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Carlyn Cogar
General Information:
Name: Intellectual Disabilities
According to the AAIDD (2013), Intellectual Disability is a disability characterized
by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior,
which covers many everyday practical and social skills. This disability originates
before the age of 18.

Intellectual Functioning- Intelligence- refers to general mental capacity, such
as learning, reasoning, and problem solving (AAIDD, 2013). One way to measure
intellectual functioning is with an IQ test. Generally an IQ test score of around 70 or
as high as 75 indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning. (AAIDD, 2013)

Adaptive Behavior- The collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills
that are learned and performed by people in their everyday lives, standardized tests
can determine limitations in adaptive behavior (AAIDD, 2013).

Conceptual Skills- Language and literacy; money, time and number

concepts; and self-direction.
Social Skills- Interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem,
gullibility, social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey
laws and to avoid being victimized.
Practical Skills- activities of daily living (personal care), occupational
skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety,
use of money, use of the telephone.

Prevalence: An estimated seven to eight million Americans have an intellectual

disability (ID), an ID affects about one in ten families in the United States
Causes: Intellectual disability is not a specific disease. It is a specific disability with
many causes.
Genetic conditions - These result from abnormalities of genes inherited from
parents, errors when genes combine, or from other disorders of the genes caused
during pregnancy by infections, overexposure to x-rays and other factors
(, 2013).
Problems during pregnancy - Use of alcohol or drugs by the pregnant mother can
cause intellectual disability. Recent research has implicated smoking in increasing
the risk of intellectual disability. Other risks include malnutrition, certain

environmental toxins, and illnesses of the mother during pregnancy, such as

toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, rubella and syphilis (AAIDD, 2013).
Problems after birth - Childhood diseases such as whooping cough, chicken pox,
measles, and Hib disease that may lead to meningitis and encephalitis can damage
the brain, as can injuries such as a blow to the head or near drowning
Poverty and cultural deprivation - Children growing up in poverty are at higher risk
for malnutrition, childhood diseases, exposure to environmental health hazards and
often receive inadequate health care. These factors increase the risk of intellectual
disability (AAIDD,2013).
Characteristics: Students who are identified with mild intellectual disabilities lag
significantly behind grade-level peers in developing academic skills. Thus, students
with mild intellectual disabilities are likely to be significantly delayed in learning to
read and learning basic math skills. While students who are mildly intellectually
disabled and who are poor readers share a deficit in phonological language skills
similar to other students with disabilities (e.g., students with LD), students with
intellectual disabilities are also often significantly delayed in general oral language
skills. Thus, even if students with mild intellectual disabilities develop the ability to
read individual words and strategies for reading comprehension, they will have
difficulty comprehending what they have read because of weak verbal skills in areas
such as vocabulary (, 2013).

Web Sites:
1. The Arc: For People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
The Arc promotes and protects the human rights of people with intellectual and
developmental disabilities and actively supports their full inclusion and
participation in the community throughout their lifetimes.
2. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
AAIDD promotes progressive policies, sound research, effective practices, and
universal human rights for people with intellectual and developmental
3. National Dissemination Center For Children With Disabilities

The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities provides

information and recourses to the nation on disabilities in children and youth.
4. U.S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which was amended by the ADA
Amendments Act of 2008 ("Amendments Act" or "ADAAA"), is a federal law that
prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities.
Individuals with disabilities include those who have impairments that
substantially limit a major life activity, have a record (or history) of a
substantially limiting impairment, or are regarded as having a disability. This
website is a great recourse for laws pertaining to people with an intellectual
disability being able to work.
5. Disability Rights North Carolina
Disability Rights North Carolina is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization based in
Raleigh. Its team of attorneys, advocates, paralegals and support staff provide
advocacy and legal services at no charge for people with disabilities across North
Carolina. As the states federally mandated protection and advocacy system,
Disability Rights North Carolina is charged with protecting the rights of children
and adults with disabilities living in North Carolina.

