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Table of Contents
Rationale of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Delimination of the Study Theoretical Framework Research Methodology
› Statistical Treatment of Data › Parameter
Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Da Conclusion
The study is all about breast cancer. According to the DOH, breast
cancer is the second leading site for both sexes in the Philippines. The Philippines ranks as the highest leading incidence of breast cancer in whole Asia. Most women are prone to breast cancer than men; the factors associated with the development of breast cancer are family (first degree) history, early menarche, and late age of pregnancy or never had children, high fat diet and age over 30 years. This is the most common cause of the death in women. Recently, most respondents of the knowledge, attitude, and practice survey claimed that they will consult the physician if they find signs and symptoms in their breast in order to prevent the cancer. Breast cancer can be treated if they have the knowledge, attitude and practice of the important information about reproductive age.
In order to know the level of awareness on breast cancer, we need to
study to be able to evaluate the extent of knowledge about the risk factors that
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of breast cancer awareness of the fourth year female college students at the University of San Carlos Technological Center. The study would like to find out the following:
What is the profile of the respondents?
› › › ›
Age Nationality Civil Status Heredo-familial disease
What is the level of knowledge of the respondents on the:
› › › › ›
Risk factors that could lead to breast cancer Signs and symptoms of breast cancer Diagnostic procedures for breast cancer Treatment of breast cancer patients Preventive measure in lowering the risk for breast cancer
What possible strategies, as perceived by the respondents, can best improve the level of breast cancer awareness among fourth year female college students?
Significance of the Study
Awareness in breast cancer is an important role to promote a woman’s health. According to the survey of the DOH, there are many happenings wherein awareness in breast cancer is a prerequisite to every woman. From this study the readers especially the college students will be able to identify as to what level of breast cancer awareness they are in. And they will be able to find ways that would improve their level of awareness in breast cancer starting from the basic. The study will aid the teachers to emphasize the importance of the topic and educate the important aspects of breast cancer. The study will able the respondents to assess themselves on their own health and to make awareness in breast cancer an integral part to promote their health status. The study can provide the health and workers of the USC-TC school clinic the basis of breast cancer education to be treated in their repertory of school programs and activities for the leveling up of the awareness in breast cancer of the young adult clients.
On the policy-makers of the USC, the data will serve as a point of reference for the improvements and strategies needed to address the incidence of breast cancer caused, in part, by the actions of unaware young adult citizen. This study will enable the nursing students to focus on specific points to address. Since nurses serve as a bridge between the patient and physician, patient teaching is a vital tool in the process. This program are modified according to the level of awareness of the students for whom these studies are planned.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Subject Delimitation The study was limited to fourth year female college students of Batch 2005-2006 of the USC-TC. Out of the total population of 448 students, only 20% which is 101 students, was included as respondents in this study. The college of Pharmacy, College of Arts and Sciences, College of Architecture and Fine Arts, College of Engineering and College of Nursing are the colleges included in the study.
Place Delimitation The study was conducted at the USC-TC, located at Talamban, Cebu City, Cebu Province. Time Delimination The study was conducted within the Second Semester of School Year 2005-2006, where the research proper was started from December 28, 2005 to March 20, 2006 while the survey was done from February 20, 2006 to March 15, 2006.
Nowadays, breast will make more women feminine and physically
attractive and makes as sex material of some men through in their mind. Breast cancer is the known leading cause of death in which all women are at risk in getting breast cancer. It increases the risk of a person gets older. It usually occurs in a left breast part maybe because it is larger than right breast.
The factor that increases the risk in getting breast cancer is the following:
faulty genes or family history of breast cancer (includes mother, father, sisters, daughters and immediate relatives), environmental factors, combination of abnormal genes, smoking, excessive weight, prolonged exposure of estrogen, abnormal breast cell growth, pregnancy after age 30, never having a full- term pregnancy, heavy alcohol use, early start of menstruation and late menopause.
The factor that decreases the factors in getting breast cancer are the
following: eating a healthy diet, quitting smoking, losing extra weight, regular exercise and reducing alcohol use. In short, one must not have vices and must have a healthy lifestyle.
