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Rev: B

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CIVIL DESIGN BASIS


FOR
OFFSITES & UTILITIES
(Civil, Structural & Architectural)

Mott MacDonald Consultants (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd

Kothari House, CTS No. 185

Krishna Shree, 2nd Floor, Gandhi Nagar

Off Andheri - Kurla Road

1st Main Road - Adyar

Andheri (East)

Chennai 600 020

Mumbai 400 059

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List of Contents

Page No

Scope

Codes, Regulations, Specifications and Standards

2.1

Specifications:

2.2

Analysis & Design:


2.2.1 Loads:
2.2.2 Concrete Design:
2.2.3 Structural Steel Design:
2.2.4 Roads, Culverts, Drainage & Pavement Design:
2.2.5 Foundation Design:
2.2.6 Masonry Design:
2.2.7 Misc. Specifications:

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10
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10
11
11
11
11

General Topography & Climatic Conditions

12

Materials of Construction

12

Design Loads

12

5.1

General

12

5.2

Dead Loads (D)

12

5.3

Static & Dynamic Equipment Empty Loads (E)

13

5.4

Equipment Operating Loads (EO)

13

5.5

Equipment Hydro-Test Load (EH)

13

5.6

Piping Loads (P) for Pipe Supports/Trestles

14

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS

15

6.1

Vertical Loading

15

6.2

Friction Force (Longitudinal and Transverse)

15

6.3

Anchor and Guide Force (Thermal load)

15

6.4

Loading on Intermediate Beam at Tier Level

15

6.5

Loading on Longitudinal Beams

16

6.6

Cable Tray/Ducts and Walkway Loads

16

6.7

Wind Force

16

Live Loads (L)

16

7.1

General

16

7.2

Live Loads on different structures/buildings


7.2.1 Service Platform
7.2.2 Substation/Control Room
7.2.3 Office building
7.2.4 Staircase

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17
17
17
17

Contingency Loads

18

8.1

18

RCC Structures

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Structural Steel

18

Earth pressure (H) & Buoyancy:

18

10

Wind Loads (W)

18

11

Seismic Loads (S)

19

12

Thermal Loads (TL)

20

13

Impact Loads (I)

21

14

Vibration Loads (V)

21

15

Surcharge/Overburden Loads (B)

21

16

Load Combinations

21

16.1

General

21

16.2

Load Factors and Combinations

21

17

18

19

20

21

Concrete Structures Design

23

17.1

General

23

17.2

Foundations

24

17.3

Minimum Foundation Sizes

24

17.4

Piles and Pile Caps

24

17.5

Anchor Bolts

25

17.6

Minimum Cover Requirements to Main Reinforcement

25

17.7

Staircase

25

17.8

Concrete Grade

26

17.9

Reinforcement Bars

26

17.10 Minimum Thickness of concrete members

26

17.11 Allowable Deflections for concrete buildings

26

Masonry Structures

27

18.1

General

27

Steel Structures design

27

19.1

General

27

19.2

Miscellaneous

28

Allowable Deflections for structural steel buildings

28

20.1

General

28

20.2

Crane Beams or Girders

28

Surface Drainage, Paving & Sewerage: -

29

21.1

29

Table showing paving type selection

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22

23

24

25

26

Rev: B

Page 5 of 45

Joints

30

Drainage General

31

22.1

Drain details

31

22.2

Storm Water Drainage

31

22.3

Oily Water Sump system (OWS):

32

Site grading & roads: -

32

23.1

Site Grading: -

32

23.2

Roads:-

32

RCC bund walls & bunded area discharge:

33

24.1

33

Bunded area discharge:

Substations buildings and blast resistant design:

33

25.1

General

33

25.2

General principles of steel tank foundation design:

34

25.3

Analysis & design procedure for RCC underground tanks:

34

Design Philosophy/Criteria

34

26.1

Architectural Design
26.1.1 Spatial Requirements
26.1.2 Functional Spaces
26.1.3 Circulation Spaces
26.1.4 Amenity Spaces
26.1.5 Utility Spaces
26.1.6 Sizes of Spaces
26.1.7 Day Light and Natural Ventilation
26.1.8 Natural Ventilation
26.1.9 Acoustics and Sound Insulation
26.1.10 Safety Requirements

34
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
37
37
37

26.2

Site Planning

38

26.3

Building Services
26.3.1 Water supply, Distribution and Drainage Sanitary Services
26.3.2 Electrical Services
26.3.3 Air conditioning and Heating

38
38
38
39

26.4

Aesthetics

39

26.5

Structural and Architectural Construction Elements


26.5.1 Plinth protection
26.5.2 Finished Floor Level (FFL)
26.5.3 Steps/ ramps/ Staircases
26.5.4 Walls
26.5.5 Doors
26.5.6 Windows/ ventilators
26.5.7 Canopy/Overhang
26.5.8 Shading Devices
26.5.9 Parapet
26.5.10 Roof Gutter

39
39
39
40
41
41
42
42
42
42
43

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26.5.11 Rain Water Pipes Spouts


26.5.12 Entrance Lobby
26.5.13 Passages/Corridors
26.5.14 Service Entry
26.5.15 Air-Lock Lobby
26.5.16 Emergency Exits
26.5.17 Railings
26.5.18 Toilets
26.5.19 False Ceiling
26.5.20 False/Cavity flooring
26.5.21 Transformer Gate
26.5.22 Under deck Insulation
26.5.23 Architectural Finishes
27

Railway Siding Work

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Scope
The engineering design basis defines the minimum design criteria that shall form the basis for
carrying out detailed civil, architectural and structural design of all structures like tank
foundations, T/T & Wagon Loading/Unloading Gantry sheds, checking platforms, Pipe racks,
Pipe tracks, plant buildings (like DG Sheds/Pump Sheds/MCC-Control Room etc.), non-plant
buildings (like Administration/Security/Amenity/Planning buildings etc.) included in bid
document.
This document also includes the design criteria that shall form the basis for carrying out design
and engineering of items under general civil (viz. roads, paving drainage etc.).
This document shall be read in conjunction with technical specifications and scope of works.
This specification describes the materials, loads, design requirements and methods to be used
for design of structures / buildings as described below:
(Reference drawing: Overall Plot Plan Drg. No 254624-400-PIP-3000)
The various structures, buildings and equipment included in the scope are:
STORAGE TANK DETAILS
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

DYKE No.
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6

TANK TAG No.


400T-001A
400T-001B
400T-004A
400T-004B
400T-010A
400T-010B
400T-012A
400T-012B
400T-040A
400T-040B
400T-002
400T-020A
400T-020B
400T-020C
400T-030A
400T-030B
400T-030C
400T-030D
400T-050A
400T-050B
400T-061A
400T-061B
400T-070

Fluid Content
HSD
HSD
HSD
HSD
MS
MS
MS
MS
NAPHTHA
NAPHTHA
HSD/SOFT SKO
SKO
SKO
SOFT SKO
ATF
ATF
ATF
ATF
MTO
MTO
ETHANOL
ETHANOL
MS

DIA
40
40
40
40
25
25
25
25
20
20
28
25
25
25
17
17
17
17
10.5
10.5
9
9
5

HORIZONTAL VESSELS
Sr.no.
1
2

TANK TAG No.


400T-003
400T-011

Fluid Content
HSD-I
MS-I

DIA
3
3

LENGTH
11.5
11.5

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HEIGHT
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
7.5
7.5
10
10
5.6

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Sr.no.
3
4
5
6
7
8

TANK TAG No.


400T-022
400T-041
400T-062A/B
400T-005
400T-013
400T-023

Rev: B
Fluid Content
SKO
NAPHTHA
HEXANE
HSD-I
MS-II
ATF

Page 8 of 45
DIA
3
3
3
3
3
3

LENGTH
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5

OTHER STRUCTURES/AREAS
Sr.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Description
Security Cabin & Lock room
Workers Amenity , Contractors Amenity & Canteen
Automation room and Administration Building
8 Bay T/T Gantry
D.G. Yard
MCC Room
HT Room
Calibration Shed
Lube Godown
Engineering Store + Site office
Lube Yard
Planning Room
Garage & Fire Station
Transformer Yard
Rail Staff Room & Two Gantry Office + Railway staff Amenity
room
OWS For Pol ETP
TW Gantry
Lorry Drivers Amenity Room
Sealing Platform
Weigh Bridge
Truck Parking
9 KL Underground Diesel Tank
Area For Additive Dozing
Area For Additive Dozing Drums
HT Yard
Pump House
Septic Tank
Scrap Yard
Area For U/G Tank And Pumps
Vapour Recovery System
Watch Tower
Fire Water Tank (400T-091A/B)
Fire Water Pump House
Fire Water Make Up Tank
High mast pole
Laboratory
Air compressor
Sewage treatment plant
Foam skid package

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Nos
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

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Page 9 of 45

PUMP DETAILS
Sr.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

PUMP NO
400P-001A/B
400P-002
400P-003
400P-005A/B/C/S
400P-006A/S
400P-010
400P-011
400P-013
400P-020
400P-021A/B/C
400P-022
400P-030A/S
400P-040A/S
400P-041A/B/C
400P-050A/S
400P-061A/B/S
400P-031A/S
400P-043
400P-062A/S
400P-080A/S
400P-007
400P-014
400P-023
400P-042
400P-063
400P-064
400P-065
400P-070

DESCRIPTION
HSD Pump For Tank Truck Filling
HSD I Pump For Tank Truck Filling
HSD II Pump For Tank Truck Filling
HSD II Pump For Tank Wagon Filling
HSD Pump For OMC
MS I Pump For Tank Truck Filling
MS II Pump For Tank Truck Filling
MS Pump For OMC
SKO Pump For Tank Truck Filling
SKO/ATF Pump For Tank Wagon
SKO Pump For OMC
ATF Pump For Tank Truck Filling
NAPHTHA Pump For Tank Truck Filling
NAPHTHA/MS II Pump For Tank Wagon
MTO Pump For Tank Truck
ETHANOL Pump For Tank Truck Unloading
ATF Pump For OMC
NAPHTHA Pump For OMC
HEXANE Pump For Tank Truck loading &
Unloading
Pump
Sick Wagon Unloading Pump
Sick Wagon Unloading Pump
Sick Wagon Unloading Pump
Sick Wagon Unloading Pump
Sick Wagon Unloading Pump
Sick Wagon Unloading Pump
Sick Wagon Unloading Pump
Diesel Pump

QTY.
2
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Codes, Regulations, Specifications and Standards


Following technical specifications shall be referred along with this design basis.

2.1

Specifications:
Sr.
No

Title

STD. Specification
No.

1.

Technical Specification for Earthwork (Excavation


& Filling )

2.

Specification for Plain & Reinforced concrete works 254624-400-SP-CIV-002

3.

Technical Specification for Structural Steel Works

254624-400-SP-CIV-003

4.