UMAR is CARF-accredited for the following services: Community Housing,
Supported Living, Community Integration, Job Development, Job Supports, Job-Site
9800 Kincey Ave. Suite 190
Huntersville, NC 28078
P.O. Box 1558
Huntersville, NC
Ph: 704-875-1328

Fx: 704-875-9276

The Arc, North Carolina
The Arc of North Carolina is committed to securing for all people with intellectual
and developmental disabilities the opportunity to choose and realize their goals of
where and how they learn, live, work, and play. The Arc of North Carolina is an
affiliated chapter of The Arc of the United States.
The Arc of North Carolina
343 E Six Forks Rd
Raleigh, NC 27609
800.662.8706 | 919.782.4632


Emerson, E. (2003). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and

adolescents with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual
Disability Research, 47, 51-58. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2788.2003.00464.x

Schalock, R., Luckasson, R. A., Shogren, K. A. (2007) The Renaming of Mental

Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability.
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116-124

Brown, J. F., Brown, M. Z., Dibiasio, J. (2013). Treating Individuals With

Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical
Behavior Therapy. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual
Disabilities, 6, 280-303, DOI:10.1080/19315864.2012.700684

General Information:
Name: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Definition/Characteristics: According to the National Library of Medicine
(2013) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem of not being
able to focus, being overactive, not being able to control behavior, or a
combination of these. For these problems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must
be out of the normal range for a person's age and development.
Symptoms of ADHD fall into three groups:

Not being able to focus (inattentiveness)

Being extremely active (hyperactivity)

Not being able to control behavior (impulsivity)

Some people with ADHD have mainly inattentive symptoms. Some have mainly
hyperactive and impulsive symptoms. Others have a combination of different
symptom types. Those with mostly inattentive symptoms are sometimes said to
have attention deficit disorder (ADD). They tend to be less disruptive and are
more likely not to be diagnosed with ADHD.
Inattentive Symptoms

Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in


Has difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play

Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly

Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish

schoolwork or chores and tasks

Has problems organizing tasks and activities

Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as


Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasks or

Is easily distracted

Is often forgetful in daily activities

Hyperactivity Symptoms

Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat

Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected

Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations

Has problems playing or working quietly

Is often "on the go," acts as if "driven by a motor"

Talks excessively

Impulsivity Symptoms

Blurts out answers before questions have been completed

Has difficulty awaiting turn

Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games)

ADHD usually begins in childhood but may continue into the adult years. It is
the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children. ADHD is
diagnosed much more often in boys than in girls.
It is not clear what causes ADHD. A combination of genes and environmental
factors likely plays a role in the development of the condition. Imaging studies
suggest that the brains of children with ADHD are different from those
of children without ADHD.
Prevalence: In the United States, The American Psychiatric Association states in the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) that 3%-7% of
school-aged children have ADHD. However, studies have estimated higher rates in
community samples.
According to the CDC:
Parents report that approximately 9.5% of children 4-17 years of age (5.4 million)
have been diagnosed with ADHD as of 2007.
Boys (13.2%) were more likely than girls (5.6%) to have ever been diagnosed with
The highest rates of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis were noted among children
covered by Medicaid and multiracial children.
Prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis varied substantially by state, from a
low of 5.6% in Nevada to a high of 15.6% in North Carolina.

The percentage of children with a parent-reported ADHD diagnosis increased by

22% between 2003 and 2007.
1. CHADD: Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
CHADD is a membership organization, produces the bi-monthly Attention
magazine (for members), and sponsors an annual conference. The National
Resource Center on ADHD (NRC) is the CDC-funded national clearinghouse
for evidence-based information about ADHD. CHADD was founded in 1987 in
response to the frustration and sense of isolation experienced by parents and
their children with ADHD.
2. Center for Disease Control
Gives a lot of information about the prevalence of ADHD and shows the
changes that have been occurring through out the United States. Shows
information for each state.
3. Psych Central
An online resource for mental and behavioral disorders, this site has
information on symptoms, treatment, support, etc. Psych Central also has a
large community forum for people to talk to others about problems that they
might be experiencing.
4. ADDA: Attention Deficit Disorder Association
The Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA) is the worlds leading
adult ADHD organization. Their mission is to provide information; resources
and networking opportunities to help adults with Attention Deficit/
Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) lead better lives. ADDA is an international
non-profit organization, founded twenty years ago by adult ADHD support
group leaders to share information, resources and provide support for one
5. ADHD and You