In avoiding to have a breast cancer, the most effective way is to detect it early through mammography and clinical breast exam by the health professional and to have a breast self- examination, which will be examined one a month, three to five days after the period ends. If a woman already had a menopause, the breast examination should be performed still on the same day of each month. If one is detected early with breast cancer, 90 to 95% of women are healthy 10 years later.
The warning signs of the breast cancer are the following: lump in the breast, unusual change in size and shape of the breast, one breast is unusually lower than the other breast, puckering of the skin of the breast, new dimpling in the nipple, discharge or bleeding from nipple, change in skin of the nipple, enlarged lymph nodes at the neck.
Through the mass media, awareness and early detection is presented, openly discussed the information of breast cancer to the public to correct the misconceptions of the masses about the breast cancer. And through the nurses, they have the responsibility to conduct a health teaching to the public about the normal breasts, breast diseases and to inform everyone, that it is curable if detected early.
Thus, the study of breast cancer will allow everyone to be aware on how to prevent and what re the warning signs of the breast cancer. This research is to measure the awareness of fourth year female students of University of San Carlos- Technological Center to evaluate their level of awareness of breast cancer.
Individual Percept ion
Modifying Fact ors
Demographic Variables (young adults (19- 26), females, Filipinos , diet) Sociopsychologic Variables (students, peer and referencegroup pressure, expectations from others) Structural Variable (knowledge about the disease, prior contact with the disease)
Likely of Act ion
Perceived benefits of preventive measures on breast cancer minus Perceived barriers to preventive action
Perceived susceptibility to disease x Perceived seriousness of disease x
Perceive threat of disease x
Likelihood of taking recommended preventive health action
Cues to action Mass media campaigns Advice from others Reminder postcard from physician or dentist Illness of family member or friend Newspaper or magazine article
Figure 1: Rosenst ock & Becker’s Healt h Belief Model
From Rosentock and Becker’s Health Belief model: Structural Variables: Knowledge of the disease (risk factors, warning signs, diagnostic procedures, treatment, prevention measures)
Incidence of Breast Cancer disease in the family
Level of Breast Cancer Awareness
Recommendations To Improve Breast Cancer Awareness
Figure 2.Modified Model of Rosentock and Becker’s Health Belief Model
Research Methodology The researches used a non-experimental descriptive type
research design. This was used to determine the breast cancer awareness of the fourth year female college students of USC-TC, Batch 2005-2006. A total of 101 participants were included in the study. The researchers use clustering and convenience type of sampling technique in which at least 20% of the total populations of each college were selected to represent in the said study.
To start their research, the researchers wrote a letter of consent
from all Deans in the Department of USC-TC, signed by the level III Chairman and the Dean of USC of Nursing. After asking permission, the Dean of each Department approved their letters and the researchers scheduled the distribution of the questionnaires to the selected participants of the fourth year female college students of USC-TC. After retrieving the entire questionnaire, the answers were collected and the results were tabulated and interpreted.
questionnaire to test the level of awareness of the fourth year students of USC-TC. It is consisted of three parts: First part determines the respondent’s profile according to their age, nationality, civil status and herodo-familial disease. The second part consisted questions that is based on the risk factors that could lead to breast cancer, its clinical manifestations, its early detection, its treatment and preventive measures of breast cancer. The last part was an essay type of question that determines the respondent’s own perception or suggestion as to the possible strategies that can best improve their level of awareness in breast cancer.
The following formulas were used as tools for computing and interpreting the results of the questionnaires.
Statistical Treatment of Data
To get the percentage, we use the formula: Where: ƒ = frequency N = t ot al num ber of Percentage = __ ƒ__ X 100 respondent s N Where: x = percent age for each correct answer in t he t able To get the average score y = each table, we used the following formula: for percent age for each incorrect answer in t he t able N = t ot al num ber of correct it em s in t he t able X = ∑x - ∑y N
Where: x = score (percent age) N = num ber of x
Below shows parameters utilized in this study to determine level of awareness on A. Percentage of Correct Answers and its Corresponding Level of Awareness
80.0%-100% 60.0%-79.9% 40.0%-59.9% 20.0%-39.9% 0.0%-19.9%
Very Good Good Fair Poor Very Poor
B. Percentage of Incorrect Answers and its Corresponding Level of Awareness
80.0%-100% 60.0%-79.9% 40.0%-59.9% 20.0%-39.9% 0.0%-19.9% Very Poor Poor Fair Good Very Good
Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data
The contents of this section pertain on the interpretation and analysis of data obtained from fourth year female college students in USC-TC.
