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HINTS/SOLUTIONS for M1203

(Matrices & Determinants)


Classroom Discussion Exercise
1.

(c)

2 0
0 3

0 0
3 3

0 2

10. (c)

3 0

= 6 0 6 = 12
2.

(a)

R1 R1 + R2 + R3 gives
1
1
1
(1 +x +y + z) y 1 y
y
z
z
1 z

11. (c)

Now, C3 C3 C1, C2 C2 C1 gives


1 0 0
(1 +x + y + z) y 1 0 1 x y z
z 0 1
3.

(b)

C1 C1 +C2 + C3 gives
1
2y
2z
(x + y + z) 1 y z x
2z
1
2y
zxy

12. (a)

(AB)A = A2
A(BA) = A2
AB = A2
A = A2

13. (d)

A is m n A is n m
A + A exists m = n

14. (b)

x y z 3

(a)

4 0
AT + BT = (A+B)T = 1
.
3 5 2

R1 R1 R 2 ; R 2 R 2 R3 ; R3 R3 R 4

xa yx

0
0
a

xa yx
0
0
x b z x x a x b x c
0
0
xc

5.

(d)

= 24 = 4!

6.

(a)

C1 C1 + C2 + C3 gives 1+2x as a factor

7.

(d)

R3 R3 R1, R2 R2 R1 gives:
The determinant
tn
t n 1
tn 2
=
2d
2d
2d
n 1d n 1d n 1d

(d)

1 0 0 x 2 2 x 2 2
dD
2 x 20 1 02 x 2
dX
2 2 x 2 2 x 0 0 1

= x2 4 x2 4 x2 4 3 x2 4

If A + B = C
Symmetric matrix A =

1
C CT

3 4 5

C + CT = 2 1 2
1 3 0

3 2 1

4 1 3
5 2 0

6 6 6

= 6 2 5
6 5 0

A =

= 0 (because R2, R3 are proportional)

8.

15. (a)

x b z x 0
0
xc 0
b

1 3
A + 2B =
(1)
1 2
3 2
2A + B =
..(2)
1 0
4 5
(1) + (2) 3 (A +B) =

0 2
1 4 5
(A+B) =

3 0 2

Now R3 R3 R1, R2 R1 gives


1
2y
2z
(x + y + z) 0 x y z
0
0
0
xyz

4.

A is m n, A + B exists B is m n
A is m n, B is m n, AB exists
m=n
1
a11 = 1 1 0
2

1
C CT
2

= 3

3
1
5
2

3
5
.
2

16. (a)

Obvious

17. (b)

adj(AB) = |AB|(AB)1 = |A| |B| . B1 A1


= (|B| B1) (|A| A1)
= (adj B) (adj A)

18. (a)

adj (AB) = (adj B) (adj A)


(adj B) = adj (AB) (adj A)1
1
=
2
1
(adjB) =
2

3 1 2

0 1 3
9. (a) x = 2 (1) = 3, a = 1 2 = 1
3 3 2
0 1
x

=
.
3

0 1 1
6 4
a
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19. (c)

We know that a
adjA
A1 =
|A|
|A1| =

cos sin 0

A-1 = sin cos 0 = A T .


0
0
1

adj A
|A|

22. (d)

1
1

| adjA |
| A | | A |n

adj A A

= A

20. (a)

1
1
A 1
k
k
1
[we know that (k)
k
= A1.

n1

adjadjA = adjA

1 2
A = (A1)1 =

1 4
4 2
2A =

1 1

n 1

(n 1)2

= 1. 2 =

1 4 2

2 1 1

5 2 4 2
1 4
B=

3
1

1
1

4 0
1 0 4
1 0 4
B1 =

.
16 4 1
16 4 1

21. (c)

(kA)1 = [(k) . A]1


Where is the identity matrix.
So (kA)1 = A1 . (k)1

1
.
k

So (k)1 =

23. (d)

(AB1C1D) (D1CBA1)
= (AB1C1) (CBA1)
= (AB1) (BA1) = AA1 =
Similarly (D1CBA1) (AB1C1D) = .

