Islamic scholars of Ahadith of Damascus. This book was pledged to the memory of eighty noted lady teachers; and wrote another volume on them. This gives an idea about the depth and enormity of the scholastic achievements of these ladies. In his book called: ‗Darrul Kamina‘, Ibn Hajjar (1372-1449), mentioned about one hundred and seventy scholarly ladies and admitted his indebtedness to their academic genius. One hundred learned lady teachers are mentioned in Al-Shakari‘s (1427-1492) book called: ‗Al-Dawul Lami‘. He also mentioned that he was their student. Omar bin Fahd included the biographies of thirty famous Muslim lady scholars of Ahadith, in his book. History bears testimony that many Muslim lady scholars traveled to far away places, to acquire knowledge, up to the 12th and 13th Hegira. Even royal ladies traversed along unknown paths to attain knowledge, leaving the comfort of the royal palaces. Joynab bint Solaiman was included in the front ranking scholars in Ahadith. In her puberty, Sahuda bint Ahmed acquired profound knowledge in Calligraphy, Islamic Science and Ahadith. She used to deliver discourses on many subjects with complete ease and perfect command. Her fame touched such lofty stature that many scholars of her era claimed to be her students. In the seventh Hegira the daughter of Fakhruddin, Umme-Hani, memorized the holy Qur‘än in her childhood. She attained fame and honor by gaining knowledge of various subjects, including Arabic language and literature. An Arab lady called: Fatima Al-Fudailia wrote many books on Calligraphy and Islamic Science, in the eighteenth century. She built a huge library at home for her own use. At this period many women lectured on different subjects including, Ahadith, its interpretation, Science, interpretation of the Qur‘än, land revenue, and Islamic canons, etc. The world famous traveler, Ibn Batuta has mentioned that he heard discourses of Ayesha bint Muhammad and Joynab bint Kamaluddin in Damascus. Women enjoyed equal opportunities in the Arab world in every field. Their counterparts in the sub-continent of India, gradually, lost their importance, because of the switching to Persian from Arabic. They were
248

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

alienated from the source of all knowledge, the Qur‘än which in Arabic, the language of Arabia. Those who established Muslim rule in the Indian sub-continent came from Turkey, Persia, Central Asia and other places from outside Arabia. Consequently, Persian a non-Arabic language took precedence over Arabic as the royal tongue. On top of that, these nonArabs to establish themselves in India married and mixed with the natives. That forced them to adopt many local social customs and consequently Muslim women of the sub-continent lost their eminence, and gradually, receded into oblivion. Along with their native counterparts, they also withdrew behind the curtain and remained ill educated or uneducated. Nevertheless, many Muslim scholarly ladies have enriched the history of the sub-continent. Repeatedly, they have shone brightly with dazzling brilliance, burning the veil with their fiery presence. These stars are none other than Razia Sultana, Chand Sultana, Nurjahan, Jahan Ara, Rawshan Ara, and Zebunnessa. The first two were queens, and commanded troops at the battlefields. Chand Sultana from the south fought bravely against the very powerful Mogul emperor, Akbar, the Great and embraced martyrdom.124 Nurjahan was the empress of the Mogul emperor Jahangir, and was very adept in the statecraft. Once, during an uprising, she took the initiative and unshackled Jahangir. Gulbadan Begum, the sister of emperor Humayun was a gifted author and wrote an excellent biography of her brother, the emperor. Jahan Ara the daughter of emperor Shahjahan was a poetess. Zebunnessa, the daughter of Aurangazeb, the Mogul emperor was famous as a learned lady. In the Indian sub-continent, Muslim aristocratic ladies were very advanced in education and scholarly pursuits, a few centuries ago. Specially, the non-Bengali Muslims of Northern Province (Uttar Pradesh) could not imagine of women without education. Since the ladies were all educated, they could take the responsibility of the education of their children. Because of the link, via the sea with Arabia, the religious influence of the Arabs remained strong, along the western seashore of the sub-continent, and consequently, the conception of equality of women. Following that concept, the Sultan of Malabar kept the door open to women at every sphere of life in his Sultanate. It is gathered from a book
124 The Position of Women in Indian Life: SM Mitra, London, 1911. P.6.

249

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

called: ‗Tariq-e-Firishta‘ that the Sultan employed about 15,000 women in various departments. In the reign of Muhammad Shah of Gujrat 12,000 women were trained for appointment at various departments of the government, including tax and revenue, science and culture, handicraft and music, etc. Later, he employed them in the police force, judiciary, accounts, Qur‘änic education and teaching, etc. From the History of Gujrat, it is also gathered that the females dressed as males participated in the practice of archery and swordsmanship. The education of women was confined to the aristocracy in the independent Bengal. In spite of backwardness, of the Muslims who despised the English and every thing that was English, two outstanding ladies were born in the houses of the Zaminders of Rangpur, Bangladesh, in the north and in Comilla, Bangladesh, in the south. Begum Rokayya of Rangpur outshone all other women of her time. She broke all the chains of superstition and got herself educated. She devoted her life in fighting for emancipation and elevation of women, specially, of Bengal. In the name of her late husband, she established the Shakhawat Memorial School in Calcutta. This school caters to the needs of the Muslim girls living in Calcutta. She was a teacher, reformer, educationist, poetess, authoress and litterateur. Nawab Faizunnessa, an offspring of a Zaminder of Comilla, was the other, who earned fame as a reformer, litterateur, poetess, educationist and social worker, like Begum Rokayya. In 1873, she established an English medium school and a primary school in Comilla; and established a Maktab in Mecca when she went to perform Hajj there. She is the only women in the sub-continent who had been awarded the title of Nawab by the British in 1889, for her social and humanitarian works like, building roads, schools and mosques, etc. Two journals namely, ‗Shudhakar‘ and ‗Islam Prachar‘, published from Calcutta by her. The Nawab Faizunnessa College in Comilla, Bangladesh still bears her memory.
MODERN WOMEN IN THE EAST AND THE WEST:

In the modern world behind the liberty that the women are enjoying today in the east or the west, is the socio-economic transformation seen among them is the result of raising literacy rates in them. Spread of literacy brought them outside their homes and gave them opportunity to become independent and self-reliant empowering them to oppose male
250

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

hegemony. However, unbridled liberty and faulty social order has forced the modern progressive women into unlimited corruption. Today, in both the developed and the underdeveloped nations women are encouraged to work with men and in some cases are forced to work. Those that are working outside for economic reasons are naturally remain separate for a considerable amount of time from each other. This separation sometimes diminishes love and affection in a relationship and gradually the partners drift apart even resulting into divorce. It is obvious that male and female workers remain in the company of their colleagues for the best part of the day. Opposite sexes for natural affinity may enjoy each other company and grow to like each other‘s. On the other hand, when both the partners return home tired they may not shower each other with same affection, love, and care, as they would otherwise have done. Age-old convention of a male returning to the loving care of his partner who is entrusted with the care of the children and the homestead is gone. Working partners cannot expect the serene solace of a comforting shoulder. It is not fair for them to expect any special care from each other since both are working equally hard. So naturally, the role of a family diminishes nay totally becomes redundant. Back in 1947, in the pre partitioned India; the Anglo-Indian community was ill famed for altercation and fights between the husbands and wives. In them, generally both the partners worked back in those days. A disturbed family did not ensure proper care for the offspring. Resultantly, they strayed. Today it is the same in all communities, and it is the same situation in almost everywhere. This can be argued and argued endlessly, but the situation in the most advanced country of the world, United States of America, where the very foundation of family life, ‗Marriage‘ is threatened as a institution do not augment well for today‘s radical idea of ‗women‘s lib‘. Women should and must be liberated but not the way they are today. With liberation, they should also be taught to shoulder responsibilities. They must learn to uphold their liberty with dignity and serenity. Liberation should not be confused with simply denying all control of the man. Financial independence does not mean boundless liberty. The limits imposed by the union of a couple must be adhered to and both should be supportive of each other in all respects.
251

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Financial activities are done with the purpose of insuring happiness by buying mundane comfort. In the life of an individual, the individual is the sole beneficiary, but in a union, it should be the union not the individuals. Both the partners should strive to ensure happiness of the union and in the doing so might be needed to sacrifice individual gain. It is a difficult proposition and can only be achieved if the partners are ready to lose themselves in the union. Friction and exceptions are natural but not to the magnitude that we see today. It seems that the newfound social liberalization is responsible for the alarming rate of divorces in the advanced countries of the worlds. Studies do support the contention. We would like to quote a report cited by Reuters from New York, USA, Friday 3 July 1999, published in the daily Independent, The daily Star and all other leading newspapers in Bangladesh. The number of Americans getting married has dropped to a 40-year low, as divorce and changing attitudes have replaced ‗I do‘ with ‗I won‘t‘. A study by Rutgers University‘s National Marriage Project found that ―Americans have not given up marriage as an ideal but statistics show a precipitous drop since 1960 in the number of couples who actually walk down the aisle.‖ ―The Institution of Marriage is in serious trouble‖, said David Popenoe, who co wrote the study, ―The State of Our Unions: The Social Health of Marriage in America‖ with Barbara Dafoe Whitehead. ―The current generation has grown up in midst of the divorce revolution, so they are extremely wary and cautious about entering into marriage,‖ Whitehead told Reuters commenting on the report. The report said Americans are less likely to marry than ever before, those do marry appear to less happy than previous generations, and despite a small drop in the divorce rate, nearly 50 per cent of all marriages will end in divorce. The number of marriages per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15 or older dropped to about 49.7 in 1996 versus 87.5 in 1960, according to the report. At the same time, the number of unmarried couples living with each other rose to 4.2 million in 1998 versus 439,000 in 1960.

252

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE WIVES OF THE PROPHET (PBUH)

The Revelation of Allah the Great: Allah, the Provider, the Sustainer of the Worlds Has clearly said in the holy Qur‘än: ―The Prophet (PBUH) is dearer to all Muslims than their own lives, and his wives are like mothers to them. They are the Ummatul Muminin (mothers of the Believers).‖ As Muhammad (PBUH) is the mundane and spiritual emperor of the Muslims, so his wives are the Empresses. They are respected and regarded by all with the highest reverence. The great man who has elevated woman to the most exalted position from being nonentities, and placed them along with man, deserves a close look at his own abode. How were the ladies of his house? Who were they? How did they perform their daily chores? How were their conjugal lives? How many wives the Prophet (PBUH) took? Who exactly were his consorts? How the Prophet (PBUH) behaved and acted in his married life? All these questions need to be closely studied and followed diligently. For the life of the Prophet (PBUH) in every respect, private or public, are to be followed as perfectly as possible. His deeds and sayings are the Ahadith (Traditions). These are the guidelines for every Muslim and the ignorance about these would foster misconceptions as already conjectured by jealous non-Muslim historians about the holy Prophet's (PBUH) conjugal life. Consequently, we would forfeit the chance to a happy and blissful married life. It is imperative, therefore, for all Muslims to know about the daily life of the blessed wives of the Prophet (PBUH). Before the coming of Islam, bigamy and polygamy were common practices among the people of the world. In every religion and society, it was found in vogue. Indians, Persians, Romans, Egyptians, Jewish, Christians, Buddhists, Idolaters and Heathens, everybody practiced polygamy. Emperors, Kings, Landlords, Leaders and the Rich kept many wives and concubines. Knocking at the base of this ancient custom, Islam brought discipline to the otherwise chaotic system, where there was no limit to the number of wives. However, Islam allowed polygamy but it has put a strict restraint on the practice. Canonical constraints have been strictly advocated to keep the practice within bounds. To cleanse the society and to maintain sanctity, polygamy is necessary in limited form. Islam‘s admission of

253

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

polygamy has been elaborately discussed in the previous chapters, and adequately clarified.
PRE-ISLAMIC ERA:

As has been said earlier bigamy and polygamy were considered legal by all the nations of the world. As there was no limit on the number of wives, man took hundreds of wives and concubines. Emperors, Kings and Bishops all were accustomed to polygamy. In the Bible, it is mentioned that Prophet Solomon had seven hundred wives and three hundred harems. While, Prophet David had ninety-nine and Abraham had three; Jacob and Moses had four each. Sri Krishna had more than six hundred queens. In the Vedic scripture, more than one wife was allowed and mentions were made of ten, thirteen and twenty-seven wives at different times. In these circumstances, as there was no limit to numbers, some Companions had more than four wives, at a time. On the contrary, the Prophet (PBUH), from the prime of his life, until the middle age, remained married with only one lady, Hazrat Khadija (RA), whereas, if he so desired, he could have married scores of beauty Queens of Arabia. Nevertheless, he is on record to have refused proposals of palaces, along with the most beautiful princesses, in exchange of renouncing his Mission. Nothing could deter him from his mission of the truth. A simple nod was enough in his exalted state for woman and wealth rolling on his feet. The Prophet (PBUH) was never tempted, for no temptation was great enough to sway him away from the path of the Truth. However, Islam had allowed polygamy, but it has put canonical constraint, according to the Qur‘än, to discourage the practice, if certain conditions are not met strictly. If there is the slightest doubt as to the fulfillment of these conditions, it is advised that one should remain married to and content with only one wife. On the earth, Islam is the only religion that has proclaimed women as equal to men. This religion provided for rehabilitation of widows by remarriage. On the other hand, this very religion sought to arrest debauchery, adultery and lasciviousness by allowing polygamy. To accomplish the same, Hinduism had made provision for self-immolation of the widow, at her husbands‘ pyre. This cruel and barbarous act has been glorified, to inspire women, in fact to deceive them into an inhuman
254

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

act: (this has been disbanded by enactment of law during the later stages of the British rule). God Has sent woman as the friend and benediction for the man, not as a despised creature. Therefore, marriage in Islam is instituted on sacrosanct ideals. For maintaining the purity of the human society, man is paired with woman to propagate the creation of God. The union of male and female is sanctified by marital vows. In Islam, any illicit sexual relationship between the sexes has been condemned as a sin punishable by death. It is a great sin, and no other religion has prescribed such a strict measure, as stoning to death. The holy Qur‘än has instructed the Prophet (PBUH) to get an oath from females, embracing the new religion, to refrain from adultery: (Al-Qur‘än - 16:12). In unequivocal terms, the Qur‘än has described promiscuity as an evil and immoral act and cautioned restraint (Al-Qur‘än - 17:32). Islam has strictly forbidden free mixing between sexes. Sex outside marriage is absolutely banned in Islam, and made punishable by death. Islam appended utmost importance to the chastity and virginity of woman, and both the man and woman are urged to possess good characters. Every family consists of a few individual men and women and a tribe consists of some families, living together, and then a nation, a country and so on. To establish a prosperous and disciplined country and a nation, well natured and disciplined individuals are necessary. Marriage helps a human to promote Allah‘s purpose of populating the world, with wellmannered, pious and disciplined human beings. Monogamy, bigamy or polygamy, whatever, the purpose of marriage is not the fulfillment of carnal desire, but much more broad. Marriage is compulsory for every man and woman; it is the practice (Sunnah) of the Prophet (PBUH). Islamic system of marriage has come from the life of the Prophet (PBUH). Through him Qur‘änic revelations have descended and his practice and sayings are Ahadith. These together are the principal guiding reference for every conceivable act of the Muslims, for both the private and public lives. Islam, as such, is the complete code of life. Leading his life, according to the Qur‘änic injunctions, Muhammad (PBUH) created examples to be followed. He taught his disciples by example, to leave no confusion in their minds. In the examples that Muhammad (PBUH) set, one is marriage, the sacred and blessed bondage for the propagation of
255

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

human race. It is our blessed duty to establish a blissful relationship between men and women, through the institution of marriage. This is a natural human propensity, which has been discouraged by other major religions. Islam has never depicted women as vulgar and undesirable. The Bible says: ―If you want to negotiate your journey safely, then remove women, the hazard from the way.‖ The Jewish people consider women as ‗the permanent curse‘ for the human society. In both Christianity and Judaism, women are viewed as the ‗bristle of the evil tree‘. Only Islam has honored women designating them as the ‗Flower of the Paradise‘, and the ‗Source and Fountain of Peace‘ in this arid mundane life. Placing women on an exalted position and assuring an equal status with men is a radical action taken by Islam. Islam has not derided beauty of women. On the contrary, Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Marry women considering four qualities in them, namely: chastity, virtue, pedigree, beauty and wealth.‖ In the Qur‘än and Ahadith, the blissful marital bond and the bride have been praised repeatedly. The Prophet (PBUH) has described women as the greatest reward for men. While, this animated and exciting alliance, marriage, shall exist on the earth, the Prophet‘s (PBUH) contribution to the institution shall be remembered.
THE PIOUS CONSORTS OF MUHAMMAD (PBUH):

Muhammad (PBUH), gradually, took twelve wives. That was a period, when bigamy and polygamy was very common and legal in Arabia. When Muhammad (PBUH) earned divinity and started preaching the Unity of God, then to restrain him from his mission, the Quraish tried to tempt him. They offered him Kingdom with palaces and beautiful, noble ladies. He (PBUH) refused. Before that at the age of twenty-five, he tied the nuptial knot with Khadija (RA), a widow of forty, with several children. With her, he lived a blissfully happy married life for twentyfive years. During her lifetime, he did not take another wife. After her death, forced by circumstances, he took eleven more wives between the age of fifty and fifty-nine; specially, forced by the need to care for the motherless young daughters and other social and political reasons. None of them except Ayesha (RA) was a maiden. Others were old and widow, divorced, abandoned slaves or prisoner of wars. A list of his wives is given below to show how and when the Prophet (PBUH), accepted them
256

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

as his wives. Also shown the brides‘ identity with their age, at marriage and death, and the Prophet‘s (PBUH) age at the time of the marriage:
WIVES OF THE PROPHET (PBUH) AT A GLANCE: Sl. No. 01. Name of the Bride at marriage KhadijatulKubra(RA) Shawda-bintJomaa(RA) Ayesha Siddiqa(RA) Age & Status at marriage 40, widow Prophet‘s Age at marriage 25 unmarried Death 65, 11th year of Divinity 11 Ramadhan 78, 21 Hegira 66, 58 Hegira

02. 03.

55, widow 6, maiden, from 9 stayed with Muhammad (PBUH) 19, widow 30, widow 27, widow 37, divorced 20, widowed, POWslave Egyptian, Christian (disputed) royal maiden

50 51

04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09.

Hafsa (RA) Joynab bint Khozaima (RA) Umme-Salma (RA) Joynab-bint Jahash(RA) Juwaiera (RA) Maria Kibtia (RA)

54, 2(H) 55, 3(H) 55, 3(H) 56, 4(H) 56, 5(H) 57, 5(H)

62,Shaban,45(H) 30, 3(H) 85, 63(H) 53, 20(H) 65, 50(H) -

10.

Sofia (RA)

11. 12.

Umme-Habiba (RA) Maimuna (RA)

17, Jew, POW-slave, widow (royally descendent of Moses & Haroon) 35, deserted old & widow

58, 6(H)

60, 50(H)

58, (H) 59, (7)

73, 44(H) -, 51(H)

Muhammad (PBUH) liberated a prisoner of war (slave) Bibi Raihana of the Koreza tribe. That the Prophet (PBUH) accepted her as a wife (PBUH) is stated in some of his biographies, which is disputed by historians. Wakedi ibn Sa‘ad supports the hypothesis while, Hafiz ibn Mundar and Hafiz ibn Hajar, disagree. An Imam of ethics, Hafiz ibn
257

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Mundar in unambiguous terms asserts that Muhammad (PBUH) has set Raihana free, and she went back to her tribe. Hafiz ibn Hajar attests the assertion of Ibn-Mundar. Hazrat Maimuna (RA) is the last wife of the Prophet (PBUH). A few more lucky ladies are said to have been married with the Prophet (PBUH); but they had to be separated from him for various reasons, before they could live with him.
HAZRAT KHADIJATUL-KUBRA (RA):

Muhammad (PBUH) was a glowing young man, shining like a full moon in the Meccan sky, known as Al-Amin and As-Sadique for his righteous and truthful character. He earned fame for his honesty, astuteness as a promising businessperson with an amiable disposition. A rich widow named Khadija (RA) soon noticed his pleasing personality, name and fame. She invited Muhammad (PBUH), to look after her business. With the consent of his patron and protector, Abu Talib, his beloved uncle, he accepted the offer. Now with new responsibility of trade and commerce, he traveled to countries like Syria, Iraq and Yemen. Trading his merchandise there, he made substantial profits and on returning home, he turned over Khadija‘s (RA) share to her, immediately. With the taking over by Muhammad (PBUH), Khadija‘s business flourished, gradually. His diligence, honesty, righteousness, manners and purity of nature greatly fascinated Khadija (RA). She was renowned for her beauty and quality, despite being a widow, and better known as Tahira (the chaste) to the Meccans. Many rich and noble leaders and chieftains were eager to marry the extremely wealthy Khadija (RA). In those days in Arabia, adult ladies could propose marriage to the man of their own choice, without consulting their guardians. A niece of Waraka, a sage and a learned man of the then Arabia, Khadija realized that Muhammad (PBUH), was different from the others. God inspired her. Muhammad (PBUH) was much above the ordinary lot. Mecca was excited and acclaimed Muhammad (PBUH) for the simplicity and sweetness of his character, which charmed Khadija‘s (RA) heart. Her soul stirred with a divine delight. Enthralled by the Messenger of God and she gave her heart to Muhammad (PBUH). Farsighted Khadija (RA), without losing any time, sent the proposal of marriage to Muhammad (PBUH), through an emissary. Consulting with beloved Uncle Abu Talib, he agreed to the proposal. Muhammad (PBUH) was twenty-five and
258

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Khadija (RA) was forty then. Both belonged to the Quraish tribe and their parents had died. In the presence of Muhammad‘s (PBUH) uncles, Abu Talib and Hamza (RA), the uncle of Khadija (RA), Aamer bin Asad and other notables, this historic marriage was solemnized. Thus, began the august journey of Islam. Khadija (RA) is designated as the nurturer of nascent Islam. She is matchless among the women in Islam. Noble, rich, brilliant and above all, virtuous, she was respected by all. For virtues and purity of character, she was given the title of Tahira. The shield of peace, with which Islam is protecting the world, was planted by Muhammad (PBUH) and fostered by Khadija (RA). She nourished the new religion with the love and affection of a mother. After her marriage, she sacrificed all her wealth and slaves at the feet of Muhammad (PBUH). The benevolent Apostle of God liberated all those slaves, and distributed the wealth among the poor and began living an austere life. Khadija (RA) did not object and accepted an austere life style. Inspired by the noble acts of Muhammad (PBUH), she backed and patronized him. In the beginning of Islam, for a wife like Khadija (RA), Muhammad (PBUH) could devote himself to the dissemination of the true faith: the faith in the Unity of God. Free from temporal duties, he gave his undivided attention to spreading the cause of Islam. Inspired by the noble qualities of the apostle of God, Khadija (RA) dedicated herself to the service of humanity. This noble lady earned the distinction of becoming the first Muslim. In the initial stages, her unflinching love for Muhammad (PBUH), and unconditional support, has advanced the cause of Islam, immensely. Fifteen years after the marriage with the Khadija (RA), Muhammad (PBUH) attained divinity at forty. Learning it from Muhammad (PBUH), she immediately acknowledged his faith. She swore allegiance to the unity of Allah and to Muhammad (PBUH) as the Prophet of God reciting: ―There is no God, but Allah and Muhammad is His Prophet.‖ When the Prophet (PBUH) meditated in the cave of Hira, Khadija (RA) carried food and water for him, every few days. At the manifestation of the descent of revelation, she would cover Prophet (PBUH) with quilts. If Muhammad (PBUH) worried about the divinity, she would console and comfort him. Immediately after Gabriel taught him the rules of prayers,
259

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muhammad (PBUH) repeated those to Khadija (RA), and then taught the young Ali (RA). These three are the first to say prayers in a congregation at the Ka‘aba. In the seventh year of divinity, the pagan Quraish drove Muhammad (PBUH), his uncle, Abu Talib, and others of the BanuHashim tribe into confinement: in a valley outside Mecca. They cut off the supply of food and water to them. Khadija (RA), born with a golden spoon in her mouth, passed days without food in confinement, without any protest. When not one voice was raised in support of Muhammad (PBUH), though a lady, she staunchly supported his cause; and renounced the ancient religion of the Quraish. Perhaps, that is why God has granted her so much honor and respect. In her lifetime, Muhammad (PBUH) through Gabriel received the news of her being granted the Paradise. She would personally care for the Prophet (PBUH), though she was an extremely wealthy lady. Muhammad (PBUH) after her death never ate meat of animals sacrificed at his home, without sharing that with her friends. The Messenger of God, not only loved her dearly, but also respected and honored her a lot. The Prophet (PBUH) never forgot her. Every year animals were sacrificed in her name. Her friends received gifts regularly from the Prophet (PBUH). At the beginning of Islam, the love, devotion, support and cooperation that she gave the Prophet (PBUH) are matchless. In the face of adverse situations, persecution and neglect, she remained steadfastly at his side. No other soul has done so much for the Prophet (PBUH) and his mission. Her name will remain written in golden words in the annals of Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) loved her dearly. Reminiscing past memories, during the last days of his life, the Prophet (PBUH) constantly remembered her. He would repeatedly say: ―When people called me a liar she trusted me, when people did not believe me she embraced Islam, when there was nobody to help me, and she helped me.‖ Ayesha (RA) narrates that entering his home Muhammad (PBUH), repented the absence of Khadija (RA). One day unable to bear his expression of remorse, Ayesha (RA) involuntarily said, ―Oh Messenger God, don‘t I care for and love you, more than her? Allah has given you better wives than her.‖ Hearing that the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Ayesha don‘t say that. Khadija (RA) is my first wife and she is the first to accept my faith. Her
260

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

moveable and immovable properties and wealth were surrendered for Islam. Would Islam flourish so much, if initially, she did not render her unblemished support to the cause of Islam? She respected and loved me very much, and I reciprocated.‖ He loved Khadija (RA) very much all his life, and never hesitated to express that under any circumstances. In the four sons and four daughters of Muhammad (PBUH), Khadija (RA) bore him three sons and four daughters. The sons were Hazrat Qasim (RA), Hazrat Tyyib (RA), Hazrat Tahir (RA) and the daughters were Hazrat Joynab (RA), Hazrat Rokayya (RA), Hazrat Kulthum (RA) and Hazrat Fatima (RA). The fourth son, Hazrat Ibrahim, was born to Hazrat Maria (RA). All his sons died in infancy. Among the daughters, only Fatima (RA) survived her father, but quickly followed him in death. She died only after six months of the Prophet‘s (PBUH) departure from this world. In the tenth year of divinity, on the eleventh of Ramadhan, three years before the migration to Medïna, Khadija (RA) died in Mecca, at age of sixty-five. She remains buried at Jannatul Mualla, in Mecca. Muhammad (PBUH) himself laid her in her last resting-place.
HAZRAT SHAWDA BINT JOMAA (RA):

Hazrat Khadija‘s (RA) death was a severe blow to Muhammad (PBUH). His Uncle Abu Talib died earlier in the same year. These deaths left him sad and vulnerable. He called this year ‗Amul Huzn‘ (year of mourning). His enemies, particularly, the Quraish intensified their attacks on him. Their persecution of the Prophet (PBUH) became intolerable and he moved to Tayef. Abu Talib, the chieftain of the Hashemites, was the protector, and Khadija (RA) was the constant companion of Muhammad (PBUH). His life partner, the nurturer of nascent Islam, Ummatul Muminin Khadija (RA) was also his comrade, in the most difficult days of his life. They strengthened his mission, by helping, supporting, caring and comforting him, in the face of stiff challenge from the powerful Quraish. In their absence, his mission became very dangerous and difficult. The Tayefians was worse than the Meccans. Stoned and injured by them, he returned to Mecca, among his sworn enemies, who were after his life. Muhammad (PBUH) returned to Mecca with blood trickling through the wounds. Nothing could deter him from his divine mission. Ignoring all hurdles and difficulties, persecution and tyranny, he
261

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

steadfastly, performed his apostolic duty. For the sake of his holy mission, he remained outside his home, most of the time. At home his young motherless daughters, Kulthum (RA) and Fatima (RA) stayed alone. Their safety and security was compromised. Muhammad (PBUH) was greatly perturbed. To look after him, the daughters and the household, there was none. Khadija (RA), managed the household, without bothering the Prophet (PBUH). He remained free to concentrate fully on his sacrosanct mission. His relatives, specially, Aunt Hazrat Khawla (RA), the wife of Othman ibn Majun (RA), advised marriage to reduce the burden on him. However, Khadija‘s (RA) memory was still fresh in his mind. He sadly replied: ―Where would I get a second Khadija (RA)?‖ Khawla (RA) proposed Shawda (RA), among the widows, and Ayesha bint Abu Bakr (RA), among the maidens. She further said, ―While Shawda (RA) would manage the household, Ayesha (RA) with her sharp intellect would be an asset for Islam. She would benefit the new religion, greatly.‖ In this way, pressurized by the relatives and compelled by his own need, he agreed to marry the old, widowed, destitute Shawda (RA). She earlier migrated to Abyssinia with her husband Sokran (RA), at the behest of the Prophet (PBUH), and returned a widowed destitute and abandoned by her relatives. Marrying her, in the tenth year of divinity, Muhammad (PBUH) handed over the responsibility of his household to her. Muhammad (PBUH) married fifty-five year old Shawda (RA), at fifty. She is one of the leading ladies in the life of the Prophet (PBUH), during the starting phase of Islam. After going through the pain and distress of migration to Abyssinia, and losing a husband, her agony ended when she became the Prophet‘s wife. At both Mecca and Medïna, she managed the household of Muhammad (PBUH), and brought up his daughters as her own. She earned Muhammad‘s love and affection for that and he greatly cared for her happiness and comfort. From her room, in Mecca, he went to the Journey on a Buraq, now famed as the Më‘râj, to a rendezvous with Allah. He went via the Ka‘aba and Baitul Mukaddas. No other spouse of the Prophet (PBUH) was bestowed with this rare honor. The Muslims therefore, specially revere her. Managing and running the household of Muhammad (PBUH), deftly, she proved Khawla (RA) right. For her devotion, loyalty, obedience and reverence of the Prophet
262

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH), she was at the vanguard. At the Hujjatul-Bida (the last Pilgrimage) the Prophet (PBUH), addressing his wives said, ―After me, you would remain at home.‖ After his passing away, Hazrat Shawda (RA), strictly abided by the instructions of Muhammad (PBUH). She never came out of her home, not even to perform Hajj. She said, ―I have performed both the Hajj and Omrah; now, it is time to obey the Prophet‘s bidding.‖ Her character was molded by the holy association with the Prophet (PBUH). Shawda (RA) had no desire for wealth or worldly possessions. The only motto of her life was to abide by the injunctions of the Prophet (PBUH). Hazrat Ayesha (RA) said about her: ―Except Shawda, no other woman has aroused in me the desire for my soul to be in her body.‖ She further said, ―Whoever met her never forgot her.‖ Humanitarian service and Charity were her special qualities. The second Caliph, Omar (RA) once sent a bag of dirhams (money: monetary units) at her service. She, immediately, distributed those among the poor and the needy. To others, she was very kind and respectful. Due to old age, she gifted her turn with the Prophet to Ayesha (RA). Ayesha (RA) gladly accepted the gift. At her deathbed, she called everybody, and asked for forgiveness. She died at the age of seventy-eight and buried at Jannatul Baki in Medïna. She narrated five Ahadith and she bore no children to Muhammad (PBUH).
HAZRAT AYESHA SIDDIQA (RA):

Rasul-e-Akbar (the great Messenger) between the age of fifty and fiftynine took ten more wives, besides, Shawda (RA). Among them, the daughter of the first Caliph, Abu Bakr (RA), and Ayesha (RA) was one of the notables. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) was a close and life long friend of Muhammad (PBUH). Often, he has risked his life for him. Apprehensive that the Prophet (PBUH) might be disturbed in his sleep; Abu-Bakr (RA) silently bore snakebites, while, hiding in a cave, on the way to Medïna. He was contemplating a marriage between Ayesha (RA) and the Prophet (PBUH), to make their friendship eternal. Right then, by divine coincidence, Khawla (RA) came with the Proposal. The Prophet (PBUH) was persuaded by Khawla (RA), arguing that to eliminate superstition Islam needs a brilliant girl like Ayesha (RA).