This site is designed to answer any and all questions a person with ADHD or
a family member might have. The main links are for people who have ADHD,
a parent or guardian, a school personnel or educator and health care
professionals. Has tons of useful information and links that can answer tons
of questions.
ADHD clinic: Department of Psychology, UNCG
The mission of the AD/HD Clinic is to:

Provide state-of-the-art mental health care services and education to the

community, Triad region, and the state

Increase understanding of AD/HD through clinical research

Give clinical practice training to clinical psychology graduate students and to other
health care professionals in North Carolina
Department of Psychology
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
PO Box 26170, Greensboro, NC 27402
Greensboro, NC 27402-6170
VOICE 336.334.5014
FAX 336.334.5066

Wake Forrest Baptist Health: Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine
The mission of this program is to improve the health and well being of the people of
this region by means of Patient Care, Education, and Research. It is the full and
thoughtful integration of these three elements that makes academic medical centers
different; it is the dedication to placing patient care first that identifies the best of
these centers.
Phone: 336-716-4551
Hours: Monday - Friday
8 a.m. - 5 p.m.
Location: 791 Jonestown Road
Winston-Salem, NC 27103


Polanczyk, G., Silva de Lima, M.,D., Lessa Horta, B., Biederman, J., Rohde, L. A.
(2007). The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: A Systematic Review and
Metaregression Analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 942-948,

Harpin, V. A. (2005) The effect of ADHD on the life of an individual, their

family, and community from preschool to adult life. Archives of Disease in
Childhood. 90, 2-7, doi:10.1136/adc.2004.059006

Payne, T. W., Steege, N. (2013) Working Memory and Distraction:

Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD.
Creative Education. 4(7A2), 37-41

General Information
Name: Autism Spectrum Disorder
The term "autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)" refers to a wide range of
developmental disorders and includes five classifications. According to the National
Institute of Mental Health, these disorders are usually first diagnosed in early
childhood and range from a severe form, called autistic disorder, through pervasive
development disorder not otherwise specified, to a much milder form, Asperger's
syndrome. They also include two rare disorders, Rett syndrome and childhood
disintegrative disorder (
Each of these disorders has a specific set of characteristics used as criteria for
diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV) of the American
Psychiatric Association. It is important to understand that individuals can share
common characteristics on the spectrum, yet ASD is unique to the individual and
will be different for every person.

Aspergers Syndrome- Asperger syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) considered to be on the high functioning end of the spectrum. Affected
children and adults have difficulty with social interactions and exhibit a restricted
range of interests and/or repetitive behaviors. Motor development may be delayed,
leading to clumsiness or uncoordinated motor movements.
limited or inappropriate social interactions "robotic" or repetitive speech
challenges with nonverbal communication (gestures, facial expression, etc.) coupled
with average to above average verbal skills tendency to discuss self rather than
others inability to understand social/emotional issues or nonliteral phrases lack
of eye contact or reciprocal conversation obsession with specific, often unusual,
topics one-sided conversations awkward movements and/or mannerisms

Rett Syndrome- Unlike other forms of ASD, Rett syndrome mostly affects
girls. In general, children with Rett syndrome develop normally for 618 months
before regression and autism-like symptoms begin to appear. Children with Rett
syndrome may also have difficulties with coordination, movement, and speech.
Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can help, but no specific treatment for
Rett syndrome is available yet.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder- Childhood disintegrative disorder is also
known as Heller's syndrome. It's a very rare condition in which children develop
normally until at least two years of age, but then demonstrate a severe loss of social,
communication and other skills. (, 2013)
Quick Facts:

Autism now affects 1 in 88 children and 1 in 54 boys

Autism prevalence figures are growing

Autism is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the U.S.