Specification for Masonry works

254624-400-SP-CIV-004

5.

Specification for Roads & Storm Drain works

254624-400-SP-CIV-005

6.

Specification for Piling

254624-400-SP-CIV-006

254624-400-SP-CIV-001

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2.2

Rev: B

Page 10 of 45

Analysis & Design:


(For general notes, legend and abbreviations refer Drg. No. 254625-300-CIV-2801)

2.2.1

Loads:
IS 875 : Part 1: 1987
IS 875 : Part 2 : 1987
IS 875 : Part 3 : 1987
IS 1893: -1984
- Pt I , 2002

Part 1, 2002 Code of practice for earthquake resistant


design of structures General Provisions & buildings

- Pt II , 2005

Part IV, 2005- Code of practice for earthquake resistant


design of structures Industrial structures including stack
like structures.
Code of practice for earthquake resistant design and
construction of buildings.

IS 4326 :1993

2.2.2

Concrete Design:
IS 456 2000

Plain & Reinforced Concrete

Special Publication,
SP 16:1980
IS 13920 :1993

Design Aids to IS 456

IS 3370 Parts I 1965


IS 3370 Parts II 1965
IS 3370 Parts III 1967
IS 3370 Parts IV 1967
All 4 parts reaffirmed in 1999.
IS 432 :Part I - 1982
IS 1786 :1985

2.2.3

Code of practice for design loads ( other than earthquakes)


for buildings & structures ,Part 1 Dead loads
Code of practice for design loads ( other than earthquakes)
for buildings & structures ,Part II Imposed loads
Code of practice for design loads ( other than earthquakes)
for buildings & structures ,Part III Wind loads
1984- Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures

- Code of practice

Ductile detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures


subjected to Seismic Forces Code of Practice
Code of Practice for concrete structures for storage of liquids :
Part I - General Requirements
Part II Reinforced Concrete Structures
Part III Pre stressed concrete structures
Part IV Design Tables
Part I Mild Steel And Medium Tensile Steel Bars
Specification For High strength deformed steel bars and wires
for concrete reinforcement

Structural Steel Design:


IS 800 :2007 for allowable
(Working)stress design
IS 806 :1968
IS 1161 :1998
IS 4991 - 1968

General construction in steel Code of practice


Code of practice for use of structural steel tubes in General
Building Construction
Code of practice for steel tubes in general building
construction
Criteria for blast resistant design of structures for
explosions above ground

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2.2.4

IRC 5 -1998

Code of practice for roads & bridges

IRC 6 -2000
IRC 37 -2001

Code of practice for roads & bridges, Section II Loads &


Stresses
Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements

IRC 58 -2002

Guidelines for the design of rigid pavements

IS 1172 -1993

Code of basic requirements for water supply, drainage &


sanitation
Code of practice for building drainage
Code of practice for water supply in buildings
Guidelines for design of surface drains

Foundation Design:
IS 1080 :1985
IS 1904 :1986
IS 2950, Part 1 1981
IS 2911 Pt. 1 Section- I
1979
IS 2911 Pt. 1 Section- II
1979
IS 2911 Pt. IV
1985
IS 6403 :1981

2.2.6

Code of practice for design & construction of shallow


foundations in soil
Code of practice for design & construction of foundations
in soil general requirements
Code of practice for design & construction of raft
Foundations, Part I - Design
Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile
Foundation.- Driven Cast in situ concrete pile
Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile
Foundation. Bored cast in situ piles
Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile
Foundation Load test on piles
Code of Practice for determination of bearing capacity of
shallow foundations

Masonry Design:
IS 1905 :1987

2.2.7

Page 11 of 45

Roads, Culverts, Drainage & Pavement Design:

IS 1742 -1983
IS 2065 -1983
IS 8835 -1978
2.2.5

Rev: B

Code of practice for structural use of un-reinforced


masonry

Misc. Specifications:
OISD-STD-109 -Aug. 1999
OISD-STD-118 -July 2008
OISD-STD-163 -Sept.2004
OISD-STD-164 -July 1998
OISD-STD/GDN-115- July 2000
OISD-STD-116-July 2008
OISD-STD-117-July 2008

Process Design & operating philosophy on blow down &


sewer systems
Layouts for oil and gas installations
Safety Of Control Room For Hydrocarbon Industry
Fireproofing in Oil & Gas Industry Safety Factory Rules
Guidelines on Fire Fighting Equipment and Appliances
Fire Protection Facilities For Petroleum Refineries
Fire Protection Facilities For Petroleum
Depots,Terminals,Pipeline Installations and Lube Oil
Installations

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Rev: B

Page 12 of 45

Fire Prevention and Protection System For Electrical


Installations.

General Topography & Climatic Conditions


Refer Project Design Basis.

Materials of Construction
The materials used for construction shall be strictly as per the relevant technical specifications
and as per the relevant I. S. Codes & specifications.
All non plant buildings shall be R.C.C. frame type buildings with foundations as per soil
report. For e.g. the non plant buildings include following;
Administration Building, Security Building, Drivers Amenity Room, Weighbridge &
Weighbridge Cabin, Planning Room., Lock room
All plant buildings shall be R.C.C. frame type buildings with foundations as per soil report.
For e.g. the plant buildings include following;
MCC Room, Transformer yard, HT Room, Rail Staff room & TWD Gantry office, MCC
room etc.
All Pipe/Cable racks shall be Structural Steel with Pile foundations as per soil report. All
Pipe/Cable Tracks shall be Slippers with Either Open/Pile foundations as per soil report.
All Tanks shall be supported on pile foundations.
The shed type buildings shall be following
Engineering Store & Lube Godown, T/T Loading Gantry sheds, Product Pump House TT
Loading, Pump House TW Gantry, Calibration Shed, Lube Yard, Garrage and Fire Stations.

Design Loads

5.1

General

5.1.1

Structures shall be designed to have sufficient structural capacity and integrity to resist safely
and effectively all loads and effects of load combinations that may reasonably be expected.

5.1.2

The design loads used for the structures, buildings and foundations shall conform to the
requirements of the governing codes and specifications. As a minimum the design loads shall
include dead load, operating loads, live load, rain load, wind load and seismic load. Where
applicable, the design loads shall also include thermal load, anchor loads, hydro test load,
impact load, vibration load, surcharge load and bundle pull loads.

5.1.3

The units to be used for design and drawings are SI units.

5.2

Dead Loads (D)

5.2.1

Dead load comprises of the weight of all permanent construction including walls, fireproofing, floors, roofs, partitions, stairways, fixed services and other equipments excluding
their content.
Dead loads (D) shall consist of total loads due to the structure (framing, walls, roofing etc.),
equipment, piping, insulation, refractory, overburden soil, and other load permanently
supported by the structure. If in-situ hydro test is planned, the dead load shall include water

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Page 13 of 45

filled vessels and piping. Foundation dead loads shall contain the weight of the soil
immediately above the foundation.
Weight of the structure: The self-weight of the structure shall be calculated based on the
following unit weights of the structure:
Items
Steel
Reinforced Concrete
Plain Concrete
Water
Soil (dry earth )
Soil in Ground Water
Bricks Masonry
Dry Sand
5.3

Unit Weight (kN/m3)


78.5
25
24
10
18
8
20
18

Static & Dynamic Equipment Empty Loads (E)


Equipment loads shall be supplied by Vendor drawings and/or data sheets and shall include
empty weight.
The empty weight of the static process equipment including all fixtures, platforms, ladders,
attached piping, pipe supports & insulation (if applicable) shall be considered. If piping
weight is not indicated separately or included in the weight of the equipment, the same shall
be considered as 10% of the weight of the equipment. The empty (dead) weight shall be
considered as per inputs received from vendors. Static equipments viz. Vessels, tanks etc.
Dead/Empty Weight of equipment Weight of dynamic/rotary equipment like pumps/motors,
D.G. Sets, and skid-mounted equipment shall be derived as far as possible from
manufacturers data and includes piping data. Insulation installed on piping and equipment
shall be also considered.
Empty/dead weight Fabricated/Erected equipment weight from manufacturers data.

5.4

Equipment Operating Loads (EO)


Operating Weight of equipment Weight of equipment like pumps, tanks and vessels shall be
derived as far as possible from manufacturers data and includes mechanical/piping data.
Insulation installed on piping and equipment shall be also considered.
The operating loads (OP) for the process and utility equipment, including piping (P), shall be
the dead loads plus weight of the liquid / contents under normal conditions at maximum
operating level. Permanent stored materials for operation shall be included as operating loads.
Vessels, Tanks etc. The weight to be included in the calculations depend on the extent to
which it is filled with liquid.
Operating weight = Weight of the maximum contents of the equipment during operating
condition of plant plus the empty weight.

5.5

Equipment Hydro-Test Load (EH)


Hydrostatic test load = The weight of Full volume of the water filled in Equipment plus the
empty weight.

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Equipment hydro test loads (EH) shall consist of the equipment empty weight plus the weight
of the test content (usually water) contained in the system to be considered.
Foundation design to take account of:
- fully dressed load with hydro test.
- undressed condition with worst wind load effects.
For hydro testing of vessels, piping and the like allow for test case full of water.
Under hydro-test condition the wind force shall be considered as 25% of normal loading.
5.6

Piping Loads (P) for Pipe Supports/Trestles

5.6.1

Pipe loads (P) in Operating Condition shall be considered as follows:


Up to 300 mm diameter

1.0 KN/ Sq. m Dead Load (Self weight)


1.8 KN/ Sq. m Live Load (Contents weight)

300 mm dia. and over

Consider individual/actual point loads as per piping inputs

For pipe racks, where actual loads from pipes are used, they shall not be less than 2.0 KN/ Sq.
m on each level.
Friction Force (Longitudinal & Transverse)
Longitudinal & transverse friction force in (both directions) 10 % of design vertical load of
pipes for four or more pipes supported on a tier. (This is done due to reversible flow directions
and forces)
Longitudinal friction force (30 % of design vertical load of pipes) & transverse force (10 % of
design vertical load of pipes) for single to three pipes supported on a tier for global design
where as for local beam member design for single pipe frictional force of 30% to be
considered in longitudinal and transverse direction or as per piping/stress load inputs. The
local beam member design shall not be combined with seismic/wind loads.
For Pipe-racks; longitudinal friction force shall be considered as uniformly distributed over
the entire span of the beam at each tier and transverse friction force shall be considered as a
concentrated load at each tier level.
Friction forces on T-supports & trestles shall be considered as longitudinal 30% of the vertical
loading & transverse 10% of the vertical loading. Both longitudinal and transverse friction
forces shall be considered to act simultaneously.
5.6.2

Electrical and Instrumentation information shall be investigated to determine the approximate


weight, location of the electrical trays and/or conduits. A minimum weight of 1.2 KN/ Sq. m
shall be used for single level trays and 3.0 KN/ Sq. m for double trays, regardless of the tray
width.