263

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

In those days, female issues had no standing. They were buried alive and sacrificed for the deities. Marrying a friend‘s daughter was not legitimate. Eradication of all these superstitions was the purpose of the marriage. Khawla (RA) is on record to say that this marriage is not to satisfy individual desire, but for greater good of Islam and the nation. This prophetic assertion of Khawla (RA) came true. Muhammad (PBUH) after considering the matter deeply, reached the conclusion that the marriage would be beneficial and firmly bound his friendship with Abu Bakr (RA), a childhood friend. Muhammad (PBUH) gave his consent. Abu Bakr was delighted! He, immediately, consulted his old father, Abu Kohafa (RA) and wife Umme-Rumman (RA- Ayesha's mother). As Ayesha (RA) was betrothed to the son of Zubair ibn Mutaam, their opinion was necessary. None of the family members, including Zubair, accepted Islam until then and they did not intend to do so. Under these circumstances, they did not want a marriage with a Muslim girl, in the apprehension that the groom may embrace Islam. Therefore, they gladly released Abu Kohafa (RA) from his commitment. Now, there was no impediment to the marriage between the Prophet (PBUH) and Ayesha (RA). Consequently, the Marriage was solemnized at a dower of five hundred dirhams. Hazrat Hamza (RA) and other nobles were present at the ceremony. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) has the honor of being the first maiden to be married according to Islamic rituals. She was six years old at marriage and stayed with her parents until she was nine, when they migrated to Medïna. After the migration, she started living with Muhammad (PBUH). Her early education at home reached its culmination, being exposed to Muhammad (PBUH). She learnt the Qur‘än and its interpretation directly from the Prophet (PBUH). Ayesha (RA) not only read and memorized the holy Qur‘än but tried to comprehend it fully. Any question or confusion, in her mind, regarding any verse of the Qur‘än, was referred to the Prophet (PBUH) for clarification. Thus, she had the perfect opportunity to learn from the source, and she fully used it. She was brilliant, sharp, astute, and wise and was endowed with an agile analytical mind. Like an intelligent, talented and diligent student, with indomitable eagerness, courage and inquisitiveness, she discussed, argued and questioned her tutor Muhammad (PBUH). This she did to learn more by taking the advantage
264

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

of being a consort of the Prophet (PBUH). She constantly expanded the horizon of her knowledge by exploring the Prophet‘s (PBUH) mind through questioning him. Added to her yearning to learn, the sacred companionship of the Prophet (PBUH) enriched her knowledge and molded her virtuous character. Muhammad (PBUH) would rectify Ayesha (RA) at the slightest fault, and constantly, lectured her. Under the blessed tutelage of the Prophet (PBUH), she learned the holy Qur‘än, Ahadith, Fiqah and Akayed, and of the mundane sciences: she learned Law, Literature, Constitution, Economics, Logic, and the Science of warfare, Chemistry, Natural Science and Medicine. She was recognized by the Muslim world, as an expert in those subjects. She memorized the history of humankind and the lives of the prophets before Muhammad (PBUH). Ayesha (RA) also memorized the prescriptions and the pharmaceutical preparations prescribed by the doctors to Muhammad (PBUH). She learned Chemistry from the Prophet (PBUH). An erudite-lady with an agile mind, she was extremely sharp, intelligent, wise and had a deeply analytical faculty, endowed by a sharp memory. Because of the education the Prophet (PBUH) gave her, she became the undisputed expert in Shariat (Islamic law) after the death of Muhammad (PBUH). She was equal, in eminence and expertise, to the celebrated experts in Qur‘än, Hadith, Qyas (Infra), etc. like: Omar Faruque (RA), Ali (RA), Ibn Abbas (RA) and Abu Huraira (RA). She was equally deft in poetry, literature and history. After the passing away of the Prophet (PBUH), she opened a Madrasa at her abode and taught there herself. Among the Madrasas in Medïna, her Madrasa was the biggest. After the death of Muhammad (PBUH), his competent companions spread to Asia, Africa and even to Europe, to preach Islam. Hazrat Ali (RA) was elected as the fourth Caliph, shifted the seat of government to Kufa at the death of the third Caliph. Mu'äwiyah, a provincial governor, disobeying Ali, made Damascus his capital and ruled Syria. Medïna retained its eminence, as the seat of ecclesiastical education. Among the learned scholars, Ayesha (RA) was prominent and taught at the Madrasa of the Masjidun Nabubi, the largest of its kind. Other leading scholars were Abdullah ibn Abbas, Abu Huraira and Zaid ibn Said. Ayesha (RA) even surpassed the male companions, in the mastery of some subjects
265

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

except Hazrat Ali (RA). These scholars had their own Madrasas. At the Madrasa where Ayesha (RA) taught, students gathered in so great a number that at times, it was difficult to hold them, even within the Masjidun Nabubi. Besides, the local and foreign students, she would take the responsibility of students of her own family and orphan students. With great care and devotion, she taught her students, and students learned with eagerness. During Hajj, people gathered in front of her tent, in thousands. They questioned her on various subjects. Citing from the Qur‘än and Hadith, she clarified their points and gave them appropriate answers. The pilgrims returned home, satisfied, and spread the interpretive explanation given by Ayesha (RA). A courageous, bold and straightforward speaker, she never flinched at telling the truth, the command of God. She did not care about offending anybody, while upholding the truth. Amir Mu'äwiyah and his governors‘ misdeeds were strongly criticized, especially; the injustices meted to Ali (RA) and his family. Ayesha (RA) would not hesitate to admit her mistakes. She was very gentle, humble and independent. She made the world understand that women are not to be confined within the four walls of their homes; since, they can play equally important and fruitful roles outside their homes as they can within, both in war and peace. Renowned Scholars said that, at least, one fourths of the Shariat came from Ayesha (RA). Any dispute, arising in the interpretation of the Qur‘än Hadith, was referred to her. Specially, during the first three Caliphs, any question about the illustration and narration of the Qur‘än and Hadith, was referred to Ayesha (RA). She gave appropriate and satisfactory solutions to them. She finely expounded intricacies of the Shariat. Her students revered her and she looked after them as her own children. While, counseling married women, she advised to educate their husbands, as well. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) brought up many orphans. On attaining age, she had married and settled them in life. Benevolence, charity, philanthropy adored her character. She helped the poor, destitute and the distressed, according to their situations. Ayesha (RA) remained satisfied with very little. A rich man‘s daughter, passing comfortable life in childhood, she never showed any eagerness for ease and comfort at the household of the Prophet (PBUH). She watched wealth stacked, at her door, and vanishing
266

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

quickly, in charity, nothing remained for them to enjoy. Aspiration for these riches never touched her. She never disparaged anybody. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) participated with Muhammad (PBUH), in Jihads (religious wars). She has shown extraordinary courage in the field. This talented lady endowed with qualities of head and heart, serving Islam, earned a high status for herself. There is hardly any comparison of Ayesha (RA) in the entire Muslim world and outside. During the first, second and the third Caliphs, she was regularly consulted, and she provided them with important counsel to solve the problems of the state. The state could enforce law and order in the community to establish peace and tranquility everywhere. This process greatly benefited, the first two Caliphs, as they materialized her suggestions. Softhearted Hazrat Othman (RA), the third Caliph did apply the stern measures against the defaulters as advocated by Ayesha (RA). This weakness caused a chaotic situation for the first time in the Muslim-state, resulting in the murder of the Caliph. Among her students, Khalid was famous. He, in his book entitled, ‗Ferdousul Hikmat‘ recorded the information received from Ayesha (RA). On which the foundation of Jaber ibn Hayan‘s Ilmul-Cheimia was laid. She learned the science of Chemistry and Medicine from the Prophet (PBUH). Later, she researched and improved upon what she learnt. She taught her students medicine along with other subjects. Medicine was not as developed as it is now. Traditional heelers treated patients with plants, herbs and shrubs. Some were experts in treating particular diseases. Once, a Companion asked her: ―Ummatul Muminin, we are not surprised that you write poems, since your father is a poet; but where did you learn medicine?‖ She replied: ―When the Rasul (PBUH) fell ill, general practitioners came, from all over Arabia, to treat him. They discussed the illness and its treatment I listened to them and committed everything to my memory.‖ Besides that, in the holy Qur‘än there are references to various flowers and fruits and their therapeutic uses. She learnt those from the Prophet (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH), for the very first time employed females to nurse wounded soldiers in the field. Ayesha (RA) accompanied the Prophet (PBUH) in many wars. She collected arrows for reusing and served water to the thirsty and wounded soldiers. ―Poetry is the only media of
267

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

expression of emotions,‖ said she. She asserted, ―If it eulogizes Allah and praises His Rasul (PBUH), and does not corrupt, there is nothing wrong in composing poems.‖ By birth, Ayesha (RA) was a poetess. The Arabs respected poets very much and everybody, irrespective of gender, patronized poetry. Big congregations were held to enjoy recitation by the renowned poets and poetesses. People in great numbers attended these gatherings. Poems were used as a media to inspire Arab nationalism. Therefore, it was a great honor for a woman to compose poetry. Her language was eloquent and lucid. She was careful about the language and accent of her students. There were fiery-orators who inspired people to fight in battles. Ayesha (RA) was such an eminent orator. Ayesha (RA) narrated in details all the major events of the Islamic era during the Prophet‘s time and after. The family, the conjugal life, the state of the Prophet (PBUH) at the descent of the holy Qur‘än and Wahies (divine messages), prayers for the day and the night, manners, etc., were described by her for the posterity. She has been credited with the narration of 2210 Ahadith (Traditions). Of them 174 are cited jointly by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim (both the Imams collected and published Ahadith) and they, separately, cited 54 and 58 more Ahadith, respectively. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was a modest, virtuous, gentle and simple soul, dynamically independent. Her independence, self-respect and unwillingness to accept anything, without fully comprehending, was the reason that some people misunderstood her. She was gifted with the faculty of understanding Ahadith. At that time all the ‗Sayings‘ of Muhammad (PBUH) were not interpreted and analyzed. She elucidated the reason, objectives, and effectiveness of the intricate and subtle aspects, in lucid language. Thus, she has enlightened the Muslim world, saving them from bewilderment and confusion. For this distinctive work, she remains one of the most remembered ladies of the Islamic world. After the death of Othman (RA), hearing of the chaotic law and order situation she wrote with a pitiful heart: ―If the leaders of my nation, to my counsel paid attention, I would have saved them, from conspiracy and destruction.‖

268

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Ummatul Muminin Ayesha (RA) loved the Prophet (PBUH), very much. Out of her love for the Prophet (PBUH), she cared for his friends and relatives and respected them. She was very pious and fasted most of the days of the month. All the while, she worshipped Allah and prayed to Him. Almost every year, she performed Hajj and strictly observed the Pardah (veil). Her sense of Pardah (segregation) was so strong that after the second Caliph, Omar (RA) was buried beside the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA), she never visited the Rawja (tomb of the Prophet) without a veil. Twice, wahies descended concerning Ayesha (RA). Once, her camel fell behind the caravan, while returning to Medïna from a trip with the Prophet (PBUH). Mischievous people started spreading rumors, smearing her character. Allah, the Protector of Honor, sent a Wahi, declaring her innocence (Al-Qur‘än - 24:4). From then on, it became mandatory to prove the guilt of infidelity, before accusing any woman of such a sin. For her loyalty to Muhammad (PBUH), Allah declared her, ‗Siddiqa (The Loyal)‘. On another occasion, while on trip she lost her necklace. The search delayed the trip, and the caravan had to stop at such a place where there was no water. Allah sent a Wahi allowing Taiyammum (ablution with sand). The Companions were happy and prayed for her (Al-Qur‘än 5:6). On the seventeenth of Ramadhan, Hegira 58(corresponding 13 June 678 AD), at 66, Ayesha (RA) died. Abu Huraira (RA) was the governor of Medïna led the funeral prayers. She remains buried at Jannatul Baki, in Medïna.
HAZRAT HAFSA (RA):

To refuse, any proposal by a father to marry his daughter was considered a serious disgrace. Demeaned in such a way, the family had to endure social humiliation. Hafsa (RA), the daughter of Omar (RA) was widowed in the battle of Ohud. Omar (RA) loved Hafsa (RA) very much. He was very perplexed at her fate. Abu Bakr (RA) and Othman (RA) both declined the proposal of accepting Hafsa (RA) a wife. They were great friends of Omar (RA); he, therefore, was very much dejected at their refusal. Hearing of their refusal and Omar‘s (RA) plight, Muhammad (PBUH) proposed and married her. Hafsa (RA) was nineteen at marriage, in the third year of Hegira. The Prophet (PBUH) liked Omar (RA) very much. He was second only to Abu Bakr (RA) as a friend and companion
269

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

of the Prophet (PBUH). He made these friendships eternal, marrying the pious daughters of these two friends. Ummul Muminin, Hazrat Hafsa (RA), was very scholarly. In her early life, Ayesha (RA) learned many things from her. She narrated sixty Traditions, which she heard from the Prophet (PBUH) and Omar (RA). Hafsa (RA) acquired profound knowledge of the meaning and essence of the religion, in the company of the Prophet (PBUH). This education was tremendously helpful in her later years, in enlargement of Islam. Fascinated by her erudite discussion on the Qur‘än, the Prophet (PBUH) took measures to enlighten her further. Hazrat Hafsa (RA) disliked disagreement and discord. Her brother Abdullah ibn Omar liked to remain away from conflict and confrontation and stayed in seclusion in the home. She urged her brother to come out of his seclusion after the ‗Battle of Siffin‘, when negotiation about a compromise was suggested. ―Though you would not be personally benefited, you must participate in this, because, people depend and respect your righteous decisions; silence on your part would confuse them:‖ said she, to her brother. She was upright and straightforward like his father and never hesitated to say the right thing to anybody. Omar (RA) on many occasions admonished her for being harsh to the Prophet (PBUH). She was incensed quickly like her father, Hazrat Omar Faruque (RA). Because of the similarity in temperament, Omar (RA) liked her very much. Her father‘s character was truly mirrored in her. As she was quick tempered, so was she courageous and bold, in the battlefield, like her father. A commander of the Prophet (PBUH), she led and fought in many wars, with full competence. To win would have been difficult for the Muslims, if Hafsa (RA) did not participate in the battles of Tabuk, Khyber and others. There were love and affection between Ayesha (RA) and Hafsa (RA), as was there between Abu Bakr (RA) and Omar (RA). Both stayed together in the same house like sisters, and accompanied the Prophet (PBUH) on tours, occasionally. This regal-lady died at sixty-two, during Shaban in the forty-fifth Hegira. She was childless and was buried at Jannatul Baki.
HAZRAT JOYNAB BINT KHOZAIMA (RA):

Joynab (RA) was widowed, after the martyrdom of her first husband, Abdullah ibn Jahan, in the Battle of Ohud, in the third Hegira. She was
270

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

passing very tough days as a widow. The Prophet (PBUH), hearing of her plight, took her under his shelter as his wife. She was thirty years old then. Luck did not favor her longer and she died the same year. Joynab (RA) was the only other wife of the Prophet (PBUH) buried by him, after Khadija (RA). As she was very charitable, she was called the Ummul Masakin (the mother of the poor). Jannatul Baki is her last resting-place.
HAZRAT UMME-SALMA (RA):

Abu Ommeyya of Mecca was a kind-hearted noble man. His daughter Umme-Salma (RA), a beautiful lady, in the beginning of Islam along with her first husband, Abdullah bin Abdul Asad, embraced Islam and migrated to Abyssinia. Later returned to Mecca and again migrated to Medïna. In this manner, she is the only Muslim lady who migrated twice, one negotiating the journey through the waters of a mighty sea and then through an arid desert. The pagan‘s persecution was intolerable. They took away her infant child and returned it after seven days. Abdullah was a valiant warrior of Islam who suffered grievous injuries at the Battle of Ohud, and died the next year of the wounds. Already living in harsh conditions, her husband‘s martyrdom worsening her condition forced her into very difficult situations. The Prophet (PBUH) consoled and comforted her. Later by marrying her, Muhammad (PBUH) gave her shelter and status. Umme-Salma (RA) was very intelligent and a wise women. She was always very alert about the comfort and happiness of the Prophet (PBUH). Her slave Sofina (RA) was liberated with the condition of serving the Prophet (PBUH) all his life. As she was very learned in Fiqh and other political subjects, the Prophet (PBUH) respected her. During the Treaty of Hudaibiya, she was with the Prophet (PBUH). According to the term of the pact, the Muslims had to return from there without proceeding to Mecca. Except Abu Bakr (RA), none consented to the seemingly unequal agreement. The Companions was very displeased and dejected, they ignored the Prophets (PBUH) orders for sacrificing animals. Thrice, the Prophet (PBUH) ordered and it was ignored. Muhammad (PBUH) went to his wife Umme-Salma who was accompanying him, and told her everything. She advised him to go ahead with sacrificing his own animal, and shave his head for coming out of Ihram, without telling anybody anything. He did as advised. Now it
271

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

dawned upon the Companions that the order was irreversible, and they complied. This is a remarkable incidence in the history of Islam. By judging the mood of the people properly and acting accordingly, an awkward situation was saved. It illustrated the depth of her understanding of the human nature. It has been stated in ‗Imanul Harmain‘ that no other woman in history gave such an appropriate advice to anybody. All of the wives of the Prophet (PBUH) acquired great wisdom living with the Prophet (PBUH). Umme-Salma (RA) enriched and strengthened Islam for a long time after the death of the Prophet (PBUH) as she died long after him. After Ayesha (RA), she has described the largest number of Traditions among women. She narrated three hundred and seventy-eight Traditions. Ayesha (RA) respected her very much. She would always offer her seat to Umme-Salma (RA). Umme-Salma (RA), affectionately, would kiss Ayesha (RA) on the forehead. She was recognized for her ability to give accurate judgement on a matter, which was always universally accepted. This is an evidence of her sophisticated analytical ability. Companions like, Abu Huraira (RA) and Abbas (RA) who were renowned for their knowledge and wisdom, depended on the Ummatul Muminins. Hazrat Umme-Salma explained intricate matters in simple and lucid language, making them easily understandable. She loved Muhammad (PBUH) very intensely. A very beautiful and charitable lady, she never cared for mundane wealth and prosperity. In sixty-three Hegira, the year of the Kerbala tragedy, she died at the age of eighty-five. Abu Huraira (RA) led the funeral prayer. Umme-Salma (RA) was buried at Jannatul Baki.
HAZRAT JOYNAB BINT JAHASH (RA):

A Muslim of the earlier period of Islam, Hazrat Joynab bint Jahash (RA) was a first cousin of Muhammad (PBUH). She migrated to Medïna along with her mother and brother. Muhammad (PBUH) married her to his foster son Zaid (RA) whom he liberated and adopted earlier. This was done to illustrate the great ideal of equality by breaking the long established aristocratic superiority and haughtiness. Joynab (RA) was a noble lady belonging to the great Hashemite clan, while Zaid (RA) was an emancipated slave. Joynab (RA) at first refused to marry Zaid (RA), since, she was still filled with patrician pride of her birth and status; and
272

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

as she was harboring the desire of becoming a wife of the Prophet (PBUH). However, after the Qur‘änic message: ― . . . and obey God and His Apostle (Al-Qur‘än- 33:5),‖ she consented to the marriage. Unfortunately, the marriage did not work. She could not tolerate her husband, as he was a freed slave, and not a noble like her. Allah wanted to prove another point and eradicate another superstition through this morganatic marriage. Zaid (RA) expressed his wish to divorce her, but Muhammad (PBUH) repeatedly advised against dissolution of marriage. All efforts failed and the marriage was dissolved through a divorce. After the divorce, Joynab (RA) became a destitute. The Prophet (PBUH) was visibly disturbed, as he was the initiator of the marriage between Zaid (RA) and Joynab (RA). Naturally, the responsibility to rehabilitate Joynab (RA) fell on the Prophet (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) was puzzled and heart broken, because nobody wanted to marry a hotheaded thirty-five years old divorcee. The Prophet (PBUH) blamed himself for the mishap, as he was the matchmaker. On the other hand, before her marriage, Joynab (RA) expressed her desire to be Muhammad‘s (PBUH) wife. In those days, marrying a divorcee of an adopted son was prohibited as a foster son was considered a real son in Arabia. So the Prophet (PBUH) waited to hear from the Lord of Honor and Power, Allah and Most Gracious Allah Sent the following messages through the Qur‘än:
146. … NOR HAS H E MADE YOUR WIVES WHOM Y E DIVORCE BY Z IRÂR Y OUR MOTHERS : NOR HAS H E M ADE YOUR ADOPTED SON S Y OUR SONS . S UCH IS ( ONLY ) Y OUR ( MANNER OF ) SPEECH B Y YOUR MOUTHS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33:4). T HEN WHEN ZAID HAS DI SSOLVED ( HIS MARRIAGE ) WITH HER , WITH THE NECESSARY ( FORMALITIES ), W E JOINED HER IN MARRIAGE WITH THEE . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 33:37).

147.

This was clearly a permission to enter in marital associations ignoring false relationship. Muhammad (PBUH) directly entered into Joynab‘s room after the message was received. Religious formality by a Kazi was not necessary anymore, since, Most Gracious Allah Himself solemnized this marriage. A feast was given on the occasion and there came the instruction for Pardah (veil). Hazrat Joynab (RA) was a very beautiful lady with great qualities of heart and mind. She was self-restrained, virtuous, humane, benevolent, truthful and affectionate toward her kith and kin. In charity and
273

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

magnanimity, she was very accomplished. Devotion and humility distinguished her religious rituals. The Prophet (PBUH) loved and respected her. Ummatul Muminins praised her honesty and truthfulness. She narrated eleven Traditions. Umme-Salma (RA) said, ―Joynab, a virtuous worshiper, fasted and prayed regularly.‖ Ayesha (RA) said, ―I have not seen anybody more religious, truthful, generous, benevolent and eager to please Allah than Joynab.‖ She also said, ―Among the wives, she is the one who was equal to me in respect and position, in the eyes of the Prophet (PBUH). Beggars and the poor received so much in charity from her that at her death they were terrified and worried. Once the Prophet (PBUH) told his pious wives hat whose hand is long would join me first in death. She was the first among the Ummatul Muminins to join the Prophet (PBUH) in death, her hands were long as she extended her hands in charity more than any one else. She had no children and died at the age of fifty-three in twenty Hegira. Jannatul Baki is her last resting-place.
HAZRAT JUWAIERA (RA):

Haris, the father of Juwaiera (RA), was the Chief of the Bani Mustâlik tribe. She was married to her own tribe‘s man Munafe bin Safwan. Both her father and the husband were avowed enemies of Islam. In a battle against the Prophet (PBUH), famous as the Battle of Gajwae-Muraisia, her father was defeated and her husband was killed. She was brought to Medïna as a prisoner of war along with other prisoners. Juwaiera, the wise daughter of a Chieftain, decided to pay ransom according to the prevailing law, for her own freedom. Accordingly, she appeared before the Prophet (PBUH) and requested him for the ransom. The kindhearted Prophet (PBUH) arranged for the ransom and set her free. Overwhelmed by the kindness of the Prophet (PBUH), she wished to stay with him. Muhammad (PBUH) granted her, her wish and married her in the fifth Hegira. The consequences of this matrimonial relationship was very extensive; for the Companions immediately freed all the prisoners of war of the Bani Mustâlik tribe, without any ransom. Ummul Muminin Juwaiera (RA) says, ―Three days before the Prophet (PBUH) went to battle the Bani Mustâlik, I dreamt that the moon travelling from Yathrib (Medïna) descended on my lap. I have not narrated this to anybody, but now I have seen the interpretation with my own eyes‖ (Tafsir-e-Ma‘aref ul-Qur‘än). Hazrat Ayesha said, ―I have not seen anybody luckier than
274

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Juwaiera (RA) for his or her tribe. For her, hundreds belonging to Bani Mustâlik tribe were set free without any ransom.‖ She further said, ―Juwaiera (RA), had a captivating smile and was very civil, anybody that had seen her once was impressed by her. She had such a lovely aura of softness that it would induce respect and regard in the beholders, instantly.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) loved her very much. Every Friday she fasted. Once she was seen in the morning by the Prophet (PBUH) praying in the Mosque returning at noon he saw her in the same state of prayer. Intelligent and wise Juwaiera (RA) narrated twenty-four otherwise twenty-five Traditions. In the fiftieth year of Hegira in the month of Rabiul Awwal, she died at the age of sixty-five. She is buried at Jannatul Baki.
HAZRAT MARIA KIBTIA (RA):

For the first time, in the sixth Hegira, the Prophet (PBUH), started for Mecca from Medïna for Hajj, with fifteen hundred Companions. The Quraish stopped him at place called Hudaibiya. Here he entered in an agreement with the Quraish, which has become famous in history as the Treaty of Hudaibiya. Released from the opposition of the Quraish, the Prophet (PBUH), now sent his ambassadors to all over the world, with the invitation to accept Islam. During the process, gifts and letters were exchanged with kings and emperors, which brought international fame to the Prophet (PBUH). The then Emperor Micaucus of Egypt of the Kibtia dynasty replied the Prophet (PBUH) with great respect and regards. He also sent precious gifts for Muhammad (PBUH), along with two maidens named Shirin and Maria of royal descent. Some historians have described Maria as the first cousin of Emperor Micaucus. European critics have described these maidens as slaves. However, the letter from the emperor says, ―Two maidens of noble origin of the Kibtia dynasty, excellent clothes and horse driven carriages for carrying them, are sent for your service.‖ They later accepted Islam. In the fifth Hegira, the Prophet (PBUH) accepted Maria Kibtia (RA) as his wife. She bore the Prophet (PBUH) his fourth son, Ibrahim (RA). The other maiden, Shirin was married to poet Hazrat Hassan (RA). At various times Muhammad (PBUH) married for different reasons but never took a Christian wife before Emperor Micaucus provided him with an opportunity that created a bond with the Christian world. Muhammad
275

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(PBUH) provided Maria (RA) with all comfort of life and always looked after her well-being. Maria Kibtia (RA) respected and venerated the Prophet (PBUH). She had all the qualities of a queen. The Prophet (PBUH) passed the busiest time in his life when he married Maria (RA), as that was the time when the message of Islam reached everywhere. He was the head of the state and at the same times the spiritual leader. As it was his duty to look after the affairs of the state, so was it his responsibility to propagate Islam. Along with other wives Hazrat Maria Kibtia (RA), helped and cooperated with the Prophet (PBUH), in doing both the duties. Hazrat Maria Kibtia (RA) bore the Prophet (PBUH) his fourth son and the last issue. He was named after Prophet Abraham. On the seventh day, an animal was sacrificed in his name, and his head was shaved. A foster mother was appointed for the child. However, at the age of one and a half years the child died. At his death Muhammad‘s (PBUH), eyes were filled with tears.
HAZRAT SOFIA (RA):

Jewish princess Hazrat Sofia (RA) was a descendant of Hazrat Haroon, the brother of Moses. Among the wives of the Prophet (PBUH), only she could claim to be a descendant of a prophet and a wife of a prophet, with royal lineage. Her father the chief of the Banu-Nazr, mother the daughter of the chief of Banu-Khuraiza and brother were sworn enemies of Islam. The clan of Sofia (RA) was very proud of the fact that they lived in the most fortified fortresses of Khyber and had plenty of arms and ammunition. Convinced that they were very strong and invincible, they lost no opportunity to oppose Islam and its Prophet (PBUH). Constantly, they conspired against the Muslims, and breaking treaties helped their enemies. Once the Prophet (PBUH) pardoned them their misdeeds as they begged for forgiveness, but they went back to their old ways. At this, the Prophet (PBUH) was left with no other alternative than to take punitive measures. This time he attacked and conclusively defeated them. Hazrat Sofia‘s (RA) father, brother and husband were killed in the battle and she was brought to Medïna as a prisoner of war. In accordance with the custom of the time, the war booties were divided among the victors. She fell to the share of the Prophet (PBUH), but as prayed by Dahiya Kalbi (RA), Muhammad (PBUH) gave her to him. Many of the
276

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Medinease were related to the Banu-Nazr and Banu-Khuraiza; they felt uneasy at the decision of handing over a noble-lady to a commoner. Muhammad (PBUH) respecting their sentiments freed Hazrat Sofia (RA). Impressed greatly by the magnanimity of the Prophet (PBUH), she accepted Islam and asked for Muhammad‘s (PBUH) shelter. The Prophet (PBUH) granting her, her wish accepted Sofia (RA) as his wife, in the sixth Hegira. Muhammad (PBUH) loved and cared for Sofia (RA) a great deal. Once during a journey, the camel carrying Sofia (RA) fell ill. The Prophet (PBUH) requested Hazrat Joynab (RA) to give Sofia (RA) the extra camel she had. Joynab (RA) refused saying: ―I shall not give my camel to the daughter of a Jewish.‖ For this, Muhammad (PBUH) did not talk to Joynab (RA) for two months. Sofia (RA) had the idea that Ayesha (RA), Hafsa (RA) and Joynab (RA) all deserved special place, as they belong to the noble Quraish tribe. The Prophet (PBUH) cheering her used to say: ―You are the descendant of Moses and Haroon and a wife of the Rasul; you are not inferior to them in any way.‖ Sofia (RA), at her father‘s abode came to know about Muhammad (PBUH). She dreamed in her father‘s house that the moon had come to her lap. Listening to the dream her father, the Jewish Chieftain, Huyai bin Akhtab became very angry. He slapped Sofia (RA), saying: ―You wish to be the queen of Medïna.‖ She, narrating another incident about her father said, ―My father and my uncle, Yasser bin Akhtab went to see the Prophet when he arrived in Medïna. Coming back after seeing the Prophet, the elder brother said to the younger: ‗By God there is no doubt that he is that last Prophet of God‘.‖ Even after all these, they did not listen to him; and opposing and conspiring against him, died a wretched death in a battle against the Prophet (PBUH). Pious Sofia (RA) was the best cook among the wives of the Prophet (PBUH). Wherever the Prophet (PBUH) was, she would send food for him and Muhammad (PBUH) would gladly eat those. She was of royal descent and brought plenty of precious stones and large quantity of gold and other wealth with her. At the behest of the Rasul of God, she departed with those to lead an austere life with Muhammad (PBUH). Sofia (RA) intensely loved Muhammad (PBUH). When, Muhammad (PBUH) became ill, she with great sadness wished: ―If I were ill instead
277

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

of you.‖ At this all the wives present there looked at each other. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―She told the truth‖, meaning she said it from her heart. Sofia (RA) was endowed with many noble qualities like the other wives of the Prophet (PBUH). She was beautiful, intelligent, tolerant, pious and educated. Citation of twenty-four Traditions has been credited to her. She ran a school at her residence. Women came from various places to learn about different rules and regulations. About her Hazrat Ayesha (RA) said, ―I have not seen anybody a better cook than Sofia (RA). She often treated us with various preparations of meat. At the Prophet‘s (PBUH) arrival in my room, I would call Sofia (RA), and we listened to the sermons of Muhammad (PBUH) together. We were all pleased with her at her sweet behavior. She loved me like a sister and I respected her a lot. Sofia (RA) was very kind and was a protector of her relatives. She even was kind and sympathetic to her Jewish relatives. Once, she replied without hesitation to a courier of Omar (RA): ‗I am kind to my Jewish relatives‘.‖ One thirds of the 100,000 dirhams that she left at her death, was given to her Jewish nephew, according to her will. When the rebels surrounded Othman (RA), she tried to help him but the rebel leaders forced her to return. From her home, she sent food for the Caliph through Hazrat Imam Hassan (RA). In the fiftieth Hegira, she died at the age of sixty in the month of Ramadhan. Sofia (RA) was buried at Jannatul Baki.
HAZRAT UMME-HABIBA (RA):

Before the conquest of Mecca, Abu Sufiyan was a staunch enemy of the Prophet (PBUH). Ummul Muminin Umme-Habiba was his daughter. She and her first husband, Obaidullah bin Jahash, are among the earliest converts of Islam. They migrated to Abyssinia, at the call of the Prophet (PBUH). There a son and a daughter, Habiba, were born to them. After some time, Obaidullah apostatized to Christianity. Consequently, their marriage was dissolved, as Habiba remained a Muslim, and deeply distressed she became shelterless. The Prophet (PBUH), knowing of her firm faith and predicament proposed marriage to give her a shelter. He requested Emperor Najjasi to take care of her through a courier. In the sixth year of Hegira, emperor Najjasi before an assembly of Muslims, including Hazrat Ja‘afar (RA), married Umme-Habiba (RA) to the
278

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Prophet (PBUH). He dispatched her by ship to the Prophet (PBUH) with precious gifts, accompanied by Companion Sohrabil ibn Hasoona (RA). She was thirty-five at the time. In this way, her faith in God brought her the unique honor of becoming the wife of the Prophet (PBUH). Her father, Abu Sufiyan used to say: ―I have the most beautiful daughter in Arabia, Umme-Habiba (RA).‖ She loved Muhammad (PBUH) dearly and revered him. Umme-Habiba was very gentle by nature. After becoming the wife of the Prophet (PBUH), she wanted the same honor for her sister. She prayed with utmost devotion and followed the teachings of the Prophet (PBUH) carefully. Umme-Habiba (RA) narrated sixty-five Traditions. After the conquest of Mecca, her father came to Medïna still a heathen. He went to his daughter‘s room and wanted to sit on the bed, but Umme-Habiba quickly folded the bed. At this, to save the situation, Abu Sufiyan joked: ―Such love for the bed!‖ Replied UmmeHabiba: ―You are a pagan and as such impure and this is the bed of the holy Prophet (PBUH).‖ In the reign of Amir Mu'äwiyah, in forty-four Hegira, she died at the age of seventy-three.
HAZRAT MAIMUNA (RA):

Born in the noble Quraish family, Hazrat Maimuna was an aunt of Khalid (RA) who was bestowed the title of 'Saifullah‘ (Sword of God). After divorced by the first husband and the death of the second, she wished to pass the last years of her life as a wife of the Prophet (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH) at that time was in Mecca to perform Omrah (pilgrimage out of season). They were married there and this was Muhammad‘s (PBUH) last marriage. Hazrat Maimuna was a very pious and kind lady. She was very attentive to the instructions of the Prophet (PBUH). Buying slaves, she would free them, and helped the needy even if she had to borrow. Narration of forty-six Traditions has been credited to her. Her deep knowledge is reflected in the narration of Traditions. At a place called Sharaf in Mecca she was married, and died in the same place after forty-four years, in fifty-one Hegira. She was buried in the same place at Sharaf in Mecca.
NECESSITY OF MARRIAGES OF THE PROPHET (PBUH):

With the desire to acquire mundane power and wealth, people marry the daughters of wealthy and influential persons. This they have been doing from time immemorial, disregarding the age of the groom. Guardians,
279

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

parents willingly give their wards or daughters in marriage to Kings, Emperors, Politicians and Spiritual Leaders, in quest of power and wealth. In comparison to them, the Prophet‘s (PBUH) status is much, much loftier. He shines above everybody, since he is the King of the kings, Emperor of the emperors, Leader of the leaders: He is the leader of the prophets and the Emperor of the Worlds. Muhammad (PBUH) is at the zenith of his glory, as the temporal and spiritual leader of the mighty Muslims, whose empire was spread from Yemen to Syria. Mighty emperors of Persia and Rome have received his invitation to accept Islam. His name and fame has traveled everywhere. In these circumstances, even many honorable companions were willing to marry their maiden daughters to him. However, Muhammad (PBUH), never expressed his desire to marry any one of them. At the establishment of a Muslim state at Medïna, Muslims were the targets of constant conspiracy, intrigues and attacks by the heathens and the Jewish. Muhammad (PBUH) were entangled in wars with them and had to fight many battles. As a natural consequence of wars, the male population dwindled. Many women became widows without shelter and provisions to survive. Children became orphans in scores. To rehabilitate this helpless population was a tremendous burden for the nascent state. Though a Muslim state has been established, social, political and economic, reforms are still an on going process. Still the pre-Islamic customs have not been weeded out of Arabia. Many customs of the barbaric times are still prevalent in the society. Most of the males prefer marrying virgins and there is no limit of age for males, but females were restricted by age. None wanted to marry widows past their youth. Women had no status; anybody could marry them at will and divorce them at any time. Widows, particularly aged ladies were subjected to untold misery and torture. Nobody married them and there was no way for them to live honorably. This condition greatly saddened the Prophet (PBUH), and he constantly searched for a way out of this miserable condition. He deeply meditated to find out a way to ameliorate the sordid condition in which people lived. His prime concern was to cleanse the society of the curse of misery, poverty, injustice and diseases. Muhammad (PBUH) induced the same zeal of serving the humanity in his ardent followers and together they advanced their campaign.
280

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

He passed the prime time of his life married with Hazrat Khadija (RA) for twenty-five years. Only after her death, forced by circumstances, he married the fifty-five years old Shawda (RA), at fifty. Later in life, to break from the superstitious traditions, and to show his followers the right way, he had taken old and widowed women as his wife. In those days, as has been stated earlier, nobody wanted to marry widows, particularly, those past their prime. However, they needed shelter and protection to live respectfully in the society. After the Battle of Badr and Ohud Joynab bint Khozaima (RA), Umme-Salma (RA) and Hafsa (RA) were widowed and were helpless and shelterless with their children. Joynab bint Jahash became exposed to poverty and misery, as she was divorced. Umme-Habiba (RA) was thrown into the wilderness of uncertainty, in a foreign land, across the sea, in Abyssinia, deserted by her husband. In those early days of Islam, the Meccan immigrants were still dependent on the help of their Medinease brethren. In that circumstances, the miserable conditions of the families can easily be comprehended whose sole bread earners died in the battles. Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH) created example by giving shelter to these defenseless souls. Inspired by his example, his Companions began to take these helpless ladies, past their primes, as their wives thus assuring them shelter and means to a respectable life. Rehabilitation of the war destitute was thus completed. From that, the practice of remarrying widows began as a tradition of the Prophet (PBUH). This is an example of his multifaceted Social Reforms. Toward the end of his life Muhammad (PBUH) was busy tackling the intrigues and conspiracies of the pagan Quraish and the Jewish. Constantly required to take measures to repulse their attacks on the nascent state, Muhammad (PBUH) was engrossed in the state affairs. In the same time, he was busy propagating the truth, his prime mission. At exactly the same time, from the fiftieth to the fifty-ninth year of his life, he took many wives. A king rarely goes for a morganatic marriage. Marrying a slave is out of question for a royal. Even in recent times, the King of England had to abdicate to marry a divorced commoner. It is a general propensity of the male to marry young and beautiful damsels, irrespective of his own age and looks. Still today, nobody wants to marry a middle-aged widow. Again, it is not possible, to set examples, of ideal
281

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

married life with different types of women, by marrying only once. Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH) had to marry several women of various backgrounds and status. He by examples had shown his disciples how to live harmoniously with wives of different backgrounds. He gave the slaves and the freed women same status as his wives to demonstrate equality. In his household nobles, royal, Jewish, Christians and slave girls were made equal. Therefore, it became the tradition of the Prophet (PBUH), and his followers without any question began following him. All great social reforms demand change in the behavioral pattern of the population or the targets. Only legislation or enforcement of law is not enough. There is no better way to bring in change, in the behavior of a nation than the demonstration of the expected change by the leaders. Moreover, what could be a better demonstration than that of the supreme temporal and spiritual leader? Thus, the Prophet (PBUH) effectively, established permanent social reforms of far reaching magnitude. Napoleon, for political reasons had to marry the Austrian princess. For that, according to Christianity, he had to divorce his loyal wife, Empress Josephine. The great Prophet of God married many times for political reasons, but his other wives were not sacrificed for that. King Rama Chandra of Oudh in ancient India fearing the scorns and slanders of his subjects had to abandon pure and chaste Sita Devi. The Prophet (PBUH) did not abandon Ayesha (RA) in the face of slanders by the hypocrites and pagans. He did not think of himself but was concerned about the fate of a helpless innocent woman. By courageously standing beside the innocent helpless woman ignoring all false allegations and calumnies, he proved his greatness and love for the truth. Among the wives that he took in the last decade of his life, only Ayesha (RA), the daughter of Abu Bakr (RA), the first Caliph was a virgin. The rest were either widows, divorcees, abandoned, prisoner of wars, middle aged or old women. Therefore, clearly the Prophet (PBUH) was not driven by carnal desire. Behind the marriages were his intense love for suffering humanity and desire to provide the destitute women with shelter and respectability. Besides, to build a bridge of friendship, he married Jewish and Christian women. Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (PBUH) was primarily concerned with establishing his Islamic state, as an acceptable entity to all. He wanted to
282

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

live in peace with his Jewish, Christian, and pagan and idolater neighbors. Marrying Sofia (RA), he turned her Jewish tribe into a friendly tribe. Similarly, he married Abu Sufiyan ‘s daughter UmmeHabiba (RA), Khalid‘s (RA) aunt Maimuna (RA) and the daughter of the Banu-Mustâlik Bedouins. In this way, he made them friends and paved the way of conquering Mecca. On the other hand, by marrying the daughters of his two trusted lieutenants and foremost Companions, he not only confirmed their friendship, but also gave them eminence as the future leaders. All these, only proves his farsightedness. These marriages brought a balance in the Islamic society and assured the future friendship of the powerful Quraish Clan. The impact of these marriages was far reaching. Leader of the leaders, the King of the Worlds, Muhammad (PBUH) in the interest of happy conjugal life, arranged for sports and recreation as wished by his wives. Beside that at marriage ceremonies of the orphan children brought up by his wives, he permitted songs and music for recreation. By being in the company of the Prophet (PBUH), Ummul Muminins were endowed with magnanimity, kindness and other humane qualities. The single most important purpose in their lives were to carry out the bidding of the Prophet (PBUH). They were intensely loyal and deeply in love with him. Prophet‘s (PBUH) sacrosanct company purified them of all worldly desires. They had no inclination for temporal wealth and comfort. Educated and inspired by him, they were well prepared and indoctrinated in his mission. That in the later years, tremendously, helped the induction of Islam in the female population. Women could learn the Qur‘än, Traditions, Islamic rules, regulation and etiquette, from the Ummul Muminins who were directly taught and groomed by the Rasul (Messenger of God). As Muhammad (PBUH) early in his childhood lost his parents, he was deprived of parental love and affection. He had no brothers or sisters. In the beginning of his Ministry, beside the sympathy of a few Hashemites, he was not blessed by anybody. However, in his conjugal life, the support, trust cooperation, loyalty, love, and affection he received from his wives mostly compensated his loss. In adversity, Hazrat Khadija (RA) has comforted and encouraged him. At the dawn of Islam, she gave him unqualified support without any hesitation. She gave her heart to Muhammad (Peace be upon) and sacrificed her wealth at his
283

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

foot. Shawda (RA) gave him proper advice in difficult situations. UmmeHabiba (RA) loved him like a trusted friend. Joynab (RA) was very deft and affectionate in taking care of the Prophet (PBUH). In politics, Umme-Salma acted as his Prime Minister. At her advice, the ‗Treaty of Hudaibiya‘ was signed. Hafsa (RA) was his Commander in war field. She paved the way for victory in the battles of Tabuk, Khyber and others, by teaching the Muslim soldiers the art of cordoning the enemy. Maria (RA), the Egyptian princesses kept the Prophet (PBUH) amused by providing entertainment. Juwaiera (RA) kept Muhammad (PBUH) charmed with her lucid talk, beauty and sweet demeanor. The princess of Khyber, Sofia (RA) cooked delicious food for the Prophet (PBUH). Maimuna (RA) nursed and cared for the Rasul of Allah. The youngest of them all, Ayesha (RA) was the balm in sadness. She always tried hard to keep the Prophet (PBUH) in humor, by her friendship, love, and sweet and simple conduct. They together were the best blessing of God for Muhammad (PBUH).