Autism costs a family $60,000 a year on average

Autism receives less than 5% of the research funding of many less prevalent
childhood diseases

Boys are nearly five times more likely than girls to have autism

There is no medical detection or cure for autism

Prevalence: Autism statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) identify around 1 in 88 American children as on the autism
spectruma ten-fold increase in prevalence in 40 years. Careful research shows that
this increase is only partly explained by improved diagnosis and awareness. Studies

also show that autism is four to five times more common among boys than girls. An
estimated 1 out of 54 boys and 1 in 252 girls are diagnosed with autism in the
United States. Only 1 of every 10,000 to 22,000 girls has Rett syndrome. Even rarer,
only 1 or 2 out of 100,000 children with ASD have CDD.
Cause: While autism research has made great strides in the past decade, the causes
of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) remain unknown. Family and twin studies
lend support to a genetic etiology, and other studies indicate neurobiological
differences in the anatomy and function of the brain in individuals with autism. The
Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and SARRC are currently working
to find the cause or causes of ASDs. (, 2013)
Over the last five years, scientists have identified a number of rare gene changes, or
mutations, associated with autism. A small number of these are sufficient to cause
autism by themselves. Most cases of autism, however, appear to be caused by a
combination of autism risk genes and environmental factors influencing early brain
In the presence of a genetic predisposition to autism, a number of nongenetic, or
environmental, stresses appear to further increase a childs risk. The clearest
evidence of these autism risk factors involves events before and during birth. They
include advanced parental age at time of conception (both mom and dad), maternal
illness during pregnancy and certain difficulties during birth, particularly those
involving periods of oxygen deprivation to the babys brain. A growing body of
research suggests that a woman can reduce her risk of having a child with autism by
taking prenatal vitamins containing folic acid and/or eating a diet rich in folic acid
(at least 600 mcg a day) during the months before and after conception.

Characteristics: ASD can be associated with intellectual disability, difficulties in
motor coordination and attention and physical health issues such as sleep and
gastrointestinal disturbances. Some persons with ASD excel in visual skills, music,
math and art.
Autism appears to have its roots in very early brain development. However, the
most obvious signs of autism and symptoms of autism tend to emerge between 2
and 3 years of age.
The Red Flags:

No big smiles or other warm, joyful expressions by six months or thereafter

No back-and-forth sharing of sounds, smiles or other facial expressions by

nine months

No babbling by 12 months

No back-and-forth gestures such as pointing, showing, reaching or waving by

12 months

No words by 16 months

No meaningful, two-word phrases (not including imitating or repeating) by

24 months

Any loss of speech, babbling or social skills at any age

More Characteristics of ASD:

Not speaking or very limited speech

Loss of words the child was previously able to say

Difficulty expressing basic wants and needs

Poor vocabulary development

Problems following directions or finding objects that are named

Repeating what is said (echolalia)

Problems answering questions

Speech that sounds different (e.g., "robotic" speech or speech that is high-

Social skills:

Poor eye contact with people or objects

Poor play skills (pretend or social play)

Being overly focused on a topic or objects that interest them

Problems making friends

Crying, becoming angry, giggling, or laughing for no known reason or at the

wrong time

Disliking being touched or held

Reacting to the world around them:

Rocking, hand flapping or other movements (self-stimulating movements)

Not paying attention to things the child sees or hears

Problems dealing with changes in routine

Using objects in unusual ways

Unusual attachments to objects

No fear of real dangers

Being either very sensitive or not sensitive enough to touch, light, or sounds
(e.g., disliking loud sounds or only responding when sounds are very loud;
also called a sensory integration disorder)