5.6.3

Special consideration shall be given to unusual loads such as large valves, unusual piping or
electrical configurations, etc.

5.6.4

Anchor loads (TA) shall be as per the Stress analysis piping loads provided by Stress Group.

5.6.5

If no Stress analysis piping loads is available at the time of design, the following minimum
anchor loads shall be used:
(a) for pipe rack span less than 3600mm, apply 5 KN at the middle of the span;
(b) for pipe rack span more than 3600mm, apply 5 KN at 1/4 and 3/4 of the span;

5.6.6

Anchor loads shall be only applied on piping level.

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DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS


PIPE RACK
For designing the pipe rack superstructure and foundation the following loads shall be
considered.

6.1

Vertical Loading
Actual weights of pipes coming at each tier shall be calculated. In calculating the actual weight of
pipe, the class of pipe, material content and insulation, if any, shall be taken into consideration.
Minimum Insulation density shall be taken as 2600 N/m3. In case of gas/steam carrying pipes,
the material content shall be taken as 1/3rd volume of pipe filled with water. The total actual
weight thus calculated shall then be divided by the actual extent of the span covered by the pipes
to get the uniform distributed load per unit length of the span. To obtain the design uniformly
distributed load over the entire span, the udl (uniformly distributed load) obtained as above shall
be assumed to be spread over the entire span. However, minimum loading for any pipe rack shall
not be less than 2.0 KN/m2. In case, the calculated loading is higher than 2.0 kN/m2, this shall be
rounded off to the nearest multiple of 0.25 (i.e. 2.25, 2.50, 2.75 kN/m2).

6.2

Friction Force (Longitudinal and Transverse)


Where the pipes are of similar diameter and service condition, the friction force at each tier on
every portal, both in longitudinal and transverse directions shall be 10% of the design vertical
loading of the pipes for four or more pipes supported on a tier for global design, and 30% of the
design vertical loading of the pipes in longitudinal direction & 10% of the design vertical loading
of the pipes in transverse direction for single to three pipes supported on a tier. Longitudinal
friction force shall be considered as uniformly distributed over the entire span of the beam at each
tier and transverse friction force shall be considered as a concentrated load at each tier level.
Friction force on T-supports and trestles shall be taken as 30% and 10% in longitudinal and
transverse directions respectively of the vertical loading. Both longitudinal and transverse friction
forces shall be considered to be acting simultaneously.
For local beam/member design shall be checked for frictional forces 30% of the vertical loads in
both longitudinal and transverse directions acting simultaneously. The local beam design shall
not be checked for seismic/wind loads acting simultaneously along with the frictional forces.

6.3

Anchor and Guide Force (Thermal load)


The Anchor or Guide Forces in longitudinal and transverse directions shall be as per piping
inputs.

6.4

Loading on Intermediate Beam at Tier Level


Intermediate beam at tier level shall be designed for 25% of load on main portal beams in
transverse direction. A reduction of 10% in vertical loading shall be considered for main portal
beams if intermediate beams are provided.

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6.5

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Loading on Longitudinal Beams


Longitudinal beams connecting portal columns shall be sufficiently strong to sustain 50% of the
load on the transverse beams. This total load shall be assumed as two equal concentrated loads
acting at 1/3rd span. Other longitudinal axial forces coming on it from the design of the
supporting system shall also be simultaneously taken into account in the design of the
longitudinal beam. Friction and Anchor Forces, if specifically given by the piping stress engineer
shall also be catered for in the design. Loads from monorails, when supported from these beams,
shall also be considered to be acting simultaneously along with all other loads mentioned above.
These beams shall be designed locally for monorail loads. The monorail loads shall not be
combined with wind & seismic. It shall be considered for local monorail member design.

6.6

Cable Tray/Ducts and Walkway Loads


The estimated actual load from electrical trays and instrumentation ducts shall be considered at
the specified locations, together with walkways, if provided.

6.7

Wind Force
Transverse wind loading shall be calculated depending on the width of the Pipe Rack as follows:
a) Basic wind pressure shall be considered as per IS: 875.
b) To calculate wind load in transverse direction of pipe-rack, a projected height of
1.25m/1.5m/2.0m shall be considered on all tiers irrespective of height between two tiers
of rack widths of 4m/6m/8m and 10m respectively. For pipe-racks of widths greater than
10m, the above projected height shall be taken as 0.8[diameter of largest pipe including
insulation (m)] + tan 10 [width of rack (m)]. However, this shall not exceed the height
between consecutive tiers.

Live Loads (L)

7.1

General

7.1.1

Live loads (L) shall consist of loads due to the intended use and occupancy of the structure.
Minimum live loads due to use and occupancy shall be as follows, unless otherwise specified
on process / assignment drawings. Reduction in Live load shall be per Cl 3.2 of IS: 875 - Part
II.
Area

Specified Uniform
Loads
(KN/m2)*

Specified Point
Loads
(KN)**

2.2

Office floor, labs, walkways

5.0

9.0

Minimum roof load

1.5

3.75

Operating, maintenance, platform

5.0

6.7

Suspended piping on main roof

1.0

None

Vessel platform

5.0

None

Access platform

3.0

None

Electrical, computer and control room

10.0

9.0

Ladder Rungs

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Toilet bathroom

2.0

9.0

Stair / Corridors / Passages

5.0

4.5

Minimum specified uniform loads and minimum specified concentrated loads do not act
concurrently.

**

Distribute concentrated loads over 300mm x 300mm area. For evaluation of local effects
of crushing (Ref. Cl 3.1.1 IS 875 Part II).

7.1.2

For railings, a horizontal force of 1.0kN at any one point or uniform load of 0.75kN/m shall be
used.

7.1.3

For structural calculations, the actual loading situation shall be adhered to if these are more
stringent. If heavy equipment has to be supported, the weight of this equipment in excess of
the live load specified above shall be taken into account.

7.1.4

For garages and fire stations, the live loads shall also include the maximum weight of the
trucks and/or fire fighting equipment.

7.2

Live Loads on different structures/buildings


Live loads shall, in general, be as per IS: 875. However, the following minimum live loads
shall be considered in the design of structures to account for maintenance and erection as
well:\

7.2.1

Service Platform
Vessel/Tower
Isolated platform (for valve operation)
Access way
Cross over

7.2.2

Substation/Control Room
Panel floor
Partitions

7.2.3

10.0 KN/m2
1.0 KN/m2

Office building
Office area
Lobby
Exit way
Partitions

7.2.4

3.0 KN/m2
3.0 KN/m2
2.5 KN/m2
2.0 KN/m2

3.0 KN/m2
5.0 KN/m2
5.0 KN/m2
1.0 KN/m2

Staircase
Office
Substation/Control Room
Laboratory
Service platform

5.0 KN/m2
5.0 KN/m2
3.0 KN/m2
2.5 KN/m2

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Contingency Loads

8.1

RCC Structures

Rev: B

Page 18 of 45

All floor slabs and beams shall be designed for a concentrated load of 10 KN acting
simultaneously with the uniform live load, but not with actual concentrated loads from
equipment, piping etc. This load shall be placed to result in maximum moment and / or
maximum shear, it shall not be considered for the design of columns, foundations and in
overall frame analysis. For floor slabs, the load shall be considered to be distributed over an
area of 0.75 m x 0.75 m.
8.2

Structural Steel
For process plants, the following contingency additional loading shall be applied to individual
beam elements. These shall be applied as point loads to produce worst shear and bending
stresses:

Platform Walkways

3 KN

Secondary Floor Trimmers

5 KN

Primary beams

10 KN

Earth pressure (H) & Buoyancy:


For evaluating earth pressure on walls of trenches and pits co-efficient of earth pressure at rest
shall be considered, its minimum value being taken as 0.5. If a higher value is obtained from
soil characteristics, the same shall be adopted.
Temporary rise of ground water level shall be duly considered and hydrostatic pressure arising
there from shall be considered for design of trenches, pits and basements more than 1.25 m in
depth.
Maximum ground water level is around 0.7 m below Finished Ground Level.
Factor of safety for underground tanks etc against floatation shall be greater than 1.2. During
construction, factor of safety shall be at least greater than 1.05.

10

Wind Loads (W)


Wind loads (W) shall be in accordance with the applicable codes, specifications and
recommended practices listed in IS 875, Part III.
The effects of wind induced vibration shall be taken into effect as required by the applicable
codes, specifications and recommended practices listed in Section 2.1.
Basic wind loading parameters at HPCL site: Basic wind speed at Visakhapatanam, Vb = 50 metres / sec
k 1 = Probability factor (Risk coefficient for different class of structure in different wind speed
zone)

= 1.0 for general buildings & structures.

k 2 = Terrain, height & structure size factor , for terrain category 2 , Structure class B,
(structure Size between 20m & 50m) at height 10 m = 0.98
k 3 = Topography factor = 1.0
Design wind speed, Vz = k1*k2*k3*Vb = 49 metres /sec
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Design wind pressure, p z_gen = 0.6*Vz 2 = 1441 N/m 2 = 1.44 Kn /m 2 for general buildings at
structures of height up to 10 m above FGL.
The sheds with louvers as cladding shall be considered as fully clad.
The design life span of all structures (units & offsite) shall be taken as 50 years. Temporary
structures shall be designed for a design life span of 25 years. Design life span for boundary wall
shall be as provided in IS: 875.
To account for surface area of piping, platforms and other attachments fixed to the equipment
the surface area of the equipment (vessel/column) exposed to wind shall be increased by 20% or
as specified in the mechanical data sheet of the equipment.

11

Seismic Loads (S)

11.1

Categorisation of Structures / Equipment


Structures / equipment shall be classified into the following four categories.
Category -I
The Structures/equipments whose failure can lead to extensive loss of life /property to
population at large in the surrounding of the plant complex
Category - II
Structures/equipments whose failure can lead to serious fire hazard / extensive damage within
the plant complex
Structures/equipments which are required to handle emergencies immediately after an
earthquake
Category - III
Structures/equipments whose failure, although expensive does not lead to serious hazard within
the plant complex
Category - IV
All non-plant and non-hazardous structures / equipment fall within this category.
Above philosophy of categorisation is meant to ensure, on one hand safety and on other hand
economy in total capital outlay.
Generally structures / equipment have large capacities of energy absorption in its inelastic
region. Structures which are detailed as per IS: 4326/IS: 13920 or IS: 800 and equipment which
are made of ductile materials can withstand earthquakes with spectra four times higher than the
design spectra without collapse; and damage in such cases is restricted to cracking only.
In view of above it may be noted and the term "failure" used in the definition of categories
implies cracking and not complete collapse. Pressurised equipment where cracking can lead to
rupture may be categorised by the consequences of rupture.
Such equipment / structures where cracking will not lead to hazards are to be placed in
category-III and where it may lead to hazards within the complex are to be placed in category
- II. Category -I earthquake is an extreme event with little possibility of its occurrence.
Nevertheless in the remote case when it occurs, structures / equipment whose failure can lead to
loss of life at large are to be designed so as to avoid failure.
Following is the grouping of the areas/structures.
Category I:

Blast Resistant Control Building

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Category II: All equipments and their supporting structures, Bullets, Tanks & their
foundations etc.
Category III:
Tank etc.