284

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Chapter IV
SOCIAL MANAGEMENT IN ISLAM

Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Whatever exists on this earth belongs to Allah, the Almighty. In his creation and in the wealth therein, everybody, irrespective of caste, creed, gender and status, has equal rights.‖ He is the first to denounce Feudalism and Capitalism. He has discouraged excessive accumulation of wealth. The system that he started to help the poor, destitute, orphan, old, disabled and ailing is followed by the advanced world Muhammad (PBUH), in the light of the holy Qur‘än, established a social system on the principle of democracy and equality. German Scholars first discovered the principles of communism in the holy Qur‘än and Islamic history. To learn more about Islam, Berlin University began to teach Arabic. Consequently, books written on socialism by the renowned Companion, Abujor Gifari (RA) were translated into German. Many German Scholars, including Karl Marks were greatly influenced by the writings of Abujor Gifari (RA). Karl Marks, the progenitor of Russian Communism, and his colleagues on basis of the Islamic ideals of equality, expounded his own kind of socialism in the twenties. However, atheism mingling with the basic Islamic idea caused the beginning of the decline of socialism after 70/75 years of its introduction. Fourteen hundred years ago, Muhammad (PBUH) is the first temporal and spiritual leader who has taken measures to abolish slavery, today all over the world it is abolished. He has done land reforms and land management properly. Under these reforms, land was provided to the land-less. The way he has managed and implemented the land reforms could not be done by the Soviets even in the present day. Their socialist system has crumbled down. However, Qur‘än will keep on announcing:
148. T HEN SUCH IS THE ( MAN ) WHO REPULSES THE ORPHAN ( WITH HARSHNESS ), AND ENCOURAGES NOT THE F EEDING OF THE INDIGENT. S O WOE TO THE WORSHIPPERS , WHO ARE NEGLECTFUL OF THEIR P RAYERS , THOSE WHO ( WANT BUT ) TO BE SEEN ( OF MEN ), BUT REFUSE ( TO SUPPLY EVEN ) NEIGHBORLY NEEDS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 107:2-7).

Al-Qur‘änul Karim (the holy Qur‘än) is the treasury of Canons of Allah, the Provider and Sustainer of the Worlds. In this monumental divine Book, the Creator has narrated the mystery of his Creation. In this holy Book is enshrined the principles of proper conduct and behavior: to
285

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

enrich life with simplicity, beauty and piety and to attain Peace from birth to death: expounded are the norms, the duties and responsibilities for God‘s greatest Creation, the Homo sapiens. Also clearly mentioned are the Permissions and Prohibitions and the Rewards and Punishments for good and bad deeds. This is the divine constitution, which states the right way to follow for temporal and spiritual activities. Therein it is also said that totally following these instructions peace, well being and prosperity can be achieved. Allah the Most Gracious and Most Merciful has said,
149. A MONG YOU WHO BELIEVE AND WORK RIGHTEOUS DEEDS , THAT H E WILL , OF A SURETY GRANT THEM IN THE LAND , INHERITANCE ( OF POWER ), AS H E GRANTED IT TO THOSE BEFORE THEM ; THAT H E WILL ESTABLISH IN AUTHORITY THEIR RELIGION - THE ONE WHICH H E HAS CHOSEN FOR THEM ; AND THAT H E WILL CHANGE ( THEIR STATE ), AFTER THE FEAR IN WH ICH THEY ( LIVED ), TO ONE OF SECURITY AND PEACE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:55). B EFORE THIS W E WROTE IN THE P SALMS , AFTER THE MESSAGE ( GIVEN TO M OSES ): ‗M Y SERVANTS , THE RIGHTEOUS , SHALL INHERIT THE EARTH ‘ (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21:105). Y E ARE THE BEST OF P EOPLES , EVOLVED FOR MANKIND , ENJOINING WHAT IS RIGHT, FORBIDDING WHAT IS WRONG , AND BELIEVING IN G OD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 3:110).

Allah the Most Merciful further said,
150.

Allah the Almighty has again said,
151.

In this way, the Most gracious, Most Merciful God ensuring peace, security, well-being of the people, Has given rules, regulations and mandates in the Qur‘än. Muhammad (PBUH) was the very first to establish these Qur‘änic laws, exercising them word by word. For each of the Muslim individuals, peace, prosperity and social security are ensured in the obedience of the Qur‘änic canons. Every individual Muslim has been instructed to follow these laws; that is the key to happiness and prosperity in this life and hereafter. As long as the Muslims followed Allah‘s Qur‘änic instructions and emulated Prophet‘s (PBUH) ideals, they ruled the world. Irrespective of caste, creed, gender and status, everybody lived in peace and security in an Islamic state. The light of the multi-talented faithful illuminated the world. History bears witness to that, and testifies to the fulfillment of God‘s promise. The Most Merciful Allah Has said in the Holy Qur‘än:
152. W E HAVE , WITHOUT DOUBT, SENT DOWN THE M ESSAGE ; AND W E WILL ASSUREDLY GUARD IT ( FROM CORRUPTION ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 15:9).

286

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 153. 154. 155. 156. (G OD ) M OST G RACIOUS ! I T IS H E W HO HAS TAUGHT THE Q UR ‘ ÄN (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 55:1-2). T HIS IS THE BOOK ; IN IT IS GUIDANCE SURE , WITHOUT DOUBT, TO THOSE WHO FEAR G OD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:3); T HESE ARE CLEAR EVIDENCES TO MEN , AND A G UIDANCE AND M ERCY TO THOSE OF ASSURED FAITH (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 45:20). T HIS IS ( TRUE ) G UIDANCE : A ND FOR THOSE WHO REJECT THE S IGNS OF THEIR L ORD . I S A GRIEVOUS P ENALTY OF ABOMINATION (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 45:11).

The Holy Qur‘än is a treasury of fathomless knowledge; every verse of this divine book guides to the ‗True Path‘. The Qur‘än abounds with very important guidance and directions for the humankind. A few of them that are necessary in this life are quoted below one after another: Allah, Most Merciful, Most Gracious, to regulate and guide the lives of His most intelligent Creation, has sent the holy book, the Qur‘än. This is the sacred constitution for the Islamic state, created by the great Prophet (PBUH). Every instruction of the holy Qur‘än was assiduously followed by the Prophet (PBUH), to set examples for his followers for all the time. Only the Islamic code, which is a complete code for all activities of human life, is acceptable to God. In the holy Qur‘än, the Islamic nation has been described as the best nation of the world. This nation is entrusted with the task to perpetuate justice and prevent injustices on this earth. With this, the responsibility to sustain, maintain and educate the population, are given to the state. The state is also entrusted with task of implementing of land reforms, ensuring employment, creating a neutral and judicial system, and directing economic activities for the advancement of the nation. In all the activities of the world, human dignity and humane qualities are not to be compromised, at any cost. As the responsibility of sustaining and maintaining the population, irrespective of caste, creed and status, are given to the Islamic state, according to the ideal of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), so it is made compulsory for each and every Muslim to abide by the Qur‘änic canons. Accordingly, all Muslims must: Have faith in ‗Oneness‘ of God, His Angels, Al-Qur‘än and other divine Books (the Torah and the Bible), in His Messengers, in the Day of Judgement and the Hereafter. Abide by the Qur‘änic injunctions, completely and totally surrendering to God depend on Him, praise Him all the time in every place in every circumstances. Strictly adhere to the five pillars of Islam: a) Kalema Tayyeba (the Declaration of Faith), b)
287

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Salat (Prayers five times a day), c) Siam (Fasting for a month in Ramadhan every year) d) Zakat (Payment of regular charity) and e) Hajj, Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime for those who can. Abstain from all illegal sexual activities, i.e., adultery, fornication, etc., refrain from illegal income, i.e., money earned by improper means and eat from hard earned legal income and refrain from prohibited food and drinks and all other illegal activities. Be humble, avoid vain talks, faithfully observe trusts and covenants, enjoin good forbid evil, forsake untruth and calumny and proclaim the glad tidings to the Believers (AlQur‘än - 9:112, Al-Qur‘än - 96:1-5, Al-Qur‘än - 23:1-11, Al-Qur‘än 33:35). God has created all the things required by humankind. He has scattered immeasurable riches on the earth and the human can enjoy them provided they live by the rules of God. Allah in the Qur‘än, addressing humankind, has said,
157. D O YOU NOT SEE THAT G OD HAS SUBJECTED TO YOUR ( USE ) ALL THINGS IN THE HEAVENS AND ON EARTH , AND HAS MADE HIS BOUNTIES FLOW TO YOU IN EXCEEDING MEASURE , ( BOTH ) SEEN AND UNSEEN ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 31:20). W E CREATED NOT THE HE AVENS , THE EARTH , AND ALL BETWEEN THEM , MERELY IN ( IDLE ) SPORT : W E CREATED THEM NOT E XCEPT FOR JUST ENDS : B UT MOST OF THEM DO NOT UNDERSTAND (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 44:38-39).

158.

God has again said,
159. B EHOLD ! I N THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH ; IN THE ALTERATION OF THE N IGHT AND THE D AY ; IN THE SAILING OF TH E SHIPS THROUGH THE O CEAN FOR THE PROFIT OF MANKIND ; IN THE RAIN WHICH G OD SENDS DOWN FROM THE SKIES , AND THE LIFE WHICH H E GIVES THEREWITH TO AN EARTH THAT IS DEAD ; I N THE BEASTS OF ALL KINDS THAT H E SCATTER S THROUGH THE EARTH ; IN THE CHANGE OF THE WINDS , AND THE CLOUDS WHICH THEY TRAIL LIKE THEIR SLAVES BETWEEN T HE SKY AND THE EARTH ; - ( HERE ) INDEED ARE S IGNS FOR A PEOPLE TH AT ARE WISE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:164). A ND W E SENT DOWN I RON , IN WHICH ( MATERIAL FOR ) MIGHTY WAR , AS WELL AS MANY BENEFITS FOR MANKIND (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:25). T HAT WHICH IS ON EART H W E HAVE MADE BUT AS A GLITTERING SHOW FOR THE EARTH , IN ORDER THAT W E MAY TEST THEM - AS TO WHICH OF THEM ARE BEST IN CONDUCT. V ERILY WHAT IS ON EARTH W E SHALL MAKE BUT AS DUST AND DRY SOIL ( WITHOUT GROWTH OR HE RBAGE ). O R DOST THOU REFLECT THAT THE C OMPANIONS OF THE C AVE AND OF THE I NSCRIPTION WERE WONDERS AMONG O UR S IGNS ? B EHOLD , THE YOUTHS BETOOK TH EMSELVES TO THE C AVE : THEY SAID , ‗O UR L ORD ! BESTOW ON US M ERCY FROM T HYSELF, AND DISPOSE OF OUR AFFAIR FOR US IN THE RIGHT WAY !‘ T HEN W E DRAW ( A VEIL ) OVER THEIR EARS , FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS , IN THE C AVE , ( SO THAT THEY HEARD N OT ) (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 18:7-11).

160. 161.

288

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Reference has been made in the holy Qur‘än about cattle, animals, plants that produce eatables (Al-Qur‘än - 16:66-69), the powers of birds to fly (Al-Qur‘än - 1:79), the developmental stages of the human fetus into a complete human being (Al-Qur‘än - 22:5, Al-Qur‘än - 23:14), also of rain and production for the information of the humankind, so that they can take proper actions. For the welfare and benefit of humankind God, the Merciful has sent those sacred messages. To understand and benefit from those we must educate ourselves and do intense research in a scientific and disciplined manner. God has said,
162. A ND THERE NOT A THING BUT ITS ( SOURCES AND ) TREASURES ( INEXHAUSTIBLE ) ARE WITH U S ; BUT W E ONLY SEND DOWN THEREOF IN DUE AND ASCE RTAINABLE MEASURES . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 15:21).

For this work, God has set two limitations: (1) things that will be used by men must be used properly and (2) the injunctions of the holy Qur‘än as detailed below must be followed fully in their true spirit as had been done by the Prophet (PBUH).
CREATION OF MAN: THE BIRTH:

The Qur‘än says:
163. 164. H E IS CREATED FROM A DROP EMITTED - P ROCEEDING FROM BETWE EN THE BACKBONE AND THE RIB S (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 86:6-7): F ROM A SPERM - DROP : H E HATH CREATED HIM , AND THEN MOULDETH HIM IN DUE PROPORTIONS ; T HEN DOTH H E MAKE HIS PATH SMOOTH FOR HIM ; THEN H E CAUSETH HIM TO DIE , AND PUTTETH HIM IN H IS GRAVE ; THEN , WHEN IT IS H IS W ILL , H E WILL RAISE HIM UP ( AGAIN ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 80:19-22). M AN W E DID CREATE FROM QUINTESSE NCE ( OF CLAY ); THEN W E PLACED HIM AS ( A DROP OF ) SPERM IN A PLACE OF REST, FIRMLY FIXED ; THEN W E MADE THE SPERM INTO A CLOT OF CONGEALED BLOOD ; THEN OF THAT CLOT W E MADE A ( FETUS ) LUMP ; THEN W E MADE OUT OF THAT L UMP BONES AND CLOTHED THE BONES WITH FLESH , THEN W E DEVELOPED OUT OF IT ANOTHER CREATURE . S O BLESSED BE G OD , THE B EST TO CREATE ! AFTER THAT, AT LENGTH YE WILL DIE . A GAIN , ON THE D AY OF J UDGEMENT, WILL YE BE RAISED UP (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 23:12-16).

165.

THE DEATH:

On death the Qur‘än says:
166. 167. 168. 169. E VERY SOUL SHALL HAVE A TASTE OF DEATH (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:185): A ND THE STUPOR OF DEATH WILL BRING TRUTH ( BEFORE HIS EYES ): T HIS WAS THE THING WHICH THOU WAST TRYING TO ESCAPE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 50:19)! W HEREVER YE ARE , DEATH WILL FIND YOU OUT, EVEN IF YE ARE IN TOWERS BUILT UP STRONG AND HIGH (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:78)! N OR CAN A SOUL DIE EXCEPT BY G OD ‘ S LEAVE , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:145).

289

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE FATHERS - MOTHERS: 170. W E HAVE ENJOINED ON M AN KINDNESS TO PAREN TS : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 29:8). 171. T HY L ORD HATH DECREED THAT YE WORSHIP NONE BUT H IM , AND THAT YE BE KIND TO PARENTS . W HETHER ONE OR BOTH OF THEM ATTAIN OLD AG E IN THY LIFE , SAY NOT TO THEM A WORD OF CONTEMPT, NOR REPEL THEM , BUT ADDRESS THEM IN TERMS OF HONOR . A ND , OUT OF KINDNESS , LOWER TO THEM THE WING OF HUMILITY, AND SAY: ‗M Y L ORD ! BESTOW ON THEM THY MERCY EVEN AS THEY CHERISHED ME IN CHILDHOOD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:23- 24).‘ 172. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! TAKE NOT FOR PROTECTO RS YOUR FATHERS AND YOUR BROTHERS IF THEY LOVE INFIDELITY ABOVE FAITH (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 9:23): FAMILY AND RELATIVES: 173. A ND RENDER TO KINDRED THEIR DUE RIGHTS , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:26). 174. R EVERENCE G OD , THROUGH W HOM YE DEMAND YOUR MUTUAL ( RIGHTS ), AND ( REVERENCE ) THE WOMBS ( THAT BORE YOU ): FOR G OD EVER WATCHES OVER YOU (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:1). 175. G OD COMMANDS JUSTICE , THE DOING OF GOOD , AND LIBERALITY TO KITH AND KIN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:90). 176. B UT IF AT THE TIME OF DIVISION OTHER RELAT IVES , OR ORPHANS , OR POOR , ARE PRESENT, FEED THEM OUT OF THE ( PROPERTY ), AND SPEAK TO THEM WORDS OF KINDNESS AND JUSTICE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:8). THIS LIFE AND HEREAFTER: 177. S HORT IS THE ENJOYMENT OF THIS WORLD : T HE H EREAFTER IS THE BEST FOR THOSE WHO DO RIGHT (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:77): 178. FOR THE LIFE OF THIS WORLD IS BUT GOODS AND CHATTELS OF DECEPTION (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:185). 179. W HAT IS THE LIFE OF T HIS WORLD BUT PLAY AND AMUSEMENT ? B UT BEST IS THE H OME IN THE H EREAFTER , FOR THOSE WHO ARE RIGHTEOUS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 6:32). 180. K NOW YE ( ALL ) THAT THE LIFE OF THIS WORLD IS BUT PLAY AND AMUSEMENT, POMP AND MUTUAL BOASTING AND MULTIPLYING , ( IN RIVALRY ) AMONG YOURSELVES , RICHES AND CHILDREN . H ERE IS A SIMILITUDE : H OW RAIN AN D THE GROWTH WHICH IT BRINGS FORTH , DELIGHT ( THE HEARTS OF ) THE TILLERS ; S OON IT WITHERS ; THOU WILT SEE IT GROW YELLOW ; THEN IT BECOMES DRY AND CRUMBLES AWAY (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:20). 181. B UT IN THE H EREAFTER IS A P ENALTY SEVERE ( FOR THE DEVOTEES OF WRONG ). A ND F ORGIVENESS FROM G OD AND H IS G OOD P LEASURE ( FOR THE DEVOTEES OF G OD ). A ND WHAT IS LIFE OF THIS WORLD , BUT GOODS AND CHATTE LS OF DECEPTION ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:20). 182. A ND WHATEVER GOOD YE DO , ( BE SURE ) G OD KNOWETH IT. A ND TAKE A PROVISION ( WITH YOU ) FOR THE JOURNEY, BUT BEST PROVISIONS IS RIGHT CONDUCT (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:197). 183. W HATEVER YE ARE GIVEN ( HERE ) IS ( BUT A CONVENIENCE OF THIS LIFE : BUT THAT WHICH IS WITH G OD IS BETTER AND MORE LASTING (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 42:36): RIGHTEOUS DEEDS: 184. E NJOINING WHAT IS RIG HT, FORBIDDING WHAT IS WRONG , AND BELIEVING IN G OD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:110). 185. T HOSE WHO BELIEVE AND WORK RIGHTEOUS DEEDS , - FROM THEM S HALL W E BLOT OUT ALL EVIL ( THAT MAY BE ) IN THEM , AND W E SHALL REWARD THEM ACCORDING TO THE BEST OF THEIR DEEDS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 29:7).

290

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 186. N AY, - WHOEVER SUBMITS HIS WHOLE SELF TO G OD AND IS A DOER OF GOOD , HE WILL GET HIS REWARD WITH HIS L ORD ; O N SUCH SHALL BE NO F EAR , NOR SHALL THEY GRIEVE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:112). L ET THERE ARISE OUT OF YOU A BAND OF PEOP LE INVITING TO ALL THAT IS GOOD , ENJOINING WHAT IS RIGHT, AND FORBIDDING WHAT IS WRONG : T HEY ARE THE ONES TO ATTAIN FELICITY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:104). I F ONE DOES A RIGHTEOUS DEED , IT ENSURES TO THE BENEFIT OF HIS OWN SOU L ; IF HE DOES EVIL , IT WORKS AGAINST ( HIS OWN SOUL ) IN THE YE ( ALL ) WILL BE BROUGHT BACK TO YOUR L ORD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 45:15). D O NOT MISCHIEF ON THE EARTH , AFTER IT HATH BEEN SET IN ORDER , BUT CALL ON H IM WITH FEAR AND LONGING ( IN YOUR HEARTS ): F OR THE M ERCY OF G OD IS ( ALWAYS ) NEAR TO THOSE WHO DO GOOD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:56).

187.

188.

189.

THE TRUTH AND THE FALSEHOOD: 190. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! F EAR G OD AND BE WITH THOSE WHO ARE TRUE ( IN WORD AND DEED ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 9:119). 191. W E SENT DOWN THE (Q UR ‘ ÄN ) IN T RUTH , AND IN T RUTH HAS IT DESCENDED : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:105). 192. A ND SAY: ‗T RUTH HAS ( NOW ) ARRIVED , AND FALSEHOOD PERISHE D : F OR FALSEHOOD IS ( BY ITS NATURE ) BOUND TO PERISH ‘. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:81). 193. W HO DOTH MORE WRONG T HAN SUCH AS INVENT A FALSEHOOD AGAINST G OD ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 18:15). 194. F ROM THAT ( ORE ) WHICH THEY HEAT IN THE FIRE , TO MAKE ORNAMENTS OR UTENSILS THEREWITH , THERE IS A SCUM LIKEWISE . T HUS DOTH G OD ( BY PARABLES ) SHOW FORTH T RUTH AND VANITY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 13:17). 195. W OE TO THE FALSEHOOD - MONGERS . - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 51:10). 196. A ND COVER NOT T RUTH WITH FALSEHOOD , NOR CONCEAL THE TRUTH WHEN YE KNOW ( WHAT IT IS ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:42). TRUSTS AND CUSTODY OF WEALTH: 197. G OD DOTH COMMAND YOU TO RENDER BACK YOUR T RUSTS TO THOSE TO WHOM THEY ARE DUE ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:58). 198. L ET THE TRUSTEE ( FAITHFULLY ) DISCHARGE HIS TRUST, AND LET HIM FEAR HIS L ORD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:283). 199. A ND THOSE WHO RESPECT THEIR TRUSTS AND COVENANTS ; AND THOSE WHO STAND FIRM IN THEIR TESTIMONIES ; AND THOSE WHO GUARD ( THE SACREDNESS ) OF THEIR WORSHIP ; - SUCH WILL BE THE HONORED ONES IN THE G ARDENS ( OF B LISS ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 70:32-35). KINDNESS: RESTRAINT: FORGIVENESS: COMPOSURE AND PATIENCE:

The real believer is he who could control his temper. Allah in the Qur‘än said,
200. ... WHO RESTRAIN ANGER , AND PARDON ( ALL ) MEN ; - FOR G OD LOVES THOSE WHO DO GOOD ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:134).

―Anger is a satanic emotion‖ (Abu-Dawood). ―That who controls anger is strong‖ (Bukhari & Muslim). Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―None has drunk more bitter water than that that controlled anger for God‖ (Ahmad & Masnad). The Prophet (PBUH) again said, ―The devil stimulates rancor in man, who is made of fire. Fire can be put off by water, therefore,
291

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

whenever you are in rage wash your feet, hand and face with cold water (Abu-Dawood). Once a man requested the Prophet (PBUH), to give him a task, Muhammad (PBUH) instructed him to forsake anger (Bukhari & Muslim). God loves the kind and the dutiful, since they are able to bring peace, discipline and well-being in the society. Control is a noble quality of man and kindness is the robe. People who can keep their desires under control are the ideal human beings. Overcoming lust, anger, greed, fancy, pride and malice, the six enemies of humankind, makes a human perfect. Getting rid of these six enemies clears the way for love, adoration and devotion. He, who can control his desires, can win over anger and transform his ill desires into benevolent desires. Love fills the man‘s heart that wins over anger and is glorified and blessed. This elevates him to the top of the society. God, the Almighty said,
201. … WHO RESTRAIN ANGER , AND PARDON ( ALL ) MEN ; - FOR G OD LOVES THOSE WHO DO GOOD ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:134). N AY SEEK ( GOD ‘ S ) HELP W ITH PATIENTS PERSEVERANCE A ND PRAYER Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:45). (A L -

Allah says,
202.

Containment is perseverance. God again says,
203. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! SEEK HELP W ITH PATIENT P ERSEVERANCE A ND P RAYER : FOR G OD IS WITH THOSE W HO PATIENTLY PERSEVERE . . . BUT GIVE G LAD TIDINGS TO THOSE W HO PATIENTLY PERSEVE RE , - W HO SAY WHEN AFFLICTED WITH CALAMITY: T O G OD W E BELONG AND TO H IM I S OUR RETURN : (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:153:156). ... AND GIVE THOU T HE GOOD NEWS TO THOSE W HO HUMBLE THEMSELVES , - T O THOSE WHOSE HEARTS , W HEN G OD IS MENTIONED , A RE FILLED WITH FEAR , W HO SHOW PATIENT PERSEVERANCE O VER AFFLICTIONS , KEEP UP R EGULAR PRAYER , AND SPEND (I N CHARITY ) OUT OF WHAT W E HAVE BESTOWED UPON THEM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 22:34-35). N OR CAN G OODNESS AND E VIL BE EQUAL . R EPEL (E VIL ) WITH WHAT IS BETTER :
THEN WILL HE BETWEEN WHOM AND THEE WAS HATRED BECOME AS IT WERE THY FRIEND AND INTIMATE ! A ND NO ONE WILL BE GR ANTED SUCH GOODNESS EXCEPT THOSE WHO EXE RCISE PATIENTS AND SELF - RESTRAINT, - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN -

Allah says again:
204.

205.

41:34-35).

Once Moses asked God: ―O my exalted Sustainer, whom you honor most among your servants?‖ God replied, ―That who forgives in spite of being able to take revenge‖ (Baihakki). Addressing a tribal leader, the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―God loves two qualities in you, your sense of self-restraint
292

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

and the absence of impetuosity.‖ (Hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas, RA). Mercy was among the many attributes of the Prophet (PBUH). He always had shown clemency to the heathens, though they tormented him relentlessly. He never took revenge on anybody. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Clemency is beneficial to Revenge.‖ Whatever sermons he gave, for compassion, magnanimity and mercy, to fellow humankind, he set example by practicing them all.
RETURN OF TRUST DEPOSIT:

―God doth command you To render back your Trusts To those to whom they are due;‖ (Al-Qur‘än - 4:58). Islam has sternly warned those who embezzle deposit kept in trust with them. ―Abusers of trust have no faith in Allah‖ (Baihakki). ―If any wealth or property is deposited in trust with any Muslim man or woman, it must be returned to the owner,‖ instructed the Prophet (PBUH). With this, the Prophet (PBUH) urged his followers repeatedly to fulfill the right of frail women and orphans.
INTEGRITY IN BUSINESS AND TRADE:

It is a great sin to hoard goods to sell in the black market. ―That man is cursed who hoards goods to increase the price. And then if God decreases price, he is disappointed and if the price increases he becomes happy‖ (Mishkat): said the Prophet (PBUH). He said, ―, God would penalize them that hoard food for the purpose of selling later at higher price to Muslims, with poverty and disease called Zuam‖ (Ibn Maza & Baihakki). The Prophet (PBUH) again said, ―The truthful depositary and businessman will abide with the prophets, sages, the righteous and the martyrs, in the Day of Judgement‖ (Tirmizi). Islam has forbidden false swearing by businessperson, and strictly prohibited manipulations in measure or weight. God says:
206. W OE TO THOSE T HAT DEAL IN FRAUD , - T HOSE WHO , WHEN THEY H AVE TO RECEIVE BY MEASURE F ROM MEN , EXACT FULL MEASURE , B UT WHEN THEY HAVE T O GIVE BY MEASURE O R WEIGHT TO MEN , G IVE LESS THAN DUE (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 83:1-3). A ND THE F IRMAMENT HAS H E R AISED HIGH , AND H E HAS SET UP T HE B ALANCE ( OF JUSTICE ), I N ORDER THAT YE MAY N OT T RANSGRESS ( DUE ) BALANCE . S O ESTABLISH WEIGHT WIT H JUSTICE A ND FALL NOT SHORT I N BALANCE (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 55:7-9).

207.

293

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 208. G IVE FULL MEASURE WHE N YE M EASURE , AND WEIGH W ITH BALANCE THAT IS STRAIGHT : T HAT IS THE MOST FITTING A ND MOST ADVANTAGEOUS I N THE FINAL DETERMINATION (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:35). N OW HATH COME U NTO YOU CLEAR (S IGN ) F ROM YOUR L ORD ! G IVE JUST M EASURE AND WEIGHT, NOR WITHHOLD F ROM THE PEOPLE THE THINGS T HAT ARE DUE ; AND DO N O MISCHIEF ON THE EARTH A FTER IT HAS BEEN SET I N ORDER : THAT WILL BE BEST F OR YOU , IF YE HAVE FAITH (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:85). G IVE FULL MEASURE , A ND CAUSE NO LOSS (T O OTHERS BY FRAUD ). A ND WEIGH WITH SCALES T RUE AND UPRIGHT. A ND WITHHOLD NOT THIN GS J USTLY DUE TO MEN , N OR DO EVIL IN LAND , W ORKING MISCHIEF (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 26:181-183). W OE TO THOSE T HAT DEAL IN FRAUD , - T HOSE WHO , WHEN THEY H AVE TO RECEIVE BY MEASURE F ROM MEN , EXACT FULL MEASURE , B UT WHEN THEY HAVE T O GIVE BY MEASURE O R WEIGHT TO MEN , G IVE LESS THAN DUE . D O THEY NOT THINK T HAT THEY WILL BE CALLED T O ACCOUNT ? - O N A M IGHTY D AY, A D AY WHEN ( ALL ) MANKIND W ILL STAND BEFORE T HE L ORD OF THE W ORLDS ? N AY ! S URELY THE R ECORD O F THE W ICKED IS (P RESERVED IN S IJJIN 125 (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 83:1-7).

209.

210.

211.

ACCOUNTING:

Accounting is a branch in many management courses and itself is a fully developed discipline, studied, separately. For all monetary transactions, the Islamic government of Muhammad (PBUH), had long ago established the accounting system. God the Almighty said,
212. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! W HEN YE DEAL WITH EAC H OTHER , I N TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING F UTURE OBLIGATIONS I N FIXED PERIOD OF TIME R EDUCE THEM TO WRITING L ET A SCRIBE WRITE DOWN FAITHFULLY AS BETWEEN T HE PARTIES : LET NOT THE SCRIBE R EFUSE TO WRITE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:282).

In all sphere of life, keeping account of transaction is necessary. As education is made compulsory in Islam so is emphasis given to record all transactions.
CHARITY AND DOLE:

Allah said,
213. I N MOST OF THEIR SECRET TALKS T HERE IS NO GOOD : BUT IF O NE EXHORTS TO A DEED O F CHARITY OR JUSTICE O R RECONCILIATION BET WEEN MEN , (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:114).

God and His Prophet (PBUH) have asked the well to do Muslims to donate and contribute, for helping the poor and for the sake of religion, until death‖ (Bukhari & Muslim). Allah has said,
214. I N ORDER THAT IT MAY NOT (M ERELY ) MAKE A CIRCUIT B ETWEEN THE WEALTHY AMONG YOU (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 59:7).

125

This is a word from the same root as Sijjn, a Prison. The Holy Qur‘än: Text, Translation and Commentary by A Yusuf Ali: The Muslim World League: Third Edition, 1965.

294

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 215. A ND WHAT CAUSE HAVE YE W HY YE SHOULD NOT SPEND I N THE CAUSE OF G OD ? - F OR TO G OD BELONGS T HE HERITAGE OF THE H EAVENS AND THE EARTH (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:10).

The Prophet (PBUH) said quoting Allah: ―O the sons of Adam! You donate in charity, I will give you more‖ (Bukhari & Muslim). He again said, ―Wealth does not decrease due to charity and God through forgiving bestows more honor on the charitable.‖ To give charity to the poor is the best deed‖ (Muslim). ―Give food to the poor and salute him loudly‖ (Tirmizi & Ibn Maza). About feeding the hungry God says in the holy Qur‘än:
216. A ND THEY FEED , FOR THE LOVE OF G OD , THE INDIGENT, T HE ORPHAN , AND THE CAPTIVE , - (S AYING ) ‗W E FEED YOU F OR THE SAKE OF G OD ALONE : N O REWARD DO WE DESIRE F ROM YOU , NOR THANKS . W E ONLY FEAR A D AY O F DISTRESSFUL W RATH F ROM THE SIDE OF OUR L ORD .‘ B UT G OD WILL DELIVER T HEM FROM THE EVIL O F THAT D AY, AND WILL S HED OVER THEM A L IGHT O F B EAUTY AND A ( BLISSFUL ) J OY (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 76:8-11). C ANCEL NOT YOUR CHARITY BY REMINDERS OF YOUR GENEROSITY OR BY INJURY, - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:264). K IND WORDS AND THE CO VERING OF FAULTS ARE BETTER THAN CHARITY FOLLOWED BY INJURY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:263). T HOSE WHO SPEND ( FREELY ), WHETHER IN PROSPERITY, OR ADVERSITY ; WHO RESTRAIN ANGER , AND PARDON ( ALL ) MEN ; - FOR G OD LOVES THOSE WHO DO GOOD ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:134). B Y NO MEANS SHALL YE ATTAIN RIGHTEOUSNESS UNLESS YE GIVE ( FREELY ) OF THAT WHICH YE LOVE ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:92). T HOSE WHO SPEND THEIR WEALTH FOR INCREASE IN SELF - PURIFICATION , AND
HAVE IN THEIR MINDS NO FAVOR FROM ANYONE FOR WHICH REWARD IS EXPECTED IN RETURN , BUT ONLY THE DESIRE TO SEEK FOR THE C OUNTENANCE OF THEIR L ORD M OST H IGH ; AND SOON WILL THEY ATTAIN ( COMPLETE ) SATISFACTION . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 92:18-21).