Table 1.1 Colleges ƒ % POPLATION TABLE
CON COP CAFA COE CAS TOTAL
30 13 14 32 12 101
29.7 12.9 13.9 31.7 11.9 100
AGE OF RESPPONDENTS
Age 19-20 21-22 23-24 TOTAL ƒ 61 38 2 101 % 60.4 37.6 2.0 100
The respondents aging 19-20 years old are 61 (60.4%) students, 21-22
years old are 38 (37.6%) students, 23-24 years old are 2 (2.0%) students. Table 1.3
CIVIL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS
TOTAL Others Married Single Civil Status 0 101 ƒ 0 100 %
All the respondents (100%) are single in status. Table 1.4 N ATION ALITY OF TH E RESPON D EN TS
TOTAL Others Married Single Civil Status 0 101 ƒ 0 100 %
There are 100 (99%) Filipino citizen respondents and only 1 (1%) dual citizen.
HEREDO-FAMILIAL DISEASES OF THE RESPONDENTS
DISEASES Cancer (not specified) Breast Cancer Leukemia Cancer Maxillary and Sinus Cancer Lung Cancer Bone Cancer Esophageal Cancer Liver Cancer Uterine Cancer Diabetes Mellitus Hypertension Asthma Kidney Disorder Allergies Anemia Anemia Goiter Insomnia Myasthenia Gravis Sinusitis ƒ 8 9 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 47 57 6 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 % 7.9 8.9 4.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 46.5 56.4 5.9 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Table 2 LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS IN IDENTIFYING CORRECT AND INCORRECT RISK FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER
Physical Injury Wired early Exposure silicone Late bras radiation Being obese years Alcoholismchildren Factors ƒ Nevermenopausal Age fat to pregnancy Familyhad30and Risk High Incorrect smoking HavingFactors of old Factors For over diet Riskbreast Risk Correct menstruation : : a history late 1 3 78 2 18 21 46 32 34 87 41 23 25 implant cancer
1 3 77 2. 17 20 45 31 33 2 86 5 40 7 22 1 24.6 %08
VP VG F P Interpretation
Another persons who has poor awareness are the persons answered having late pregnancy (22.8%) and being obese (20.8%). Persons who has very poor level of awareness on late menopausal has 17.8% (18 responders) and 2 (2.0%) answered exposure to radiation. 78 responders (77.2%) answered having a silicone breast implant as a risk factor of breast cancer and they are interpreted as poor level of awareness. The person who has a very good level of awareness for wired bras and physical injury is 3 (3.0%) and 1(1%).
Level of Awareness of Respondents in Identifying Correct and Incorrect
Mole Incorrect Warning at One Correct Sudden or SIGNS in in skin of Swelling if onusually the Presence of the uppersize A fold itch lumps thelower than New breast inWarning arm the Andischargeisin thebreast skin :neck or breast 90 Lumpdimplingbreast nipple Signsoftheofbreast ƒ Forunusualceasetheinnippleand thetheother WARNINGthechange/massesSigns : shapebreast inodor change under 62 11 37 22 23 14 26 57 61 36 the arm
Warning Signs of Breast Cancer
10 36 21 22 13 25 56 8 60 9 35 7 61 6 89 4 % .1
VP F P G VG Interpretati on
36 respondents or 35.6% has poor level of awareness who answered new dimpling in the nipple. Same as 26 (25.7%) respondents who answered swelling of the upper arm. 23 (22.8%) respondents has good level of awareness who answered on breast usually lower than the other and the same as 22 (21.8%) respondents answered a fold or crease in the skin of the breast. 11 ( 10.9%) of respondents has a good level of awareness who answered a mole in the breast. 14 or 13.9% has a very poor level of awareness who answered sudden itch on the breast. Table 4 Level of Awareness of Respondents in Identifying Correct and Incorrect Diagnostic Procedures of Breast Cancer
Radiation Lymphangiography BenceIncorrect Diagnostic Ultrasound Magnetic Resonance Test Breast Mammography CT Correct Diagnostic Clinical Breast Examination Procedures BiopsyJones PROCEDURES ForScanSelf-Protein Imaging Procedures.: .5 : DIAGNOSTIC Examination 1 23 16 4 17 14 15 67 68 75 76 21 9 22 72 2 73 53 8 54 %03 ƒ 1 22 4
VG VP P G F Interpretation