Pipe-racks,

Control

Room-Substations

Buildings,

DG

Sheds,

F.W.

Category IV: Non-plant Buildings viz. Pump houses, Admin Building, Security
Room, Planning Room etc.
11.2

Seismic load (S) induced on structures, buildings, equipments, and foundations shall be
calculated in accordance of the requirements the IS standard as mentioned in Section 2.

11.3

Factors for the calculation of the seismic loading, i.e. seismic zone, soil profile, etc. shall be as
per Geotechnical Investigation and in accordance with the requirements of the IS standard as
mentioned in Section 2.

11.4

Basic Seismic Loading parameters:


Ref. Annex E, IS 1893 Part 1, 2002, Seismic Zone for HPCL site II,
Seismic Zone factor, Z = 0.10,
Design horizontal seismic coefficient, Ref. Cl 6.4.2, IS 1893: 2002

The Fundamental natural period shall be as per, Ref. Cl 7.6, IS 1893: 2002

For percentage of live load to be considered during seismic action for load evaluation, Ref
Table 8, IS 1893, Pt 1, 2002.
The seismic base shear VB = Ah* W

12

Thermal Loads (TL)


Generally the thermal loads shall be issued by piping stress analysis group. These loads shall
be used for design of pipe supports/structures.
The design of structure and foundation shall satisfy following minimum requirements.

12.1

The calculation of thermal loads (TL) shall be as per the requirements of the governing codes
and specification.

12.2

Thermal Loads caused by expansion and contraction due to a change in temperature from the
erection condition shall be carefully considered. Included are forces due to anchorage of
piping and equipment, sliding and rolling of equipment, and expansion and contraction of
structures.

12.3

Thermal loads due to the constraints and frictional forces of piping shall be considered as
follows:
(a) A minimum of 10% (in both longitudinal & transverse directions) of the gravity load for the
pipe supports / sleepers carrying 4 or more lines.
(b) A minimum of 30% of the gravity load in longitudinal direction & 10% in transverse
direction on pipe supports / sleepers carrying less than 4 lines.
Equipment on structural supports shall be analyzed for thermal loads to be resisted by the
structure and provisions shall be made to relieve the forces too large for the equipment or the
supporting structure. The friction factors to be used are the ones defined hereunder.
Steel To Steel = 0.3

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Steel to PTFE Pad = 0.08


Steel to Concrete = 0.4

13

Impact Loads (I)


Impact loads (I) shall be calculated in accordance with the requirements of IS: 875 (Part 5)
and IS: 2974 codes. For loads being given by equipment supplier, impact loads shall be as per
information given on civil assignment drawing of equipment supplier. Impact loads shall be
considered for local member design & it shall not be used with wind/seismic load cases.

14

Vibration Loads (V)


Vibration loads (V) shall be as per manufacturers recommendations & Indian standards.
A three-dimensional vibration analysis for rotating equipment foundations shall be done to
satisfy manufacturers recommendation if any, and provisions of Indian standards.
The natural frequency of the supporting structures and foundations shall be below 80 % or
above 120 % of the natural frequency of the machine in the first mode.

15

Surcharge/Overburden Loads (B)


Surcharge loads (B) shall be considered for structures (tanks, pits etc.) and walls retaining soil,
if any, in addition to usual soil pressure.
Surcharge pressure shall be generally considered as 15kN/m2 on top slab and also on adjacent
ground.

16

Load Combinations

16.1

General

16.1.1

Structures, buildings and foundations shall be designed for all individual load cases and the
various load combinations that may act together.

16.1.2

Load combinations using Working Stress Design or Limit State Design shall be as per the
requirements of the IS standard as mentioned in Section 2.

16.2

Load Factors and Combinations

16.2.1

Load notations shall be as follows :


D
L
E
EH
EO
W
S
OP
TL
TA
BP
V
H

Dead Load
Live / Imposed Load
Equipment Load (Empty Equipment)
Equipment Hydro test Load (Equipment with water load)
Equipment Operating Load (Equipment with operating fluid)
Wind Load
Seismic / Earthquake Load
Operating Load of piping and fluids
Thermal Load
Thermal Anchor Load
Bundle Pull Load
Vibration Loads
Earth Pressure Load

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f1
16.2.2

Rev: B

Page 22 of 45

Surcharge Load
factor for Load

Strength load combinations for buildings with or without equipment shall be as per IS: 4562000.
1.5*D
1.5*D + 1.5*L
1.5*D + 1.5*L + 1.5*E
1.5*D + 1.5*EH
1.5*D + 1.5*L + 1.5*EO
1.5*D + 1.5*(W or S)
0.9*D + 1.5*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.5*D + 1.5*E + 1.5*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
0.9*D + 0.9*E + 1.5*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.5*D + 1.5*EO + 1.5*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.2*D + 1.2*L + 1.2*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.2*D + 1.2*L +1.2*E + 1.2*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.2*D + 1.2*L +1.2*EH + 1.2*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.2*D + 1.2*L +1.2*EO + 1.2*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces

16.2.3

Service load combinations for general buildings shall be as per IS: 456-2000.
1.0*D
1.0*D + 1.0*L
1.0*D + 1.0*L + 1.0*E
1.0*D + 1.0*EH
1.0*D + 1.0*L + 1.0*EO
1.0*D + 1.0*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.0*D + 1.0*E + 0.8*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.0*D + 1.0*EO + 0.8*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.0*D + 1.0*L + 0.8*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.0*D + 0.8*L +1.0*E + 0.8*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.0*D + 0.8*L +1.0*EH + 0.8*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces
1.0*D + 0.8*L +1.0*EO + 0.8*(W or S) reversible wind/seismic forces

16.2.4

IS: 800 Allowable stress design method shall be used with following load combinations for
design of structural steel open structures/sheds/pipe-racks. This is done in view of use of
STAAD PRO software for the analysis & design.
D + OP + TA + TL + V
D + OP + TA + TL + V +E
D + OP + TA + TL + V +EH
D + OP + TA + TL + V +EO
D + OP + L + TA + TL + V
D + OP + L + TA + TL + V +E
D + OP + L + TA + TL + V +EH
D + OP + L + TA + TL + V +EO
D + OP + TA + TL + EO
D + OP + TA + TL + EO + W reversible wind forces
D + OP + TA + TL + EO + S reversible seismic forces
D + OP +H + L
D + OP + H + B
0.9*D +0.9*OP +W reversible wind/seismic forces

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0.9*D + 0.9*OP +S reversible wind/seismic forces

16.2.5

Strength load combinations for design of foundations shall be as per IS: 456-2000.
1.5*D + 1.5*OP + 1.5*L
1.5*D + 1.5*OP + 1.2*EO + 1.2*TA + 1.2*TL + 1.2*V + 1.2*B
1.2*D + 1.2*OP + 1.2*EO + 1.5*L + 1.2*TA + 1.2*TL + 1.2*V
1.2*D +1.2*OP + 1.2*EO + 1.2*TA + 1.5*W + f1*L + 1.2*B
1.2*D +1.2*OP + 1.2*EO + 1.2*TA + 1.5*S + f1*L + 1.2*B
1.2*D + 1.2*H + 1.5*L + 1.5*W reversible wind forces
1.2*D + 1.2*H + 1.5*L + 1.5*S reversible seismic forces
1.2*D + 1.2*EO + 1.5*L + 1.2*B + 1.2*H
0.9*D + 0.9*E + 1.5*W reversible wind forces
0.9*D + 0.9*E+ 1.5*S reversible seismic forces

16.2.6 Service load combinations for foundations shall be as per IS: 456-2000.
1.0*D + 1.0*OP + 1.0*L
1.0*D + 1.0*OP + 1.0*EO + 1.0*TA + 1.0*TL + 1.0*V + 1.0*B
1.0*D + 1.0*OP + 1.0*EO + 1.0*L + 1.0*TA + 1.0*TL + 1.0*V
1.0*D +1.0*OP + 1.0*EO + 1.0*TA + 1.0*W + f1*L + 1.0*B
1.0*D +1.0*OP + 1.0*EO + 1.0*TA + 1.0*S + f1*L + 1.0*B
1.0*D + 1.0*H + 1.0*L + 1.0*W reversible wind forces
1.0*D + 1.0*H + 1.0*L + 1.0*S reversible seismic forces
1.0*D + 1.0*EO + 1.0*L + 1.0*B + 1.0*H
1.0*D + 0.8*E + 0.8*W reversible wind forces
1.0*D + 0.8*E+ 0.8*S reversible seismic forces
16.2.7

The factor f1 for load L (Live loads) shall be as following:

16.2.8

1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess 5 kN/m2, and for
garage live loads;
0.5 for other loads.

The load combinations for deflection calculations shall be:


1.0*(D or/& OP) + y* (L + E + W or S + TL or TA)
y = 1.0
when one of the loads L/E, W/S, or T act.
y = 0.7
when two of the loads L/E, W/S, or T act.
Y = 0.6
when all of the loads L/E, W/S, and T act.

16.2.9

Where loads other than those mentioned in Section 16.2.5 are to be considered in design, each
applicable load shall be added to the above load combinations with a factor of 1.0 for service
load combinations and 1.5 or 1.2 for strength load combinations. For permanent loads for
strength design factor 1.5 shall be used & for transient loads .factor 1.2 shall be used.

17

Concrete Structures Design

17.1

General

17.1.1

All structures shall be analysed/designed in STAAD PRO and mainly in limit state as per IS:
456-2000, by allowable stress design as per IS 3370. Generally the concrete beam members
shall be designed to meet the deflection criteria as given in clause 17.11.12
B

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17.2

Foundations

17.2.1

All major foundations shall be piled Foundations for minor structures shallow spread
foundations or mat/raft foundations shall be designed if specified in soil report.

17.3

Minimum Foundation Sizes

17.3.1

The minimum width for a strip footing is 1000 mm. The minimum width for a spread footing
is 1200 mm. The minimum thickness of footing shall be 300mm.

17.3.2

Minimum cover to the Foundation/Anchor bolts:


Minimum distance from the centre line of the foundation anchor bolts to the edge of the
pedestal shall be the maximum of the following:(a) Clear distance from the edge of the base-plate/base frame to the outer edge of the pedestal
shall be minimum 50 mm
(b) Clear distance from the face of the pocket/ edge of pipe sleeve to the outer edge of the
pedestal shall be minimum 100 mm
Generally the distance of the bolt centre from the pedestal face shall be 125-150 mm. The
centre to centre distance between the anchor bolts shall be 8 times bolt diameter and the edge
distance from the bolt centre to the face of pocket 4 times bolt diameter.