24. (b)

3x2y+z = 0
2x + z = 0
ax + 2y +3z = 0
For infinite number of solutions,
3 2 1
2 0 1 0
a 2 3

cos sin o

A = sin cos o
0
0
1

A = 1 ( cos2 + sin2 ) = 1
cos sin 0

adj (A) = sin cos 0


0
0
1

25. (c)

3(2) + 2(6 a) + 1(4) = 0


2(a 6) = 2
a = 5.

A is involutory An = A for n odd and


An = for even n.
2
3
f(A) = A + A + A + --- + A10
= 5A + 5 = 5( + A)

Regular Homework Exercise


1.

2.

(b) R3
1
0
0
(c)

1
1
0

R3 R2, R2 R2 R1, R3 R2 gives


1
2 1
1

R3 R3 R2

gives third row proportional to

x=
5.

(c)

n + n+1 + n+2 = n(1+ +2) = 0


C1 C1 + C2 + C3 gives first column zero

6.

(d)

There is a solution
4 10
1 2 8 0
5 7
6

first. Hence determinant is 0.


3.

(c)

R1 R1 R2; R2 R2 R3
0 x y x 2 y 2 z( x y )

0 8 22
1 2 8 0
0 17
34

= 0 y z y 2 z 2 x( y z )
1
z
z 2 xy
= ( x y ) ( y z)

1 xyz

+ 8 = 11 = 3

1 xyz

=0
4.

(d)

C1 C1 + C2 + C3
1 x
x
= (3x + 1) 1 x 1 x = (3x +1) = 0
1 x
x 1

1
3

7.

(c)

2 1
1 5 3 = A33 +A2 2 +A1 +A0
3 3

A0 can be determined by substituting


=0

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1
.A 1 .

Since order of A is n n
= n1 . |A| . A1
= n1 . adjA

2 0 1
A0 = 1 5 3 = 3 (6+1) = 21.
0 3 0

8.

(a)

A is m n, A2 exists m = n

9.

(b)

x11 = 1 + 2 = 3

= n .|A| .

15. (b)

|adj A| = |A|2
|adj (adj A)| = |adj A|2 = |A|4 = 81

(A + B) (A B) = (A B) (A + B)
A2 + BA AB B 2 = A2 + AB BA B 2
BA = AB
(A B) 2 = A2 2AB + B2.

16. (d)

Obviously

17. (d)

A is skew symmetric of order 3


A is singular
A1 does not exist

11. (c)

A + A = 0

18.

12. (a)

A, B, AB are skew symmetric


AB = (AB) = BA = (B) (A)
AB = BA
(A + B)2 = A2 + AB AB + B 2
= A2 + B2

10. (c)

a+c=0=b+e=d+f
(a + c)2 + (b + e)2 + (d + f)2 = 0

13. (c)

A = P + Q A = P + Q = P Q
2P = A + A

14. (b)

adjA = |A| . A1
adj (A) = |A| . [A]1

(d) It is because the system of equations either


inconsistent or may have infinite number of
solution.

19. (b)

For an orthogonal matrix AAT =


|AAT| = 1
|A| . |AT| = 1
|A|. |A| = 1
|A|2 = 1
|A| = 1.

20. (d)

A is invertible, A2 = A A1 A2 = A1A A =

Assignment Exercise
1.

(b)

0 0 1
0 1 0 1 x = 1
1 0 0

5.

(d)

1 1 1
1
1
1
2 y 1 0 1 y 1 0 0
3 5 1
2
4
0

2 (y1) = 4 y = 3.
a3

2.

(a)

The det. = b3
c3

a a2

1 a a2

6.

b b2 1 b b2 = 0
c c2

(c)

1 c c2

1 a a2

= (abc1) 1 b b2 0
1 c c2

The system has non trivial solution if


1 k 3
3 k 2 0
2 3 4

abc = 1 since a, b, c are different.

1 k 3
2 0 5 0 15 2k + 18 = 0
2 3 4

k=

3.

(b)

C1 C1 + C2 + C3 gives 3+x as a factor

4.

