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Buoyancy

Instructor: Ph.D. Arnold Guerra III
Vuong Chu
05/14/2015

I. Opening
The main goal of this experiment was to experimentally verify Archimedes’s principle of
buoyant force which states that the buoyant force acting on an object, submerged in a fluid,
equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
II. Procedures and Descriptions
Experimental apparatus: in this investigation, we used a right angle clamp, a lab post, a
steel rod, a hanging metal ball, a metal cube, a metal cylinder, a force sensor, a vernier caliper, a
tuna fish can, a glass beaker, slotted mass set, science workshop 750 interface, and physic Data
Studio program on computer.
Part 1: Predicting the Buoyant Force
The dimensions of each of the three objects were measured using the vernier caliber and
were recorded into table 1. The volume and the theoretical buoyant force value were
calculated and recorded in table 1 as well.
Part 2: Measuring Buoyant Force
1. The lab post was put into the hole on the table, and the steel rod was clamped
horizontally to the post using the right angle clamp.
2. The force sensor was connected to the science workshop 750 interface and was
hung up to the rod.
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The experimental buoyant force values were calculated and recorded in table 2 as well. 6. V. which was considered as a boat. For each object. The weights were recorded in table 2. was measured using the vernier caliber and was recorded. Each of the three objects was hung up on the sensor force with string. III. Analysis 1. Its volume was then calculated. The tuna can was weight and its mass was recorded. The Data The experimental data were recorded in the table 1 and 2. For the sphere: The volume and the theoretical buoyant force value of the sphere were calculated as following 2 .3. 5. IV. The breaker was filled with water. its weight was measured when it was out of the water and when it was submerged in water. Sketches and Graphs (Do not apply for this experiment). Slotted masses were load in the can little by little until the can sank. The total loading mass was recorded. Part 3: Weighting capacity of a boat The tuna fish can’s dimensions. The percentage error of each object between theoretical and experimental values was calculated. The can then was set floating on water in the beaker. 4.

35 − 0.8) = 0.1 % 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 0. For the cube: The volume and the theoretical buoyant force value of the cube were calculated as following 𝑉𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 𝑆1 × 𝑆2 × 𝑆3 = 3.363234 𝐹𝐵−𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 3.064696 × 10−6 ) (9.8) = 0.16 − 1. For the cylinder: 3 .363234 𝐹 % 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = � 𝐵−𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦𝐵−𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 � 𝑥 100 = �� �� 𝑥 100 = 3.064696 × 10−6 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 (𝑚3 ) 𝐹𝐵−𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑉𝑐𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑔 = 1000 (37.𝑉𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 = 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 4 3 4 𝜋𝑅 = 𝜋(1.363234 The experimental buoyant force of the cube was calculated as following 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝐹𝐵−𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 = 𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑊𝑖𝑛 = 0.35 (𝑁) (𝑁) The percentage error between the theoretical and experimental value of buoyant force of the sphere was calculated as following 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 − 𝐹 0.98 − 0.281563 % 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = � 𝑥 100 = �� � �� 𝑥 100 = 10.63 = 0.9)3 = 28.82 × 2.82 × 3.31 (𝑚3 ) (𝑁) (𝑁) The percentage error between the theoretical and experimental value of buoyant force of the sphere was calculated as following 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝐵−𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 − 𝐹𝐵−𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 0.73091201 × 10−6 𝐹𝐵−𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 = 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑉𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑔 = 1000 (28.281563 The experimental buoyant force of the sphere was calculated as following 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝐹𝐵−𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 = 𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑊𝑖𝑛 = 2.54 = 37.064696 (𝑐𝑚3 ) = 37.73091201 3 3 (𝑐𝑚3 ) = 28.281563 𝐹𝐵−𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 2.64 % 0.31 − 0.85 = 0.73091201 × 10−6 ) (9.

56888746 × 10−6 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 (𝑚3 ) 𝐹𝐵−𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 = 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑉𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑔 = 1000 (22.23 − 0.72 % 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 0.The volume and the theoretical buoyant force value of the cylinder were calculated as following 𝑉𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 = 𝜋𝑅2 ℎ = 𝜋(0. The percentage differences of buoyant force between theoretical and 4 .4 = 0. For the boat: Mass of the tuna fish can: M can = 25.874706 – 25.56888746 (𝑐𝑚3 ) = 22.56888746 × 10−6 ) (9. VI.952 )(7.7 = 182.63 − 0. we have proved that the theory is to be true because our data support the theory.221751 (𝑁) The experimental buoyant force of the cylinder was calculated as following 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝐹𝐵−𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 = 𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑊𝑖𝑛 = 0.174706 (grams) The actual mass was loaded in the can was 186 grams.23 (𝑁) The percentage error between the theoretical and experimental value of buoyant force of the sphere was calculated as following 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝐹𝐵−𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 − 𝐹𝐵−𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 0.1952 )(3. Conclusions After the investigation.8) = 0.221751 % 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = � 𝑥 100 = �� � �� 𝑥 100 = 3.39/2 = 4.76) = 207.195 cm Height of tuna fish can: H can = 3.221751 𝐹𝐵−𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 4.96) = 22.76 cm Volume of tuna fish can: 𝑉𝑐𝑎𝑛 = 𝜋𝑅2 ℎ = 𝜋(4.7 grams Radius of tuna fish can: R can = 8.874706 (𝑐𝑚3 ) Maximum load that can be applied to the tuna fish can before it sank was calculated as following M add = V can – M can = 207.

825294 grams due to the friction between the tuna fish can and the beaker. The values were recorded as the guessing average values and that leads to the different percentage between theoretical and measured buoyant force. This is a reasonable result. we have the uncertainty in objects’ weight measurement when they in and out of water. With the difference was only 3. the objects did not stay put. 5 . the experiment about testing capacity of a boat also proves the theory is true.experimental value were small enough so that we can say the theory is true. Moreover. One thing always happened in experiment is uncertainty in the value which we measured. In this investigation. When we measured the weights. so the force sensor showed values in a small interval.