God has warned and said:
217. 218. 219.

220. 221.

222.

223.

224.

M AKE NOT THY HAND TIE D ( LIKE NIGGARD ‘ S ) TO THY NECK , NOR STRETCH IT FORTH TO ITS UTMOST REACH , SO THAT THOU BECOME BLAMEWORTHY AND DESTITUTE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:29). A ND EVEN IF THOU HAST TO TURN AWAY FROM THEM IN PURSUIT OF THE M ERCY FROM THY L ORD WHICH THOU DOST EXPECT, YE SPEAK TO THEM A WORD OF EASY KINDNESS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:28). F OR THOSE WHO GIVE IN C HARITY, MEN AND WOMEN , AND LOAN TO G OD A B EAUTIFUL L OAN , IT SHALL BE INCREASED MANIFOLD ( TO THEIR CREDIT ), AND THEY SHALL HAVE ( BESIDES ) A LIBERAL REWARD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:18).

In the sayings of Muhammad (PBUH) it has been clearly indicated that the Zakat, both at the state and individual levels, should be used to help the poor to stand on their own feet. From this, it can easily be understood why Islam has attached so much importance to Zakat for the rich man
295

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

and woman. Who are eligible to receive Zakat and how to give Zakat and give charity has been described in the holy Qur‘än. God says:
225. I F YE DISCLOSE ( ACTS O F ) CHARITY, EVEN SO I T IS WELL , B UT IF YE CONCEAL THEM , A ND MAKE THEM REACH T HOSE ( REALLY ) IN NEED , T HAT IS BEST FOR YOU : I T WILL REMOVE FROM YOU S OME OF YOUR ( STAINS O F ) EVIL . A ND G OD I S WELL ACQUAINTED W ITH WHAT YE DO (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:271). (C HARITY IS ) FOR THOSE I N NEED , WHO , IN G OD ‘ S CAUSE A RE RESTRICTED ( FROM TRAVEL ), A ND CANNOT MOVE ABOUT I N THE LAND , SEEKING (F OR TRADE OR WORK ): T HE IGNORANT MAN THINKS , B ECAUSE OF THEIR MODE STY, T HAT THEY ARE FREE FROM WANT. T HOU SHALT KNOW THEM B Y THEIR ( UNFAILING ) MARK : T HEY BEG NOT IMPORTUN ATELY F ROM ALL AND SUNDRY. A ND WHATEVER OF GOOD Y E GIVE , BE ASSURED G OD KNOWETH IT WELL (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:273). T HOSE WHO ( IN CHARITY ) SPEND OF THEIR GOODS B Y NIGHT AND D AY, I N SECRET AND IN PUBLIC , H AVE THEIR REWARD W ITH THEIR L ORD : O N THEM SHALL BE NO FEAR , N OR SHALL THEY GRIEVE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:274).

226.

227.

If the rich Muslims living in any country give Zakat, and the fund thus raised is distributed properly among the poor and the needy, than there would be no poor and starving population in a society. This is the one of the main pillars of Islamic social system.
BEGGING IS AN ABOMINABLE ACT:

Muhammad (PBUH) was matchless in charity but he abhorred begging. He helped beggars in becoming self-reliant by establishing in a profession. He (PBUH) said, ―It is better to gather wood than to beg.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―If anybody prays to God to be freed from beggary, God grants him, his prayer and protects him from that demeaning job. If anybody prays to be self-reliant, God grants him his wish; and that who keeps patients in adversity, God grants him endurance.‖
PROHIBITION OF USURY:

From the beginning of the civilization, money lending has been in vogue in all societies. Due to this custom, the rich ruined innumerable man in need. None of the great reformers, preachers or sages before Muhammad (PBUH), has even registered their protest against this ill practice. Fourteen hundred years ago, Muhammad (PBUH) not only condemned this practice but also prohibited it. Unfortunately, today the financial institutions with the sanction of the state do financial transactions with interest. Allah says,
228. T HOSE WHO DEVOUR USURY W ILL NOT STAND EXCEPT A S STANDS ONE WHOM T HE E VIL O NE BY HIS TOUCH H ATH DRIVEN TO MADNESS . T HAT IS BECAUSE THEY SAY: ‗T RADE IS LIKE USURY,‘ B UT G OD HATH PERMITTED TR ADE A ND FORBIDDEN USURY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:275). 296

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 229. 230. G OD WILL DEPRIVE U SURY OF ALL BLESSING , BUT WILL GIVE INCREASE F OR DEEDS O F CHARITY: (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:276). O YE WHO BELIEVE ! F EAR G OD , AND GIVE UP W HAT REMAINS OF YOUR DEMAND F OR USURY, IF YE ARE I NDEED BELIEVERS . I F YE DO NOT, TAKE NOTICE OF WAR F ROM G OD AND H IS A POSTLE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:278-79). O YE WHO BELIEVE ! D EVOUR NOT U SURY, D OUBLED AND MULTIPLIE D ; (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:130).

231.

Usury has been prohibited by the above injunctions. In the course of daily life, people may need loan from time to time, and it has been made legal to borrow from friends or relatives, without any interest payable. This is called humane-loan (Karz-e-Hsanah). Unfortunately, nonavailability of such loans pushes one to the door of unscrupulous moneylenders. These loans with compound interests, ultimately, prove to be eternal shackles. The borrower being poor never is able to liquidate the loan, as it keeps on multiplying at a meteoric rate. He loses all his belongings just to pay the interest. Such is the curse of usury. For this, just to save the poor from the shackles of the moneylenders, Islam invented Baitul Mal (Treasury), wherefrom loan was advanced without any interest.
DISTRIBUTION OF ZAKAT (REGULAR CHARITY): COMPULSORY:

Zakat is mandatory in Islam and in the holy Qur‘än regular payment of Zakat (poor tax) has been accorded the same importance with prayers (salat). Allah in the holy Qur‘än says:
232. T HOSE WHO BELIEVE , A ND DO DEEDS OF RIGHT EOUSNESS , A ND ESTABLISH REGULAR PRAYERS A ND REGULAR CHARITY, W ILL HAVE THEIR REWARD W ITH THEIR L ORD : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:277).

Regular prayers have been made mandatory without alternative to that. In all the religious rituals of Islam, saying prayers regularly is the best method of worshipping God. Eighty-two times the holy Qur‘än mentions regular prayers (salat) and as many times are mentioned Zakat (poor tax). Zakat has only been made mandatory for those who are left with a certain amount of excess money, gold or other valuables, after meeting all expenses, at the end of a year. From that surplus, they are instructed to distribute a certain portion among the poor or deposit in the Baitul Mal, if living in an Islamic country, for distribution among the poor and the needy. Poor family members and relatives take precedence over everybody else for Zakat. Besides that, the money that would be deposited in the Baitul Mal as Zakat fund can be used to advance loans to
297

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

people, willing to invest in businesses or other enterprises to earn a decent living. If all the moneyed people faithfully gave Zakat then a very large number of innocent poor people could have been benefited by the interest free loans.
ZAKAT ACTS AS A SOCIAL SECURITY IN ISLAM:

God decreed zakat compulsory for the well to do, as is salat prescribed compulsory for all Muslims of age. It is notable that zakat is not charity. While, zakat is compulsory charity is optional. In the holy Qur‘än, wherever salat is mentioned zakat is also mentioned (Al-Qur‘än - 2:177), signifying its importance. Therefore, like regular prayers (salat) zakat must also be religiously dispensed with. Zakat is the principal pillar on which rests the Islamic social and financial system. Thus, it is one of the religious sacraments of Islam. The first Caliph of Islam declared holy war against defaulters, as Islam‘s security and financial stability is built-in into this zakat system. Islam means peace and therefore, prohibits alcohol, gambling, adultery and obscenity breed chaos, confusion, instability and insecurity. Similarly, Islam has strongly recommended fulfillment of basic rights like food, remedial treatment, clothe, shelter and union of eligible adults. God has ordered:
233. P ROCLAIM ! ( OR R EAD ) IN THE NAME OF THY L ORD AND C HERISHER , W HO CREATED . . . ‗…C REATED MAN , OUT OF A ( MERE ) CLOT OF CONGEALED BLOOD P ROCLAIM ! AND THY L ORD IS M OST B OUNTIFUL , … H E W HO TAUGHT ( THE USE OF THE P EN ,…) TAUGHT MAN THAT WHICH HE KNEW NOT ‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 96: 15).

The Prophet (PBUH) directs: ―education is compulsory for males and females. To learn go even to China (Hadith).‖ In this every Muslims has been urged to gather knowledge so that they can earn their own living. God said:
234. B UT G OD HATH PERMITTED TR ADE A ND FORBIDDEN USURY. 2:275). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN -

God told people to record all trading transaction:
235. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! WHEN YOU DEAL WITH E ACH OTHER , IN TRANSACTIONS
INVOLVING FUTURE OBLIGATION IN A FIXED PERIOD OF TIME RED UCE THEM TO WRITING LET A SCRIBE WRITE DOWN FAITHFULLY AS BETWEEN THE PARTIES : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:282).

The Qur‘än and Hadith encouraged people to work so that they can be self-reliant.
298

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

If for some reason, anybody is unable to earn his bread God has put the responsibility on relatives and the wealthy to feed him saying:
236. A ND RENDER TO THE KIN DRED THEIR DUE RIGHT S , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:26).

Beyond individual efforts by the rich and relatives, others who would still need help due to unemployment or absence of livelihood are covered by zakat. God has asked us to help the destitute, sick, orphans, old and wretched, the indebted, new converts, and hungry and poor students, from zakat-money. God in Süra 9:60 said:
237. A LMS ARE FOR THE POOR A ND THE NEEDY, AND THOSE E MPLOYED TO ADMINISTER THE ( FUNDS ); F OR THOSE WHOSE HEART S H AVE BEEN ( RECENTLY ) RECONCILED (T O T RUTH ); FOR THOSE IN BONDAGE A N IN DEBT ; IN THE CAUSE OF G OD ; AND FOR THE WAYFARER ; (T HUS IS IT ) ORDAINED BY G OD , A ND G OD IS FULL OF KNOWLEDGE A ND WISDOM (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN ).

In this way if zakat is utilized in the way God has ordained, poverty could be eradicated as was done in the time of the Prophet (PBUH) and the first four Caliphs. Now those who follow the Islamic law should know the rules, such as, on what wealth and at what rate zakat should be paid as is stated below.
ASSETS (CATEGORIES): ZAKAT IS DUE ON:

Zakat is due on cash, gold, silver, silver or gold jewelry, other precious metals in hand or in the bank, crops in the field, commercial commodities, industrial raw materials and finished products, cattle and mineral resources. Besides, that zakat called oshor126 is due on the harvest of lands owned by Muslims.
NISAB (AMOUNT AT THAT ZAKAT IS DUE):

Nisab, the amount of wealth at which zakat becomes due, is not known to everybody. To make the system of zakat a success, it is necessary to know the nisab. In case of silver, cash, commercial commodities, raw industrial materials and finished product, the nisab equals the price of 52½ totals (820.21 gm) of silver. According to present market rate, it is about Taka ten thousand ($ 210). If this amount of money remains with anybody after a year‘s expenditure, etc. zakat becomes mandatory. Zakat must be paid on the total amount of wealth after deduction of one year‘s expenses. For gold and gold Jewelry, the amount is 7½ (117.19 gm) totals. If the wealth consists of silver, gold, jewelry and other precious
126 Oshor according to shariat, Syed Mohammed Ali, Bangladesh Islami center and Ahsan Fiqah, Maulana Yusuf Ilahi.

299

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

stones then the nisab is the price of 52½ (820.21 gm) totals of silver. For crops, the nisab is five wasak (1 ton) or 27 maunds. Similarly, nisab is also levied cattle at a certain fixed rate. Most of the jurists hold the opinion that there is no fixed nisab for mineral resources.
RATE OF ZAKAT:

For cash, shares, bonds, gold, silver, silver or gold jewelry, other precious metals in hand or in the bank, crops in the field, commercial commodities, industrial raw materials and finished products, the rate is 2½ percent. The rate is 20% for mineral resources. Similarly, on different types of animals the rate has been fixed by the Prophet (PBUH). All rates, in fact, have been fixed by the Prophet (PBUH).
COUNTING ZAKAT-YEAR:

All jurists are unanimous that zakat need not be paid more than once in a year on any asset. However, in case of crops, mineral resources, resources from the seas and fishes, it is not necessary for them to last a year. Zakat is to be paid after just harvesting, for crops. In other cases a time has to be determined, counting a year from one season to another, for example a year may be counted starting from first Ramadhan to the last day of Shaban. In this matter, Imam Malik and Shafei hold that the only amount at end of the year is to be taken cognizance of, for zakat, meaning that if nisab is fulfilled at the last day of the year zakat is mandatory. Wealth equaling nisab, at the middle or beginning of the year is not a requirement for zakat to be due. Imam Abu Hanifa and his associates Imam Muhammad and Imam Abu Yusuf said that if at the beginning and the end of the year wealth fulfills nisab then zakat is due, status at the middle of the year is immaterial. Most of the jurists share this interpretation. People should be made aware of the rules regarding zakat, so that they might easily pay their zakats.
QUANTITY OF ZAKAT TO BE GIVEN:

Zakat must be paid to the needy in such a measure that they become solvent. Most jurists opine that the receiver‘s need for a whole year should be met by zakat. Some preach about fulfilling whole life‘s need. It means that the recipient should be given enough to start a livelihood, so

300

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

that he does not need zakat every year. The second Caliph Omar (RA) said, ―If you give, give to make self-sufficient.‖127 In the light of the traditions of the Prophet (PBUH) and the practice of the Khulafa-e-Rashedins (the Rightly Guided first four Caliphs), zakat, either from the individuals or the state, must endeavor to rehabilitate recipients so that they can earn their own bread for the future. Therefore, it is understood why zakat has been made mandatory in Islam for the rich. If Muslims abiding by God and His Prophet (PBUH) dispense zakat accordingly then there would be no poverty and people would not die of starvation. Zakat is an integral and important part of Islamic social infrastructure and a security.
CHARITY AND ZAKAT: 238. N OR EXPECT, IN GIVING , ANY INCREASE ( FOR THYSELF )! (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 78:6). 239. I F YOU DISCLOSE ( ACTS OF ) CHARITY, EVEN SO IT IS WELL , BUT IF YE CONCEAL THEM , AND MAKE THEM REACH THOSE REALLY IN NEED , THAT IS BEST FOR YOU : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:271). 240. T HOSE WHO ( IN CHARITY ) SPEND OF THEIR GOODS BY NIGHT AND BY DAY, IN SECRET AND IN PUBLIC , HAVE THEIR REWARD WITH THEIR L ORD : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2:274). 241. K IND WORDS AND THE CO VERING OF FAULTS ARE BETTER THAN CHARITY FOLLOWED BY INJURY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:263). 242. C ANCEL NOT YOUR CHARITY BY REMINDERS OF YOUR GENEROSITY OR BY INJURY, - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:264). 243. T HOSE WHO SPEND ( FREELY ), WHETHER IN PROSPERITY, OR ADVERSITY ; WHO RESTRAIN ANGER , AND PARDON ( ALL ) MEN ; - FOR G OD LOVES THOSE WHO DO GOOD ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:134). 244. B Y NO MEANS SHALL YE ATTAIN RIGHTEOUSNESS UNLESS YE GIVE ( FREELY ) OF THAT WHICH YE LOVE ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:92). 245. G IVE OF THE GOOD THIN GS WHICH YE HAVE ( HONORABLY ) EARNED , AND OF THE FRUITS OF THE EARTH WHICH W E HAVE PRODUCED FOR YOU , AND DO NOT EVEN AIM AT GETTING ANYTHING WHICH IS BAD , IN ORDER THAT OUT OF IT YE MAY GIVE AWAY SOMETHING , WHEN YE YOURSELVES W OULD NOT RECEIVE IT EXCEPT WITH CLOSED EYES . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:267). 246. W HO SPEND THEIR SUBSTANCE IN THE WAY OF G OD IS THAT OF GRAIN OF CORN : IT GROWETH SEVEN EARS , AND EACH EAR HATH A HUNDRED GRAINS . G OD GIVETH MANIFOLD INCR EASE TO WHOM H E PLEASETH : AND G OD CARETH FOR ALL AND H E KNOWETH ALL THINGS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:261). 247. M AKE NOT THY HAND TIE D ( LIKE NIGGARD ‘ S ) TO THY NECK , NOR STRETCH IT FORTH TO ITS UTMOST REACH , SO THAT THOU BECOME BLAMEWORTHY AND DESTITUTE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:29).

127

Islam-e-Zakater Bidhan (The principle of Zakat in Islam), Yusuf al-Kadabi, part-II, pp. 31-37.

301

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 248. A ND EVEN IF THOU HAST TO TURN AWAY FROM THEM IN PURSUIT OF THE M ERCY FROM THY L ORD WHICH THOU DOST EXPECT, YE SPEAK TO THEM A WORD OF EASY KINDNESS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:28). T HOSE WHO SPEND THEIR WEALTH FOR INCREASE IN SELF - PURIFICATION , AND
HAVE IN THEIR MINDS NO FAVOR FROM ANYONE FOR WHICH REWARD IS EXPECTED IN RETURN , BUT ONLY THE DESIRE TO SEEK FOR THE C OUNTENANCE OF THEIR L ORD M OST H IGH ; AND SOON WILL THEY ATTAIN ( COMPLETE ) SATISFACTION . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 92:18-21).

249.

250.

F OR THOSE WHO GIVE IN C HARITY, MEN AND WOMEN , AND LOAN TO G OD A B EAUTIFUL L OAN , IT SHALL BE INCREASED MANIFOLD ( TO THEIR CREDIT ), AND THEY SHALL HAVE ( BESIDES ) A LIBERAL REWARD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:18).

MISERLINESS: 251. A ND THOSE SAVED FROM THE COVETOUSNESS O F THEIR OWN SOULS , - THEY ARE THE ONES THAT ACHIEVE PROSPERITY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 64:16). 252. B UT ANY WHO ARE NIGGA RDLY ARE SO AT THE EXPENSE OF THEIR OWN SOULS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 47:38). 253. S UCH PERSONS AS ARE COVETOUS AND COMMAND COVETOUSNESS TO MEN . A ND IF ANY TURN BACK ( FROM G OD ‘ S WAY ), VERILY G OD IS FREE FROM ALL NEEDS , WORTHY OF ALL PRAISE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:24). 254. W OE TO EVERY ( KIND OF ) SCANDALMONGER AND BACKBITER , WHO PLIETH UP WEALTH AND LAYETH IT BY, THINKING THAT HIS WE ALTH WOULD MAKE HIM LAST FOREV ER ! B Y NO MEANS ! H E WILL BE SURE TO BE THROWN INTO THAT WHICH B REAKS TO PIECES . A ND WHAT WILL EXPLAIN TO THEE T HAT WHICH B REAKS TO P IECES ? (I T IS ) THE F IRE OF ( THE W RATH OF ) G OD KINDLED ( TO A BLAZE ), THE WHICH DOTH MOUNT (R IGHT ) TO THE H EARTS : I T SHALL BE MADE INTO A VAULT OVER THEM , IN COLUMNS OUTSTRETC HED (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 104:19). 255. (N OR ) THOSE WHO ARE NIGGARDLY OR ENJOIN NIGGARDLINESS ON OTHERS , OR HIDE THE BOUNTIES WH ICH G OD HATH BESTOWED ON THEM ; FOR W E HAVE PREPARED , FOR THOSE WHO RESIST FAITH A P UNISHMENT THAT STEEPS THEM IN CONTEMPT ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:37). 256. A ND WHAT BURDEN WERE IT ON THEM IF THEY H AD FAITH IN G OD AND IN THE L AST D AY, AND THEY SPENT OUT OF WHAT G OD HATH GIVEN THEM FOR SUSTENANCE ? (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:39). USURY: 257. 258. 259. 260. G OD WILL DEPRIVE USURY OF ALL BLESSIN G , BUT WILL GIVE INCREASE FOR DEEDS OF CHARITY: (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:276). D EVOUR NOT U SURY DOUBLED AND MULTIPLIED ; BUT FEAR G OD ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 3:130). F EAR G OD , AND GIVE UP WHAT REM AINS OF YOUR DEMAND FOR USURY, (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:278). I F DEBTOR IS IN A DIF FICULTY, GRANT HIM TIME TILL IT IS EASY FOR HIM TO REPAY. B UT IF YE REMIT IT BY WAY OF CHARITY, THAT IS BEST FOR YOU IF YOU ONLY KNEW. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:280). T HAT WHICH YOU LAY OUT FOR INCREASE THROU GH THE PROPERTY OF ( OTHER ) PEOPLE , WILL HAVE NO INCREASE WITH G OD : B UT THAT WHICH YE LAY OUT FOR CHARITY, SEEKING THE C OUNTENANCE OF G OD , ( WILL INCREASE : IT IS THESE WHO WILL GET A RECOM PENSE MULTIPLIED . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 30:39).

261.

302

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE RENOUNCING MISERLINESS:

God has warned people of stinginess. He says in the holy Qur‘än,
262. A ND LET NOT THOSE W HO COVETOUSLY WITHHO LD O F GIFTS WHICH G OD H ATH GIVEN THEM OF H IS G RACE , T HINK THAT IT IS GOOD FOR THEM : N AY, IT WILL BE THE WORSE F OR THEM : SOON SHALL THINGS W HICH THEY COVETOUSLY WITHHELD B E TIED TO THEIR NECK S L IKE A TWISTED COLLAR , O N THE D AY OF J UDGEMENT (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:180). I N ORDER THAT YE MAY N OT DESPAIR OVER MATT ERS T HAT PASS YOU BY, N OR EXULT OVER FAVORS B ESTOWED UPON YOU . F OR G OD LOVETH NOT A NY VAINGLORIOUS BOASTER , - S UCH PERSONS AS ARE C OVETOUS AND COMMEND C OVETOUSNESS TO MEN (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:23-24).

263.

Niggardliness and covetousness lead men to evil. Remember the proverb: ―Avarice begets sin and sin begets death.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) said, Avarice, penuriousness and faith do not reside in the same breast‖ (Nesai & Abu-Dawood). ―A Gambler, a miser and he who curses at good deeds will not enter the Paradise‖ (Tirmizi). ―The salat (prayer) of an ignorant benevolent man is better than a miser, since, though, regular in prayers, he would want more, even if he had immeasurable wealth‖ (Bukhari & Muslim). However, warning the spendthrift God said,
264. V ERILY SPENDTHRIFTS ARE BROTHERS O F EVIL O NES ; A ND THE E VIL O NE I S TO HIS L ORD (H IMSELF ) U NGRATEFUL (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:27).

It is clear that in one hand lavishness and on the other penuriousness make men unethical. Therefore, the Islamic social management system preaches economy, where there is no room for niggardliness.
PUNISHMENT FOR THEFT AND MISAPPROPRIATION:

To lift any thing in the absence of its owner is stealing. In Islam, stealing is a grave sin. Islam sanctions amputation of the hand for stealing. In the holy Qur‘än God says,
265. A S TO THE THIEF M ALE OR FEMALE , C UT OFF HIS OR HER HANDS : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 5:41).

The reason that people steal is poverty, covetousness or just habit. To eliminate theft, God the Almighty ordains the provision of cutting off hands. Stealing is considered as very loathsome and base and the Qur‘änic verses quoted earlier bear testimony to that. Even to covet wealth and receive wealth, from people without putting in labor, is considered undesirable by the shariat (Islamic laws) (Muslim & Bukhari).
PUNISHMENT OF ADULTERY:

Adultery is a very grave sin in the eyes of Islam, which is punishable by death.
303

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Allah the Great warns in the holy Qur‘än:
266. N OR COME NIGH TO ADULTERY: F OR IT IS A SHAMEFUL ( DEED ) A ND AN EVIL , OPENING THE ROAD (T O OTHER EVILS ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:32).
BUT FORCE NOT YOUR M AIDS T O PROSTITUTION WHEN THEY DESIRE C HASTITY, IN ORDER THAT YE M AY MAKE A GAIN I N THE GOODS OF THIS LIFE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN

He again says in the Qur‘än:
267. - 24:33).

The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Adultery with a female neighbor is a abominable sin‖ (Bukhari & Muslim). Muhammad (PBUH) further said, ―That who misleads or seduces the women of others is not my follower‖ (Abu-Dawood). The market place is a ground of temptation. Do not spend much time in the market place and protect thyself from looking at others seductively (Hakim). The great Prophet (PBUH) said, ―When any place is hit by calamities, be sure that shamelessness abounds there.‖ Many a nation was destroyed because of adultery. The ruins of those nations still tell the tale. Charity and Zakat:
268. 269. N OR EXPECT, IN GIVING , ANY INCREASE ( FOR THYSELF )! (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 78:6). I F YOU DISCLOSE ( ACTS OF ) CHARITY, EVEN SO IT IS WELL , BUT IF YE CONCEAL THEM , AND MAKE THEM REACH THOSE REALLY IN NEED , THAT IS BEST FOR YOU : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:271). T HOSE WHO ( IN CHARITY ) SPEND OF THEIR GOODS BY NIGHT AND BY DAY, IN SECRET AND IN PUBLIC , HAVE THEIR REWARD WITH THEIR L ORD : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2:274). K IND WORDS AND THE CO VERING OF FAULTS ARE BETTER THAN CHARITY FOLLOWED BY INJURY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:263). C ANCEL NOT YOUR CHARITY BY REMINDERS OF YOUR GENEROSITY OR BY INJURY, - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:264). T HOSE WHO SPEND ( FREELY ), WHETHER IN PROSPERITY, OR ADVERSITY ; WHO RESTRAIN ANGER , AND PARDON ( ALL ) MEN ; - FOR G OD LOVES THOSE WHO DO GOOD ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:134). B Y NO MEANS SHALL YE ATTAIN RIGHTEOUSNESS UNLESS YE GIVE ( FREELY ) OF THAT WHICH YE LOVE ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:92). G IVE OF THE GOOD THIN GS WHICH YE HAVE ( HONORABLY ) EARNED , AND OF THE FRUITS OF THE EARTH WHICH W E HAVE PRODUCED FOR YOU , AND DO NOT EVEN AIM AT GETTING ANYTH ING WHICH IS BAD , IN ORDER THAT OUT OF IT YE MAY GIVE AWAY SOMETHING , WHEN YE YOURSELVES WOULD NOT RECEIVE IT EXCEPT WITH CLOSED EYES . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:267). W HO SPEND THEIR SUBSTANCE IN THE WAY OF G OD IS THAT OF GRAIN OF CORN : IT GROWETH SEVEN EAR S , AND EACH EAR HATH A HUNDRED GRAINS . G OD GIVETH MANIFOLD INCR EASE TO WHOM H E PLEASETH : AND G OD CARETH FOR ALL AND H E KNOWETH ALL THINGS (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:261). M AKE NOT THY HAND TIE D ( LIKE NIGGARD ‘ S ) TO THY NECK , NOR STRETCH IT FORTH TO ITS UTMOST REACH , SO THAT THOU BECOME BLAMEWORTHY AND DESTITUTE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:29).

270.

271. 272. 273.

274. 275.

276.

277.

304

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 278. A ND EVEN IF THOU HAST TO TURN AWAY FROM THEM IN PURSU IT OF THE M ERCY FROM THY L ORD WHICH THOU DOST EXPECT, YE SPEAK TO THEM A WORD OF EASY KINDNESS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:28). T HOSE WHO SPEND THEIR WEALTH FOR INCREASE IN SELF - PURIFICATION , AND
HAVE IN THEIR MINDS NO FAVOR FROM ANYONE FOR WHICH REWARD IS EXPECTED IN RETURN , BUT ONLY THE DESIRE TO SEEK FOR THE C OUNTENANCE OF THEIR L ORD M OST H IGH ; AND SOON WILL THEY ATTAIN ( COMPLETE ) SATISFACTION . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 92:18-21).

279.

280.

F OR THOSE WHO GIVE IN C HARITY, MEN AND WOMEN , AND LOAN TO G OD A B EAUTIFUL L OAN , IT SHALL BE INCREASED MANIFOLD ( TO THEIR CREDIT ), AND THEY SHALL HAVE ( BESIDES ) A LIBERAL REWARD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:18).

JUSTICE AND NEUTRAL TESTIMONY:

Allah has said,
281. A ND WHEN YE JUDGE BETWEEN MAN AND MAN , THAT YE JUDGE WITH J USTICE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:58).

With this instruction, God has made it mandatory for the Judges to judge cases on their merits, irrespective of the status, caste and creed, of the disputing parties. He again has said,
282. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! S TAND FIRMLY FOR JUST ICE , AS WITNESSES TO G OD , EVEN AS AGAINST YOURSELVE S , OR YOUR PARENTS , OR YOUR KIN , AND WHETHER IT BE ( AGAINST ) RICH OR POOR : FOR G OD CAN BEST PROTECT BOTH . F OLLOW NOT THE LUSTS ( OF YOUR HEARTS , LEST YE SWERVE , AND IF YE DISTORT ( JUSTICE ) OR DECLINE TO DO JUSTICE , VERILY G OD IS WELL - ACQUAINTED WITH ALL THAT YE DO (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:135). O YE WHO BELIEVE ! S TAND FIRMLY FOR G OD , AS WITNESSES TO FAIR DEALING ,
AND LET NOT THE HATRED OF OTHERS TO YOU MAKE YOU SWERVE TO WRONG AND DEPART FROM JUST ICE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:9).

God has said in Al-Qur‘än:
283.

It is narrated in the Ahadith that if anybody, who speaks truth for the sake of righteousness, in the court of a tyrant, then that is the greatest Jihad (fight for Islam) (Tirmizi, Abu-Dawood and Ibn Maza). ―On the Day of Judgement, the just judges would be the most nearest and dearest of God‖ (Tirmizi). ―The tyrant that day would be the most cursed and removed from God‖ (Tirmizi). God says,
284. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! F EAR G OD AND BE WITH THOSE WHO ARE TRUE ( IN WORD AND DEED ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 9:119). W OE TO THE FALSEHOOD - MONGERS . - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 51:10). A ND COVER NOT T RUTH WITH FALSEHOOD , NOR CONCEAL THE TRUTH WHEN YE KNOW ( WHAT IT IS ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:42).

He again says,
285. 286.

305

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

To lie and to give false witness is hypocrisy and is a grave (Kabir) sin. Giving orders to favor the Truths in all circumstances and fight (Jihad) against falsehood God says in the Qur‘än:
287. B E JUST : THAT IS N EXT TO P IETY: AND FEAR G OD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:9).

God gave orders to ―Stand firmly for God, as witnesses‖ and exercise neutrality which the Prophet (PBUH) propagated and practiced. The great Prophet (PBUH) of God himself adjudicated inter-tribal and intra-tribal disputes and disagreements of the Quraish and the other tribes. Even the Jewish came to him for Justice, according to Torah. In those days, the Arabs were accustomed to sanguinary family feuds for generations. They despised any judgements that went against. In those circumstances, he had to be very careful not to offend anybody. But, in spite of the constraints, never the judgements were tainted with partiality. Before him, normally, the rich were given lighter punishments for serious offenses, while the poor suffered severe penalty for paltry violations. That was the case even in the Indian subcontinent, where the Brahmins were let off easily and the lower caste penalized heavily for minor misdeeds. All that changed in the Prophet‘s (PBUH) time. The rich and the poor were treated alike, in a court of law. Justice was done on the merit of the case. Once, the tribal leader who defeated the Tayefians, and conveyed the good news to the Prophet (PBUH), was ordered to return the spring, he was accused of appropriating. He was also asked to release a man wrongfully interned. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Those who take shelter under Islam, their lives and property are protected.‖ His verdict was not influenced even for a hero who subjugated the Tayefians his cruel persecutors. Any request for leniency to anyone for his position, was not entertained by the Prophet (PBUH). He admonished the petitioner by saying: ―Remember the Banu-Israelis were destroyed for the sin of partiality to the influential.‖ The Harbinger of God took utmost care to administer justice and avoid punishing the innocent. He always tried to award lighter punishments, and in possible cases granted clemency.
COMMITMENT: LOYALTY AND HONESTY:

The great Prophet (PBUH) has said, ―That who breaks promise has no religion‖ (Baihakki). To abide by promises, pacts and commitments are sacred duties of all males and females. Allah has said,
306

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 288. ... AND FULFIL (E VERY ) ENGAGEMENT, F OR ( EVERY ) ENGAGEMENT WILL BE INQUIRED INTO (O N THE D AY OF R ECKONING ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:34).

Broken promises belittle people in the society and God dislikes the act. ―Those who do not keep their pledge, dreadful would be their end:‖ said Muhammad (PBUH). He further said, ―If I know that you have six qualities namely: speak the truth, keep promises, return trust property, save thyself from obscenity, keep thy eyes downcast and withdraw from misdeeds, then I will give assurance of heaven to you‖ (Baihakki). The Meccans called the Prophet (PBUH) Al-Amin and As-Sadique, for his honesty and truthfulness. They would trust him with their property and wealth, though they were after his life.
PROSCRIPTION OF ILLEGAL INCOME:

Islam has not given its followers unlimited sanction to earn wealth. Keeping the national interest in the mind, incomes have been made legal and illegal. Asked about the legal ways of earning, Muhammad (PBUH) replied, ―That which is earned by ones own labor and legal business‖ (Mishkat). As it is possible to earn legally by working and doing trade and commerce, it is also possible to earn by gambling, cheating, stealing and robbing. Honest business with personal labor is the best livelihood. The best perseverance is to try to earn an honest living. 128 There are many ways of worshipping; the best way is to try to earn an honest living.129 God helps him who works hard and gets weary earning honestly. 130 God‘s grace descends on the person who decently earns and spends from only that as needed and saves a small amount for the future.131
EATING HALAL AND ESCHEWING HARAM FOOD: HALAL (PERMITTED) FOOD:

God the Great has said,
289. 290. O YE PEOPLE ! E AT OF WHAT IS ON EARTH , L AWFUL AND GOOD : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2:168). S O EAT AND DRINK O F THE SUSTENANCE PROVIDED BY G OD , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2:60).

128 129 130 131

Farid, Wazid: Al-Medinat Al-Islam Kanzul Hakaiak Kanzul Hakaiak Hazrat Maulana Sufi Azangachi (RA).

307

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 291. T HEN LET MAN LOOK AT THE F OOD , (A ND HOW W E PROVIDE IT ): F OR THAT W E POUR FORTH WATER IN ABUNDANCE , A ND W E SPLIT THE EARTH I N FRAGMENTS , A ND PRODUCE THEREIN C ORN , A ND G RAPES AND NUTRITIOUS P LANTS , A ND O LIVES AND D ATES , A ND ENCLOSED G ARDENS , D ENSE WITH LOFTY TREE S , AND F RUITS AND F ODDER , - F OR USE AND CONVENIEN CE T O YOU AND YOUR CATTLE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 80:24-32).

These foods should be grown and bought or procured honestly according to the guidance of the Qur‘än and Traditions. And Islam proscribes all foods illegally procured or prepared. Besides that,
292. F ORBIDDEN TO YOU ( FOR FOOD ) A RE : DEAD MEAT, BLOOD , T HE FLESH OF SWINE , AND THAT O N WHICH HATH BEEN INVOKED T HE NAME OF OTHER THAN G OD ; T HAT WHICH HATH BEEN K ILLED BY STRANGLING , O R BY A VIOLENT BLOW, O R BY A HEADLONG FALL , O R BY BEING GORED TO DEATH ; T HAT WHICH HATH BEEN ( PARTLY ) E ATEN BY A WILD ANIMA L ; U NLESS YE ARE ABLE T O SLAUGHTER IT ( IN DUE FORM ); T HAT WHICH IS SACRIFICED O N STONE ( ALTARS ); (F ORBIDDEN ) ALSO IS THE DIVISION (O F MEAT ) BY RAFFLING W ITH ARROWS : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:4). B UT IF ANY IS FORCED B Y HUNGER , WITH NO INCLINATION T O TRANSGRESSION , G OD IS I NDEED O FT- FORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:4). B UT ( EVEN SO ), IF A PERSON I S FORCED BY NECESSITY, W ITHOUT WILLFUL DISOBEDIENCE , N OR TRANSGRESSING DUE LIMITS , - T HY L ORD IS O FTFORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:145). L AWFUL TO YOU IS THE PURSUIT O F WATER - GAME AND ITS USE F OR FOOD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:99).