Feeding difficulties (accepting only select foods, refusing certain food


Sleep problems

1. Autism Speaks
Autism Speaks has grown into the world's leading autism science and advocacy
organization, dedicated to funding research into the causes, prevention, treatments
and a cure for autism; increasing awareness of autism spectrum disorders; and
advocating for the needs of individuals with autism and their families.
2. Autism Society
The Autism Society, exists to improve the lives of all affected by autism. They strive
to increasing public awareness about the day-to-day issues faced by people on the
spectrum, advocating for appropriate services for individuals across the lifespan,
and providing the latest information regarding treatment, education, research and
3. Autism Today
With over 2,500 pages of content which is growing daily, Autism Today is the largest
autism resource online and one of the leading autism and Aspergers resource

distributor in the world. The Autism Today website aims to be the premier
information dispenser to the autism community worldwide.
4. National Institute of Mental Health
The mission of NIMH is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental
illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving the way for prevention,
recovery, and cure. Has information on treatment, diagnosis, and clinical trials
about many different illnesses including ASD.
5. Center for Disease Control
CDC is committed to continuing to provide essential data on ASDs, search for risk
factors and causes, and develop resources that help identify children with ASDs as
early as possible.

iCan House
iCan House is a place created to help the Winston Salem community focus what they
CAN do by providing social opportunities for those with developmental disabilities
and social skills deficits...while also creating hope for those who love them.
862 W. 4th St.
Winston-Salem, NC, United States 27101
Phone office at 336.723.0050
Fax office at 336.723.0525

Winston Salem Program
The mission of the ABC program is to provide effective instruction based on each
childs individualized needs in a fun, natural environment and recreational setting.
ABC of NC Child Development Center offers a summer education program to
children ages 3-12 with Autism Spectrum disorders. The program combines the fun

and variety of experiences offered by a typical summer day camp with evidence-
based educational programs for children with Autism.
3904 Old Vineyard Road
Winston-Salem, NC 27104
(336) 251-1180


Roksana, S., Stephen, H., Ala, T., Majid, G. (2010) Paternal age increases the
risk for autism in an Iranian population sample. Molecular Autism 1, DOI:

Carayol, J., Schulenburg, G. D., Dombroske, B., Genin, E., Rousseau, F., and
Dawson, G. (2011) Autism risk assessment in siblings of affected children
using sex-specific genetic scores. Molecular Autism 2, doi:10.1186/2040-

Corbett, B. A., Schupp C. W., and Lanni, K. E. (2012) Comparing biobehavioral

profiles across two social stress paradigms in children with and without
autism spectrum disorders. Molecular Autism 3, doi:10.1186/2040-2392-3-

General Information
Name: Specific Learning Disability
Definition: Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic
psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or
written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read,
write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as
perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and
developmental aphasia.

Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the
result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional
disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
(, 2013).
Learning disabilities is not the only term used to describe these difficulties. Others

dyslexiawhich refers to difficulties in reading;

dysgraphiawhich refers to difficulties in writing; and

dyscalculawhich refers to difficulties in math.

Researchers think that learning disabilities are caused by differences in how a

persons brain works and how it processes information. Children with learning
disabilities are not dumb or lazy. In fact, they usually have average or above
average intelligence. Their brains just process information differently.
There is no cure for learning disabilities. They are life-long. However, children
with LD can be high achievers and can be taught ways to get around the learning
disability. With the right help, children with LD can and do learn successfully.

Prevalence: As many as 1 out of every 5 people in the United States has a learning
disability. Almost 1 million children (ages 6 through 21) have some form of a
learning disability and receive special education in school. In fact, one-third of all
children who receive special education have a learning disability (US Dept. of
Education, 2007)
Causes: Experts arent exactly sure what causes learning disabilities, there is often
no apparent cause for LD. LD may be due to

Heredity. Often learning disabilities run in families. Children with LD are

likely to have parents or other relatives with similar difficulties.

Problems during pregnancy and birth. An illness or injury during or before

birth may cause an LD. Drug and alcohol use during pregnancy, low birth
weight, lack of oxygen and premature or prolonged labor may also lead to an

Incidents after birth. Serious illness, head injuries, poor nutrition and
exposure to toxins such as lead can contribute to LD.

Learning disabilities are not caused by economic disadvantage or cultural

differences, nor are they the result of lack of educational opportunity. That said,
children who are denied timely and effective instruction during critical times during
their development are at high risk for showing signs of LD during the school years
and beyond (, 2013).