(b)

|A| =

logA 1logR logA (m 1)logR logA (n 1)logR

m
n
A
A
A

C2 C2 C1, C3 C3 C2
|A| =

log A 1log R

m log R n mlog R
m
n m
0

33
2

7.

(d)

4 1 2 0 0
4

3 1 2 0 0

8.

(d)

|A| =
|B| =

2 cos

sin

2 sin cos
3 sec

3 tan

3 tan

3 sec

log A 1log R log R log R


= (m ) (n m)

1
1
A
0
0

|AB| = |A| . |B|


cos sin
|A| = 2
sin cos

= (m ) (n m) . 0 since C2 = C3
=0

= 2(cos2 + sin2) = 2
sec tan
|B| = 32
= 9(sec2 tan2 ) = 9
tan sec
|AB| = 2 9 = 18.

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9.

(c)

We know that
(A+B)2 = (A+B) ( A+B)
= A2 +AB +BA +B2
A2 +2A B +B2
It is because AB BA.

13. (d)

10. (d)

(AB + BA) = (AB) + (BA) = BA + AB


= (B) (A) + (A) (B)
= BA + AB = AB + BA.

11. (c)

We know that

AB T
12. (a)

B T A T A TB T .

When A is orthogonal,
2A is obviously not
|2A| = 2n.

orthogonal

14. (b)

A.(adjA) = |A|.I
A .(adjA) . (adjA)1 = |A|.I(adjA)1
A . I = |A| . (adj A)1
A
(adj A)1 =
|A|

15. (c)

For unique solution


1 1 1
2 1 1 0
1 2

0 is a root by inspection.
So solution set is {0, 6}

because

i.e., 1( + 2)1 (2 1) + 1(4 + 1) 0


3 0
i.e., 0

Additional Practice Exercise


1.

2.

(c)

(a)

y changes to x when first and third rows are


interchanged and rows are then changed into
corresponding columns.
Thus y = x x + y = 0
R1 x R1, R2
x y z 1
1
.xyz.xyz y z x 1
xyz
zx y 1

yR2, R3 z R3 gives
yz
zx
xy

n
n
n 1
n 1
1 nn 1 nn 1 0
1

9.

(a)

Now C1 C1 + C3 gives first column proportional


to second.
Hence, value is 0.
3.

4.

(b)

(c)

R1 R1 + R2 + R3 makes first row = 0.


Hence determinant is 0.

(a)

It is xyz 1 y y 2
1 z z2

= xyz ( xy) (yz)

10. (b)

1 yz

(b)

Y = X X Y = X + X = 2X

7.

(a)

(obvious)

1
1

1 2r 1

bc
c
b c

c
ab b
= (b c) c a 2a a
1
0
0

= (b c) [a2 + ab 2ab] = (b c) (a2 ab)


= a (a b) (b c)

1
n
r r 1 n 1
2r
nn 1
2

c
ab
c a
2a
b c 0

c
ab bc
= (b c) c a 2a
c
1
0
1

1 xy

6.

c
ab bc
c a 2a
c
b
a b 2b

= xyz ( yz) (zx) (xy)

m ln ; Hence l, m, n are in G.P.

= xyz 0 y z y 2 z2
1
z
z2

(d)

0 x y x2 y2

8.

l
m
0
m
n
0
0
lk m mk n lk 2 2mk n

ln m lk 2mk n 0

obvious

n2

l
m
lk m
m
n
mk n C3 kC1 C2 C3
lk m mk n
0

1 x x2

5.

n2

11. (d)

x 1 x 2 x 3
x2 x3 x4
x3 x4 x5

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AT = A
|AT| = |A| = (1)5 |A|
|A| = |A|
|A| = 0.

x 1 1 1
C C3 C 2
= x2 1 1 3
C C2 C1
x3 1 1 2

= 0.

12. (d)

180 181 183 180 181 183


181 182 183 1
1
0
183 183 184
2
1
1
180 181 183
1
1
0
1
0
1

20. (a)

Obviously A 0, A is symmetric.
Trace = 2(1 + 2 + --- + n) = n(n + 1)

21. (d)

A is obviously a skew symmetric


of odd order and hence A is singular.