293. 294.

In another verse of the Qur‘än it has been said,
295.

The Prophet (PBUH) has said, ―Lawful unto you dead fish and dead locust as food.‖
HARAM (PROSCRIBED) FOOD:

Any food procured illegally or bought by illegally earned money is prohibited in Islam. Besides that, dead animals, blood, pork and that animal which is slaughtered without invoking Allah‘s name are unlawful in Islam. Meats of animals strangulated, beaten to death, fallen to death, gored to death, eaten by ferocious animals or sacrificed at the altar are all forbidden (Al-Qur‘än - 5:3). Allah has also said:
296. B UT IF ANY IS FORCED B Y HUNGER , WITH NO INCLINATION T O TRANSGRESSION , G OD IS I NDEED O FT- FORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:4).

In the Holy Qur‘än in Süra 6:145 God has forbidden eating dead animals and flowing blood, because those are injurious to human health. Details below will show how injurious it is for human to consume prohibited food.

308

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE MEAT OF DEAD ANIMALS:

Those animals that are halal (permitted) in Islam must be killed invoking Allah‘s name. These animals would become haram (forbidden) if killed otherwise. This prohibition is perfectly scientific and healthy. It may not be easy to ascertain the cause of death of animals killed otherwise. Poisons or diseases may kill them that are harmful to human. Meats of the dead animals may infect humanbody with Anthrax and may prove deadly.
BLOOD:

Blood here refers to the blood flowing out from the body of the animals killed. This blood may contain metabolic toxic substances and pathogenic microorganisms. If the meat is cleaned of oozing blood, it becomes more hygienically clean. Remaining blood in the meat is not prohibited in Islam.
PORK:

The Holy Qur‘än (Süra 6:145) made pork unlawful. God said: ―Meat of the swine is unholy and impure.‖ The following scientific explanations would attest to the assertion above. A parasitic cell called Trichinella Spiralis resides in the meat of the swine. Half-cooked or ill cooked pork transfers these parasites to the humanbody. In the intestine, parasites multiply in the normal biological process and travelling through blood plant themselves in the flesh anywhere in the body. Trichinella Spiralis: It is found in the flesh of rats, pigs and man. The host is infected eating encysted larva in raw or undercooked pork. The larva is forced from the cyst in the stomach or the small intestine, which burrows the mucous membrane of the small intestine. Ultimately, after several molting it attains adulthood. Forty hours after being swallowed, maturity is reached and the male mates with the female. After fertilization the males die and are expelled from the body with the excretion. The female further burrows in the mucosa and during the next ten days releases larva in batches. Liberated larva then enters blood or lymph channels in the intestinal wall and reach different parts of the body, via the general circulation. In the skeletal muscle i.e., diaphragm, orbit, rib, tongue and larynx further development takes place. The larva grows about ten times the original
309

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

size and becomes sexually differentiated. After 17-18 days larva becomes infective. The enclosing fiber degenerates resulting in the formation of a cyst around the larva, which remains in the form of a spiral. After 7-8 weeks it is fully developed and calcifies after 78 months. In the early stages there are abdominal symptoms due to burrowing of the intestinal wall by the female adults, including nausea, vomiting, colicky pain, diarrhea, etc., also Eosinophilia of severe degree. During the second week when the larva migrates to the muscle, puffiness under the eyes, headache, intense muscular pain and weakness of the affected muscles are manifested. Later, larvae failing to reach striated muscle may produce myocarditis, pneumonia, peripheral and cranial nerve disorders, meningitis and encephalitis. Severe dyspnea occurs if the respiratory muscles are affected and if the muscles of deglutition are affected dysphasia occurs. Six weeks after the infection the symptoms found in the second stage aggravates and in the third stage, eruption of the skin may appear. Pork also propagates Taenia Solium or Tapeworms. Pigs love dirty things and live in filthy places, but modern swine-farms are clean and nice, though that do not make their meats lawful.
MEAT OF ANIMALS THAT DIE OF ASPHYXIA PROHIBITED:

In Süra 2:173 of the Holy Qur‘än the importance of removing flowing blood has been urged. Death by asphyxia leaves carbon dioxide in the blood that reacting with other substances in the blood produces toxic compounds. Bacteria and other microorganisms that the body expels through the blood are trapped inside and may cause harm. This kind of meat of animals cannot be called healthy food. Blood from any animal that die of strangulation cannot be expelled as it congeals.
ANIMAL BEATEN OR CLUBBED TO DEATH:

To kill an animal by beating, clubbing, axing or with bullet or by electric current is very cruel. For the sudden death caused by all these abovementioned ways blood cannot flow out from the dead-body of the animals thus killed. Consequently, carbon dioxide reacting with other substances in the blood produces toxic materials injurious for human health. If even the animal‘s brain stops working due to anoxia the heart keeps beating and blood keeps flowing. In that condition, the body of the slaughtered animal shakes with involuntary spasm because of which blood from inside the body flows out. Moreover, as the animal looses
310

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

consciousness, it does not feel pain. Therefore, if an animal is killed by cutting the throat it dies a painless death and bloods flow out from the body easily, making its meat healthy and delicious. The involuntary spasm all over the body is healthy and good for meat‘s quality and taste. But falling into the unscrupulous butchers who do not allow the animals‘ body to have these spasm and skin them before they are absolutely dead to gratify their business interests the meat looses its quality and taste. Therefore, Islam recommends free and involuntary movement of the slaughtered animals. The great Prophet (PBUH) therefore, has given clear instructions to let the animal die and only then skin it. Same is the result if the animal is made unconscious by hitting it with an axe or a hammer. If the modern electrical shock method for making the animal unconscious is discussed then the report of the Meat Inspection Branch of the Agriculture Department of the USA, should be kept in the mind. In 1953 the department disallowed electric shock method at its plant where animals were stunned by that method before the meat were processed due to adverse findings of a research study the department conducted a few years earlier. It found out that muscles of the animals stunned by the electric shock method undergo changes. These changes cannot be distinguished from similar changes due to diseases. The justice department of Denmark in 1955 gave a notification. In that notification it was mentioned that electric shock method of stunning animals cause Extravasation and also cause bleeding in the intestine and breaks the pelvis, backbone and the shoulder blades. Bleeding from these wounds quickens decomposition of the meat and alters the taste. Amending the British regulation in 1958 electric shock method was banned. The reason was injurious affect on the swine meat. Quick decomposition was another reason. It therefore, proves that banning the electric shock method is scientific and logical. All accidental deaths where fall, drowning, beating, clubbing and sudden blow etc., are involved show the previously mentioned results and thus are naturally not desirable. Animals dead by fighting and goring are also forbidden because the above apply to them as well. If an animal is killed by any other animal

311

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

and is eaten partially, that animal is also forbidden in Islam. There are three reasons for that: The animal might have died of the poison from biting of the attacking animal, The defending animal‘s fight to survive might have produced large quantity of lactic acid harmful for human consumption. Enough blood did not flow out of the remaining meats. Nevertheless, meats of attacked and injured animals that are found alive and then slaughtered in the name of Allah are permitted in Islam. A living animal clearly indicates a recent attack otherwise, the injured animal must have died of starvation or by the impact of the attack. In such cases, it is better to kill the animal in the name of Allah and eat the flesh. Comments of Medical Scientists on Jewish slaughtering method called `Shechita‘ which is similar to Muslim method called ‗Zabeh‘ is given below: Lord Hoarder a medical doctor says: ―I have thoroughly examined the system called `Shechita‘. Under the method all the major and minor arteries and veins of the throat and neck including the trachea and esophagus down to the soft tissues are severed completely. Animals killed thus are immediately made unconscious making the death much less painful than other methods. In a few moments, the animal stops moving and then within minutes the muscle spasm ceases. The above explanation is very clear. Animals slaughtered by sharp weapons dies within seconds and the involuntary convulsions of the body stops minutes later. As blood flow to the brain stops almost immediately the animal looses consciousness and the convulsion occurs due to low blood pressure. Dr. Leonard Hill132 analyzing all the available methods of slaying animals said: ―Animals body moves even if the animal is dead giving wrong impression of life to the ignorant who do not know the cause. I have proven that with the dismemberment of the Carotid artery blood supply to the brain stops in both cows and goats. Blood pressure falls within seconds of severing the peripheral end of the carotid artery
132 Dr. Leonard Hill, MD, FRS, Director of applied Physiology, National Institute of Medical research, UK.

312

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

signaling cessation of blood supply to the brain. It is argued that even if the carotid artery is disconnected vertebral artery carries blood to the brain. In cows and goats vertebral artery carries blood to the muscles of the skull not to the brain unlike in human.‖ Openshaw, the consulting surgeon of the London Hospital proven by postmortem that slaying the animal by cutting the throat do not allow blood clotting like clubbing or beating. Generally, people at the sight of the convulsion think the animal to be alive. Contrary to general belief the Jewish and Islamic method is the most humane and scientific method of slaying the animals. From the above discussion it is also established that whatever is said in the Holy Qur‘än regarding eating meats of dead and slaughtered animals that is scientific and hygienic, and is prescribed for the wellbeing of the people.133
BAN ON GAMBLING AND DRINKING:

God the Creator of the Worlds says in the holy Qur‘än:
297. T HEY ASK THEE C ONCERNING WINE AND G AMBLING . ‗ S AY: I N THEM IS GREAT SIN , A ND SOME PROFIT, FOR MEN ; B UT THE SIN IS GREATE R T HAN THE PROFIT ‘. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:219). O YE WHO BELIEVE ! A PPROACH NOT PRAYERS WITH A MIND BEFOGGED , UNTIL YE CAN UNDERSTAND AL L THAT YE SAY, - . . . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:43). O YE WHO BELIEVE ! M AKE NOT UNLAWFUL T HE GOOD THINGS WHICH G OD H ATH MADE LAWFUL FOR YOU , B UT COMMIT NO EXCESS : F OR G OD LOVETH NOT T HOSE GIVEN TO EXCESS . E AT OF THINGS WHICH G OD HATH PROVIDED FOR YOU L AWFUL AND GOOD ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:90-91). O YE WHO BELIEVE ! I NTOXICANTS AND GAMBL ING , (D EDICATION OF ) STONES , A ND ( DIVINATION BY ) ARROWS , A RE AN ABOMINATION , - O F S ATAN ‘ S HANDIWORK : E SCHEW SUCH ( ABOMINATION ), T HAT YE MAY PROSPER . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:93).

298. 299.

300.

The great Prophet (PBUH) had said, ―Do not take any intoxicants, because that is the worst among the filthy things, and be cautious about sinful deeds, because with that descends God‘s wrath‖ (Ahmad: Masnad). ―To sell liqueur and the earnings from that both are proscribed‖
133

References: M.G. Muazzem; Science in the Holy Qur'än; Ist. edition; Rajshahi, Bangladesh; pp. 81-84: 1967. Khan, GM Al-Dhabeh; Slaying animals for food in the Islamic way; Ist. edition; Ta Ha Publishers, London; p. 33: 1982. Callow, E.H.; Food and Hygiene; Cambridge: p. 42: 1952. Horder, Lord; Statement in support of Jewish method of slaying animals: 1950. Hill Leonard; Statement of the Director, Department of Applied Physiology; NIMR, U.K.

313

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(Dailami). He said, ―Eating and drinking of all kinds of intoxicants are forbidden‖ (Bukhari & Muslim).
THE HOLY QUR’ÄN ABOUT INTOXICANTS:

Everybody knows that drinking and gambling are inseparably related to all kinds of crimes and social injustices. However, a very few know that that it has also been probed by science, and proved right. Ethyl alcohol has many beneficial uses besides being a hard drink. Allah the Merciful has mentioned that in the Holy Qur‘än (Süra 2:219).
BENEFITS OF ALCOHOL:
199.

DISTILLED
TO

WAT E R M I X E D W I T H THE SKIN

70%

ALC O HO L I S A VE RY GO O D A NT I SE P T I C . INJECTIONS, T RANSFUSION AND

IT

IS USED

CLEANSE

BE FORE

GIVING

SURGICAL

O P E R AT I O N S . 200.

LIKE

TINCT URE -IODINE, ALCOHOL- TINCT URE IS AN ANTISEPTIC.

G E N E R A L LY

BEFORE

S U R G I C A L O P E R AT I O N S , I T I S U S E D T O C L E A N T H E S K I N . 201.

ALCOHOL

IS USE D TO EX TRACT C HEMICA L FROM A LCO HO LIC SO LUT ION S AND TO MAKE

P E R F U M E R Y. 202.

IN

C H E M I C A L A N D B I O C H E M I C A L L A B O R AT O R I E S , A L C O H O L I S U S E D A S R E A G E N T S A N D

S O M E T I M E S T O P R E PA R E R E A G E N T S . 203. 204.

IT

I S A G O O D P R E S E RVAT I V E . I S U S E D I N S O M E A L L O P AT H I C A N D A Y U RV E D I C M E D I C I N A L P R E PA R AT I O N S

ALCOHOL

A N D I N M O S T O F T H E H O M E O P AT H I C M E D I C I N E S . 205.

IT

S U P P L I E S C A L O R I E S T O P R O V I D E S T R E N G T H , E X C I T E S R E S P I R AT I O N , A N D H E L P S I N

E X PA N S I O N O F T H E B L O O D VA S S A L S B U T T H E P R O F I T I S T R A N S I E N T A N D N O M I N A L .

DISADVANTAGES OF ALCOHOL:

Intoxicants have injurious effects on the human body. Usage of alcohol as drinks has the following disastrous effects:
206.

ALCOHOL
ARE

M O S T LY A C T S M A I N LY O N T H E H U M A N B R A I N A N D I T S D A M A G I N G E F F E C T S F E LT T HE RE .

G E N E R A L LY

IT

IS

NEVER

BENEFICIAL

FOR

T HE

I NTELLECT UA L

A C T I V I T I E S A S I T B L U N T S R AT H E R T H A N S H A R P E N I N G . 207.

T HI S

I S G E N E R A L L Y A D M I T T E D T H AT A L C O H O L I S A N I N T O X I C A N T T H AT B Y D E P R E S S I N G

B R A I N A C T I V I T Y D E A D E N S H U M A N R E F L E X E S R AT H E R T H A N A C T I N G A S A R E J U V E N AT I N G A G E N T.

ACTING

ON

T HE

N E RV O U S

SYSTEM

IT

PRODUCES

UNCO NSCI O USNESS

AND

L E T H A R G Y.

314

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
208.

ALCOHOL

B L U R S H U M A N P E R C E P T I O N A N D A L E RT N E S S , B L U N T S

J U D G E M E N T,

AND THUS

S E N D S T HE M I N D I N T O A N UN S TA B L E C O N D I T I O N .

HUMAN

MIND AND T HE BODY UNDE R

I T S I N F L U E N C E T O T A L L Y G O H AY W I R E A N D L O S E A L L C O O R D I N AT I O N , H A R M O N Y A N D S Y N C H R O N I Z I N G C A PA C I T I E S .

A

B L U N T T H I N K I N G F A C U L T Y R E M A I N S I N C A P A C I T AT E D T O

J U D G E A P P R O P R I AT E N E S S O F A C T I O N S A N D T H U S A N Y M I S D E E D S C A N B E P E R P E T U AT E D I N A S T AT E O F I N T O X I C AT I O N . BECOMES EASY TO C A R RY

N O R M A L LY
WIT HO UT

A N E V I L D E E D T H AT W O U L D B E S H U N N E D ANY H E S I T AT I O N .

O UT

H UMA NS B UT

TURN

INTO

A N I M A L S A N D D O S I N F U L T H I N G S T H AT T H E Y M I G H T R E G R E T L AT E R . W E L L PA S T A N Y R E P E N T A N C E A N D T H E D A M A G E I S I R R E PA R A B L E .

BY T HA N HE I S

The Prophet (PBUH) warning against hard drinks said: ―Alcohol gives birth to all crimes and vulgarity. Drinking this people may get involved in most horrible sins.‖ The comment of a German physician is almost proverbial: He said: ―If half the bars were closed then I can assure you that half the hospitals and prisons automatically would become redundant.‖134 A French Scholar Henry in his book, ‗Khawatir and Sawanih fil-Islam‘ wrote: ―The most terrifying weapon to annihilate the Easterners and the Muslims was alcoholism. We used this against Algeria. But for the Islamic prohibitions, we could not influence those Muslims that were firmly imbibed with the spirit of Islam. We could have brought the other too under our hegemony if the faithful part took to drinking, like the betrayers of faith. Those that accepted our ways are today most hated and demoralized and cannot even dare raise their head.‖ Bentam, a British legal expert wrote: ―Among many distinguishing features of Islam prohibition of alcohol as drinks is one. We have seen when the Africans started using this they became diseased with insane excitement. Those Europeans began to sip alcoholic beverages their intellect and wisdom started degrading. Therefore, as banning the use of alcoholic beverages is necessary for the Africans, so it is important that the Europeans are penalized dearly for this.‖
GAMBLING IS ILLEGAL:

In the Holy Qur‘än (Süra 2: 219) gambling is prohibited along with drinking. It also has the same influence as that of drinking on human welfare. Gambling is one of the vices that initiate people into other sinful activities. Generally gambling is totally dependent on luck and is highly
134 Tafsir e almanar: Mufti Abduh; p. 226. Part-II.

315

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

uncertain. Gambling involves small investment and promises high return. Philosophers and psychologists hold that gambling appeals to two desires in humans namely to attain and the excitement of uncertainty. There is some benefit in gambling like drinking, but the damages far out weighs the advantages.
ADVANTAGES OF GAMBLING:
209. 210. 211.

A

GAM B LE R C AN E A R N A L OT B Y I N V E ST I NG V E RY LI T T LE AN D W I T HO UT M UC H LA B O R. D E P E N D S C O M P L E T E LY O N H I S L U C K . W I T H L I T T L E S T A K E S I S C O N S I D E R E D E N T E RT A I N M E N T .

HE

GAMBLING

From ancient days, gambling has been in vogue in human society. People gamble to gain quickly. In spite of the popularity of gambling people at different times had built up movements to ban gambling. Even in the modern free states, rules and regulations have been enacted to control gambling. Because, most of the gamblers lose heavily through gambling, from the olden days the history of gambling has been one of fights, murder, theft and suicide etc.
DISADVANTAGES:

The Holy Qur‘än says: ―They ask thee Concerning wine and gambling. ‗Say: In them is great sin, And some profit, for men; But the sin is greater Than the profit‘.‖ (Al-Qur‘än - 2:219).
212.

GAMBLING

M AY

PROVE

GAINFUL A

FEW

TIMES

BUT

G E N E R A L LY ,

IT

CA USE S

G R E AT

FINANCIAL LOSS. 213. 214. 215.

LIKE A

D RI N K I N G , G A M B LI N G I S A L S O A S O C I A L E V I L A N D I S A BA D HA B I T.

G A M B L E R ‘ S H E A RT F I L L S W I T H R E M O R S E L I K E T H E D R U N K A R D R E G A I N I N G S E N S E S . M O N E Y T H E G A M B L E R M A Y B R I N G I N P O V E RT Y I N H I S L I F E A N D S U F F E R T H E

LOSING

INDIGNITY OF A POOR MAN. 216.

FINANCIAL

T R O U B L E S I N V I T E U N H A P P I N E S S I N T H E F A M I L Y A N D PA R T N E R S M AY D R I F T

A P A RT R E S U L T I N G I N T O D I V O R C E S . 217. 218.

BROKE N TO

FA M I L I E S M A K E T H E L I V E S O F O F F S P R I N G M I S E R A B L E .

S U P P O R T G A M B L I N G G A M B L E R S S T E A L , R O B , C H E AT A N D I N D U L G E I N A L L S O RT S O F

ANTI SOCIAL ACTIVITIES.

EVEN

A W I N N E R I S A B A D E X A M P L E F O R T H E S O C I E T Y, S I N C E

HE GETS RIC HE R WIT HO UT LA BO RIN G HA RD. 219. 220.

THROUGH S T AT E
NOBLE

L O T T E R Y , P E O P L E A R E C H E AT E D V E R Y S U B T LY . OR SPONSORED PUBLICITY P L AY I N G BY ANY O R G A N I Z AT I O N S , NEVER O B V I O U S LY THE FOR SOME IT

SPONSORE D CAUSE, BUT

T HE

C A M PA I G N S ON T HE

EMPHASIZE T HE PEOPLE.

CAUSE;

R AT H E R E X C I T E S

INTEREST

GREED O F

H O WE V E R ,

C H A N C E S A R E R A R E T H AT A C L I E N T W O U L D W I N , B U T T H E S P O N S O R S M A K E I T S O U N D VE RY P R O BA B LE . THEI R G REED

THUS,

T H E S E L O T T E R I E S C H E AT T H E P E O P L E S U B T L Y B Y P R O V O K I N G

A H U M A N F R A I LT Y .

316

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE RESTRAINING ARROGANCE AND PRIDE:

Almighty God is the Lord of all things in the Worlds. He says:
301. N EITHER THE C OVETOUS NOR THE B OASTERS HAVE ANY PLA CE IN G OOD P LEASURE OF G OD . F OR G OD LOVETH NOT A NY VAINGLORIOUS BOASTER , S UCH PERSONS AS ARE C OVETOUS AND COMMEND C OVETOUSNESS TO MEN (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:23-24). N OR WALK THE EARTH W ITH INSOLENCE : FOR THOU C ANST NOT REND THE EARTH A SUNDER , NOR REACH T HE MOUNTAINS IN HEIG HT. O F ALL SUCH THINGS T HE EVIL IS HATEFUL IN THE SIGHT OF THY L ORD (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:37-38). T HY SWELL NOT THY CHEEK (F OR PRIDE ) AT MEN , N OR WALK IN INSOLENCE T HROUGH THE EARTH ; F OR G OD LOVETH NOT A NY ARROGANT BOASTER (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 31:18).

302.

303.

On the issue of Insolence and Pride, Muhammad (PBUH) said,
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‘ ÄN - 31:18).

5.

God does not like the insolent is described in the holy Qur‘än.
304.

Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―You should save yourselves from jealousy: As fire consumes wood, so does Covetousness destroy all virtuous deeds of man. There are some people in the societies who are envious of the success, status, wealth, influence and efficiency of others. Consumed by the envy, they wish their destruction. This is a hideous condemnable emotion. However, it is permitted by Islam to try to acquire wealth and influence like others, inspired by their example‖ (Abu-Dawood).
TOLERANCE: 305. 306. 307. 308. A ND G OD LOVES THOSE WHO ARE FIRM AND STEADFAST. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:146). N AY, SEEK (G OD ‘ S ) HELP WITH PATIENTS P ERSEVERANCE AND PRAY ER : (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:45). O YE WHO BELIEVE ! P ERSEVERE IN PATIENCE AND CONSTANCY ; VIE IN SUCH PERSEVERANCE ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:200). W HO SAY, WHEN AFFLICTED WITH CALAMITY: ‗T O G OD WE BELONG , AND TO H IM IS OUR RETURN : - ‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:156).

317

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 309. B E SURE WE SHALL TEST YOU WITH SOMETHING O F FEAR AND HUNGER , SOME LOSS IN GOODS OR LIVES OR THE FRUITS ( OF YOUR TOIL ), BUT GIVE GLAD TIDINGS TO THOSE WHO PATIENTLY PERSEVERE , - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:155). W E HAVE MADE SOME OF YOU AS A TRIAL FOR OTHERS : W ILL YE HAVE PATIENCE ? F OR G OD IS O NE W HO S EES ( ALL THINGS ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 25:20). N OR CAN G OODNESS AND E VIL BE EQUAL . R EPEL (E VIL ) WITH WHAT IS BETTER :
THEN WILL HE BETWEEN WHOM AND THEE WAS HATRED BECOME AS IT WERE THY FRIEND AND INTIMATE ! A ND NO ONE WILL BE GR ANTED SUCH GOODNESS EXCEPT THOSE WHO EXERCISE PATIENTS AND SELF - RESTRAINT, - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN -

310. 311.

41:34-35). BENEVOLENCE (SERVICE TO OTHERS): 312. F OR G OD LOVETH THOSE WHO DO GOOD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:148). 313. A ND BE STEADFAST IN PATIENCE ; FOR VERILY G OD WILL NOT SUFFER T HE REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS TO PERISH . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 11:115). MODESTY, HUMILITY, POLITENESS, AND SHIRKING CALUMNY:

Instructions are there in the Qur‘än and Hadith to be gentle, humble and well mannered in dealings with others. Muhammad (PBUH) was the brightest example of a humble, gentle and amiable person. His Companions and Savants for ages have diligently followed him. He was the embodiment of humility, politeness and good manners. None was ever maltreated by him and none had any cause to complain. Even his sworn enemies were captivated by his extraordinarily humble manners. Muhammad (PBUH), talked and mixed with people with an unpretentious smiling face, radiating love and warmth. He showed respect to all and maintained decorum of assemblies and congregations. The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―That who is humble because he loves God, God elevates him‖ (Muslim). The Prophet (PBUH) neither maligned, nor abused anybody. He only spoke against those who opposed God. It is advised in the holy Qur‘än to restrain one‘s tongue. Hypocrisy, slander, intrigue, sabotage, destruction, backbiting, cursing, maltreatment and all other bad habits are strictly forbidden by the Qur‘än and Traditions.
314. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! W HY SAY YE THAT W HICH YE DO NOT ? G RIEVOUSLY ODIOUS IS IT I N THE SIGHT OF G OD T HAT YE SAY THAT W HICH YE DO NOT (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 61:2-3). TRULY G OD GUIDES NOT ONE W HO TRANSGRESSES AND LIES ! (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 40:28).

315.

Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―That who remembers God at meetings with others are the best among you. And those who backbite, create animosity between friends, spread slander and cause disharmony are the worst
318

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

among you‖ (Ahmad, Masnad and Baihakki). ―That who believes in God, never uses his tongue against anybody, never curses, abuses or taunts anybody‖ (Tirmizi). ―Keep your tongue under control, because many repented unrestrained use later. If anybody accuses somebody of misdeeds falsely that rebounds on him later‖ (Bukhari). ―No slanderer enters the heaven‖ (Bukhari). ―A firm believer do not spread slander, do not curse, do not fulfil carnal desire illegally and do not behave audaciously with others‖ (Tirmizi). ―The pious never cohabit with the liars or support them‖ (Malik & Baihakki). ―If anybody curses others, voluntarily, that rebounds on the cursor‖ (Tirmizi & Abu-Dawood). ―That who is used to unrestrained language and immodesty in behavior will never enter the paradise‖ (AbuDawood).
316. O YE WHO BELIEVE ! L ET NOT SOME MEN A MONG YOU LAUGH AT OT HERS : I T MAY BE THAT T HE ( LATTER ) ARE BETTER T HAN THE ( FORMER ): N OR LET SOME WOMEN L AUGH AT OTHERS : I T MAY BE THAT T HE ( LATTER ) ARE BETTER T HAN THE ( FORMER ): N OR DEFAME NOR BE S ARCASTIC TO EACH OTH ER , N OR CALL EACH OTHER B Y (O FFENSIVE ) NICKNAMES : I LL - SEEMING IS A NAME C ONNOTING WICKEDNESS , (T O BE USED OF ONE ) A FTER HE HAS BELIEVED : A ND THOSE WHO D O NOT DESIST ARE ( INDEED ) DOING WRONG (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 49:11).

The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―If anybody pledges to restrain his Tongue and Private parts, I will Guarantee him Paradise‖ (Bukhari). Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―When people rise in the morning from sleep all the parts of their body request the tongue: ―please fear God for us, because, we are all, inseparably blended with you. If you behave appropriately, we would be able to work properly, and if you conduct improperly we would follow you involuntarily and suffer the bad consequences‖ (Tirmizi).
ORPHANS OR FATHERLESS CHILDREN: 317. T O ORPH ANS RESTORE THEIR PR OPERTY ( WHEN THEY REACH THEIR AGE ), NOR SUBSTITUTE ( YOUR ) WORTHLESS THINGS FOR ( THEIR ) GOOD ONES ; DEVOUR NOT THEIR SUBSTANCE ( BY MIXING UP ) WITH YOUR OWN . F OR THIS IS INDEED A GREAT SIN . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:2). 318. M AKE TRIAL OF ORPHANS UNTIL THEY REACH THE AGE O F MARRIAGE ; IF THEN YOU FIND SOUND JUDGEMENT IN THEM , RELEASE THEIR PROPERTY TO THEM ; BUT CONSUME IT NOT WASTEFULLY, NOR IN HASTE AGAINST THEIR GROWING UP. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:6). 319. T HOSE WHO UNJUSTLY EAT UP THE PROPERTY OF ORPHANS , EAT UP A F IRE INTO THEIR OWN BODIES : THEY WILL SOON BE EN DURING A BLAZING F IRE ! (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:10). 320. C ONCERNING ORPHANS . S AY: T HE BEST THING TO DO IS WHAT IS FOR THEIR GOOD ; IF YE MIX THEIR AFFAIRS WITH YOURS , THEY ARE YOUR BRETHR EN ;‘ (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:220). 319

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 321. 322. C OMETH NOT NIGH TO THE ORPHAN ‘ S PROPERTY EXCEPT TO IMPROVE IT, UNTIL HE ATTAINS THE AGE OF FULL STRENGTH ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:34). T HEREFORE , TREAT NOT THE ORPHAN S WITH HARSHNESS , NOR REPULSE THE PETITIONER ( UNHEARD ); (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 9:9-10).

WASTEFULNESS AND EXTRAVAGANCE: 323. . EAT AND DRINK : B UT WASTE NOT BY EXCE SS , FOR G OD LOVETH NOT THE WASTERS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:31). 324. A ND RENDER TO THE KIN DRED THEIR DUE RIGHT S , AS ( ALSO ) TO THOSE IN WANT, AND TO THE WAYFARER : BUT SQUANDER NOT ( YOUR WEALTH ) IN THE MANNER OF A SPENDTHRIFT. V ERILY SPENDTHRIFTS ARE BROTHERS OF E VIL O NES ; AND THE E VIL O NE IS TO HIS L ORD (H IMSELF ) U NGRATEFUL . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:26-27). 325. E AT OF THEIR FRUIT IN THEIR SEASON , BUT RENDER THE DUES THAT ARE PROPER ON THE DAY THAT THE HARVEST IS GATHERED . B UT WASTE NOT BY EXCESS : FOR G OD L OVETH NOT WASTERS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6:141). SLANDER, CALUMNY: 326. T HUS W E DO RECOMPENSE THOSE WHO INVENT ( FALSEHOOD ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 7:152). 327. G OD LOVETH NOT THAT E VIL SHOULD BE NOISED ABROAD IN PUBLIC SPEECH , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:148). 328. B UT IF AN Y ONE EARNS A FAULT OR SIN AND THROWS IT ON TO ONE THAT IS INNOCENT, HE CARRIES ( ON HIMSELF BOTH ) A FALSEHOOD AND A FLAGRANT SIN .‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:112). 329. N OR DEFAME NOR BE SAR CASTIC TO EACH OTHER , NOR CALL EACH OTHER BY ( OFFENSIVE ) NICKNAMES : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 49:11). 330. A ND SPY NOT ON EACH O THER , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 49:112). 331. N OR SPEAK ILL OF EACH OTHER BEHIND THEIR B ACKS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 49:120). 332. H EED NOT THE TYPE OF DESPICABLE MAN , - READY WITH OATHS , A SLANDERER , GOING ABOUT WITH CAL UMNIES , ( HABITUALLY ) HINDERING ( ALL ) GOOD , TRANSGRESSING BEYOND BOUNDS , DEEP IN SIN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 68:10-12). 333. T HOSE WHO SLANDER CHA STE WOMEN , INDISCREET BUT BELIEVING , AND CURSED IN THIS LIFE AND IN THE H EREAFTER : F OR THEM IS A GRIEVOU S P ENALTY. - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:23). 334. A ND THOSE WHO LAUNCH A CHARGE AGAINST CHASTE WOM EN , AND PRODUCE NOT FOUR WITNESSES ( TO SUPPORT THEIR ALL EGATIONS ), - FLOG THEM WITH EIGHTY STRIPES ; AND REJECT THEIR EVIDENCE EVEN AFTER : FOR SUCH MEN ARE WICKED TRANSGRESSORS ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:4). 335. W OE TO EVERY ( KIND OF ) SCANDALMONGER AND BACKBITER , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 104:1). PRIDE: 336. 337. G OD LOVETH NOT ANY VAINGLORIOUS BOASTER , - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:23). N OT DESPAIR OVER MATTERS THAT PASS YOU BY, NOT EXULT OVER FAVOR S BESTOWED UPON YOU . F OR G OD LOVETH NOT ANY VAINGLORIOUS BOASTER , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:23). N OR WALK ON THE EARTH WITH INSOLENCE : FOR THOU CANST NOT R END THE EARTH ASUNDER , NOR REACH THE MOUNTAINS IN HEIGHT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 17:37).

338.

320

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 339. A ND SWELL NOT THY CHE EK ( FOR PRIDE ) AT MEN , NOR WALK INSOLENCE THROUGH THE EARTH ; FOR G OD LOVETH NOT ANY ARROGANT BOASTER . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 31:18). S O ENTER THE GATE OF H ELL , TO DWELL THEREIN . T HUS EVIL INDEED IS THE ABODE OF THE ARROGANT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:29). A ND G OD LOVETH NOT THOSE THAT DO WRONG . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:140). F OR WRONGDOERS THERE MUST BE A GRIEVOUS P ENALTY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 14:22). E XCEPT FOR THOSE WHO REPENT BEFORE THEY FALL INTO YOUR POWER : IN THAT CASE , KNOW THAT G OD IS O FT- FORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5:37). F OR (G OD ) LOVETH NOT THOSE WHO DO WRONG . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 42:40). T HE BLAME IS ONLY AGA INST THOSE WHO OPPRE SS MEN WITH WRONGDOING AND INSOLENTLY TRANSGRESS BEYOND BOUNDS THROUGH THE LAND , DEFYING RIGHT AND JUSTICE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 42:42).

340. TYRANNY: 341. 342. 343.

344. 345.

ASSETS AND RICHES: 346. T HAT YOUR POSSESSIONS AND YOUR PROGENY ARE BUT A TRIAL ; AND THAT IT IS G OD WITH WHOM LIE S YOUR HIGHEST REWAR D . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 8:28). 347. T HE U NBELIEVERS SPEND THE IR WEALTH TO HINDER ( MEN ) FROM THE PATH OF G OD , AND SO WILL THEY CON TINUE TO SPEND ; BUT IN THE END THEY WILL HAVE ( ONLY ) REGRETS SIGHS ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 8:36). 348. I T IS NOT YOUR NOR YOUR SONS , THAT WILL BRING YOU NE ARER TO U S IN DEGREE : BUT ONLY THOSE WHO BELIEVE AND WORK RIGHTEOUSNESS - (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 34:37). 349. L ET NOT YOUR RICHES O R YOUR CHILDREN DIVERT YOU FROM THE REMEMBRANCE OF G OD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 63:9). 350. W HAT G OD H AS BESTOWED ON H IS A POSTLE ( AND TAKEN AWAY ) FROM THE PEOPLE OF THE TOWNSH IPS , - BELONGS TO G OD , - TO H IS A POSTLE AND TO KINDRED AND ORPHANS , THE NEEDY AND THE WAYFARER ; IN ORDER THAT IT MAY NOT ( MERELY ) MAKE A CIRCUIT BETWEEN THE WEALTHY AMONG YOU . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 59:7). CLEMENCY: 351. T HOSE WHO SPEND ( FREELY ), WHETHER IN PROSPERIT Y, OR IN ADVERSITY ; WHO RESTRAIN ANGER AND PARDON ( ALL ) MEN ; - FOR G OD LOVES THOSE WHO DO GOOD ; - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 3:134). K IND WORDS AND COVERING FAULTS ARE BETTER THAN CHARITY, (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 2:263). T HE RECOMPENSE FOR AN INJURY IS AN INJURY EQUAL THERETO ( IN DEGREE ): BUT IF A PERSON FORG IVES AND MAKES RECON CILIATION , HIS REWARD IS DUE FROM G OD : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 42:40). B UT INDEED IF ANY SHOW PATIENCE AND FORGIVE , THAT WOULD TRULY BE AN EXERCISE OF COURAGEO US WILL (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 40:43). (G OD ) KNOWS OF ( THE TRICKS ) THAT DECEIVE WITH TH E EYES , AND ALL THAT THE HEARTS ( OF MEN ) CONCEAL . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 40:19 .... AND H E FORBIDS ALL SHAMEF UL DEEDS , AND INJUSTICE AND RE BELLION : H E INSTRUCTS YOU THAT YE MAY RECEIVE ADMONITION . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:90).