While there is no one sign that a person has a learning disability, there are certain
clues. Most relate to elementary school tasks, because learning disabilities tend to
be identified in elementary school. This is because school focuses on the very things
that may be difficult for the childreading, writing, math, listening, speaking, and
reasoning. A child probably wont show all of these signs, or even most of them.
However, if a child shows a number of these problems, then parents and the teacher
should consider the possibility that the child has a learning disability.
When a child has a learning disability, he or she:

may have trouble learning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters
to their sounds;

may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often;

may not understand what he or she reads;

may have real trouble with spelling;

may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly;

may struggle to express ideas in writing;

may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary;

may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing
slight differences between words;

may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm;

may have trouble following directions;

may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar;

may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to
think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation;

may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may
stand too close to the listener;

may confuse math symbols and misread numbers;

may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third);

may not know where to begin a task or how to go on from there.

If a child has unexpected problems learning to read, write, listen, speak, or do math,
then teachers and parents may want to investigate more. The same is true if the
child is struggling to do any one of these skills. The child may need to be evaluated
to see if he or she has a learning disability (, 2011).
1. National Center for Learning Disabilities
NCLD improves the lives of all people with learning difficulties and disabilities by
empowering parents, enabling young adults, transforming schools, and creating
policy and advocacy impact. This web site has tons of information and resources.
The site is organized so that you can browse by stage or browse by age.

2. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities

Resources and information for people that have an LD or know someone who has
one, parents as well as teachers. This website has a list of publications as well as
links to information on specific learning disorders.

3. National Center on Learning Disabilities
NRCLD's goal is to help educators, policymakers, and parents understand the
complexity and importance of making sound decisions regarding whether a child
has a specific learning disability. Their research in this area--including studies of the
role of and best practices associated with responsiveness to intervention--is the
foundation underlying all of the materials available on this site.

4. Public Schools of North Carolina
The Specific Learning Disabilities Program serves as a resource to local education
agencies, charter schools, and state operated programs. The consultant for the
Specific Learning Disabilities Program is involved with program planning,
development, and training to strengthen the quality of education for students with

Specific Learning Disabilities and those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

5. Learning Disabilities Association of America
LDA has provided support to people with learning disabilities, their parents,
teachers and other professionals. At the national, state and local levels, LDA
provides cutting edge information on learning disabilities, practical solutions, and a
comprehensive network of resources. These services make the Learning Disabilities
Association of America the leading resource for information on learning disabilities.

Learning Disability Association of North Carolina
The Learning Disabilities Association of North Carolina (LDANC) promotes
awareness of the multifaceted nature of learning disabilities. LDANC supports
equitable opportunities for people with learning disabilities to participate in life's
experiences. LDANC seeks to accomplish this through education, support, advocacy,
collaboration and the encouragement of ongoing research.
1854A Hendersonville Road, #239
Asheville, NC 28803

Exceptional Childrens Assistance Center
ECAC is a private non-profit organization that is operated by and staffed primarily
with parents of children with disabilities and special health care needs. They have
an extremely diverse staff and strive to bring multiple perspectives to there work.
ECACs Main Office:
907 Barra Row, Suites 102/103
Davidson, NC 28036
704-892-5028 fax

800-962-6817 Parent Info Line


Karande, S., Kuril, S. (2011) Impact of parent practices on parent-child

relationships in children with specific learning disability. Journal of
Postgraduate Medicine. 57, 20-30, DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.75344

Karande, S., Mehta, V., Kulkarni, M. (2007) Impact of an education program

on parental knowledge of specific learning disability. Indian Journal of
Medical Sciences. 61, 398-406, DOI: 10.4103/0019-5359.33189

Valiente-Barroso, C. (2013) Relationship between ADHD Markers and Self-

Perceived Stress: Influences on Academic Performance in Preadolescents.
Journal of Education and Development Psychology. 3, DOI:

General Information
Name: Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Definition: According to the U.S Department of Education (2013), Emotional
disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following
characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely
affects a child's educational performance:
(A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health
(B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with
peers and teachers.
(C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
(D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

(E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or

school problems.
(ii) Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to
children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an
emotional disturbance under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section (Code of Federal
Regulations, Title 34, Section 300.7(c)(4)(i))

anxiety disorders;

bipolar disorder (sometimes called manic-depression);

conduct disorders;

eating disorders;

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); and

psychotic disorders.