22. (c)

(A1BA)2 = (A1 BA) (A1BA) = A1B2A = A1BA

23. (b)

Since A is involutory A2 = I A1 = A and


A is orthogonal AAT = I A1 = AT
AT = A A is symmetric
Since AAT = I |A| . |AT| = 1 i.e., |A|2 = 1
i.e., |A| = 1 A2 = I |A|2 = 1
Thus if A is involutory and orthogonal it is not
necessary that |A| = 1 (It may be 1 also).
(A2)2 = A2.A2 = I.I = I A2 is involutory.
Finally, (A3)1 = (A2A)1 = A1 = A

24. (d)

( + A)n = + n C1A n C2 A .... n Cn A


= + (2n 1)A

= 1(183) + 1(180 181) = 184.

13. (b)

a1 b1k1 b1 k 2c1 k 3c1 b1


= a2 b2k1 b2 k 2c 2 k 3c 2 b2
a3 b3k1 b3 k 2c 3 k 3c 3 b3

C3 C3 C2
a1 b1k1 b1 k 2c1
= a 2 b 2k1 b 2 k 2c 2
a 3 b 3k 1 b 3 k 2 c 3

k 3 k 2 c1
k 3 k 2 c 2
k 3 k 2 c 3

a1 b1k1 b1 k 2c1
= (k3 k2) a 2 b 2k1 b 2 k 2c 2
a 3 b 3k 1 b 3 k 2 c 3

c1
c2
c3

25. (b)

C2 C2 k2C3
a1 b1k1 b1 c1
= (k3 k2) a2 b2k1 b2 c 2
a 3 b 3k 1 b 3 c 3

C1 C1 k1C1,

14. (b)

26. (b)

27. (a)

cos sin
If A() =
then
sin cos
cos n sin n
An() =

sin n cos n
cos 2 sin 2
1 0
A6 =
=

sin 2 cos 2
0 1

16. (d)

AB = 0 does not imply


A = 0 or B = 0
So option (a) is not correct.
AB = 0 implies |A|=0 or |B| = 0 but
|A| = 0 or |B| = 0 does not imply AB = 0
option (b) and (c) are incorrect.

17. (d)

A is m n A is n m AA exists

18. (d)

3 + x is a factor; solution is 3.

As A is orthogonal AAT = ------(1)


As A is symmetric A = AT ----(2)
From (1) and (2) A2 =
That is A is Involutory matrix.

(P1AP)1 = P1 . AP

1
= AP . P 1

= P 1 . A 1P P 1AP
[since A1 = A].
28.

15. (a)

cos x sin x
Given A =

sin x cos x
cos nx sin nx
An =

sin nx cos nx
cos nx sin nx
(An)1 =

sin nx cos nx

a1 b1 c1
= (k3 k2) a 2 b 2 c 2 = (k3 k2)D
a3 b3 c 3

1 2
3 5
A=
C=

3 1
1 2
1
1
A = BC AC = BCC B = AC1
1
1 2 2 5
0
B=
.
=
.
3 1 1 3
5 12

matrix

(d) For a skew symmetric matrix, all diagonal


elements are zero.
a2=0a=2
another property of a skew symmetric matrix is
aij = aji (i j) b = 3.

29. (c)

cos sin 1

adj A = sin cos 1


1
1
0
adj(A2) = adj (A. A)
= adj (A) adj (A)
= (adj A)2
(adjA)2
cos sin 1 cos sin 1

= sin cos 1 . sin cos 1


1
1
0 1
1
0

19. (b) Since A is a skew symmetric matrix


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1 sin 2
cos sin
1 cos 2

= 1 sin 2
1 cos 2
cos sin
cos sin cos sin

30. (a)

= m

C1
n
C2

n 1

n 2

C1
n 1
C2

n 2

= m

n
n n 1
2

n 1
n 1 n
2

= m

n
1
1 m.
n n 1
n n 1
2

C1
C2

1
C 2 C 2 C1
n2
C
n 2 n 1 3 C 3 C 2
2

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