17.3.3

The top of concrete elevation shall be a minimum of 300 mm above grade for pedestals, piers
and pads and 150 mm above finished floors (concrete grade slabs).

17.3.4

For the support of items at close spacing, such that the footings utilize more than 50 percent of
the gross plan area, it is common to use a mat type of spread footing that supports several
items.

17.4

Piles and Pile Caps


(a)

All major foundations are considered to be supported on 500, 600 & 750 mm diameter
piles, the capacity shall be arrived per calculation based on soil strata or as per pile load
test whichever is less.

(b)

Pile shall be spaced at 3.0* d (d = diameter of piles) apart in regular grids in rectangular
square, trapezoidal or triangular pile cap system or along concentric rings for pile cap
supporting tank.

(c)

Piles shall be cast in situ approximately 27 m long. For piling specification refer
document no 254624-400-CIV-006.

(d)

Pile cap shall be designed in flexure and shear. Minimum thickness shall be 750 mm
for individual piles and group piles Except for Vertical storage tanks and lube godown
and are to be designed per IS 2911.

(e)

The capacity of the piles shall be per final soil investigation report.
TABLE FOR PILE CAPACITIES

Sr.
No.

1
2
3

Pile Description
Dia in
Length
MM
in
Metres
500
27
600
27
750
27

Pile load capacities


Compression
Tension
Shear
KN
KN
KN

Remarks

1000
1200
1600

75
100
150

50
60
60

As per soil
report

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17.5

Rev: B

Page 25 of 45

Anchor Bolts
For reference of standard details of anchor bolts refer standard drawing.

17.5.1

Anchor bolts shall be designed to resist the applied tensile loads and shear.

17.5.2

Anchor bolts that resist tensile loads shall be designed with an anchor head or plate to transfer
the load through tension in the concrete.

17.5.3

Anchor bolts for all equipments viz. vertical vessels/tanks & structural steel structures like
columns of pipe-racks, sheds, trestles, portals shall have double nuts.

17.5.4

Anchor bolts on horizontal vessels shall have 1 nut per anchor bolt at the fixed end and 2 nuts
per anchor bolt at the sliding end, 1 loose nut and 1 locknut.

17.6

Minimum Cover Requirements to Main Reinforcement

17.6.1

All reinforcement shall have clear concrete cover requirements as per following table &
General Notes, Legend & Abbreviation Drg. No. 254624-400-CIV-2801 whichever is more.
Cast-in-place Concrete
Minimum cover (mm)
Cast against and permanently exposed to 75 bottom for open footing, (Ref Table 16, IS
456)
earth for major foundation
50 top & sides
Exposed to earth, weather or water for less 50 for foundations, walls, beams, columns in
important structures
contact with earth
70 pedestals/columns in contact with earth
Not exposed to weather or in contact with 40 for beams & 50 for columns/pedestals
the ground
above ground
25 for walls & slabs above ground
Precast Concrete
Exposed to earth, weather or Wall panels
water
Other members

Minimum
(mm)
40
50

Not exposed to earth, weather Slabs, walls, joints


or in contact with the ground
Beams, girders, columns

30
50

In contact with or above sea Underside and sides of slab


water
Top side of slab
Beams

75
50
75

cover

17.7

Staircase

17.7.1

Minimum width of stairs shall be 900 mm. Stairs shall have a maximum riser height of 175
mm and a minimum tread width of 250 mm for equipment support platform, maximum riser
height of 150 mm and a minimum tread width of 300 mm for buildings. No of risers shall be
restricted preferably to 12 depending on occupancy. At least one staircase/cage ladder shall be
provided for access to the roofs for maintenance.

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17.7.2

Stairway in a single run shall have the same slope. The vertical rise of the stairways shall not
exceed 2.5 m for a single flight.

17.8

Concrete Grade
The minimum M30 grade of reinforced cement concrete shall be used for all structures and
foundations except for grade slabs / paving for which M20 may be used. Severe condition of
exposure as per IS: 456 shall be considered for concrete mix designing for all RCC structures
except for RCC in pavements which shall be designed for moderate exposure condition.
If soil investigation report recommendations require a higher cement content and/or specific
type of cement the same shall have precedence.
75 mm thick lean concrete of grade M10 (nominal mix) shall be provided under all RCC
foundations except under base slab of liquid retaining structures where 100 thick concrete of
mix M-10 (nominal mix) shall be used. The lean concrete shall extend 75 mm beyond the
foundation for normal foundations and under liquid retaining structures.
Concrete for encasing shall be M20 with 10 mm down aggregate.
Plain cement concrete (PCC) of grade M10 (nominal mix) of minimum 150 mm thickness
shall be provided under all masonry wall foundations.

17.9

Reinforcement Bars
High strength deformed steel bars of grade Fe 500 conforming to IS: 1786 shall be used.

M.S. round bars (Grade-I) conforming to IS: 432 may be used for holdfasts of inserts.
17.10

Minimum Thickness of concrete members


For structural concrete elements, the following minimum thickness shall be followed:
Footings (all types including raft foundations

300 mm

with out beams)


Slab thickness in raft foundations with beam

300 mm

& slab construction.


Floor / Roof slab, Walkway canopy, slab

125 mm

resting on beams
Cable / Pipe Trench / Launder Walls &

100 mm

Base Slab.
Pre-cast Trench Cover / Floor Slab

100 mm

Blast resistant wall

230 mm

Parapets, Louvre, fins, cantilever canopy

75 mm

Liquid retaining structure wall/ base slab above ground

150 mm

17.11

Allowable Deflections for concrete buildings

17.11.1

The deflections of the structures and buildings based on the worst load combination shall be
limited to an acceptable level as defined below.

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17.11.2

Page 27 of 45

Deflections in concrete structures shall be limited by adherence to the limits on span/depth


ratio for beams, slabs & length/lateral dimensions for columns as specified in IS: 456.
For concrete structures (Ref. Cl 23.2.1 of IS 456: 2000):
(a ) For cantilever beams

(b) For simply supported beams

20

(c) For continuous beams

26

Calculated vertical deflections for structural members shall not exceed the following:
17.11.3

Total vertical deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature, creep &
shrinkage = Span/250

17.11.4

The calculated lateral deflections due to load combinations for building shall not exceed the
following:
(a) Occupied buildings = h/250
(b) Wall stanchions = h/350 or 20 mm whichever is less

18

Masonry Structures

18.1

General
Where needed, masonry structure design shall be in accordance with the applicable codes,
specifications and recommended practices listed in Section 2.2.6

19

Steel Structures design

19.1

General

19.1.1

All steel structures shall be modelled, analyzed in STAAD PRO and designed as per IS 8001984.
All structures shall be framed in transverse direction and braced in longitudinal direction.
Both induced stresses and deflection shall be kept within provisions of IS codes & good
engineering practices.
Structural Components
The minimum thickness of structural sections shall as given below;
Trusses/bracings

6 mm

Purlins, side girts/runners

6 mm

Columns, beams

7 mm

Gussets in trusses & girders


Up to & inclusive of 12 m span

8 mm

Above 12 m span

10 mm

Stiffeners

8 mm

Base-plates

12 mm

Chequered plates

6 mm on plain

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Grating

25 mm

Grout for structural columns

As required but minimum 25 mm

Grout for equipments

As required but minimum 40 mm

19.2

Miscellaneous

19.2.1

Gutter shall be made of mild steel quality of minimum 6 mm thickness; the section shall be
trapezoidal with proper supporting arrangement from purlin at regular interval of 1m to 1.5 m
spacing.

19.2.2

Materials for sheeting: (hold)


Roof sheeting for structural buildings shall be pre-coated/ corrugated GI sheeting 20 CGI
sheet & 22 CGI sheet (corrugated) for side cladding. Translucent sheet shall be used covering
5 %of the area of side sheet & roof sheet with polycarbonate.

19.2.3

Down comer pipes at suitable positions as per design shall be fixed below gutter made of mild
steel of 3.55 mm thickness and minimum 150 mm diameter.

19.2.5

Wind bracing/tie runners of minimum size L50X50X6 shall be provided at 4 points in a truss
(one at each corner) for structural roof system i.e. this shall be designed as structural members
for proper transfer of wind forces to the foundation.

19.2.6

Forms of construction shall be rigid as per Cl. 4.2.1.1 of IS: 800-2007.


Class of sections to be used shall be Class 3 semi compact per Cl 3.7.2 of IS: 800- 2007.
All steel sections shall be of minimum thickness 8 mm except rolled sections (e.g. web of
ISMB, ISMC etc)
For trusses , camber shall be provided in such a way that for truss span > 15 m , that maximum
deflection due to Dead Load + 50% of superimposed load = Maximum camber.

20

Allowable Deflections for structural steel buildings

20.1

General

20.1.1

The deflections of the structures and buildings based on the worst load combination shall be
limited to an acceptable level as defined below. Generally the structural steel members shall
be so designed that the span/depth ratio is 20.

20.2

Crane Beams or Girders

20.2.1

Calculated deflection of crane beams or girders (without impact) shall not exceed the
following:
a) Vertical (Ref. Table 6, IS 800 - 2007)

L/500, light manual operated cranes

L/750, electric operation up to 50T

L/1000, electric operation over 50T

a) Lateral (Ref. Table 6, IS 800 2007)

L/400, but not to exceed 10 mm

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20.2.2

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Page 29 of 45

for steel structures, (Ref. Table 6, IS 800 -2007):


a) Pipe rack, Industrial Shed spans = L/240 ( Simple span, Elastic cladding for sheds )
b) Spans supporting equipment = L/360 ( Buildings, elements susceptible to cracking )
c) Simply supported beams = L/300 ( Workshops /sheds, Brittle cladding brick )
d) Cantilever beams = L/120 (Workshops / sheds, Elastic cladding )
e) Purlins & Girts = L/150 (Workshops, elastic claddings)
f) Spans supporting plastered ceilings = L/300 ( Buildings , spans not susceptible to cracking )
g) Gratings/Chequered plates= L/200 or 6 mm which ever is lesser

20.2.3

Lateral deflections shall be as per Table 6, IS 800 -2007.


The maximum total horizontal deflections of the portal frames for sheds shall not exceed L/200
of the height.