352. 353.

354. INDECENCY: 355. 356.

321

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 357. 358. N OR COME NIGH TO ADULTERY: FOR IT IS A SHAMEFUL ( DEED ) AND AN EVIL , OPENING THE ROAD ( TO OTHER EVILS ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:32). S AY TO THE BELIEVING MEN THAT THEY SHOULD LOWER THEIR GAZE AND GUARD THEIR MODESTY: THAT WILL MAKE FOR G REATER PURITY FOR THEM : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:30). A ND SAY TO THE WOMEN THAT THEY SHOULD LOWER THEIR GAZE AND GU ARD THEIR MODESTY ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:31). W HO ABSTAIN FROM SEX , E XCEPT WITH THOSE JOINED TO THEM IN MARRIAGE BOND , OR ( THE CAPTIVES ) WHOM THEIR RIGHT HANDS POSSESS , - FOR ( IN THEIR CASE ) THEY ARE FREE FROM B LAME , BUT THOSE WHOSE DESIRES EXCEED THOSE LIMITS ARE TRANSGRESSORS ; - THOSE WHO FAITHFULLY OBSERVE THEIR TRUSTS AND THEIR COVENANTS ; AND WHO ( STRICTLY ) GUARD THEIR PRAYERS ; - THESE WILL BE THE HEIRS , WHO WILL INHERIT PARADISE : THEY WILL DWELL THER EIN ( FOR EVER ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 23:5-11). L ET THOSE FIGHT IN TH E CAUSE OF G OD WHO SELL THE LIFE OF THIS WORLD FOR THE H EREAFTER . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:74). T HE WOMAN AND MAN GUILTY OF ADULTERY AND FORNICATION , -F LOG EACH OF THEM WITH A HUNDRED STRIPES : L ET NO COMPASSION MOVE YOU IN THEIR CASE , IN A MATTER PRESCRIBED BY G OD , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 24:2). G OD DOTH WISH TO LIGH TEN YOUR ( DIFFICULTIES ): F OR MAN WAS CREATED WEAK ( IN FLESH ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:28). T HOSE WHO AVOID THE GREATER CRIMES AND SH AMEFUL DEEDS , AND WHEN THEY ARE ANGRY EVEN THEN FORGIVE ; THOSE WHO HEARKEN TO THEIR L ORD , AND ESTABLISH REGULAR PRAYER ; ... HIS REWARD IS DUE FR OM G OD : (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 42:37-40).

359. 360.

361. 362.

363. 364.

WEIGHT AND MEASURE: 365. G IVE FULL MEASURE WHE N YE MEASURE , AND WEIGH WITH A BALANCE THAT IS STRAIGHT : T HAT IS THE MOST FITT ING AND THE MOST ADVANTAGEOUS IN THE FINAL DETERMINATION . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17:35). 366. .... G IVE JUST MEASURE AND WEIGHT, NOR WITHHOLD FROM TH E PEOPLE THE THINGS THAT ARE THEIR DUE ; AND DO NO MISCHIEF ON THE EARTH AFTER IT HAS BEEN SET IN ORDER : THAT WILL BE BEST FO R YOU , IF YE HAVE FAITH : (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7:85). 367. S O ESTABLISH WEIGHT W ITH JUSTICE AND FALL NOT SHORT IN THE BALANCE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 55:9). 368. W OE TO THOSE THAT DEAL IN FRAUD , - THOSE WHO , WHEN THEY HAVE TO RECEIVE BY MEASURE FROM MEN , EXACT FULL MEASURE , BUT WHEN THEY HAVE TO GIVE BY MEASURE OR WEIGHT TO MEN , GIVE LESS THAN DUE . D O THEY NOT THINK THAT THEY WILL BE CALLED TO ACCOUNT ? - O N A M IGHTY D AY, A D AY WHEN ( ALL ) MANKIND WILL STAND BEFORE THE L ORD OF THE W ORLDS ? N AY ! S URELY THE R ECORD OF THE W ICKED IS (P RESERVED ) IN S IJJIN . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 83:1-7). 369. G IVE JUST MEASURE , AND CAUSE NO LOSS ( TO OTHERS BY FRAUD ). A ND WEIGH WITH SCALES T RUE AND UPRIGHT. A ND WITHHOLD NOT THINGS JUSTLY DUE TO MEN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 26:181-83). FRAUD: PRETENDERS AND HYPOCRITES: 370. T HE H YPOCRITES WILL BE IN THE LOWEST DEPTHS OF THE F IRE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 4:145). 371. F OR G OD WILL COLLECT THE H YPOCRITES AND THOSE WHO DEFY FAITH - ALL IN H ELL : - (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:140). 322

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 372. 373. O F THE PEOPLE THERE ARE SOME WHO SAY: ‗W E BELIEVE IN G OD AND THE L AST D AY ;‘ BUT THEY DO NOT ( REALLY ) BELIEVE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:8). W HEN THEY MEET THOSE WHO BELIEVE , THEY SAY: ‗W E BELIEVE ;‘ BUT WHEN THEY ARE ALONE WITH THEIR EVIL ONES , THEY SAY: ‗W E ARE REALLY WITH YOU : WE ( WERE ) ONLY JESTING .‘ G OD WILL THROW BACK T HEIR MOCKERY ON THEM , AND GIVE THEM ROPE IN THEIR TRESPASSES ; SO THEY WILL WANDER LIKE BLIND ONES ( TO AND FRO ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:14-15).

ACTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES: 374. T HEN SHALL EVERY SOUL BE PAID WHAT IT EARNED , AND NONE SHALL BE DE ALT WITH UNJUSTLY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2:281). 375. WHOEVER WORKS EVIL , WILL BE REQUITED ACCORDINGLY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 4:123). 376. I F ANY DO DEEDS OF RIGHTEOUSNESS , - BE THEY MALE OR FEMA LE - AND HAVE FAITH , THEY WILL ENTER H EAVEN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:124). 377. T O THOSE WHO DO GOOD , THERE IS GOOD IN THI S WORLD , AND THE H OME OF H EREAFTER IS EVEN BETTER (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:30). 378. H E THAT DOETH GOOD SH ALL HAVE TEN TIMES AS MUCH TO HIS CREDIT : H E THAT DOETH EVIL SHALL ONLY BE RECOMPENSED ACCORDING TO HIS E VIL : (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6:160). 379. E VERY SOUL DRAWS THE MEED OF ITS ACTS ON NONE BUT ITSELF : NO BEARER OF BURDENS CAN BEAR THE BURDEN OF ANOTHE R . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6:164). 380. T HAT WHICH IS ON THE EARTH W E HAVE MADE BUT AS A GLITTERING SHOW FOR THE EARTH , IN ORDER THAT W E MAY TEST THEM - AS TO WHICH OF THEM ARE BEST IN CONDUCT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 18:7). 381. A ND TO ALL ARE ( ASSIGNED ) DEGREES ACCORDING TO THE DEEDS WHICH THEY ( HAVE DONE ), AND IN ORDER THAT (G OD ) MAY RECOMPENSE THEIR DEEDS , AND NO INJUSTICE BE DONE TO THEM . A ND ON THE D AY THAT THE UNBELIEVERS WILL BE PLACED BEFORE THE F IRE , ( IT WILL BE SAID TO T HEM ): ‗ YE RECEIVED YOUR GOOD THINGS IN THE LIFE OF THE WORLD , AND YE TOOK YOUR PLE ASURE OUT OF THEM : BUT TO - DAY SHALL YE BE RECO MPENSED WITH A P ENALTY OF HUMILIATION : F OR THAT YE WERE ARROGANT ON EARTH WITHOUT JUST CAUSE , AND THAT YE ( EVER ) TRANSGRESSED .‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 46:19-20). 382. N AMELY, THAT NO BEARER OF BURDENS CAN BEAR THE BURDEN OF ANOTHER ; THAT MAN CAN HAVE NOTHING BUT WHAT HE STRIVES FOR ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 53:38-39). 383. H E W HO CREATED D EATH AND L IFE , THAT H E MAY TRY WHICH OF YOU IS BEST IN DEED : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 67:2). 384. V ERILY M AN IS IN LOSS , E XCEPT SUCH AS HAVE FAITH , AND DO RIGHTEOU S DEEDS , AND ( JOIN TOGETHER ) IN THE MUTUAL TEACHING OF T RUTH , AND OF PATIENCE AND C ONSTANCY. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 103:2-3). 385. O N THAT D AY WILL MEN PROCEED IN COMPANIES SORTED OUT, TO BE SHOWN THE D EEDS THAT THEY ( HAD DONE ). T HEN SHALL ANYONE WHO HAS DONE AN ATOM ‘ S WEIGHT OF GOOD , SEE IT ! AND ANYONE WHO HAS DONE AN ATOM ‘ S WEIGHT OF EVIL , SHALL SEE IT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 99:6-8). REPENTANCE AND PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS: 386. E XCEPT FOR THOSE WHO REPENT, MEND ( THEIR LIFE ), HOLD FAST TO G OD , AND PURIFY THEIR RELIGIO N AND IN G OD ‘ S SIGHT: IF SO THEY WILL BE ( NUMBERED ) WITH B ELIEVERS . A ND SOON WILL G OD GRANT TO B ELIEVERS A REWARD OF IMMENSE VALUE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4:146).

323

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 387. A S FOR THOSE WHO F EAR THEIR L ORD UNSEEN , FOR THEM IS F ORGIVENESS AND GREAT R EWARD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 67:12).

SAYINGS AND IDEALS OF THE PROPHET (PBUH):

The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―That, by whom the humanity is benefited, is the best among man (Ahadith).‖ From his childhood, Muhammad (PBUH) was deeply devoted to the Creator. Muhammad (PBUH), the handsome, kind, young man had endless and genuine love and affection for everybody, irrespective of caste and creed. He was responsive and sympathetic to peoples‘ happiness and sorrow. His simple, gracious, amicable manners, righteousness and truthfulness greatly fascinated the Meccans. They loved and respected him and called him Al-Amin and AsSadique. However, Muhammad (PBUH) could not live in peace and happiness, as he had been greatly perturbed and pained by the injustices, prevailing in those days. Inequality among men, the progeny of Adam, greatly perturbed him. Incongruous social stratification was unacceptable to him. He meditated on how to cleanse the society of the ills that are indecent for human beings. In the meantime, he traveled to different lands for trade and commerce and got exposure to other cultures and peoples. Muhammad (PBUH) was greatly disturbed by the sufferings of the people and meditated deeply to reach a solution. In his meditations, he prayed for God‘s Guidance. To give a shape to his dreams, Muhammad (PBUH) wanted that there should not be any disparity, discord and enmity among men. They should live in great harmony, peace and accord. In an atmosphere of friendship and cordiality, they should enjoy an unperturbed happy life. None should cause any harm to anybody; and remain uncorrupted by any sins like: theft, robbery, gambling, addiction, adultery and jealousy. The Prophet (PBUH) envisaged a society established on Faith, Truth and Justice, where there will be no oppressors and none will be tyrannized. Hunger, thirst, poverty and illness will not reign supreme, as it were in those days, in Arabia and other parts of the world.
NO CELIBACY IN ISLAM:

The mainstay of the Islamic social system is the submission to God‘s commands and adherence to the instructions of Muhammad (PBUH), His prophet. Every Muslim in accordance with the example of the Prophet (PBUH) must lead a normal family life. Like the other religions, Islam
324

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

does not support celibacy. Regarding the followers of Jesus Christ, Allah says in the Qur‘än:
388. .B UT THE M ONASTICISM WHICH THEY INVENTED FOR THEMSELVES , W E DID NOT PRESCRIBE FOR THEM : (W E RECOMMENDED ) ONLY THE SEEKING FOR G OOD PLEASURE OF G OD : BUT THAT THEY DID NOT FOSTER AS THEY SHOULD HAVE DONE . Y ET W E BESTOWED , ON THOSE AMONG THEM WHO BELIEVED , THEIR ( DUE ) REWARD , BUT MANY OF THEM ARE R EBELLIOUS TRAN SGRESSORS . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 57:27).

Abdullah ibn Amr ibnul Äs narrates: ―The Prophet (PBUH) said, ‗Oh, Abdullah do you think that I don‘t know that you fast in the day and pray the whole night?‘ I replied, ‗Oh! God‘s Messenger, what you have heard is true.‘ The Prophet (PBUH) then said, ‗No you will not do so. You will fast but not continuously, and pray but will also sleep, because, your body, your eyes, and your consorts have rights on you‘ (Bukhari).‖ As God does not like undisciplined, unrestrained life style, so He also dislikes excessive devotion to prayers, ignoring the duties of this mundane life. A balanced life is the best way, as has been practiced by the Prophet (PBUH). Hinting to that the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―This is my way and he who does not follow my path is not my disciple‖ (Bukhari & Muslim). Once, three Companions thinking that lavish supplication is necessary one said, ―I will pray all night, the other declared: ‗I will fast all my life‘, and the third vouched: ‗I will worship God remaining a bachelor all my life‘.‖ At that moment, the Prophet (PBUH) arrived there and declared: ―By God, remember that I fear God more then you do, and keep limits and sanctity more than you do, but still I fast and pass days without fasting. I pray in the middle of the night but still I am married and live with my wives. This is my way (Sunnah). That who does not follow my way shall not be counted as my disciples (Bukhari and Muslim).‖ One day, Othman (RA), the son of Majun, prayed to the Prophet (PBUH) for permission to lead the life of a celibate. To that, the Prophet (PBUH) of God replied: ―No, for my people celibacy is not permitted and celibates are not included in my congregation. To fight for the cause of God is the best sacrifice for my people.‖ He said, ―In my people who living as a family man, waits for prayer in the mosque are the best hermits.‖

325

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

The life that Muhammad (PBUH) led and advocated for his disciples is not only beneficial for Muslims but is also good for all the people, for all the time. In addition, this unambiguous life style is very necessary for the human society. There is no example of such a versatile ideal character, like the Prophet (PBUH), in human history. The social system that is clearly depicted by the Prophet‘s (PBUH) life style is the key to the success in this life and hereafter. Any nation that followed the social system given by Muhammad (PBUH) climbed to the top. As the Prophet (PBUH) lived his life according to the teaching of the holy Qur‘än, there is no scope for improvisation. Nobody has the right to alter, add, delete or change any thing there. Therefore, in the Islamic system one has to live with spouses, offspring, relatives, friends and neighbors. Asceticism and monastic life is not permitted in Islam.
ISLAM IS NOT CONFINED TO MOSQUES:

CLOISTERS OF SAINTS AND CONGREGATIONS:

Allah the Great has said in the Qur‘än:
389. O YEA WHO BELIEVE ! ENTER INTO I SLAM W HOLE - HEARTEDLY ; A ND FOLLOW NOT THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE E VIL O NE ; (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 208).

Interpreting this verse experts opined that by saying ‗enter into Islam Whole-heartedly‘, clearly indicates acceptance of Islam in its totality. Acceptance of some of the covenants and rejection of some is not permitted. The Qur‘än and the Sunnah (Traditions of the Prophet) are the unalterable guides to lead this mundane life. Therefore, be it trade, commerce, administration, socio-cultural or spiritual activity, perform them in the way as directed. According to this school of thought, dire punishments are awaiting them who think that only spiritual activities are guided by this covenant, and all other socio-cultural-economic activities are exempted. This disrespect for Qur‘änic law and Sunnah are seen more in the so-called pious people. They do not think that these injunctions apply to all activities of a Muslim. We, therefore, should make a conscious effort to know these laws. Islam is not all rituals and blind allegiance. It demands complete acceptance of the Qur‘än and the Sunnah and their application in every sphere of life. Those who to gratify their own needs, defy these covenants are called Munafiques (hypocrites).
THE FIRST SOCIAL WELFARE ORGANIZATION OF THE WORLD:

HILFUL FUDHUL

326

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muhammad (PBUH) was an intense Humanist. He was the first to say: ―He who loves people, God is kind to him.‖ He said, ―To love people is my principle and my tradition.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) further said, ―Pass Dawn and the Dusk in such a way that there remain no ill feelings or doubts about anybody in your mind (Tirmizi).‖ The Prophet (PBUH) was a great lover of the humankind and an ardent promoter of humanity. He behaved equally well with everybody, irrespective of social and financial standings. For that everybody in Mecca loved and respected him. Acquainted with his versatile qualities, like righteousness, truthfulness and honesty, etc., they bestowed him with the title of ‗As-Sadique and Al-Amin,‘ meaning the ‗Dependable‘ and the ‗Truthful‘, respectively. Being exposed to the noble ideas of Muhammad (PBUH), some young people of his age came forward to help him. With them, to ameliorate the sufferings of the downtrodden, wretched, poor and the destitute, Muhammad (PBUH) established a philanthropic organization. He named it ‗Hilful Fudhul‘ the Organization of the Pious. The nature of the work of this organization created great enthusiasm among the people. They came forward willingly to help him, in this benevolent endeavor. Among them were Muhammad‘s (PBUH) uncles, Zubair and Hashem, and the leaders of the Zohra and Tayeb tribes. To establish peace in the community, Muhammad (PBUH) with his young companions chalked out a grand strategy to implement the following principles through the Hilful Fudhul:
221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227.

TO TO TO TO TO TO TO

E N F O R C E L A W A N D O R D E R A M O N G T R I B E S AT A N Y C O S T , E R A D I C AT E V I C E S A N D I N J U S T I C E F R O M T H E S O C I E T Y , PROTECT T HE WI DO WS, O RPHAN S AND T HE WEA K, HE LP T HE PO O R AN D T HE DESTIT UTE , N URSE T HE SIC K, O LD A ND T HE HELPLESS, P R O T E C T L I F E , P R O P E RT Y A N D H O N O R O F T H E P E O P L E I N A F O R E I G N L A N D A N D , C R E AT E A N E N V I R O N M E N T I N T H E C O U N T R Y F O R E N S U R I N G P E A C E I N S O C I A L A N D LIVES AMONG CLANS, TRIBES AND FA M I L I E S AND DEVELOPING A

INDIVIDUAL

P E R M A N E N T S O C I A L S E C U R I T Y S Y S T E M W H E R E B Y L I F E , P R O P E RT Y A N D H O N O R O F T H E PEOPLE ARE PROTECTED.

They pledged to remain active all their lives, to ensure the following Rights of the neglected and oppressed masses:
228.

T HE

R I G H T T O L I F E , P R O P E R T Y, H O N O R , S E C R E C Y A N D S E C U R I T Y,

327

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
229. 230. 231. 232.

T HE T HE T HE T HE
AND,

RIGHT TO OPPOSE P RE JUDICE AND INJUSTICE, RI G H T T O FA I T H , T H O UG H T A N D I N D E P E N D E N C E , R I G H T T O P RE V E N T P R O PA G A N D A A G A I N S T A N Y R E L I G I O N , R I G H T T O P R O P E R B E H AV I O R A N D T H E R I G H T T O F O R M I N D E P E N D E N T A S S O C I AT I O N S

233.

T HE

RIG HT TO PRE VENT IMPRO PE R PRACTICE S AN D SYCO PHA NC Y FO R GA INS.

In Medïna, the Prophet (PBUH) on foot went around through the lanes and bye lanes, to enforce the objectives of his Organization. This unique endeavor of the Prophet (PBUH) is an inalienable part of the Islamic social system. Today, following his ideals, the whole world is benefited. In the history of the human society, this is the first Organization truly devoted to uplifting the suffering masses. Hilful Fudhul is the first ‗Social Welfare‘ organization of the world. Fourteen hundred years ago, the Prophet (PBUH) has invented and established a ‗Social Welfare Organization‘ in which he has organized, the otherwise, disorganized young people, and used the youthful energy to mitigate the sufferings of the people. All his life, the Prophet (PBUH) had been faithful to the ideals of Hilful Fudhul. He said, ―If people call Oh the people of Hilful Fudhul! I respond to that because Islam has been sent to establish peace and to help the oppressed‖ (Ahadith).
THE FIRST NURSING CORPS IN THE WORLD:

To inspire the soldiers in the battlefield trumpeting is a common practice even today. In the days of the Prophet (PBUH), the Arab women used to sing songs, to inspire their soldiers in the field. They evoked revenge in the hearts of the soldiers with their fiery songs. Excited by such martial tunes, soldiers sacrificed their lives without any hesitations. Keeping in line with this Arab tradition, the Prophet (PBUH) took one or two of his wives with him to the battlefield, other lady-Companions accompanied him, as well. Contrary to the custom, the Prophet (PBUH) put them to other non-traditional jobs. These pious women took care of the wounded and carried them to safer places for treatment. They cooked and fed the soldiers and carried water for them in the field. One of the main duties of these women was to collect the arrows, thrown by the enemy for reusing them. Mainly, they formed the core of the nursing crops. Some of the leading members of these nursing crops are Ummul Muminin Ayesha (RA), Hafsa (RA) Umme-Sulaiem (RA), Umme-Sallit (RA), Rubaiy
328

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(RA), Fatima (RA), and Rafida (RA). They worked as volunteers and there are instances of them taking active part in the battles. Later, these female volunteers regularly helped the war efforts of the Muslims, and thus was established the first nursing crops of the world comprising women. Muhammad (PBUH) opened a treatment center under the supervision of the noted Companion, Rafida (RA), for treating soldiers wounded in the battles. In this way, the Prophet (PBUH), along with the man, enlivened women and imbibed them with humanism. Realizing that, generally, women are more tolerant, self-restrained and sensitive than are men, the Prophet (PBUH) instead of employing them to evoke revenge in the hearts of the soldiers, engaged them in the noble profession of nursing. By nature, they are more suited to soothe the sufferings of the wounded and injured and ameliorate their pain by their soothing kindness. On this principle of selflessly serving the humanity, all organizations like, the Red Cross, Red Crescent, Amnesty International, etc., have been founded. In them are reflected the principles of the Prophet (PBUH), in establishing the Hilful Fudhul and the nursing crops.
RIGHTS OF NEIGHBORS IN ISLAM:

The Great Prophet (PBUH) established a welfare state, where people lived in peace and prosperity, with friends, neighbors, relatives and family members. Muhammad (PBUH) by example had shown people how to behave with neighbors in that Islamic state. His ideals are still effective today, to usher in peace and prosperity, to any nation or state, irrespective of caste and creed. He advised everybody to respect, love, and care and help neighbors. Those simple rules are still valid and respected by all nations of the world. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him) on the rights of neighbors said,
6. 7. 8. ALL NEIGHBORS SHOULD COOPERATE AND LOVE E ACH OTHER. A NEIGHBOR WILL SHARE HAPPINESS AND SORROW WITH THE OTHER IN SU CH A WAY THAT THEY COULD TRUST EACH OTHER WITH THEIR L IVES. IF ANY GOOD FOOD ARE COOKED OR FRUITS ARE BOUGHT IN A HOUSE THAT SHOULD BE SHARED WITH THE NEAREST NEIGHBORS. IF THAT IS NOT
POSSIBLE THAN THE FOOD SHOULD NOT BE TAKEN IN FRONT OF THE NEIGHBOR’S CHILDREN, BECAUSE, THE CHILDREN MAY PESTER THEIR PARENTS TO PROVIDE T HEM THE SAME. A ND THEIR INABILITY T O DO SO MAY CAUSE THEM PAIN.

329

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 9. IF A NEIGHBOR ASKS FO R A LOAN THE OTHER S HOULD GIVE LOAN READ IL Y AND HELP HIM IN NEED , ACCORDING TO HIS ABI LITY. CONGRATULATE NEIGHBORS FOR GOOD TIDINGS AND SHARE THEIR GRIEVES.

10. IF A NEIGHBOR IS SICK OTHERS SHOULD ATTEND AND NURSE HIM, AND IF NECESSARY, ARRANGE FOR HIS TREATMENT.

Concisely, be good, kind, compassionate, cooperative, helpful and friendly with neighbors, so that all the members of community may live like a single family in complete harmony and peace, collectively. The Prophet (PBUH) urged the people of the world to live in ideally peaceful, well-knit communities.
HEALTH AND HYGIENE IN ISLAM

Islam has not confined itself only ineaching its followers to be truthful, righteous, honest, just and principled also taught them health and hygiene. Not only personal health and hygiene, it also dealt with family and community health and hygiene. Good health signifies happiness and peace. God has asked people to look after their health and keep diseases away. That is why Muslims greet each other at home or outside with the word ‗Salaam‘ meaning peace and inquire after health and well-being. This custom is in vogue everywhere in the civilized world. Among the blessings that God has bestowed on man, good health is the foremost. If the body and the mind are not free from sickness, it becomes difficult for people to abide by the teachings of God and worship Him properly. Ill health does not only affect individuals but also influences the family, community and consequently, the whole nation. Good health, therefore, is a prerequisite to better performance both spiritually and in earthly life. Physical and mental health is a requirement to materialize God‘s Commands effectively and properly. God, therefore, has ordered to maintain clean, healthy and diseases free environment, so that people may prosper in healthy, happy peaceful atmosphere. In the light of God‘s Command the Prophet (PBUH) has said, ―Good health will be the first about which God will ask His creations. That Day He will ask His servants, ‗Have not I given you good health?‘ (Tirmizi).‖ God further says,
390. O YE APOSTLES ! ENJOY (A LL ) THINGS GOOD AND PURE , A ND WORK RIGHTEOUSNESS : F OR I AM WELL ACQUAINTED W ITH ( ALL ) THAT YE DO . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 23: 51).

330

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

The human body is dependent on ideal diets that can keep it disease free. To build and maintain the body and to replenish the spent energy, food is necessary. Food keeps hunger away and gives energy to work and that is the main purpose of eating. On the one hand, God had instructed man to eat to keep fit, and on the other hand, warned them against any excess. God says,
391.
TO WASTE NOT BY EXCE SS ,

F OR G OD LOVETH NOT THE WASTERS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN -

7: 31).

About food God has said in the holy Qur‘än:
392. I T IS H E W HO SENDETH DOWN R AIN F ROM THE SKIES : W ITH IT W E PRODUCE V EGETATION OF ALL KINDS : F ROM SOME W E PRODUCE G REEN ( CROPS ), OUT OF WHICH W E PRODUCE GRAIN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6: 99). I T IS H E W HO SENDS DOWN R AIN FROM THE SKY: F ROM IT YE DRINK , A ND OUT OF IT ( GROWS ) T HE VEGETATION ON WHICH Y E FEED YOUR CATTLE . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16: 10). A S IGN FOR THEM I S THE EARTH THAT IS DEAD : W E DO GIVE IT LIFE , A ND PRODUCE GRAIN THEREFROM , O F WHICH Y E DO EAT. A ND W E PRODUCE THEREIN O RCHIDS WITH DATE PALMS A ND VINES , AND W E CAUSE S PRINGS TO GUSH FORTH THEREIN : T HAT THEY MAY ENJOY T HE FRUITS OF THIS ( ARTISTRY ): (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 36: 33-35). A ND CATTLE H E HAS CREATED F OR YOU ( MEN ): FROM THEM Y E DRIVE WARMTH , A ND NUMEROUS BENEFITS , A ND OF THEIR ( MEAT ) YE EAT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16: 5). I T IS H E WHO PRODUCETH G ARDENS , WITH TRELLISES A ND WITHOUT, AND DATES , A ND TILTH WITH PRODUCE O F ALL KINDS , AND OLIVES AND POMEGRANATES , S IMILAR ( IN KIND ) A ND DIFFERENT ( IN VARIETY ): E AT OF THEIR FRUIT I N THEIR SEASON , BUT RENDER T HE DUES THAT ARE PROPER O N THE DAY THAT THE HARVEST I S GATHERED . B UT WASTE NOT B Y EXCESS : FOR G OD L OVETH NOT THE WASTER S . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6: 141). T HEREIN FRUIT A ND DATE - PALMS , PRODUCING S PATHES ( ENCLOSING DATES ); A LSO CORN , WITH ( ITS ) L EAVES AND STALK FOR FODDER , A ND SWEET SMELLING PLANTS . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 55: 11-12). A ND SHAKE TOWARDS THY SELF T HE TRUNK OF THE PALM - TREE : IT WILL LET FALL F RESH RIPE DATES UPON THEE . S O EAT AND DRINK A ND COOL ( THINE ) EYE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 19: 25-26). A ND THY L ORD TAUGHT THE B EE T O BUILD ITS CELLS IN HILLS , O N TREES , AND IN ( MEN ‘ S ) HABITATIONS ; T HEN TO EAT OF ALL T HE PRODUCE ( OF THE EARTH ), A ND FIND WITH SKILL T HE SPACIOUS PATHS OF ITS L ORD : THERE ISSUES F ROM WITHIN THEIR BODIES A DRINK OF VARYING COL ORS , W HEREIN IS HEALING FOR MEN : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16: 68-69).

393.

394.

395. 396.

397.

398.

399.

To replenish spent energy and to build the human body and to keep hunger away God has named domestic and wild animals and birds in the holy Qur‘än. He mentioned trees, herbs and shrubs that are beneficial to man. These are made permissible for us to keep our body healthy and thus to lead a normal happy life. Domestic animals like: camel, cow, lamb and goat are created so that we can eat their meat and make
331

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

apparels from their skin. Taking the lead from the Qur‘än, modern science has discovered in honey, date and pomegranate, ingredients very useful for us. Honey is used to prepare medicine for various diseases. Bestowing these blessings, God has warned man:
400. 401. E AT OF THINGS WHICH G OD HATH PROVIDED FOR YOU L AWFUL AND GOOD ; (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5: 91). E AT OF THE GOOD T HINGS W E HAVE PROVIDED F OR YOUR SUSTENANCE , BUT C OMMIT NO EXCESS THER EIN , L EST M Y W RATH SHOULD JUSTLY D ESCEND ON YOU : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 20: 81).

As God has made food permissible for us and allowed us to enjoy them freely, He has made unlawful all forbidden food unto us. All lawful foods become unlawful if acquired illegally or purchased with illegal earnings. That is why repeatedly, sages warned us against unlawful foods. These prohibited food items cause illness and due to that, people not only become ill, they are also belittled in the society. Taking unlawful things, particularly, alcohol, drugs and by smoking, they invite diseases, which has been attested by the discoveries of modern science. Therefore, God has said,
402. A ND MAKE NOT YOUR OWN HANDS C ONTRIBUTE TO ( YOUR ) DESTRUCTION ; (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 195).

The great Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―God has not given any diseases of which remedy is not given‖ (Bukhari). Meaning, as He has given diseases, so has He given cure. Man should know the treatments of diseases. People should take appropriate measure for treatment of diseases, to get well. The great Apostle (PBUH) of God has given many treatments for diseases. These became known as the Tibbun Nabi (the treatments of the Prophet). From the above book the following naturally available fruits, pods herbs and shrubs, and treatments are described below under the head ‗Tibbun Nabi.‘
TIBBUN NABI:135

Honey, Cumin seed, Henna, Dates, Olive, Mushroom, Fennel, Camelmilk, Goat- milk, Orange, Watermelon, Onion, Garlic, Mustard, Fenugreek-seed, Ginger, Kakrol (Momordica cochininesis), Barley, Wheat, Dried-date, Sandal, Fig, Bitter plum (Zizyphus Jujuba), Bottle
135 Prophet‘s (PBUH) Medicines.

332

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Gourd, Senna, Vinegar, and Saffron, were suggested for treatment of various diseases.
HONEY:

From Time Immemorial, honey has been used as a medicament. This is very beneficial for the human body, a delicious food and an exterminator of all diseases. Honey has been described as a medicine in the holy Qur‘än.
403. A ND THY L ORD TAUGHT THE B EE T O BUILD ITS CELLS IN HILLS , O N TREES , AND IN ( MEN ‘ S ) HABITATIONS ; THEN EAT OF ALL T HE PRODUCE ( OF THE EARTH ), A ND FIND WITH SKILL THE SPACIOUS PATHS OF ITS L ORD : THERE ISSUES F ROM WITHIN THEIR BODIES A DRINK OF VARYING COL ORS , W HEREIN IS HEALING FO R MEN : V ERILY IN THIS IS A S IGN F OR THOSE WHO GIVE THOUGHT. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN 16: 68-69).

About honey, the Prophet (PBUH) has said that anybody taking honey in the morning, four days a month, will not suffer from any serious diseases. Abu Sa'ad Al-Khadbi describes: ―Once a man complained to the Prophet (PBUH) that his brother has loose motion. ‗Give him honey‘, said the Prophet (PBUH). Next day the man returned and complained that his brother is still having loose motion. The Prophet (PBUH) again told him to continue with honey, but he returned the third day with the same complains and the Prophet (PBUH) again asked him to continue with honey. On the fourth day, the man said that he gave honey to his brother but loose motion had increased. At this the Prophet (PBUH) said, ‗God has said the truth in the Qur‘än, go and give honey again.‘ This time news came of the patient‘s recovery‖ (Bukhari & Muslim).
HENNA (LAWSONIA ALBA):

If the Prophet (PBUH) had boils or cuts, he would use henna. Salma a maidservant of the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Anybody complaining of pains in the leg the Prophet (PBUH) would prescribe henna to be used as an ointment.‖ Patients with cuts and bruises were treated with henna according to Salma. Later the researchers found those henna-leaves its flower; seeds and roots can be used as medicine.
MUSTARD:

Mustard has been described by the Prophet (PBUH) as a medicine for many diseases. Later researchers found out that mustard is effective in treating leprosy, Filariasis, mental diseases, gout, dysentery, dental diseases, etc.

333

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE FENUGREEK (MELILOTUS INDICA):

The Prophet (PBUH) has said that Fenugreek is effective for treatment of many diseases. Later it is proved that fenugreek is effective in keeping diabetes in control. It is helpful in digestion and keeps the body healthy and strong. In the treatment of chronic dysentery, dyspepsia, rheumatism, loss of appetite, muscular spasm, burning sensation, blood pressure, palpitation, vertigo, menstruation, gout, constipation and frequent micturition, etc., it is very helpful. Unfortunately, in our country, use of fenugreek in food preparations has been declining. That the use of fenugreek in foods can prevent and even cure the diseases stated above is becoming known.
MUSHROOM:

The juice of mushroom is good for treating ophthalmic diseases. It is effective in constipation, dysentery and increases male potency and strength.
GINGER (OFFICINALE ROSE):

It is recorded that the Roman Emperor had presented a bawl of dried ginger to the Prophet (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) used to give a piece of ginger to everybody to eat. Ginger‘s ameliorative and medicinal qualities defy descriptions. It is useful for treatment of weak digestive system, impotency, laryngitis, cough, headache, nausea, distension of the stomach and dysentery.
WHEAT (TITICUM VULGARE):

Muhammad (PBUH) prescribed broth of wheat to anybody suffering from fever. He said, ―This strengthens the mind and the heart and removes pain.‖ Bread prepared from wheat was his favorite. In enlargement of the liver, dropsy (edema), rheumatism and malnutrition, wheat is very useful.
BITTER PLUM (ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA):

About the bitter plum the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Adam after being expelled from the heaven and upon arrival on the earth, ate bitter plum.‖ Bitter plum is used as food and diet. This is used for treating: heart diseases, constipation, pox, leucorrhoea, blood dysentery, laryngitis, loss of appetite, craving for food, obesity, headache, enlargement of the spleen, hematoma, diarrhea, insect bites, piles, boils and in the crop fields.
334

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE BOTTLE GOURD (LOGENARIA SICARARLA):

In the Bukhari and Muslim it is stated that Muhammad (PBUH) asked Ayesha (RA) to cook bottle gourds with other preparations, because, it gives strength and animates listless persons.
ONION (ALLIUM CEPA):

Muhammad (PBUH) used to eat onions and garlic. He took them cooked as it removed the bad smell from them, and advised eating them cooked. Onion is good for cold, diarrhea, hematuria, piles, bleeding-nose, hiccups, heat stroke, ear infection, boils, headache, acne, diseases of the mouth and other wounds.
GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM LINN):

Garlic has vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, Vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, iron and sodium. The father of medicine, Hippocrates has said, ―In herbs garlic is the best medicine.‖ The following diseases are treatable by garlic: Heart Diseases, Heart Attacks, Hypertension, Cough and Cold, Asthma, Bronchitis, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Enteric Diseases, Dislocation of Bones, Broken Bones, Diseases of the Bones, Leprosy, Helminthiasis, Skin Diseases, Eye-Diseases, Night-Blindness, Fever, Kalazaar, Dysmenorrhea, Rheumatism, Back Pain, Wounds of the Mouth, Tongue and The Lips, Pyorrhea, Obesity, and it Strengthens Human Immune System and removes toxins from foods.
OLIVE:

The Prophet (PBUH) used olive oils in foods and as a lotion rubbed it on the body. He told Abu and Said Al-Ansari, ―Use olive oil as food and rub it on your bodies, because, it comes from a blessed plant.‖
BARLEY:

Once, Muhammad (PBUH) was in a weak state of health, designated barley and water mixed with sugar as an appropriate diet for him. It is used as diet for patients suffering from fever, diarrhea, piles, Helminthiasis and spleen disease. This is very useful for treating emerging boils.
FENNEL (NIGELLA SATIVA):

The Prophet (PBUH) has said, ―Except for death fennel is great medicine for all diseases.‖

335

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE SANDAL WOOD:

About sandalwood the Prophet (PBUH) has said, ―This is a very good curative agent.‖
DATES (PHOENIX SYLVESTRIS):

About dates the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Dried dates come from the heaven and it has anti- toxic properties.‖ Sa‘ad (RA) has narrated, ―I have heard the Prophet (PBUH) saying that that who takes seven dates in the morning, he is immune from magic and poison for that day.‖ In the Qur‘än God says,
404. A ND FROM THE FRUIT O F THE DATE PALM AND THE VINE , Y E GET OUT WHOLESOME DRINK A ND FOOD : BEHOLD , IN THIS A LSO IS A S IGN F OR THOSE WHO ARE WISE (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 16:67).