Causes: No one knows the actual cause or causes of emotional disturbance,

although several factorsheredity, brain disorder, diet, stress, and family
functioninghave been suggested and vigorously researched. A great deal of
research goes on every day, but to date, researchers have not found that any of these
factors are the direct cause of behavioral or emotional problems.
According to NAMI, mental illnesses can affect persons of any age, race, religion, or
income. Further:
Mental illnesses are not the result of personal weakness, lack of character, or poor
upbringing. Mental illnesses are treatable. Most people diagnosed with a serious
mental illness can experience relief from their symptoms by actively participating in
an individual treatment plan.
Prevalence: According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention),
approximately 8.3 million children (14.5%) aged 417 years have parents whove
talked with a health care provider or school staff about the childs emotional or
behavioral difficulties. Nearly 2.9 million children have been prescribed medication
for these difficulties.
Characteristics: Characteristics that identify an individual as having a behavior
disorders are demonstrated in a variety of settings, with little consideration or
understanding of social or cultural rules.
Academic characteristics

Disrupts classroom activities


Inattentive, distractible


Does not follow or appear to care about classroom rules

Poor concentration

Resistance to change and transitions in routines

Often speaks out with irrelevant information or without regard to turn taking

Demonstrates aggressive behavior

Intimidates and bullies other students

Regularly absent from school

consistently blames others for their dishonesty

Low self esteem

Difficulty working in groups

Demonstrate self injurious behavior

Can not apply social rules related to others personal space and belongings

Often manipulative of situations

Emotional or behavioral disorders can be divided into three groups that are
characterized by:

Externalizing behaviors

Internalizing behaviors

Low incidence disorders

Some emotional or behavioral disorders manifest themselves outwardly.

Externalizing behaviors constitute an acting-out style that could be described
as aggressive, impulsive, coercive, and noncompliant. Other disorders are more
accurately described as "inward." Internalizing behaviors are typical of an
inhibited style that could be described as withdrawn, lonely, depressed, and
anxious (, 2013).

Externalizing Behaviors
Some typical examples are hyperactivity, a high level of irritating behavior that
is impulsive and distractible, and persistent aggression. Young children who
have serious challenging behaviors that persist are the most likely to be referred
for psychiatric services. Three common problems associated with externalizing
behavior are hyperactivity, aggression, and delinquency. ADHD and emotional or
behavioral disorders often occur in combination.

Internalizing Behaviors:
Internalizing behaviors are typically expressed by being socially withdrawn.
Examples of internalizing behaviors include

Anorexia or bulimia



Serious eating disorders that usually occur during students' teenage years are
anorexia and bulimia. These disorders occur because of individuals' (typically
girls') preoccupation with weight and body image, their drive for thinness, and
their fear of becoming fat.
Among the components of depression are guilt, self-blame, feelings of rejection,
lethargy, low self-esteem, and negative self-image.
Anxiety disorders may be demonstrated as intense anxiety upon separation
from family, friends, or a familiar environment; as excessive shrinking from
contact with strangers; or as unfocused, excessive worry and fear.

Low Incidence Disorders
Some disorders occur very infrequently but are quite serious when they do
occur. Schizophrenia, sometimes considered a form of psychosis or a type of
pervasive developmental disability is an extremely rare disorder in children,
although approximately 1 percent of the general population over the age of 18
has been diagnosed as having schizophrenia (, 2013). When it
occurs, it places great demands on service systems. It usually involves bizarre
delusions (such as believing one's thoughts are controlled by the police),
hallucinations (such as voices telling one what to think), "loosening" of
associations (disconnected thoughts), and incoherence. Schizophrenia is most
prevalent between the ages of 15 and 45, and experts agree that the earlier the
onset, the more severe the disturbance in adulthood (Newcomer, 1993).