21

Surface Drainage, Paving & Sewerage: -

21.1

Table showing paving type selection


The surface treatment for the various areas shall be provided as enumerated in the table below.
AREA

Concrete Paving

Concrete/Brick Gravels Or Compacted


Tiles
Dressed
Stones
Earth
Surface

Acid/
Alkali
Proof
Coating

Roads
Approaches to
units
Tank Farm

T/T Loading
Gantry Sheds
Pump Sheds

Area Around
Non plant
Bldgs.
Transformer
Yard

Asphalt
(Bituminous)
Paving

1) Existing services where interfering with the new construction should be located and rerouted
as instructed by HPCL.
2) Micro grading shall be carried out by the Contractor over graded areas to bring the FGL to
indicated levels including provision of required slopes and finishes.
3) 75 thick PCC (1:3:6) over compacted earth shall be provided under pipe rack-track areas to
prevent vegetation growth in case the area is not concrete/asphalt paved.
21.1.1

Paving within areas for Maintenance / Dropout/ Loading / Unloading / Vehicular movementType 1 (200 mm thick RCC M20)

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21.1.2

Rev: B

Page 30 of 45

Non vehicular movement areas


i. Units & Tank Farm area - Type 2 (150 mm thick RCC M20)
ii. Pump Sheds - Type 2 (150 mm thick RCC M20)
iii. Utilities - Type 2 (150 mm thick RCC M20)

21.1.3

Pipe rack where crane movement for maintenance is envisaged paving shall be designed for the
loads arising from the same as per equipment layout requirements

21.1.4

Hard surface of 75 thick PCC (1:3:6) over compacted earth shall be provided below all new pipe
rack. This shall extend as indicated in respective layouts and it shall have approach @ 500 m c/c
from nearest road.

21.1.5

Hard surface in PCC 1:3:6 (100 mm thick) over suitable bedding (gravel soiling) of suitable size
(1 m x 1 m or as specified) shall be provided with proper approach near drain point of offsite
piping, near drinking water installations, at washing facilities and at other places as required /
instructed by Engineer in charge, with suitable curbing and drainage arrangements as required for
the fluid being handled.

21.1.6

Suitable drainage arrangements will be provided within curbed areas around pumps, for draining
leaks, floor washes, rainwater falling in the area etc. Finishes, slopes will be as per materials
handled in the area.

21.1.8

Concrete Paving (Within Plant Areas)


Concrete paving shall be laid in alternate cast-in-situ panels of suitable size laid edge to edge,
except at expansion joints spaced not more than 15.0 m c/c.

21.1.9

Hard stands should be designed and provided based on required crane capacity, demolished and
surface made good on completion.
Provision of trenches, drains, sealing of trench covers, inserts, thickening for pipe / equipment
supports etc. shall be made while constructing pavements, as detailed in drawings.

21.1.10

Acid / alkali / chemical resistant coating as specified in equipment layout shall be applied in
areas where they are likely to come in contract with concrete.

21.2

Joints
Expansion joint of 20 mm shall consist of 20 thick impregnated fibre board, filled at top with
joint sealing compound 20 x 25.
Equipment / column pedestals will be separated from paving with 20 thick sand fill and sealing
compound 20 x 25 as shown in standard / drawings.
Contraction joints will be sealed by sealing compound 20 x 40 as shown in the drawings.
Moving Machinery foundation/column pedestals will be separated from paving with 25 thk.
Shalitex Board.

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22

Drainage General

22.1

Drain details

Rev: B

Page 31 of 45

Surface drainage includes all surface water discharge from clean plant areas attributable to
rainwater, firewater (except from bunds) and overflow water from water tank to drain via open
surface water drains, trenches and natural water courses to ultimate discharge point avoiding
accidental oily contaminated water system.
Drain section shall be rectangular type in and around units and in other areas. Material of
construction shall be brick drains with 20thk. Cement mortar plaster (1:4) and neat cement
punning shall be provided.
Hot dipped Galvanised electro forged steel grating covers, or pre-cast RCC (M20) covers of
designed thickness, hand railing, chain link fencing wherever necessary shall be provided to
minimise the risk of falls by personnel. Oil water separator shall be provided with trenches,
sumps, valves and pipes including connecting to nearest OWS network for disposing the
collected oil to OWS. The separated oil to be transferred to slop tank and the remaining water to
the nearest storm water drain outlet/nallah.
Design rainfall intensity of 75 mm /hr shall be considered for design of storm water drainage
system.
Generally, the slope of the paving shall be 1:100 but the maximum drop in paving shall be
limited to 150 mm. Two way slopes in paving shall be avoided as far as possible.
Slope of main drain along shall be 1:1000. Slope of secondary drain shall be 1:750. Slope of
tertiary drains along east-west shall be 1:500.
22.2

Storm Water Drainage


Storm water drains shall be sized for the higher discharge arising out of either rain water or
fire fighting water and shall be connected to existing drain of adequate capacity.
Rain water run-off shall be computed by the formula:Q= (KIA)/360 where,
K= Surface run off coefficient
A= Catchments Area in hectares contributing towards the drain
I= Design Rainfall intensity in mm per hour
Q= Discharge
Runoff Coefficient shall be considered as follows;
a)
b)
c)
d)

Concrete Paved area = 1.0


Bituminous Paved area = 0.9
Compacted but Unpaved areas = 0.7
Unusable/Green Belt area = 0.4
Design of drains shall be based on Mannings formula:V= [(R2/3) * (S1/2)] / n
V= Flow velocity in m/s
R= Hydraulic radius
S= Slope
n= Roughness Coefficient

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Roughness Coefficient shall be considered as follows;


a) Plastered surfaces = 0.013
b) Cast in situ concrete = 0.015
c) Concrete/Brick Lining = 0.017
The following points are to be followed while sizing the storm water drains
Minimum velocity in drains = 0.6 m/s
Maximum (Scouring) velocity in drains = 2.4 m/s
Preferred (Self cleansing) velocity in drains = 1.0 m/s
Minimum depth of drains = 300 mm
Minimum width of rectangular drains = 300 mm (for depths 500 mm)
Minimum width of rectangular drains = 500 mm (for depths 500 mm)
Contaminated rain water/Oily water drainage are routed underground to OWS tanks as
appropriate. Sewage to be passed to septic tank and then routed through soak pit & sewage
treatment plant.
Concrete pavement run-off surfaces shall slope at 1:100 to perimeter channels. Systems
shall be sized to cope with worst of storm water run-off or fire water run-off.
22.3

Oily Water Sump system (OWS):


Oily water sewers carry water contaminated with oil, e.g. from tank dykes, pump, floor and
paving drains in oily areas etc. These are conveyed to oil separators by means of pipes
through trenches/pipes.
RCC oily water sumps shall be provided as per requirement. All of these shall be connected
through pipes to convey the contaminated water to OWS.
Trenches
The electrical cables are buried in trenches and these cables enter in cellar below the
substation floor.

23

Site grading & roads: -

23.1

Site Grading: The site is to be rough graded to RL 4.2 m level .

23.2

Roads:All roads shall be asphalt roads and shall be designed for heavy vehicular traffic movements
per IRC loadings.
Design of cross section of roads, including roads for crane access shall be as per IRC 37.
However, the minimum section to be adopted shall be as given below under minimum cross
section.
Main plant road widths shall be 7.5 m inclusive of 0.75 m wide shoulders on either side. The
internal access roads to individual areas shall be minimum 4.0 m wide with 0.75 m wide

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shoulders. Design life of the same shall be 15 years (Ref. Cl 3.3.3 IRC 37-2001- pavements
for Nationals and State highways shall be designed for a life of 15 years).
Category
i.
ii.

All Internal Roads around tank farms/Dyked Areas


Access to building

Width

Carriageway Width

7.5 m

6m

4m

2.5 m

Camber: 2.5% on bitumen surfacing.


B

3% on shoulder.
2% on Cement concrete surfacing
Radius Of horizontal Curve: 12 to 15 m for 7.5 m wide road.
Extent: As per Plot Plan & Equipment (Unit Area) Layouts.
Headroom Clearance: Minimum 7 meter to underside of pipe-racks at overhead road
crossing.
24

RCC bund walls & bunded area discharge:

24.1

Bunded area discharge:


Dyke walls shall be provided as per piping equipment layout requirements shown in plot plan.
All oil tank fluids shall be surrounded by RCC bund walls of height as shown in equipment
layouts. The maximum height of dyke wall shall be as per equipment layout measured from
top of inside paving, to take care of any incidence of leakage from oil tanks.
Analysis & design procedure of RCC bund wall: Concrete grade M30 shall be used for Dyke
walls. Dyke walls shall be designed for retaining liquid in case of rupture of the largest tank in
the farm.
RCC bund walls shall be designed against water pressure from inside for full height as
cantilever as per provisions of IS 3370, Pts I IV as cracked section. Adequate number of
structural steel/masonry crossovers & stair shall be provided for access.

25

Substations buildings and blast resistant design:

25.1

General
These buildings house electrical switchgear and motor control centres with associated HVAC,
telecoms and battery accommodation. The buildings shall provisionally be designed as
indicated in equipment layout.
The screeded concrete floor shall be finished with an epoxy based hardener and sealant with
corrosion resistant finishes used in battery rooms. Overhead monorail of nominal capacity if
indicated in equipment layouts shall be provided in the main switchgear rooms per detailed
design requirements. There shall be cut-outs provided in cellar floor slab for supporting the
panels. The c/c distance between the stub columns shall be 2.0 m on which the cable trays
shall be supported. There shall be channels/insert plates all around cut-outs to support panels.
In cable cellar, cable tray support shall be of structural steel fixed with mild steel base plate at
bottom or top, at regular interval as per electrical requirement.
Access to the raised floor level shall be via concrete stair and platforms with equipment access
and demountable steel handrails. All doors shall be insulated metal construction with the
addition of removable transformer panels for equipment access where required. A roller
shutter door shall be provided for equipment entry to the main switchgear room.

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Fire rated concrete walls shall be provided between the transformers and cable basement and
the transformer compound where required, for the separation of the larger non-sealed type of
transformers.
All mesh infill panels; gates, doors, locks etc. shall be specified to meet the requirements of
relevant codes and standards.
25.2

General principles of steel tank foundation design:


Tanks are utilised for storage of liquids water, oil and hazardous chemicals. Tanks are often
with piled foundation.

25.3

Analysis & design procedure for RCC underground tanks:


i)

Underground RCC tank has to be stable against buoyant water pressure from below.
Critical load case shall be for tank empty condition. Factor of safety for buoyancy
during operation of the tank shall be 1.2. Factor of safety against buoyancy for tank
empty condition during construction shall be at least greater than 1.05.

ii)

For tanks with top slab, wall shall be taken as propped at top & fixed at bottom. For
tanks without top slab or major portion of top slab is cut out due to system requirements
the wall shall be designed as pure cantilever.

iii)

Outside water pressure up to FGL shall be added on to earth pressure to find out wall
reinforcement for tank empty condition.

iv)

Evaluate dead load of RCC tank wall, RCC tank top slab & RCC tank raft.

v)

Evaluate water load and product load inside tank.

vi)

Evaluate earth pressure & surcharge pressure from outside. These loads shall be critical
for wall reinforcement when tank is empty. Underground RCC tank shall be a rigid
structure and earth pressure coefficient shall be earth pressure at rest (Ka=0.5) bearing
against tank wall.

vii)

Evaluate water pressure from inside when tank is full.

viii) The coefficient for wall moments & shear shall be taken from IS: 3370 (Pts I IV) &
Reynoldss /Moodys charts. The boundary conditions for the tank walls considered as
plate elements shall be fixed at bottom & hinged (tank slab at top) or free (no slab at
top).
ix)

Tank raft & wall shall be designed as un-cracked section.

x)

Depending on criticality of underground tank analysis & design may be checked by


STAAD-PRO software using finite element method also after routine calculation in
excel.