PREVENTIVE MEASURES AGAINST INFECTIOUS DISEASES:

QUARANTINE

Islam has instructed its followers to keep away from contagious diseases. To all, other than the people engaged in looking after the patients, places plagued by contagious diseases like plague, cholera and pox, are made off limits. Similarly, the great Prophet (PBUH) had asked the people not to leave the places afflicted with such communicable diseases. This system, evolved by the Prophet (PBUH) to combat epidemics, today is known as ‗Quarantine.‘ Once, Muhammad (PBUH), to keep a leper from mixing with others returned him saying: ―Go back! I have accepted your Byaat (vow) (Muslim).‖ In another place it has been advised to run for life, from lepers, like, one would run from a lion (Hadith). To live in peace and without fear in the society, Islam has put emphasis on the practice mentioned earlier. This would ensure good health of the people.
CLEANLINESS IN ISLAM:

The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Unquestionably, Allah, the Great is Sublime and He likes purity. He likes absolute cleanliness. Keep your body and abode clean! Cleanliness is the symbol of civil life; and is irrevocably fused with our day to day life.‖ Here, cleanliness of body and the soul, household and approaches, surroundings and environment, foods and beverages, all are included. God resides in the human body, therefore, it is absolutely, necessary to tend and keep that pure, so that our body does not weaken and age untimely. It has been enjoined upon us to keep it healthy, well and maintain a happy disposition. If the body is diseased, good deeds cannot
336

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

be done properly. In infirmity, the mind is also weakened; bereft of strength and self-confidence people get impatient and entangled in sin: Consequently, lose both the Worlds, here and the hereafter. To save man from this pathetic consequence, the Prophet (PBUH), advised them to keep clean and tidy. That is the basis of purity and beauty. Nobody is honored in the society, be a man or a woman, until keeping clean and tidy would not be. Cleanliness is a way of distinguishing a Muslim from others. It does not only make a person outwardly nice, but also enables him to do his duties appropriately; and helps in attaining purity of the soul. Therefore, a person should be clean, not only in his attire, but also eat and drink pure things. The house that one lives in must be horoghly clean. In this way, Islam has urged everybody to ensure purity of the body and the mind. The Prophet (PBUH) commanded: ―Keep the surroundings and facade of your house clean.‖ He further said, ―Cleanliness is a component of Iman (faith). Purity is the prerequisite to prayers, without those prayers are not granted; and pureness is the essence of beauty. Cleanliness inspires Iman (faith), and it guides toward heaven.‖ In the holy Qur‘än, in several places, regarding cleanliness God says:
405. 406. F OR G OD LOVES THOSE W HO TURN TO H IM CONSTANTLY A ND H E LOVES THOSE W HO KEEP THEMSELVES PURE AND CLEAN . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 222). O THOU WRAPPED UP (I N A MANTLE )! A RISE AND DELIVER BY WARNING ! A ND THY L ORD D O THOU MAGNIFY ! A ND THY GARMENTS K EEP FREE FROM STAIN ! (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 74: 1-4). G OD DOTH NOT WISH T O PLACE YOU IN A DIF FICULTY, B UT TO MAKE YOU CLEAN , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 5: 7). O C HILDREN OF A DAM ! W EAR YOUR BEAUTIFUL APPAREL AT EVERY TIME AND PLACE O F PRAYER : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 7: 31).

407. 408.

In this way God in the holy Qur‘än and the Prophet (PBUH) in his sayings, repeatedly, stated about cleanliness and purity. Emphasis has been given on physical cleanliness in Islam, repeatedly; and it is a prerequisite for Prayers. No prayer shall be acceptable to God, unless done with absolute cleanness and purity of the body and the soul. Clean should be the place of prayers; and ablution is a part of prayers. Muhammad (PBUH) told his followers to do Waju (ablution) thoroughly, so that water reaches to all the parts specified, properly. Make yourselves pure and then stand before your Lord, in Prayers. In Arabic ‗waju‘ is

337

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

derived from the word ‗Bright‘ that means clean. Therefore, Muslims are particularly asked to take great care about waju. Some adherents used to spit on the wall and the floor of Masjidun Nabubi. Muhammad (PBUH) cleaned those with his own sacred hands, and commanded his followers to desist from such practices. He (PBUH) burned incense in the Mosque for its aroma. The floors were regularly wiped to keep it clean and tidy. To ensure purity and sanctity of the Mosque, people of infirm mind and innocent infants were debarred from entering the Mosque; and sale of goods was prohibited in side. Once a man came to the Mosque with disheveled hairs and untidy beard, Muhammad (PBUH) beckoned him to go out and organize himself. Accordingly, the man went out and did the Prophet‘s (PBUH) bidding. At that, the Prophet (PBUH) commented: ―Nobody among you should come with ruffled hairs and beard like Satan; it is better and beneficial to come with a tidy appearance.‖ Another day seeing a man in unclean attire, the Prophet (PBUH) remarked: ―Does not the man get water to clean his robes?‖ On another occasion a man appeared before the Prophet (PBUH) in dirty clothes, he advised him to keep clean. Muhammad (PBUH) asked his followers to attend public prayers, like, Juma (Friday prayer) and on two Eids (Muslim celebrations), bathed, in clean clothes and well groomed. He (PBUH) also advised them: ―Among you who are capable may keep clothes, particularly, marked for Juma prayers, apart from the clothes for everyday use.‖ Similarly, he asked every Muslim to keep clean each part of their body like, nails, hair, and beard, etc. He said, "Be clean and teach their children cleanliness.‖ He (PBUH) said, ―Those who has hairs should honor them.‖ We must respect his advice. Today, in the civilized world, people use soap or shampoo to clean their hairs. Eyes are very delicate parts of the human body. It is our duty to take care of the eyes. The Prophet (PBUH) took great care of the eyes, and ordered his followers to keep their eyes clean. Every night before going to bed the Prophet (PBUH) used surma.136 Similarly, he advised to clean nostrils and ears; and made that compulsory in bathing and ablution. According to Islam, to clean nose, rinse mouth and throat and to brush teeth, are
136 Sulfate of antimony used as Collyrium, kohl, eye-salve.

338

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

sunnat137. Muhammad (PBUH) brushed138 his teeth every time before prayers. The Messenger of God said, ―Mishawka is a mouth cleaner and it pleases God.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Trim your nails and clean them, for bacteria (agents causing diseases) may reside hidden in them and may cause health hazards.‖ As, during waju, hands are washed, so the Prophet (PBUH) put emphasis on washing hands, thoroughly, before and after meals. He again said, ―Anybody, waking up should first wash his hands.‖ Allah, the Sustainer of the Worlds, in the holy Qur‘än said,
409. W E MADE FROM WATER E VERY LIVING THING . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 21: 30).

The great Prophet (PBUH), at the same time urged restraint in using water and to ensuring its purity. He has even asked not to exhale in the drinking water as in fact, it may cause complicated diseases. Islam has directed not to urinate or defecate in usable water. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Do not bathe in stagnant water after urinating in it; because, it makes the water unclean and impure and thus it loses its effectiveness.‖ Urine contaminates water with bacteria and diseases propagate through this contaminated water. Muhammad (PBUH) advised everybody not to urinate in bathrooms. He told everybody to keep all places clean, including the toilets. He always urged people to keep clean and teach their children cleanliness. The Prophet (PBUH) hated the loathsome practice of defecating and urinating indiscriminately, everywhere. ―If one does not keep his body and clothe clean of sprinkles of urine, he would be punished in the grave,‖ the Prophet (PBUH) told people. To urinate on stone or hard soil and trees giving shade and fruit has been prohibited.
RAISING CHILDREN IN ISLAM:

In the eyes of Islam, on children depend the future of the humanity who are the buds of flowers, hope of the future and humankind‘s peace of heart. God, in the holy Qur‘än has sworn by the childhood (Al-Qur‘än 90: 1-3). Children are good news (Al-Qur‘än - 19: 7). They are the comfort of our eyes (Al-Qur‘än - 25: 74). Offspring are the Zinat
137 138

Practices of the Prophet (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) used Mishawka, a short stick of neem (Azdicahta Indica) tree, to brush his teeth.

339

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

(beauty) of this life (Al-Qur‘än - 18: 46). In the language of the Prophet (PBUH), children are ‗heavenly butterflies‘. In Islam, the rearing of children has been identified as a sacred duty and the means of attaining God‘s love and nearness. The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―In the absence of breast-feeding infant, praying old man and grazing animals, God‘s curse would have descended on us.‖ Here Muhammad (PBUH) mentioned children as the protecting shield from God‘s curse. His heart was filled with love for children. Crying children would cause him to shorten his prayers saying: ―I dislike hurting mothers of small children.‖ His grandchildren, Hazrat Hassan and Hussein, would climb on to his back, while he lay prostrated before God. He would not rise, lest they fall, and waited until they voluntarily got down. Hearing the children cry, he would call Fatima (RA) and admonish her: ―Don‘t you know that their cries hurt me?‖ During the historic migration to Medïna, at the gate of the city, scores of dancing little children welcomed him. He climbed down from his carrier, mingled with them and exchanged greetings, and asked them: ―Do you love me?‖ They shouted back: ―Of course! Of course …!‖ At this Muhammad (PBUH) replied, ―I also do love you.‖ Meeting any children, at the entrance of Medïna, returning from visits or expeditions, he would lift them on his carrier and caress them. Sometimes, he would pet and kiss the children who came along with the disciples. If people brought fruits, he would distribute them among the children. Muhammad (PBUH) was nice and kind to children. He would play with them, talk to them, kissed them lovingly, and smilingly exchanged greetings with them. Always alert to the needs of the children, he would stop by any ailing or starving child and took measures to ameliorate its sufferings. An orphan himself, he was very sensitive about them and tried his best to settle them. Occupied with the thoughts of suffering children, he would pass days at the bedside of a sick child, nursing him. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―If God tries anybody by bestowing him with a child and he does his duty properly toward the child, then he would be spared the tortures of the Hell.‖ During a battle, the news of a youngster killed by the Muslim soldiers, troubled the Prophet (PBUH) immensely. Before any expedition, Muhammad (PBUH) would particularly, forbid his troops to kill any
340

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

children. He would say: ―Every child born to a Muslim or a non-Muslim comes to the world as a follower of the true religion and is innocent.‖ Later the Muslims conquered countries after countries, cities after cities, but never touched any women or wrested any child from his mother‘s lap; so great was the force of the commands of the Prophet (PBUH). Today, repeatedly, we see disregard of these commands, and thus the relegation of the Muslim nations to obscurity. Islam has entrusted the rearing of children to both the parents, but the prime responsibility rests on the mother‘s shoulders. Care should be taken from the conception of the child. Rigorously the nutritional need of the mother should be taken care of. Food that may be harmful, either to the mother or to the fetus must be avoided. Proper development of the fetus and the neonatal health depends greatly on the prenatal care. Therefore, Islam urged its followers to take appropriate care of the mother. The health and the development of the brain, body and intellect of the child depend absolutely on the care and nutrition of the infant. Any lapse may cause irreversible damage to the brain and retard the growth of the body and the mind. Mother‘s milk for the first few months is absolutely, necessary for the development of the newborn. It is therefore, recommended that the inputs necessary for the mother to keep her breast flowing be supplied to her. Islam has not recommended foster mother, if the mother is strong and capable of feeding her child, which philosophy has gained popularity in this advanced age of science and technology. The Prophet (PBUH) has advised to avoid feeding a child by a loose woman and to keep the child away from all such influences that will misguide the child. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Be careful about your child being breast-fed by a lax or deranged woman.‖ It is the duty of the parents to insure from the time of conception, all possible support to the child for its proper development. So that the child grows up into a strong, healthy human being who could take part in the development of the nation. When the child is not capable of looking after it and cannot distinguish between good and bad, it is the duty of the parents to watch it at every step; protect it from all dangers, ensure congenial environment for its mental development. Islam encourages every Muslim to remain strong and agile both physically and mentally. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―A strong and
341

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

healthy faithful is better loved by God than the weak.‖ He made it a duty for the parents to show admiration and adore their children. He said, ―That who is not kind to the young and is not aware of the rights of the elders, is not included among us.‖ He again said, ―Be kind to others than kindness will be bestowed on you.‖ All children are born innocent. Gradually, their psyche is formed, shaped by the environment and influences. Therefore, in the developing stage, a child should only be exposed to the best possible influences. The parents or guardians should take extreme care to protect the young mind from all evil influences that may affect the child‘s bearing. Children should be brought up in an atmosphere of love and care. Morality and ethics should be impressed on their mind by example. A child raised in a healthy, happy, congenial and pure setting grows into an able and worthy citizen. Good citizens are a prerequisite of a happy, just and strong nation. A full human being blooms to its utmost excellence only in an ideal situation. The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Give your children beautiful names and pronounce Allah‘s names to them. Caress them, love them and show kindness to them. Teach them etiquette, manners and good behavior. Tutor them to respect elders and love youngsters. Keep words given to them, because, they consider you as their providers. Continuous watch over them helps in developing good qualities in their characters; and imprints on their minds qualities that help develop their mind and psyche properly.‖ Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Hold your children firm, otherwise, they will lose their integrity, consequently, various undesirable traits will develop in their character.‖ Islam does not only give importance to children from their birth but from much before. For example, about marriage, Islam has urged the man to take pious wives. Wealth and beauty of the bride should not be the criteria for selection. Virtue in a woman added to only one, wealth or beauty, is enough to select a bride. The bride should belong to a good family and be well behaved because the children would inherit her qualities. It is discouraged, in Islam, to marry a woman if she lacks virtue, and training and education had not molded her character. The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Be away from lush greenery grown in the garbage: meaning to avoid beautiful damsels of ill reputation.‖ In the same way he (the Prophet: PBUH) has advised the parents of a girl to
342

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

look for good qualities and virtues in a groom: so that he is able to look after his family and properly discharge his duties to his family. Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―If you receive any proposal and find that the candidate is pious and virtuous than accept it.‖ If you were unable to abide by the injunctions, you would invite chaos and confusions in you life. The Prophet (PBUH) would bless the newly weds saying: ―May Allah Grant you increase! May He bestow you with happiness, bliss and enrich you with new life! May your union be propitious!‖ Discouraging marriage with near relations, the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Look for distant relations so that your progeny does not get weakened.‖ ―According to the Qur‘än if the parents are not related than the children are more intelligent and stronger.‖ Islam has emphasized those unions between men and women are determined on a basis of good qualities, piety and subjugation to God. These qualities are essential to establish a faultless foundation to build a prosperous and happy society. Strong well-groomed individuals may withstand any eventuality. With such strong and virtuous individuals, a nation can run the affairs of the world with authority and capability, to ensure justice and equality among the citizens, where each of the individuals will live in peace and tranquility and worship their Lord with undisturbed devotion. Purity, piety, equality and brotherhood would reign supreme, blessed by the Supreme Lord of the lords, Allah, the Most Gracious, and the Most Merciful. For the curse of the dowry system, or for any other reasons, if the marital relationship is destroyed, the children suffer the most. Their lives become sad and wretched. Children born in a family distressed by schism between the parents are vulnerable to development of infirm psyche. Islam does not support the dowry system of Hinduism found in the Indian subcontinent, but under the influence of Hinduism, the Muslims, particularly, of this subcontinent, brought the curse into their society. Due to the discord in the marital life and separation and divorce, the children suffer the most. Their lives become unhappy and insecure. There is no deliverance from this unless we abide by the rules and ideals of Islam. Love, affection, adoration of the children and devotion to them should not impede duties to bring up children as good human beings. The
343

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Prophet (PBUH) has warned his disciples about that. ―Not to educate and mould the characters of children and leave them free without any restraint, due to apathy to religion, is murder.‖139 Those who do not pay attention to the proper education and training of their children, in fact, are making them into a ‗Frankenstein‘. Without their characters, built on the strong foundation of appropriate education, they naturally would indulge into self-aggrandizing activities without any respect for ethics, morality and justice they are a threat to the society. Apparently, the parents are in fact killing their children. Comparatively, it is much less a crime to kill someone, depriving him of life than permanently damaging his soul. That in turn would threaten the very existence of human society. A child apathetic to religion, because of improper up bringing, turns away from God and His Prophet (PBUH); and therefore, easily involves himself, shamelessly, in evil deeds, for he is devoid of all moral and ethical bindings. If the world today adopts the ways of the Qur‘än and Hadith, it will tremendously benefit and may save its future generations from degenerating into monsters.
RIGHTS OF PARENTS IN ISLAM

In Islam to respect and honor parents has been particularly enjoined. It is mandatory in Islam that parents should be taken care of specially, in sickness and in old age. The holy Qur‘än has, unequivocally, enjoined offspring to nurse and comfort parents in sickness and infirmity. In Arabic ‗Waledain‘ is used for parents. Nevertheless, Islam places the mother above all, because she suffers for the whole gestation period and the pangs of birth; later, she feeds and cares for the young without rest and respite. On the other hand, the father toils to earn bread for the family. In this way, both the parents provide food, clothing, and security to the newborn. The process continues until the wards are able to stand on their own.

The Qur‘än therefore says,
410. S ERVE G OD , AND JOIN NOT A NY PARTNERS WITH H IM ; A ND DO GOOD - T O PARENTS . F OR G OD LOVETH NOT T HE ARROGANT, THE VAINGLORIOUS ; - (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4: 36). JOIN NOT A NYTHING AS EQUAL WITH H IM ; B E GOOD TO YOUR PARENTS ; (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6: 151).

411.

139

Ma‘aref ul Qur‘än; Part -III pp.544-545 (In the interpretation of Süra, A'anam: verse 151); Maulana Mufti Mohammed Shafi

344

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 412. T HY L ORD HATH DECREED T HAT YE WORSHIP NONE BUT H IM , A ND THAT YE BE KIND T O PARENTS . W HETHER ONE O R BOTH OF THEM ATTAIN O LD AGE IN THY LIFE , S AY NOT TO THEM A WORD O F CONTEMPT, NOR REPEL THEM , B UT ADDRESS THEM I N TERMS OF HONOR . A ND , OUT OF KINDNESS , L OWER TO THEM THE WING O F HUMILITY, AND SAY: M Y L ORD ! BESTOW ON THEM T HY M ERCY EVEN AS THEY C HERISHED ME IN CHILDHOOD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 17: 23-24). W E HAVE ENJOINED ON M AN K INDNESS TO PARENTS : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 29: 8). A ND W E HAVE ENJOINED ON MAN (T O BE GOOD ) TO HIS PARENTS : I N TRAVAIL UPON TRAVAIL D ID HIS MOTHER BEAR H IM , A ND YEARS TWAIN WAS HIS WEANING : ( HEAR T HE COMMAND ), S HOW GRATITUDE T O M E AND TO THY PARENTS : T O M E IS ( THY FINAL ) G OAL . B UT IF THEY SURVIVE T O MAKE THEE JOIN I N WORSHIP WITH M E T HINGS OF WHICH THOU HAST N O KNOWLEDGE , OBEY THEM NOT : Y ET BEAR THEM COMPANY I N THIS LIFE WITH JUSTICE (A ND CONSIDERATION ), AND FOLLOW T HE WAY OF THOSE WHO T URN TO M E ( IN LOVE ): I N THE E ND THE RETURN O F YOU ALL IS TO M E , A ND I WILL TELL YOU T HE TRUTH ( AND MEANING ) O F ALL THAT YE DID . O MY SON ! ( SAID L UQMAN ), I F THERE BE ( BUT ) THE WEIGHT O F A MUSTARD - SEED AND I T WERE ( HIDDEN ) IN A ROCK , O F ( ANYWHERE ) IN THE HEAVENS OR O N EARTH , G OD UNDERSTANDS T HE FINEST MYSTERIES , ( AND ) I S WELL ACQUAINTED ( WITH THEM ) (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 31: 15-16).

413. 414.

Good behavior with parents is dear to God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, and then comes Jihad (fighting for religion) which is dear to Him (Bukhari & Muslim). Abu Huraira (RA) narrated that on being questioned by a person, the Prophet (PBUH) answered: ‗Mother has the right to good company, good conduct and untiring care‘ and thrice repeated the same on being asked as many times and on the fourth time answered: ‗the Father‘. The Rasul (PBUH) has repeatedly warned against misbehaving with parents. Between them, the mother takes precedence over the father. Even if the children suffer any loss at their hand, they must not hurt or misbehave with their parents. After ‗Sheerk‘ (equating any other with God), misbehavior is the most serious sin. Allah, the Sustainer of the Worlds will forgive all the sins of His servants but the misconduct with parents. Disobedient children will suffer in this world. Therefore, to obey, to wait on them, to care for them and thus make them happy is the foremost duty of the children. No harsh words or abusive language can be uttered to them. The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―Use of abusive language with parents and tormenting them, miserliness, grabbing other‘s property and burying female child are among the gravest sins. As a precaution, it is a must to behave appropriately with parents and pray for them, fulfill their pledges and pay their debts, after their deaths.‖

345

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Children are instructed to show respect to friends and relatives of their parents. The great Prophet (PBUH) said, ―You must behave with relatives and near ones of parents of the same age and show respect to their friends. You cannot hurt them even if they demand cessation of association with wives and children.‖ He again said, ―That who get both or either of the parents in their old age and do not wait on them, there is nobody more unlucky than him and he does not earn the right to enter heaven (Muslim).‖ The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―For children, heaven is at mother‘s feet.‖ After God and His Prophet (PBUH), the most revered person is the mother. That who wishes to enter heaven, there is no other way than to satisfy his parents. ―Parents are the heaven and hell for the children,‖ said the Prophet (PBUH). That who desires to enter heaven by the best door must keep his parents satisfied with him. God will award him with the reward of a granted Hajj for each loving look at the parents.‖ Stepmothers have the right to same kind of veneration. It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Omar that a person came to the Prophet (PBUH) for permission to participate in a Jihad (religious war). The Prophet (PBUH) asked him if his parents were alive. The answer being in the affirmative, he told the man ‗go and serve your parents‘ that will be your Jihad. To perform Hajj permission of the parents is necessary. Hazrat Waiz Karni, in spite of his love and devotion to the Prophet (PBUH) could not serve the Prophet (PBUH) because of his old ailing mother. For that, the Prophet (PBUH) liked Waiz Karni so much so that he (the Prophet) left his robe for Waiz Karni, before he left the world.
SLAVES (SERVANTS) IN ISLAM:

From the beginning of civilization, slavery has been in vogue. Traditionally, the conquerors enslaved the vanquished. The Egyptian civilization of Pharaohs was built on the labor of the slaves. All great ancient civilizations, Egyptians, Babylonian, Byzantine, Persian, Assyrian or the Indus Valley civilization were founded and prospered on the toils of the slaves. Slaves gave their labor for the dazzling prosperity of civilizations after civilizations without enjoying any of the comforts themselves. They had no rights. Even the consorts and children of the slaves did not belong to them. Living in inhuman conditions, they worked for their masters day and night, eating whatever rubbish was thrown in their way. All menial works from tilling the land to cleaning
346

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

the toilets were done by them. Animals led better lives than these slaves did. Slightest irritation of the master could cost them their lives. Inhuman torture and beating was very normal. It was so normal that none would protest or even the law would not be able to touch anybody for killing his slave at his sweet will. Slaves were the property of his masters, like other properties. He could buy and sell them at his will. Even a few decades ago, the United States America practiced slavery. Slaves were sold openly in markets like cattle. In these slave markets, slaves were displayed for inspection and buyers scrutinized them like animals. They were shackled and chained around the neck. The Roots, a film made in The U.S.A. tells a lot about the pitiable conditions, these slaves were made to suffer.
BEGINNING OF SLAVERY:

According to ―The History of the World: Ancient Age‖ by Fyodor Korovkin, slavery began in ancient Egypt with the advent of civilization. Later it spread to the other parts of the world. In some countries, the state religion supported slavery. In the beginning of civilization, people lived in-groups. Their main occupation was hunting to eat. For a person it was only possible to hunt for himself. The situation was so much individualist that even the old and the children were forced hunt for themselves. In such a condition, every individual enjoyed only the fruits of his own labor and had to remain satisfied with that. Later, they learnt to use water from the Nile, for irrigating land and began farming. They also learnt to tame and domesticate wild animals. Thus began a new era of civilization based on agriculture. At the beginning, in Egypt, people used the land around their homestead to produce grains and vegetables. Gradually, necessity made them until lands in the fields to meet the need for building materials. They grew meadow plants and that made building houses easier for them. Along with that need was felt the need to store excess grains and warehouses were built. Gradually, these people improved their standard of living and accumulated wealth. Naturally, some among them became more powerful and used others as slaves and laborers for managing their properties. Four thousand years before Christ the inhabitants of Egypt were divided into three classes. The tribal leaders and the nobles were at
347

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

the top of the echelon, then the group farmers and at the bottom were the slaves. In fact, they were divided into two groups, the rulers and the ruled. The powerful acquired land and wealth far more than they could manage and therefore, needed extra hands. With wealth came the need for security and protection. Therefore, the utility to maintain trained people arose. Thus was born the idea of soldiers. These soldiers, not only provided security, but also became instrumental in acquisition of new lands and properties for their employers. These employers gradually turned into rulers who would rule over others and their wishes were laws. Gradually, the human society was mainly divided into rulers and the ruled. Caste system came into force, where human beings got themselves categorized into classes according to their professions. At the bottom were the slaves who had no rights and were totally at the mercy of their owners. Their masters could also punish them with deaths. Eventually, these powerful proprietors crowned themselves kings and started ruling over a clan, then over a group of clans and then a people within a defined boundary, declared as their domains. They enacted laws according to their whims and executed those at their sweet wills. To hold on to the reins of power they would not hesitate to unleash inhuman torture on their subjects. The world was divided into those that held power and wealth and enjoyed the benefits of the advancement of human race, and those that were forced to work for others. The classification thus created, brought with it tyranny and exploitation of the powerless by the powerful. The desire to acquire more and more wealth and power by individuals and then by groups of people led to intense competition among them. As a result, they engaged in battles and wars to ensure their supremacy over one another. The victor gained ascendancy over the vanquished and in most of the cases, the living members of the defeated tribes were made prisoners. These prisoners were ultimately made to work for their masters, subjugated to their will and thus began the long history of slavery. These slaves were condemned to inhuman lives, and siblings born to them were considered slaves. Consequently, they were condemned to slavery for generations. They did all sorts of manual work without any consideration. They were simply not treated as human
348

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

beings. Besides, the slaves, there were the group farmers, who were forced to subjugation by the powerful by simply ensuring control of irrigation. These powerful wealthy landholders for their security and for expansion and Defense began maintaining trained soldiers. This ultimately gave rise to another class of people who depended on fighting for others. Two thousand years before Christ, Aryans entered the Indian subcontinent through the northwestern border. They were mainly shepherds. Coming to the Indus valley, they settled on the plains permanently, and took up farming along with animal husbandry. The elected leader of a group of the Aryans was called the king. These kings like the tribal chiefs of Egypt trained and maintained soldiers to keep farmers and slaves under control. Kings gradually, gathered more and more strength and became emperors. Like other places of the world, in the ancient times Idolatry was also practiced in the Indian subcontinent. Kings, nobles and the priests enjoyed life, at cost of the people. Majority of the people toiled and labored hard for the benefit of the few. It was thought, in India, that Brahma is the creator and therefore, priests were called Brahmins. They publicized the idea that the Creator has created Brahmins form His Mouth, and thus only they can talk on His behalf. Soldiers who are called Khatrias, are made from His hands, and from His thighs are born the Vaishas, the traders. From His feet came forth, the lowest of the low, the slaves and the laborers, called the Shudras.
EMERGENCE OF SLAVERY IN ANCIENT INDIA:

The Creator himself divided people into four groups, namely, Brahmins, Khatrias, Vaishas and Shudras, according to the Hindu religion. This caste system is irrevocable and continues through generation after generation. Therefore, as long as the earth exists this system will live and people born into one caste would continue to do so. Shudras lived a very wretched life, but the untouchable lived a much more sordid life. They do not come under any of the categories stated above. It was thought that anybody touching them was desecrated. They were forced to do all the nasty works like, cleaning latrines, clearing garbage and other dirty jobs. Molten iron was poured into their mouths, if they uttered any disparaging word against any Brahmin. It was the law of the time, to pour boiling oil
349

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

in the ears and mouths of a Shudra or an untouchable, arguing with a Brahmin. Their hands or legs were amputated, if they used those against an upper class individual. In other societies of the world, similar people were called slaves and they were subjected to exactly the same treatment. They had no rights. The ancient Egyptian kings, Roman heathen emperors, Arab tribal chiefs, Jewish and Christian lords and later wealthy Europeans, Australians and Americans, all used slaves for manual works, but it is doubtful that this practice was sanctioned by their religions. Contrary to that, in India, slavery had the sanction of religion. In the Hindu scripture (Manusanghita), slave and Shudra (low-caste) are synonymous. Manu Says, ―Shudras are to work as slaves irrespective of their status, because God has created them to serve the Brahmins.‖ As Shudras remain Shudras till death, so the slave remains a slave all his life, even if, he is set free by his master (verse: 413-414). Manu then states in an unequivocal term that all the earnings of a slave belong to the master. If the master wants, he even can take away all the earnings of a slave, at his will. As a Shudra is a slave, he does not have the right to wealth. All his wealth belongs to his master (verse: 416-417). Manu again says, ―The king has to be alert so that the Shudra slaves keep on working (verse: 418).‖ In support of this unequal custom, it is stated in the Rigveda that Brahmins came forth from the mouth of the god, while the Shudras are created from the legs (Chapter 10: 99). Manu has repeated that in verse 131. Based on the previously mentioned sayings, the Brahmins forced the lower-caste Hindus and other slaves to live outside the villages. They were not allowed to keep domestic animals other than dogs and donkeys. Only broken utensils and crockery were allowed to them, and they were debarred from all religious rites. Slaves were only allowed Jewelry made of iron. Brahmins and the upper caste Hindus never directly gave food or other things to the untouchable but through servants. Shudras had to pay four times more interest on loans than the Brahmins (verse: 8-182). Manu in chapter 379-380 said, ―Punishment by death for crimes would be continued for the Shudras, but for the same crime a Brahmin would only get a punishment of shaven head.‖ A Brahmin cannot be punished by death, even if, he is guilty of grave sins. In India, even today, in the name of religion, Shudras and lower caste Hindus are tortured and forced
350

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

to live inhuman lives devoid of all human rights. From time immemorial, this custom of slavery has been in practice and continues today, even in the democratic societies. In the biggest democratic country of the world, the situation is pitiable, although law has abolished slavery in 1976. In India still today, there are as many as 4,000,000 slaves in existence. Astonishingly, in that country a teacher of a university owns a hundred slaves (Sunday Statesman, Calcutta, May 30, 1993).
CONDITION OF SLAVES AT THE ADVENT OF ISLAM:

The critics of Islam questions: ―If Islam has come to establish social justice then why did not it abolish slavery?‖ Answer to that is found in the life of the Prophet (PBUH) and in the Qur‘än. Forget about the freedom of the slaves, before Islam none shown the slightest compassion for the slaves. No savants, prophets, social reformers, philosophers or thinkers had shown the courage like Muhammad (PBUH). On the other hand, Islam never supported the system of slavery. In the history of the world, Muhammad (PBUH) is the first man to fight for the abolishment of slavery. Declaring this loathsome system as illegal and sinful, he (PBUH) said, ―Peoples who buy human beings are rogues‖ (Bukhari, Tirmizi). He led the movement to establish slaves in the society as free man and woman. God made it compulsory to use charity-money to free slaves (Al-Qur‘än - 9: 60). The Prophet (PBUH) evolved such a humane method to eradicate slavery that within a span of two hundred and fifty years, slavery vanished from the Islamic world; without the enactment of any harsh laws. Before twelve hundred years of enactment of law to abolish slavery by the rest of the world, slavery had been effectively abolished from the Muslim world. It was not within the control of Islam alone to abolish the worldwide trade in slavery. Slavery was in force in the non-Muslim world. Among them in the Indian subcontinent, slavery had the sanction of the Hindu religion. With the moral sanction of religion, slavery was a legal essential part of the society. The humane problem of prisoners of war was another cause for which slavery could not be abolished, instantly. Islam in its initial days was surrounded by hostile powers and had to fight for its existence. Since, war produced prisoners of war; they had to be taken care of. Islam provided for killing them or enslaving them, or freed them on payment of ransom, as was the custom those days. Initially, they were set free on
351

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

payment but that often did not deter them to join the enemy and fight against Islam. This was a problem to reckon with. The Prophet (PBUH) and his followers took the lenient course and made them slaves; but the Prophet (PBUH) gave instruction to treat them as equals. They were only politically subordinated but they were treated equals in all other aspects. The term ‗Gulam‘ (slave) was used by the Companions to identify persons bereft of individual freedom but they were treated in society like all other free men. In the time of the Companions, the Qur‘än and Hadith was treated equally respectfully. They never deviated from the traditions of the Prophet (PBUH), since they had watched the Prophet (PBUH) doing his duties and daily chores. About the behavior with the slaves, Muhammad (PBUH) said, ―Your slaves are your brothers. Allah has made them subordinate to you. Therefore, you must behave with him as your subordinated brother. Feed him the same food that you take and clothe him with the same material as you clothe yourself. Do not give him task beyond his capacity, if you do so help him with the job (Bukhari, Abu-Dawood).‖ After this Hadith, the Companions became conscious about the treatment of slaves. Some Companions incapable of providing the same food and cloth to the slaves, because of their poor financial condition, set them free. Among them, some even tolerated misbehavior of slaves for the sake of Allah and had forgiven them. Learning about the previously mentioned Hadith, Hazrat Abujor Gifari (RA) went back to his house, dressed himself and his slave in similar dresses, and gifted the earlier dresses away. Another Companion seeing Abujor Gifari and his slave in similar attire asked him the reason. Hazrat Abujor Gifari replied: ―Why have not you heard the Hadith that says that master and the slave should dress alike?‖
ISLAMIC STATE’S DECLARATION ON SLAVES:

The great Prophet (PBUH) warning his Companions declared: ―Human is the greatest creation of Almighty God. There is no distinction between blacks and whites, rich, poor, big, and small; all are equal. There is no service better liked by God than setting the slaves free.‖ Rasulullah‘s (PBUH) orders, instructions, advise and directions are the ordinances of the Islamic state. He said, ―O People! I am urging you to behave well with slaves. Do not cause them pain. Don not you know that slaves also have hearts like yours, which react to pain and happiness? What
352

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

happened to you, that you do not care to ensure the satisfaction of their hearts? I observe that you think your slaves are inferior to you, and you do not respect their rights. What is this? Is it not the manifestation of pride like of the era of darkness? Undoubtedly, this is injustice and oppression. I know that in the age of ignorance, slaves had no status. They were thought to be worse than animals. Everywhere, the leaders and chieftains enjoyed honor and power. The servants of God forgot that as human, all are equal, and the servants are entitled to justice and fair play. This was an era in which, the leaders and rich thought they were above ordinary people. They used to declare themselves sinless. To them slaves were to serve their masters and endure their punishments. Sitting along with masters was not allowed. For slaves, it was a sin to talk, in the presence of masters. Slightest opposition to masters was punishable by death. Islam has put an end to all these customs and destroyed the pride of the age of darkness.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) declares:
11. O PEOPLE! I AM INFORMING YOU THAT YOUR MASTER’S DECLARATION SAYS THAT HE, WHO FEARS GOD MOST; GOD HONORS HIM THE MOST. YOU KNOW WE ALL ARE ADAM’S CHILDREN, AND ADAM WAS MADE OF EARTH. THEN WHAT IS THE REASON OF THIS HAUGHTINESS? REMEMBER, IN ISLAM, THERE IS NOTHING GREATER THAN HUMANITY; AND MASTERS AND SLAVES, LOW AND HIGH, AND RICH AND POOR AR E ALL EQUAL. ACCORDING TO ISLAM, MAN CAN CLAIM UNIQUENESS, FOR GOOD DEEDS AND S TEADFAST FAITH IN GOD. WHEN THIS IS THE FACT THE N WHY DO YOU, THINK THAT YOUR SLAV ES ARE INFERIOR TO YOU ? I OBSERVE THAT IF A SL AVE WANTS TO TALK TO HIS MASTER, THE FACE OF THE MAST ER REDDENS WITH UNCO NTROLLABLE RAGE, LIKE A BLOODTHIRSTY FEROCIOUS ANIMAL. WHAT IS IT OTHER THAN SAVAGENESS? IT MAY BE THAT THE SLAVE IS BETTER THAN H IS MASTER, AND HIS DEEDS ARE ACCEPTABLE TO GOD. 12. O PEOPLE! WHEN IT WAS THE REIGN OF DARKNESS AND THE WORSHIPPING OF NAFS (PASSION) EFFECTIVELY SPREAD I TS INFLUENCE OVER PE OPLE, AND THEN IT CREATED A HE ART ACHING STATE, WHICH CANNOT BE FORG OTTEN BY THE HUMANITY. I HAVE SEEN THAT AGE, WHEN SLAVES WERE SAV AGELY TREATED AND TORTURED AND THOUGHT TO BE IN FERIOR TO ANIMALS. ALLAH HAS BESTOWED HIS MERCY ON THEM, AND ANNOUNCED THEIR RIGHTS OPENLY, AND URGED PEOPLE TO BEHAVE WELL WITH THEM . I, ACCORDING TO ALLAH’S ORDINANCE, AM TELLING YOU THAT TREAT THEM AS YOUR BROTHERS. GIVE THEM AS MUCH TAS K AS THEY CAN MANAGE EASILY. LET THEM EAT WHAT YOU EA T. CLOTHE THEM AS YOU CL OTHE YOURSELF. TREAT THEM LIKE YOUR KITH AND KIN. DIS LIKE THOSE THINGS FO R THEM THAT YOU DISLIKE FOR YOURSELF. DO NOT THINK THAT THE Y ARE LOWLY AND SMALL. 13. WHILE TRAVELLING , IF SLAVES ARE ACCOMP ANYING YOU, BE CAREFUL ABOUT THEIR COMFORT. IF YOU HAVE A TRANSPO RT, SHARE THAT WITH THEM . A S HUMAN BEINGS, THEY ARE NOT INFERIOR TO YOU IN ANY WAY. THEY HAVE HEARTS AS YOU HAVE . HAVE NOT YOU OBSERVED THAT I HAVE FREED ZAID 353

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE
AND MARRIED HIM WITH MY COUSIN. APPOINTED BELLAL AS A MUEZZIN (CALLER OF PUBLIC PRAYERS), BECAUSE THEY ARE MY BROTHERS. THEY STAY WITH ME AND YOU HAVE WATCHED THAT I NEVER CONSIDER THEM INFERIOR. IF THEY DO NOT WORK, EVEN THEN I DO NOT ASK THEM WHY . IF BY CHANCE THEY CAUSE ME ANY LOSS, EVEN THEN, I DO NOT PUNISH THEM. I AM URGING YOU THAT WHEN SERVAN TS BRING YOU FOOD , INVITE THEM TO EAT WITH YOU. IF THEY DO NOT LIKE T O SIT WITH YOU THEN GIVE THEM SOME FOOD. IF ANY OF YOUR SERVAN TS DEFAULTS, FORGIVE HIM SEVENTY TIMES, BECAUSE, HE, OF WHOM YOU ARE A SERVAN T, FORGIVES YOU THOUSANDS OF MISDEEDS. REMEMBER THAT IF ANY OF YOU FALSELY ACCUSE YOUR SERVANTS, A LLAH WILL PUNISH HIM SEVERELY, ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT. I AM SAYING IT AGAIN, YOUR SERVANT IS YOUR BROTHER, HE IS OBLIGED TO WORK FOR YOU, IF YOUR BROTHER IS PLACED UNDER YOU, YOU SHOULD GIVE HIM SAME FOOD AND CL OTHE, AS YOU EAT AND USE; AND NEVER GIVE HIM SUCH TASK AS IS BEYO ND HIS CAPACITY.