1. Pacer Center: Champions for Children with Disabilities
The Project for Parents of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders was
originally organized to assist parents and families in understanding their rights and
responsibilities in accessing educational and mental health services for their
children. At that time, state-provided services were extremely limited in nature and
scope, and seldom involved families in making decisions about their children's
2. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities
Resources and information for people that have a behavior disorder or know
someone who has one, parents as well as teachers. This website has a list of
publications as well as links to information on specific learning disorders.

3. Education .com

Great site for educators, has links for special education teachers that have questions
about many different kinds of disorders. This site has links to work sheets,
activities, as well as articles and research.

4. National Alliance on Mental Illness
NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nations largest mental health
organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected
by mental illness. NAMI advocates for access to services, treatment, supports and
research and is steadfast in its commitment to raise awareness and build a
community for hope for all of those in need.
NAMI is the foundation for hundreds of NAMI State Organizations, NAMI Affiliates
and volunteer leaders who work in local communities across the country to raise
awareness and provide essential and free education, advocacy and support group

5. Kids Mental Health
Kids mental health is an information portal for people or parents looking for
information specific to childrens mental health. There is a list of disorders such as
EBD, OCD, and Autism. Kids Mental Health provides links and information for
therapy services as well as diagnostic resources.

Wake Forest Baptist Health
Development and Behavior
Brenner Childrens pediatricians provide medical and neurodevelopment
evaluations and treatment for children with diagnosed or suspected developmental
disabilities. Concentrating on toddlers, preschoolers and young children with dual
diagnoses (developmental and behavioral disorders) and complicated Attention
Deficit Disorder, Brenner Childrens specialists provide behavioral evaluations and
Brenner Children's Hospital
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
Medical Center Boulevard
Winston-Salem, NC 27157

The Amos Cottage Therapeutic Day Program (TDP):
Licensed through the Division of Health and Human Services and is fully accredited.
The program serves children ages 3-7 who are experiencing significant social,

emotional, and/or behavioral challenges that are causing a disruption in their

classroom setting. The TDP employs a multi-disciplinary team approach throughout
the treatment process, including the family in every phase of treatment. A licensed
Winston-Salem Forsyth County teacher provides academics while the child is in
Detailed program information can be obtained by calling 336-713-7443.
3325 Silas Creek Parkway
Winston-Salem, NC 27103

Narimani, M., Sadeghieh Ahari, S., Homeily, N., Siahpoosh, H. (2009) A

Comparison of Emotional Intelligence and Behavior Problems in Dyslexic and
Non-Dyslexic Boys. Journal of Applied Sciences. 9, 1388-1392, ISSN/EISSN:
18125654 18125662

Wolff, N., Shi, J. (2012) Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of

Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health
Problems and Treatment. International Journal of Environmental Research
and Public Health. 9, 1908-1926, doi:10.3390/ijerph9051908

Strine, T. W., Lesesne, C. A., Okoro, A. C., McGuire, L., Chapman, D. P., Balluz, S.
L., Mokdad A. H., (2006) Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties and
Impairments in Everyday Functioning Among Children With a History of
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Center for Disease Control. 3(2)

American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (2013).
Retrieved from
The Arc: For People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (2013).
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Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity
Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved from
Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center (SARRC) (2013) About Autism.
Retrieved from
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2013). Autism Spectrum Disorder.
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The Mayo Clinic (2013). Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. Retrieved from
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (2013) Federal Definition/Criteria for
Specific Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from
Twenty-Ninth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C. 2007. (2007) U.S Department of
Education. Vol 2 and 3
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (2011) Learning
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National Center for Learning Disabilities (2013) What are Learning Disabilities.
Retrieved from
U.S Department of Education (2013) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Section
300.7(c)(4)(i). Retrieved from,root,regs,300,A,300%252E8,
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