26

Design Philosophy/Criteria

26.1

Architectural Design
Architectural design of buildings/sheds shall be in accordance with this design basis and
references as stated herein, in addition to the applicable statutory requirements, layout
planning requirements and so on.

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001
26.1.1

Rev: B

Page 35 of 45

Spatial Requirements
Spatial requirements inside a building/shed shall be decided based on activities to be
performed in the building and consequent occupancy pattern, equipment layout etc. Spaces
can be generally classified as follows, which shall be provided in all the buildings/sheds.

26.1.2

Functional Spaces
Functional area of any building/shed is constituted by the main activity for which the building
is required. Various spaces/rooms shall be judiciously sized and shall be integrated logically
to generate the total building plan taking into account the following parameters.
Activities, group of activities and consequent work-flow pattern
Site conditions i.e. dimensions, contours etc.
Climatic conditions vis--vis orientation
Safety regulations
Lighting and ventilation
Acoustics
Services
Security
Economy
Aesthetics
Any specific requirement pertaining to particular buildings
All other established architectural design parameters
The objective of spatial arrangement shall be to satisfy functional requirements and physical
comfort and safety regulations as well as aesthetics which has significant role in creating a
favourable working and living condition.

26.1.3

Circulation Spaces
Following spaces are classified as circulation spaces. These spaces shall be provided as per
required building services for integrating various types of spaces and as means of
access/exit/escape.
Corridors & passages
Staircases
Entrance lobby/Foyer including Reception & waiting
Gangway/walkways
Equipment loading/unloading platforms
Emergency Exits

26.1.4

Amenity Spaces
Following spaces are classified as amenity spaces. Out of the following areas, Toilet, Drinking
water, First Aid enclosures shall be mandatory requirement for human occupied
buildings/sheds. Other facilities shall be provided as required.

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001

Rev: B

Page 36 of 45

Toilet (Gents & Ladies)


Drinking Water Facility
Locker & Change Room
Rest room/Lunch room
Canteen/Pantry room
Wash rooms & space for drying clothes
First-aid room
26.1.5

Utility Spaces
Utility spaces are space requirements, which materialise due to provision of services like airconditioning, pressurisation, fire fighting, electrical, telephone etc. Following are examples.
These spaces shall be provided as per required building services.
Air-conditioning plant room
Air handling rooms
Pressurisation blower plant room
Electrical distribution panels rooms
Service ducts
Fire fighting equipment room
UPS room (UPS Room for C&A will be located in Control Room)
Battery room

26.1.6

Sizes of Spaces
Sizes of various types of spaces shall be decided based on occupancy / equipment/
panel/furniture layout, clearance, maintenance & safety requirements & ventilation
requirements.
Following are the limiting sizes/dimensions for various purposes, which shall be adhered to:
Minimum area of any habitable room

9.5 m2 with minimum dimension


restricted to 2.5 m

Minimum height of any habitable room

3 m which may be reduced to 2.75 m


for air conditioned areas. Headroom
below beams to min. 2.4 m

Maximum ht. Of habitable room

as stipulated by the local bye-laws

Scale of accommodation for industrial work spaces = @ 14m3 per occupants. Minimum clear
heights such workspaces shall be 3.6 m. Height above 4.25 m shall not be taken into account.
26.1.7

Day Light and Natural Ventilation


Established level of illumination shall be maintained for all parts of the buildings by means of
windows, skylights etc. Following references shall be adhered to in this regard.
National Building Code of India

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001

Rev: B

Page 37 of 45

State Factories Act


The objective of day lighting shall be as follows:
Direct solar illumination shall not be considered and only sky radiation shall be taken as
contributing to illumination of the building
Openings shall be provided with shading devices to avoid glare.
For the purpose of illumination, day lighting shall also be supplemented by artificial
illumination particularly at fire exit.
26.1.8

Natural Ventilation
Established level of ventilation in terms of air changes per hour shall be maintained for all
spaces. Following references shall be adhered to for the purpose.
National Building Code of India
State Factories Act
Natural ventilation shall also be supplemented by mechanical or electrical means of
ventilation in all areas of habitation.

26.1.9

Acoustics and Sound Insulation


Specified acceptable noise level and reverberation time shall be maintained inside a
building/shed. Following references shall be referred to for the purpose.
National Building Code of India
State Factories Act
Required noise level in any space shall be maintained by means of Segregating noise sources
by buffer zones.
Dampening of noise levels by damping devices
Providing Acoustic treatment with acoustic material (on waifs, ceilings, floors, as required)

26.1.10 Safety Requirements


Safety from fire and like emergencies shall be taken into account in building/shed design.
Every building/shed meant for human occupancy shall be provided with exits sufficient to
permit safe escape of occupants in case of an emergency. The exits shall be in terms of
doorway, corridors, and passageways to internal/external staircase or to areas having access to
the outside. Following references shall be adhered to in this regard. Control room building
shall be provided with emergency exit on the other side of the entrance.
National Building Code of India Part IV
State Factories Act
OISD-STD/GDN-115
OISD-STD-116
OISD-STD-117
OISD-STD-173

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001

26.2

Rev: B

Page 38 of 45

Site Planning
Site planning of buildings shall take into account aspects like inter-relationship of the building
with the whole system, movement pattern, traffic and road network, safety regulations, service
network, fire safety, climatic and environmental aspects, site conditions like site dimension,
contour, drainage, noise level, view, future expansion, visual aspects etc.
Main and service/maintenance entrances of buildings shall be provided with vehicular access.
Parking space in accordance with traffic load shall be provided to all buildings. Road network
and open space around the buildings shall be designed considering movement and functioning
of fire tenders.
Climatic factors like wind direction, solar geometry shall be taken into account in orienting
the building. Orientation of building shall also consider noise and smell propagation, views,
and visual effect from various directions.
Sufficient open space shall be provided for planned expansion of building. Sufficient open
space shall also be provided around the buildings for lighting and ventilation in accordance
with Factories Acts.
Site plan shall also take into account landscaping aspects. The inherent characteristics of site,
such as contours, land form, vegetation and terrain shall be fully utilised in the design.
Open Space Requirement
Open spaces in a plot and around buildings proportional to the height of the structure shall
satisfy the requirements of the local byelaws.

26.3

Building Services
Following services shall be provided for all building/sheds as essential services.

26.3.1

Water supply, Distribution and Drainage Sanitary Services


This service is essential for all habitable buildings/sheds. All buildings with human occupancy
shall have toilet and drinking water facility as per following references.
National Building Code of India Part IX, Section 1 & 2
State Factories Act
Drinking water provisions, including sufficient number of water cooler, minimum one per
area shall be provided within an enclosure separated from the toilets. Space for janitor shall be
provided in the toilets. All service pipes on the external wall shall be suitably concealed or
shall be provided within a shaft.

26.3.2

Electrical Services
This service shall be provided as essential service for all buildings/sheds. Electrical services
for buildings shall consist of electrical supply and distributions. Electrical lighting
installations, telephone network, fans, exhaust fans, lighting protection system etc. including
all accessories, cabling etc. All electrical switches / sockets shall be of modular type (AnchorRoma or equivalent as per Electrical design basis or drawings).

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001
26.3.3

Rev: B

Page 39 of 45

Air conditioning and Heating


Areas of control room, administration building, medical centre, substations etc spaces housing
equipment/machinery/panels etc. which require conditioned environment and certain specified
areas like offices, specific office accommodation shall be air-conditioned if specified by
means of Room air-conditioner/split unit or A.C. plant (AHU) depending on the load.

26.4

Aesthetics
Apart from the fulfilment of functional & safety requirement, aesthetic requirement of the
building/sheds shall be taken care of in the design. As specific guidelines for achieving
required aesthetics are difficult to establish, following guidelines shall be followed:
Preliminary Drawings including schematic plans, elevations/views indicating architectural
treatment proposals shall be submitted for Owner's approval.
Following elements shall be considered as contributory elements to aesthetics and their design
etc. shall be subjected to the Owner's approval. Any change/modifications sought for
aesthetics improvements with regards to these elements shall be carried out. Any incidental
elements like brickwork, RCC work etc. required for such changes/modifications shall also be
added.
Building/shed shape and features
Canopies, overhangs & shading devices
Gutters
Entrance/exit steps, door
Window/Ventilator composition
External wall location with respect to columns
Colour scheme, grooves in plaster
Spatial arrangement

26.5

Structural and Architectural Construction Elements


Type of structure & construction shall be as per structural design. Control Room building
shall be either blast resistant (fully R.C.C.) structure or otherwise as per equipment layout to
withstand the specified blast pressure. Other buildings (Sub Stations etc.) shall be R.C.C.
framed structure (columns, beams and R.C.C. roof slab) as per relevant equipment layouts.
Type of Structure & Construction shall be as required as per structural design. The structural
system shall be as specified in Design Basis/Design Philosophy.

26.5.1

Plinth protection
All the buildings & sheds shall be provided with minimum 1000 mm wide plinth protection
around the building/shed.