The Prophet (PBUH) felt the pain with his kind heart that the servants felt, if they were called slaves. Therefore, he advised his Companions to call them by name as they do call their sons and daughters. He (PBUH) also advised slaves and servants not to call their owners and employers, masters, because, only Allah is our Master. Once, Hazrat Abujor Gifari losing his temper scolded his slave for his inability to do job. When that came to the knowledge of the Prophet (PBUH), he called Hazrat Abujor Gifari and disciplined him saying, ―You are still subjected to the influences of the dark-age.‖ Remember these slaves and servants are your brothers and sisters; God has subordinated them to you. If you do not like any of them release them from your employment. Do not torture God‘s creation. Do not load them with work beyond them. If at all you give them a burden beyond their limit, help them with it. Once the Prophet (PBUH) happened to pass one of his Companions, Hazrat Abu Masoud Ansari, while he was about to punish his slave. The Prophet (PBUH) warned Abu Masoud Ansari saying: ―God holds more power over you than you hold over your slave.‖ Ashamed, Abu Masoud Ansari immediately set his slave free. At that, the Prophet (PBUH) remarked: ―If you did not do so (set the slave free), the fire of inferno would have engulfed you.‖ Once answering to a query of a man, the Prophet (PBUH) advised him, at least, to forgive seventy times, the failings of his slaves. A Companion had a slave woman for a family of seven members. Once, one of them gets angry for some lapses hit her with a stone. Knowing that after making alternative arrangements, the Prophet (PBUH) directed the Companion to set the slave free. Informing the Prophet (PBUH) that he
354

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

punishes his two servants whenever thay default he sought his advice. ―It is O.K., but the slightest excess would be dealt with severely by God‖, the Prophet replied. Hearing the Prophet (PBUH), the Companion set both the slaves free. In those days, slaves were married with each other and divorced according to the wishes of their owners. Knowing of an owner who forced slaves to marry and divorce as he wished, the Prophet (PBUH) made an announcement from pulpit of the Mosque. The announcement was, ―Nobody should demand separation of a slave couple after binding them into marriage; since in marital bond, only the husband is, specifically, given the right to divorce.‖ Attracted by such lenient and kind treatment of slaves, many slaves ran away from their non-Muslim owners seeking refuse under the Prophet (PBUH). He arranged for their freedom.
LIBERTY: EDUCATION: SOCIO- RELIGIOUS STATUS OF SLAVES IN ISLAM:

In deference to the direction of the Prophet (PBUH), some Companions released their slaves. The following is an account of slaves freed by them with the names of the Companions:140
Number of Slaves Freed by the Companions Companions Ayesha (RA) Hakim ibn Hazam (RA) Othman Gani (RA) Abbas (RA) Slaves Released 69 100 20 70

Abdullah ibn Omar (RA) Zulk‘ala Himieri (RA) day)

1,000 8,000 (In one

140

Ma‘aref ul Qur'än Anzamul Wahhaj as quoted by Md. Shahidur Rahma n in his Book Saytter Shandhanay (In the Search of Truth).

355

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE Abdur Rahman bin Auf (RA) 30,000

From the above description, it may be guessed that in what a large number the rich had slaves, and how easily at the behest of the Prophet (PBUH), they released them. Islam has taught that freeing slaves are not only a moral duty, but it is also a kind of worshipping God. Displaying any kind of pride for rendering service to thy Lord is forbidden in Islam. On setting slaves free, one must thank his Lord, because He has given him the opportunity to do so. He must be thankful to the freed slaves, who caused the opportunity for the owner to earn piety. Here, there was no conflict before and after the release of the slaves. There was no discord regarding status. The yardstick of status was ‗Takwa, (complete dependence on God) and ‗perhezgari‘ (extent of piousness). For their knowledge, work and piousness many slaves were accorded very high status in the society. For all these reasons, in the Islamic world, the cessation of slavery did not cause any imbalance or commotion. Islam accorded equal social and cultural status to the slaves like the free men. Accordingly, contrary to other societies, Islam granted permission to slaves to marry. Not only that, God has urged Muslim owners to unite them in marriage. Slaves (men) were even allowed to marry free women. Their shares in the booty were made equal to free Mujahids (warreturnees). A portion of war winning was kept reserved for rehabilitation of recently freed destitute slaves. Therefore, slaves were given priority for allotment of such funds. Their words were given equal weight as of a free man, for ensuring their safety. Regarding slaves so much had been said in the Qur‘än and Hadith that, compiled together, they will form an independent book. Hazrat Ali (RA) says, ―The Prophet (PBUH), until his death, relentlessly, called upon his followers, to be careful about prayers, and to be afraid of God regarding their slaves‖ (Abu-Dawood). Islam has established unique and radical example in education and insurance of social status to slaves. Some of the Companions who were slaves, and after conversion to Islam freed, gave their lives for Islam. They attained the great distinction of being Companions of the great Prophet (PBUH). Many slave women were released and were married to the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH), thus earning the status of wives as any other free women. During the reign of Amir Abdul Malik ibn
356

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Marwan, many of those who were leading learned men, in the Islamicstate, were once slaves. The next generations of Companions (Tabeins and Tabe-Tabeins) learned Traditions and interpretations from Hazrat Ibrahim Nafay (RA) and Hazrat Ikrama (RA). Hazrat Nafay (RA) was a slave of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Omar (RA) and Hazrat Ikrama (RA) was a slave of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA). Until today, the knowledge that the two Companions had imparted to the two slaves is enlightening the world. They enjoyed the status of teachers, in their lifetimes. With the spread of Islam, great enthusiasm was created in Muslim women for education, science and literature. Among all classes of the people, masters or slaves, accomplished women of great wisdom were born. In that age, women studied of Traditions a special branch of knowledge. Many male scholars took tutelage under these learned ladies. Muhammad bin Yazid had a slave woman called Abida. This woman studying Traditions at Medïna, became a scholar of distinction. Habib Dawoon, a famous specialist in Ahadith of that age, once visited Medïna. Abida‘s owner presented her to Dawoon as a special gift. A great Scholar like Habib, charmed by Abida‘s knowledge of Ahadith, married and took her to Spain. Islam came at such a juncture of history, when the economy of the world greatly depended on slave labor; and no alternative was available. There was no alternative to employing slaves in transportation, shipping, agriculture, trade, commerce and housekeeping. With the arrival of Muhammad (PBUH), due to his foresightedness, untiring endeavor and above all his ideals, differences between classes, rich and poor, blacks and whites, big and small were eradicated and a caste-less, classless society was established. Consequently, a difficult problem like slavery could be solved, which before no other religion or law could eradicate. The Prophet‘s (PBUH) lifelong struggle not only ensured freedom but also ensured reward for their labors, in the Islamic world. Fourteen hundred years ago, the Prophet (PBUH) not only freed and rehabilitated slaves but also gave clear guidelines of treating them. No other man before him granted the right of religious rites to the slaves. He allowed them spiritual participation and access to Mosques. Hazrat Bellal (RA), a slave in earlier life, was appointed the Muezzin of Masjidun Nabubi, at Medïna. Hazrat Abu Huraira (RA), a freed slave, compiled the
357

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

largest number of Traditions. The Prophet (PBUH), after liberating Zaid (RA), from the bondage of slavery, adopted him as a son; later, tied him in marriage with his own beautiful Cousin from the Quraish clan. Zaid (RA) was given the command of an army in which very important Ansars and Muhajir Companions were included. His son Osama also commanded an army in which Hazrat Omar (RA) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) were included. The Messenger of God (PBUH) married a slave woman and the marriage granted her the honor of Ummul Muminins (Mother of the Muslims) with it, thus she automatically attained a lofty status. Important companions like, Hazrats Bellal (RA), Huraira (RA), Zaid (RA) and Salman Farsi (RA), were very dear to the Prophet (PBUH). They were all slaves earlier. After freeing them from the bondage, Muhammad‘s (PBUH) intention was to establish them as freemen and he did that very successfully. To the end of his life, Muhammad (PBUH) advised his followers to emulate him. What his critics fail to comprehend, is that the word of the Prophet (PBUH), is the law. Therefore, they cite the absence of law regarding abolition of slavery. History bears testimony that in different times, these emancipated slaves, enjoyed high positions; and became commanders, governors, ministers, chiefs of departments and even kings, in the Islamic world.
SERVANTS IN THE MODERN THIRD WORLD:

The great Prophet (PBUH) of Allah knew that the distinction between the have and have-nots existed before and would exist in the future, in spite of them being compatriots or relatives. No degree of progress or accomplishment of the human race would be effective in abolishment of this peculiarity. Under this circumstance, at the one hand, the rich would need people to work for them to manage their property, trade and business and even households; on the other, the poor would need jobs to survive. So evidently, both segments complement each other, and their cooperation is beneficial to each other. Abolition of the system of labor shall not be beneficial for the human society. We therefore, still see the well to do, to employ people to work for them. Yesterdays‘ slaves are called servants today. In principle, they are free human beings, but they do the same kind of jobs as slaves did. The Prophet (PBUH) therefore, toiled all his life to bring them at par with others as human beings, and in
358

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

ensuring better condition at work. All human are born equals and they should be treated as such. The kind of relationship between the employee and the employer that the incarnation of kindness, the Prophet (PBUH) of Islam affected is absent even in today‘s so called democratic world. In the non-Islamic world, there existed a savage relationship between the master and the slave, but fellowship between them was the norm in the Muslim world. People have been freed from the bond of slavery but the condition of the toiling masses remained the same. Instead of slaves, they are known as servants, laborers and workers: otherwise, they are engaged in the same menial jobs, for their livelihood that the slaves of earlier age did.
KINDNESS TO MUTE ANIMALS:

Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) had great compassion for all the creations of God. Mute animals were not excluded from his consideration. He did not only forbid injustice on human beings but also ordered his followers to show compassion to mute animals that cannot express themselves. Muhammad (PBUH), personally looked after the domestic animals. In the age of darkness, in Arabia, tormenting and torturing animals were not a crime but the Prophet (PBUH) stopped that custom. Not only keeping animals without food, cutting of ears and tails were prohibited but also marking them otherwise was disallowed. He ordered not to harass and torment riding animals with bridles and saddles, unnecessarily. Customs like animal-fights for fun has been banned. Hunting animals only for human consumption is allowed. Once, a Companion told the Prophet (PBUH) that goats slaughtering pains him. The Prophet (PBUH) replied, ―If you are kind to them; God will be kind to you.‖ Once a man came to the Prophet (PBUH) with eggs of hawk-cuckoo, he ordered him to return those to the nest, immediately. Similarly, somebody came with chicks of the bird, the Prophet (PBUH) sent him back to replace them in their nest. Whenever, he came across these feeble, defenseless creatures, he reminded his disciples to be careful about them and be afraid of God. Clearly, meaning that they should treat these with love and care and fear God‘s wrath at any transgression. After returning from any expedition or tour, before anything else, the Prophet (PBUH) would unsaddle his horses or camels, feed them, and make them comfortable. That was his practice even when he took rest during journeys.
359

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

During crusades, the Prophet (PBUH) would instruct his army not to destroy trees, plants, standing crops or defile ponds and other water bodies. The instruction was to treat animals and birds with utmost kindness. As a result, the Companions would rest their beast of burden at every opportunity during war or otherwise. The Prophet (PBUH) has instructed companions to feed the beasts of burden properly, to care for them, and not to overload them. In the Qur‘än Allah says, ―The animals on the earth and the birds flying in the sky are all like you are my creation so be kind to them.‖ Companions asked the Prophet (PBUH): ―Will we be rewarded for being kind to animals?‖ Muhammad (PBUH) replied: ―Yes, if you show compassion to any creation of God, you will be rewarded for that.‖
ALLAH IS MERCIFUL

Allah the Gracious, the Merciful forgives those transgressors that repentant and ask for his forgiveness and reform. In the holy Qur‘än Allah says,
415. 416. G OD IS I NDEED O FT- FORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 4: 4). U NLESS HE REPENTS , BELIEVES , A ND WORKS RIGHTEOUS DEEDS , F OR G OD WILL CHANGE T HE EVIL OF SUCH PERS ONS I NTO GOOD , AND G OD IS O FT-F ORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 25: 70). S AY: ‗O MY S ERVANTS WHO H AVE TRANSGRESSED AGAINST THEIR SOULS ! D ESPAIR NOT OF THE M ERCY OF G OD : FOR G OD FORGIVES A LL SINS : FOR H E IS O FT-F ORGIVING , M OST M ERCIFUL‘. (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 39: 53).

And He said again:

Allah in the Qur‘än says,
417.

The Prophet (PBUH) said, ―If any body feels troubled and uneasy after committing a sin, surely that is a sign of repentance (Dailami).‖
RAHMATULLIL AL-AMIN:

God at different times sent great men as His representatives, to bring derailed people to the right path. From Adam (Peace on him) to Muhammad (PBUH), God has sent 124,000 (according to some accounts 224,000) prophets to this world. The Qur‘än says,
418. S AY YE : ‗W E BELIEVE I N G OD , AND THE REVELATION G IVEN TO US , AND TO A BRAHAM , I SHMAEL , I SAAC , J ACOB , A ND THE T RIBES , AND THAT GIVEN T O M OSES AND J ESUS , AND THAT GIVEN T O ( ALL ) P ROPHETS FROM THEIR L ORD : W E MAKE NO DIFFERENCE B ETWEEN ONE AND ANOTH ER OF THEM : A ND WE BOW TO G OD ( IN I SLAM )‘ (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 136).

360

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 419. A ND WHO BELIEVE IN THE R EVELATION S ENT TO THEE , A ND SENT BEFORE THY TIME , A ND ( IN THEIR HEARTS ) H AVE THE ASSURANCE OF THE H EREAFTER . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 4). T HE A POSTLE BELIEVETH I N WHAT HATH BEEN REVEALED T O HIM FROM HIS L ORD , A S DO THE MEN OF FAIT H . E ACH ONE ( OF THEM ) BELIEVETH IN G OD , H IS ANGELS , H IS BOOKS , AND H IS APOSTLES . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 285). T O EVERY PEOPLE ( WAS SENT ) A N APOSTLE : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 10: 47). V ERILY W E HAVE SENT THEE I N TRUTH , AS A BEARER O F GLAD TIDINGS , AND AS A WARNER : A ND THERE NEVER WAS A PEOPLE , WITHOUT A WARNER H AVING LIVED AMONG THEM (I N THE PAST ). (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 35: 24).

420.

421. 422.

Allah‘s divine messages prove that He sent apostles for each of the nations on the earth. If that is so, great men sent to India, as Shri Krishna, Buddha and Ram are His prophets or there may be others. Prophets must be respected by the Muslims, according to the holy Qur‘än. This expounds Islam‘s accommodative qualities, broadness and love of peace. On this principle, irrespective of caste, creed and religion, Muhammad (PBUH) took effective measures to bring peace by orchestrating all differences into unity. Allah says,
423. 424. M ANKIND WAS ONE SINGLE NATION , (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 213). L ET THERE BE NO COMPU LSION I N RELIGION : T RUTH STANDS OUT C LEAR FROM E RROR : (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 2: 256). T O YOU BE YOUR WAY, A ND TO ME MINE . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 109: 6).

Allah urged the Prophet (PBUH) to tell the non-believers:
425.

God has gone to the extent of telling people not to abuse the god and goddesses of even the idolaters who are staunch enemies of the doctrine of ‗Oneness of God‘. Allah says,
426. A ND DO NOT REVILE THO SE GODS THAT THEY ( IDOLATERS ) WORSHIP PLACING WITH G OD . (A L -Q UR ‘ ÄN - 6: 109)?

During the war of Hunaian, a Companion requested Prophet (PBUH) to curse the heathens: the Prophet (PBUH) replied: ―I am not sent to damn people but to profess kindness.‖ The Prophet (PBUH) has invited people to live in peace and harmony by accepting and tolerating each other‘s opinion and culture. Taking over the rein of the state after migrating from Mecca to Medïna, the first act of concluding a pact with the Jewish and the idolaters reflects his ideology of co-existence. When the Tayefian-idolater-delegates came to confer with the Prophet (PBUH), arrangements were made for them to stay at the courtyard of the Masjidun Nabubi, in Medïna. The Mosque was made available to the Nazarene Christian delegates, for their evening prayers,
361

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

when they came to Medïna. Under the same roof, the Christians prayed facing East, and the Muslims facing the Ka‘aba, behind the Prophet (PBUH). This is first and the last example, as to how and to what extent other‘s religion should be respected, in the history of the world. No prophets or sages ever before had shown such respects for others. Unnecessarily, Muhammad (PBUH) never behaved rudely with anybody of other religious faiths. He (PBUH) never begrudged any adherents of other religions, Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrian or even non-believers. Khazraj leader Abdullah bin Obey always conspired against and opposed the Prophet (PBUH), but at his death Muhammad (PBUH), sent his cloak to cover Obey‘s body. Muhammad (PBUH) even participated at his memorial service and prayed for the departed soul. Abu Talib, his uncle never accepted Islam, but he did not hate or disrespect him for that. At Abu Talib‘s death, he (PBUH) even prayed for his deliverance. Abul Äs, husband of the Prophet‘s (PBUH) eldest daughter was a heathen but still he never was rude with him. Agreements that were concluded with the Jewish and the Christians were adhered to word by word. Constantly, the Jewish conspired against the newly established Muslimstate at Medïna. Repeatedly, on exposure the Prophet (PBUH) forgave them. To live in peace with the Christians and the Jewish, he established marital relations with them. Universal fraternity and ideology that the great Prophet (PBUH) left behind, no other great sage did that. His effort at bringing peace was not confined to only the Arabs or the Muslims, but he was the harbinger of international brotherhood. ―All the people of the world are bound by common descent and are, therefore, brothers:‖ announced the Prophet (PBUH) to the world. Regarding this, Allah‘s command: ―Mankind was one single nation, (Al-Qur‘än - 2: 213):‖ is very distinct. In another place God says,
427. O MANKIND ! W E CREATED Y OU FROM A SINGLE ( PAIR ) O F MALE AND FEMALE , A ND MADE YOU INTO N ATIONS AND TRIBES , THAT Y E MAY KNOW EACH OTHE R (N OT THAT YOU MAY DESP ISE E ACH OTHER ). V ERILY T HE MOST HONORED OF YOU I N THE SIGHT OF G OD I S ( HE WHO IS ) THE MOST R IGHTEOUS OF YOU . (A L Q UR ‘ ÄN - 49: 13).

Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) in his great campaign for establishment of faith in One God, literally, observed tolerance, perseverance, justice and fraternity. He observed all rules and laws that he established without any blemish. ―All human are equal:‖ He (PBUH) was first to tell the world.
362

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

He (PBUH) said, ―That who relentlessly, works for the prosperity and eradication of sorrow and pain of the human race, is the best servant of God.‖ The greatest prophet of all, the Messenger of God, Harbinger of Peace Muhammad (PBUH), was the Beacon Bearer of peace, harmony, love, kindness, truth and simplicity. His (PBUH) ideal was to establish faith, unity and discipline. Muhammad (PBUH) concluded his mission with great success. In a land beset with strife, rancor, chaos, disorder, injustice, infanticide, rape, murder and total anarchy, in every wake of life, Muhammad (PBUH) brought sanity. Slaves, servants, the poor and the powerless were empowered and elevated to the status of human beings. All his life the Prophet (PBUH) fought, struggled and worked to establish, equality, fraternity and democracy. Declaring that Children‘s heavens are under their mother‘s foot, he sanctified Motherhood. Women were glorified with the lofty status of Motherhood and granted equal status with men. Overnight they earned respect, status and rights from being treated no better than cattle. With Muhammad (PBUH) establishing a state at Medïna there were qualitative changes in every occupation. Muhammad (PBUH), with the introduction of Islam, firmly instituted faith in one God, which enriched mundane and spiritual lives of the people. People glowed with enlightenment and excellence in all spheres of life. His far-reaching social, political, and economic and spiritual reforms brought in permanent and beneficial transformation; in the psyche of a whole nation inspired by Pan-Islamic zeal. The Prophet (PBUH) successfully made sweeping and decisive changes that forever changed the way people think and act. This was reflected in Administration, Government, Finance, Trade, Commerce, Management, Education, and administration of Law and Justice. Education was made compulsory for all Muslim men and women, since that is the basic requirement for all development, spiritual or temporal. Both individual and collective lives were transformed and outlook regarding human behavior, feelings and passion changed. Love, passion, hatred, jealousy, kindness, compassion, pain and sorrow all were interpreted in a new light and people started reacting differently to these human dispositions. They realized everybody placed low or high in the society has basic human feelings and thus should be treated as such. None should be treated
363

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

unkindly, not even the mute helpless animals. All the God‘s creations deserve compassion, as the Creator is to us. Islam endeavored to purify the hearts from hedonism and sensuality, but did not allow celibacy. Therefore, a good Muslim must endure the hardship of a family life, where he purifies himself through duties as a husband and a father. Muhammad (PBUH) as the spiritual leader of the Muslims clearly spelled out the dimensions and dynamics of these mundane relationships. He by example taught his disciples how to be a good spouse, parent, master, servant, teacher, student, warrior, administrator, judge and leader, etc. A Muslim is a man who is kind, benevolent, magnanimous, laborious, pious, truthful, righteous, compassionate and helpful that gives shelter to the shelterless, gives food to the hungry, gives water to the thirsty, money to the poor, service to the distressed and shows perseverance in hazards and dangers. This, the Prophet (PBUH) has told the world. In the Prophet‘s (PBUH) life and work, benevolence and magnanimity was always reflected. The great unity that he has been able to incorporate into the tumultuous multitude of different races is reflected in the Hajj congregation each year. At this unique congregation, millions of people come from different countries of the world belonging to various ethnic and racial groups, and assemble before God as one united body. They all pray to the Almighty, asking for deliverance from sin and His mercy, wearing the same dress, irrespective of status and power. Together in one voice, they declare the Greatness of God, asking Him for forgiveness and deliverance. Such a solemn practice is unique in Islam, in which millions of people of different culture, language and ethnicity melt together in a mammoth congregation, before God, bereft of all outward glory and mellowed in humility. Muhammad (PBUH) was the Greatest Prophet of God, leader of all the prophets, the greatest man ever born was also the best head of state. From Adam until today, none could achieve such great success in both the roles of spiritual and temporal leaders. He (PBUH) excelled in every sphere of life and became an example for all to imitate. His aims and objects have been crowned with glorious success. None ever in a lifetime has achieved so much. He (PBUH) is the only prophet, who in his own lifetime has seen the successful conclusion of his mission of truth and righteousness. In the other cases, the faith flourished long after the protagonists have
364

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

gone, and none of them has their live and practices recorded in such details as Muhammad‘s (PBUH). Almost every detail of his personal, private and public life, from birth to death, has been recorded in extraordinary details with extreme care. None of his application, conduct, convention and custom is shrouded in obscurity as the Prophet (PBUH) took great care in getting those recorded. His programs of public services is recognized and followed all over the world. Fourteen hundred years ago the Prophet (PBUH) said, ―That, who serves the creatures of God, serves God.‖ He told people that you consider all human beings as one single body like yours. If a part of the body suffers injury, the whole body feels the pain, so if a member of a family suffers the whole family suffers. People should suffer likewise, if any of them suffer anywhere in the world. This is being followed today by the comity of the world. If a part of the world is struck by any natural calamity or suffer from war or civil strife the whole world rush to help. These are the ideals of the great Prophet (PBUH), being followed by the world, and that is why he has been called ―Rahmatullil Al-Amin (Mercy of the Worlds)‖ by God. Muhammad (PBUH), has done justice to the name. Today the Islamic Ummah (Nation) with great respect and regard sings:
―Balagal Ula bi-Kamalihi, Kashafatduza bi-Jamalihi Hasanat Jaamiu Khisalihi, Sallu Alaihi Aalihi.‖ (English Rendition)141 Darkness by his glowing nature, removedThat is why, so high commended his conduct. Send peace upon him, and pray verily, May God Bestow grace, on his family.

Moreover, I would sing with the Persian poet as that is my heart‘s wish:
Though I have completed, all pages Of temporal life, To only one attribute I could Sing praises I discover reminiscing.142

Saying this I most humbly seek God‘s blessings: Oh God! Suatainer of the Worlds, all praises are to You. May Your mercy be bestowed on
141 142 Translator English by the Translator.

365

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

Muhammad (PBUH), unceasingly. O Lord, give us, i.e. the humankind strength and courage to uphold his ideals. Amin!
Allahumma Salli Ala Muhammadieu Owa Aala Ali Muhammadin Kama Sallaita Aala Ibrahima Owa Aala Ali Ibrahima, Innaka Hamidum Majid. Allahumma Barik Aala Muhammadieu Owa Aala Ali Muhammadin Kama Barakta Aala Ibrahima Owa Aala Ali Ibrahima, Innaka Hamidum Majid. (English Rendition)143 Oh God! Bestow mercy on Muhammad and his family, as You did on Abraham and his family. Oh God! Bestow increase on Muhammad and his family, as You did on Abraham and his family.
LA ILAHA ILLALLAHU MUHAMMADUR RASULULLAH.

(There is no god, but Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger).

143

Translator

366

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

END OF PART-II

I

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

References
1. 2. Yusuf Ali, Abdullah, Translation of the Meaning of the Glorious Qur‘än: Publishers Dar AlKitab Al-Masri, 33 Kasr El-Nil St. Cairo Egypt, PO 156 & Dar Al-Kitab Allubnani, PO Box 3176, Beirut, Lebanon. Ibn Abi Talib, Ali (RA), Nahjul Balagha: Selected and compiled by as-Sayyid Abu‘l-Hasan Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ar-Radi al Musawi, Ansariyan Publications, P.O.B. 37185/185 Qum, I.R. Iran. The Holy Bible, Authorized (King James) Version: The Gideons International, The National Publishing Co., 1961. Vidyarthi, Maulana Abdul Haque, Mohammad In World Scriptures: Dar-ul-Kutub Islamia, Lahore, Pakistan, 1940. Interpretation of the Qur‘än (Tafsir-e-Ma‘areful-Qur‘än): King Fahd Publishing Project. Nehru, Pandit Jawaherlal, Glimpses of World History: London 1931. Ratnam, Venkata, An Essay on Islam: 1922 Edition, Madras. Besant, Annie, Life and Teachings of Muhammad: Madras, pp. 3, 1932: The Editorial Column of the Daily Express of London: November 10, 1925. Rao, B. Ram Krishna, Former Governor of Kerala, India, Speech delivered on the October 7, 1957 on the birth anniversary of the Holy Prophet. Archer, John Clerk, Our Debt to the Muslim World: Published in the Islamic Review: July 1957. Bouquet, AC, Comparative Religion: Penguin Books Ltd., Middlesex, 1954. Gurney, Selwyn and Short, Dorothy, Readings from World Religion: London, 1951.. Parameshar, C., The Guilt of Man: Published In Islamic Review, October 1940. Pike, E. Royston, Muhammad: Roy Publisher Inc., New York. Hart, Michael H., The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons In History: New York. Ibn Khuldun, Tarikhul Ambia: Part-I. Amir Ali, Syed, The Spirit of Islam: Haq, Hazrat Maulana Shah Abdul, Zazbul-Kulub Ila Dyaril Mahbub: (Translation Muhammad Abdul Jabbar, Pir Sahib Baitus-Sharaf, Chittagong, Bangladesh). Krupp, Marcus A. and Chatton, Milton j., Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment: Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California, USA, 1978. The Sayings of Muhammad (SM.): Translated and Edited by Allama Sir Abdullah Al-Mamun Al-Suhrawardy, Society for Pakistan Studies, 1970. Shamael, An open letter to the Pope: Islamic Foundation Press, Baitul Mukarram, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Akbar Ali, M., Science In the Holy Qur‘än: Malik Library, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1977. Mahmudul Hassan, Syed, Islam: Islamic Foundation of Bangladesh. Scientific Indications in Holy Qur‘än: A Board of Researchers-headed by Dr. M. Shamsher Ali: Project Science in Al-Qur‘än, Islamic Foundation Bangladesh, Baitul Mukarram, Dhaka-1000. Hussain, K.M.A., Shristi Jagater Rahashsha (The Mysteries of the Worlds): Bucaille, Maurice, The Bible, The Holy Qur‘än and Science: North American Trust Publications, USA, 1978. Naba Kollol: 26th. Year, 4th. Issue, Bilupta Bandar, Calcutta: July 1985.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

26. 27. 28.

I

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. Shaw, W., Textbook of Gynecology: Churchill, London, 1948. Graham, J., Any Wife or Any Husband: Heinemann, London, 1955. Dalton, K., Porit. Med. J., 1: 148, 1959. Erdelyi, G.T., Time, New York, p. 40, Dec. 12, 1960. Kitabul Umme-Shafei, part-I, p. 145, Asadul Gaba, part-V, p. 274 & 489. Tabakat-e-Ibn Sa‘ad part-II. Al-Kadabi, Yusuf, Islam-e-Zakater Bidhan (The Principle of Zakat in Islam): part-II. Muazzem, M.G., Qurane Biggan (Science in the Qur‘än): (in Bengali) Ist. Edition, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, 1967. Khan, GM Al-Dhabeh, Slaying Animals for Food In The Islamic Way: Ist. Edition, Ta Ha Publishers, London, 1982. Callow, E.H., Food And Hygiene: Cambridge, 1952. Horder, Lord, Statement in Support of Jewish Method of Slaying Animals: 1950. Abduh, Mufti, Tafsir e Almanar: p. 226. Part-II. Shafi, Maulana Mufti Mohammed, Ma‘aref ul-Qur‘än: Part-III, pp.544-545 (In the interpretation of Süra, A'anam: verse 151). Shahidur Rahman, Md., Saytter Shandhanaya (In the Search of Truth): Abdur Rahman, Syed, Baibalay Muhammad (SM) (Muhammad in the Bible): Madrasa Publication Center, Mahatma Gandhi Road, Calcutta, 1991. Russell, Lord Bertrand, The Reawakening of the East: M. Hidayatullah and Arshad Hidayatullah, Mulla‘s Principles of Mahomedan Law, Eighteenth Edition, Fred B. Rothmans & Co., Littleton, Colo. USA. Mahmudul Hassan, Syed: Islam. p 219; Islamic Foundation of Bangladesh. Ziauddin, Sardar: Islamic Futures, Pelanduk Publications (M) SDN Bld Selangor Daru Ehsan, Malaysia, 1985.

II

ISLAM AND THE PROPHET OF PEACE

PBUH:

RA

AS

Baitul Mukkarram: Baitul Ma‘al

Peace be upon him: Every time the Prophet (PBUH) is mentioned the listener must recite ―Sallal Lahu Alaihe Wasallam‖ (Peace be upon him) Radiallahu Anhu: (God is Pleased on him), in case of a companion is named this should be recited as a mark of respect. In case of a female companion ‗Anha‘ should be said in place of ‗Anhu‘ Alaihe Wasallam (Peace be on him) for all other prophets including Jesus (AS) and Moses (AS). The Sacred House (The Ka‘aba) The Treasury

III