Table 5 Level of Awareness of the Respondents in Identifying Correct and Incorrect Treatment Interventions of Breast Cancer
For Correct Treatment Intervention: Chemotherapy Hormonal therapy Mastectomy Radiation 83 27 72 3 82.2 26.7 71.3 3.0 VG P G VP
For Incorrect Treatment Intervention:
83 (82.2%) has a very good level of awareness who answered chemotherapy as treatment for breast cancer. 72 (71.3%), 27 (26.7%) and 3 (3.0%) has an interpretation of good,
Table 6 Level of Awareness of the Respondents in Identifying Correct and Incorrect Preventive Ways of Lowering Risk of Breast Cancer
PREVENTIVE WAYS For Correct : Breast self-exam Avoiding contact sport Breastfeeding
ƒ 97 23 35 32 42 42 17 6 11 19
% Interpretation 96 VG 22.8 P 34.7 P 31.7 P 41.6 F 41.6 F 16.8 VG 5.9 VG 10.9 VG 18.8 VG
Not regularly eating smoked foods Limit drinking alcoholic beverages Aerobic exercise For Incorrect : Chest x-ray once a month
Smoking only one pack of cigarette a day Eating a high fat diet Taking estrogen for cancer prevention
97 (96.0%) respondents interpreted as very good level of awareness for answering breast self-exam once a month as a best way of lowering the risk of breast cancer. 42 (41.6%) and 42 (41.6%) is interpreted as fair level of awareness who answered aerobic exercises and limitation in drinking alcoholic beverages. 35 (34.7%) and 32 (31.7%) interpreted as poor level of awareness for answering breastfeeding and not regularly eating smoked foods.
19 (18.8%) and 17 (16.8%) interpreted as very good level of awareness for answering taking estrogen for breast cancer prevention and chest x-ray once a month. 11 (10.9%) respondents and 6 (5.9%) interpreted as very good level of awareness for answering eating high fat diet and smoking only one pack of cigarette a day.
Table 7 RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE RESPONDENTS ON WAYS THAT WILL BEST IMPROVE THEIR BREAST CANCER AWARENESS
RECOMMENDATIONS Seminars/ symposiums Information education materials (brochures, posters, bulletin boards, etc.)
ƒ 37 33
% 36.6 32.7 16.8 11.9
Advertisements through mass media 17 Regular check-up 12 (either by self, doctor, or other health care team member)
Out of 10 respondents 37 (36.6%) recommends seminar/symposiums as ways that will best improve their breast cancer awareness. While 33 (32.7%) recommends information educational materials: 17 (16.8%) for advertisements through mass media; 12 (11.9%) for regular check-up; and lastly 12 (11.9%) on health teachings/lectures.
Table 8 OVERALL AVERAGE SCORE
TABLES Table2: Risk Factors of breast cancer Table3: Warning signs of breast cancer Table4: Diagnostic procedures of breast cancer Table5: Treatment interventions of breast cancer Table6: Preventive ways of lowering risk of breast cancer TOTAL AVERAGE
% 24.5 35.8 43.4 38.9 36.0 35.72
Evaluation P P F P P P
Generally, the female fourth year college students of USC-TC have poor breast cancer awareness, with a result of 35.72%.
The female fourth year college students respondents of USC-TC are mostly 19-20 years old with a Filipino citizenship and a single in status. Among the respondents hypertension is the most common heredo-familial disease. According to the findings, many of the respondents have an average of poor level of awareness, specifically on their knowledge on the risk factors, warning signs of breast cancer, its treatment intervention, and ways of preventing to lower the risk of breast cancer ever though they have a fair of awareness on the diagnostic procedures. Strategies are important in improving the knowledge about breast cancer. For the respondents the ways are to conduct: 1.) seminar/symposium, 2.) information education materials like magazines pertaining breast cancer and 3.) advertisement through mass media like commercials promoting breast cancer prevention.
Reported by: Cero, Paola Mariz Licos, Jhocel Maningo, Maureen Joyce Noel, Lafayette Kirsi Wagas, Angeli
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