26.5.2

Finished Floor Level (FFL)


In general, FFL of the Building shall be determined with respect to top of approach road or
pavement. Following schedule shall be adhered to for FFL of the building:
Control Room Building: Top of Approach road level + 150 mm + Height of false flooring

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001

Rev: B

Page 40 of 45

Electrical Sub Station Buildings:


Top of approach Road level + height of false floor minimum 300 mm (Assumed Cable Cellar
floor height as 300 minimum)
Top of approach Road level +150 mm (Transformer bays) with pebbles/gravels
FGL (Finished Ground Level) + approx. 1000 mm high from top of road (in case of single
storey Substation Building with trenches as per electrical equipment layout requirement.
Plant Buildings (Unit area) floors (HPP) shall be maintained as per site grading with respect to
Design Basis & relevant area equipment layouts.
Other Non Plant Buildings: Top of approach Road level +150 mm to 450 mm and or as per
functional requirement.
Vehicle scooter, cycle shed including fire tender bays, repair shop: Top of approach Road level
+150 mm
Loading, Unloading bays Platforms: Top of approach Road level +1100 mm
Notes:
In case of approaches with different top levels, the highest top level of approach road/pavement
shall be considered.
FFL shall be same throughout in a building.
FFL of external loading/unloading bays/ platforms, toilet, pantry, and kitchen shall be 6-12 mm
lower than that of the buildings/sheds FFL to check ingress/spillage of water.
26.5.3

Steps/ ramps/ Staircases


Staircases shall be provided for vertical circulation & emergency exits. Number of staircases
shall be based on building sizes more than 500 Sq.M ground covered area shall have two stairs
(NBC-Part IV). Emergency exit requirements shall be as per safety distance requirement. At
least one no. staircase / ladder shall be provided for access to the flat roof top for maintenance.
Total number of staircase shall depend on a travel distance to exit points as determined by
statutory rules.
Steps/ ramps shall be provided for access to the Building for pedestrian/ vehicular, equipment
entry as per relevant code. Minimum 1000 mm wide platform shall be provided in between
entrance door and steps/ramps. Following dimensions of the steps/ ramps shall be adhered to.
TABLE
1

Stairs width

= 1200 mm minimum
= 1000 mm minimum (Emergency exit)

Tread

= 260 mm minimum

Riser

= 175 mm maximum & 150 mm minimum

Slope of Ramp

Ratio of Tread & Riser

No. of risers per flight

= 12 Nos. In general
= 16 Nos. Emergency Exits

Landing width

= 1000 mm minimum

= Not steeper than 1:6 but preferred 1:10 or as


Per layout requirement
= 2 Riser + Tread= 600 to 650 mm

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001
26.5.4

Rev: B

Page 41 of 45

Walls
Following schedule shall be adhered to for wall material and thickness:
External Walls = 230 mm thick brick wall (including plaster)
Internal partition wall= 230/115 mm thick brick wall depending on the overall length and
height of the wall (Refer note below)
Transformer Perfect Party/Fire resistant Walls= 350 mm (including plaster) thick brick wall or
200 mm thick RCC wall
Concrete wall (Blast resistant) = Minimum 230 thick RCC wall as per structural design
Notes:
115 mm Thick brick partition walls (with nominal steel requirement as per structure design)
shall be provided with 230 mm thick brick pillars or RCC transoms/mullions for stability.
Wherever conduits or pipes are required to be concealed within partition wall, the wall
thickness shall be increased suitably.
Wherever, bricks are not commonly available, suitable alternative material shall be used after
obtaining owners approval.

26.5.5

Doors
Doors shall be provided for access, security and safety at all entry & exits of rooms, functional
areas & the buildings. Air tight door shall be provided in pressurized area and in gaseous
protection area. Fire door shall be with two hours rating as per statuary requirement.
Emergency door shall be opened outwards. Sizes of the doors shall be determined on the basis
of the following schedule:
Equipment, Panel area: Size of maximum equipment including packing.
Other areas: Volume of movement through door, W.C., Bath etc.
Cubicle Door: 800 mm x 2100mm (masonry wall opening size)
Minimum Size of other doors: 1000mm x 2100mm (masonry wall opening)
Notes:
Entrance doors shall be provided covering full width of the entrance lobby. In that case the
door shall be of composite type consisting of operable shutters & fixed panels. Entrance lobby
shall be provided with elaborate canopy.
Rolling shutters shall be provided wherever size of opening exceeds 2500 mm x 2500 mm.
Rolling shutters shall be provided for equipment entry for Switchgear Room/ Electrical Room,
A.C. Plant Room etc.
Mechanically operated rolling shutters shall be provided for opening sizes exceeding 8 m2.
Blast resistant Control room entry door shall be provided with blast resistant baffle wall in
front of entry door and shall have 45 degree/ 90 degree overlap on both sides. Refer OISD-STD
163.
Fireproof door shall be provided as per TAC, electrical, process statutory requirements etc.
All doors except toilet door will be glazed, anodized Aluminium door with 5.5 mm thick.
toughened glass. For internal area plain glass shall be used.

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001
26.5.6

Rev: B

Page 42 of 45

Windows/ ventilators
Windows/ ventilators shall be provided in all areas for natural lighting, ventilation and
visibility at working level. For the purposes of ventilation, total operable area of the
windows/ventilators shall be as per Factory Act subjected to a minimum of 15% of the floor
area to be ventilated. However, for control room and in office areas, etc. where visibility from
inside is also important, increased window area shall be provided as per OISD guide line.
Areas accommodating panels/equipments shall be normally provided with ventilators at high
level for unobstructed distributed lighting. Wherever due to limitation of external wall area or
any other reasons, stipulated area of window/ ventilation cannot be provided, suitable
mechanical devices shall be provided. For Workshop/Warehouse sheds etc. with precoated/corrugated GI roof sheeting etc. suitable monitor may added in provide additional
ventilation.
Blast resistant Control room windows openings through wall may be provided as per OISDSTD 163.
Notes:
Requirements of window/ventilations area as stipulated above is for maximum room height of
4000 mm. For heights more than 4000 mm, additional window/ventilator shall be provided in
the same
manner at every work area/platforms at all levels.
Fly mesh shutters shall be provided for windows/ventilators in Kitchen, Pantry, Dining hall etc.
Ventilator shall be able to serve as smoke vents in the event of fire.
Fireproof windows shall be provided as per TAC, electrical, process etc. statutory
requirements.
All windows/ventilators will be glazed, anodized Aluminium window/ventilator.
All glazing on external faces of building shall be toughened glass (5 mm thick).

26.5.7

Canopy/Overhang
RCC/steel Canopy/Overhangs shall be provided at all entrances for rain and sun protection,
accentuation of the entrance and pedestrian movement as per the following schedule:
For all offices, control rooms, composite buildings/sheds accommodating offices, canopy shall
be provided at all entrances. Size of the canopy shall be decided based on vehicle parking and
pedestrian movement in addition to aesthetics of the building/shed.
Overhangs shall be provided over all exits. Size of the overhang shall be decided on the
aesthetics of the building/shed subjected to minimum of 1000 mm.
Blast proof Control Rooms shall not have any projections with outer face of its walls except
with false treatment for aesthetics of the building.

26.5.8

Shading Devices
RCC Shading devices shall be provided over all windows, operable ventilators for rain and sun
protection. These devices shall be in form of horizontal projections, vertical projected fins in
addition as per building facade treatment. Minimum projection shall be 600 mm.

26.5.9

Parapet
Parapets shall be of RCC for all buildings with minimum 300 mm high for non-approachable
roof and 1000 mm high for approachable roof.

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001

Rev: B

Page 43 of 45

26.5.10 Roof Gutter


Gutter with rain water pipes or R.C.C. shafts shall be provided for all the buildings/sheds with
pitched roof for roof water drainage. Sizing of the gutter shall be based on area to be drained
and number of outlets. Gutters shall be of RCC or sheet metal. For Workshop/ Warehouse shed
with Corrugated pre-coated GI roof sheeting, pre-coated GI sheets gutters may be provided and
for big size of workshops/warehouse. RCC shaft may be provided at the end of gutter.
26.5.11 Rain Water Pipes Spouts
Rain water pipes shall be provided for roof water drainage. Number of rain water pipes shall be
decided on the basis of roof area, slope and rainfall intensity as per NBC-IX Section 2. Rain
water pipes shall be embedded in concrete. RCC/PVC/CI/ GI spouts may be used for drainage
of chajja /small canopies of ground floor. The minimum diameter of rain water pipe shall be
150 mm.
26.5.12 Entrance Lobby
Entrance lobby shall be provided as a common entrance for all buildings/sheds accommodating
separate functional spaces integrated together. Individual entries to such functional spaces shall
be from this lobby by means of passages/corridors. Apart from common entry lobby, separate
independent entries to these functional spaces shall also be provided if functionally required.
Size of the entrance lobby shall be decided on the basis of volume of movement.
26.5.13 Passages/Corridors
Passages/corridors shall be provided to integrate various spaces. Width of the
passages/corridors shall be as per statutory requirements.
26.5.14 Service Entry
Separate service entry shall be provided for service areas such as kitchen, air-conditioning
/pressurisation plant room, and electrical rooms. A common service entry may be provided
depending on spatial arrangement.
26.5.15 Air-Lock Lobby
Air-lock lobby shall be provided to all entry and exits of pressurised/centrally air conditioned
areas.
26.5.16 Emergency Exits
Emergency exits shall be provided for the building as per State Factory Rules & OISD Norms,
NBC-Part IV and for individual functional spaces such as Control Room/Instrument Equipment
Room, Console area, Electrical room etc. Emergency exits shall be located in such a manner
that escape route is direct, unobstructed & without passing through any other functional areas
to safe area.

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Doc No:254624-400-DB-CIV-001

Rev: B

Page 44 of 45

26.5.17 Railings
Railings shall be provided in roofs, stairs, and in all unprotected openings in slabs as a safety
device. Steel railings in high level loading/ unloading bay of substations shall be of removable
type. Parapets shall be given precedence over railings on roofs. All railings shall be as per
standard drawings issued.
26.5.18 Toilets
Toilets shall be provided for all habitable buildings/sheds. Gents & ladies toilet, drinking water
enclosure and janitor space, all shall be provided as required. The fittings/fixtures provided for
bath / toilet shall be of luxury/coloured type.
26.5.19 False Ceiling
False ceilings shall be provided in the all air-conditioned areas for the purpose of reducing
room volume and to hide air conditioned ducting etc. and also to maintain acoustic level inside
any space. Also it reduces habitable room, corridor, lobby, toilet heights located in high ceiling
building/shed to a reasonable & satisfactory height of 3 metre.
In fire rated areas where walls & doors are required to be fire rated, false ceiling shall also have
complementing fire rating. It is to be noted that false ceiling have limitations in their fire
performance due to openings in them for lighting & air-conditioning. Therefore, alternative
systems to prevent puncturing of ceiling must be used.
26.5.20 False/Cavity flooring
False/ cavity flooring shall be provided to accommodate under floor cabling in Instrumentation
areas like Console Room, Rack Room, Computer Room etc. Extent of false/ cavity flooring
shall be as per Electrical/Instrumentation requirements.
26.5.21 Transformer Gate
Steel gate of suitable size in front of transformer bays in substations building may be provided
as per electrical requirement.
26.5.22 Under deck Insulation
Under deck insulation below RCC roof and over false ceiling (both locations) shall be provided
for air-conditioned office / space.
26.5.23 Architectural Finishes
All the buildings shall be provided with Architectural finishes such as floor finishes, plastering
& painting on walls & ceilings, doors/ windows/ ventilators, roof treatment, plinth protection
etc. as below:
For the purposes of schedule of Architectural finishes, buildings are categorized into following
types.
Type A Important buildings like, Main Control Room, Main Gate House, Administration
Building.

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Rev: B

Page 45 of 45

Type B Non plant buildings like, Fire Station, Security/ Gate Houses, Secondary Gate Houses,
and buildings like Sub station/ Switchgear room, MCC, etc. which are not included in other
categories.
Type C Sheds like DG Shed, Pump Shed, T/T Loading Gantry Shed and buildings like Watch
Tower, and Parking Shed etc.
Details Hold

27

Railway Siding Work


Design basis for railway siding work will be included in document no. 254624-400-DB-CIV002.

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