P. 1
Internet Addiction - A Phenomenon of the Modern Society?

Internet Addiction - A Phenomenon of the Modern Society?

|Views: 1,047|Likes:
Published by Bob Ferris
Internet Addiction can be used to refer to any disorder which is related to the modern medium Internet. It can emerge from different backgrounds. The four main risk types of Internet Addiction are on-line games, chats and instant messaging services, Internet communities and forums, and Internet pornography. Furthermore, there are many miscellaneous risk types. Internet Addiction is mainly characterized by an excessive Internet use. Apart from this common feature, the symptoms of this addiction are more complex. Its cause often originates in the life story of the concerned person, but there are also many more issues which are responsible for the existence of Internet Addiction.
Nowadays, no general treatment method exists. At an early stage self therapy, accompanied or unaccompanied group therapies can be applied. At later stages is it wise to go and seek professional psychological care. Even though scientists and psychologists dealt with this topic throughout the last decade, they were not able to include the whole scope of it. Therefore, the development of Internet technologies and their negative side effects pay their tribute to people who are using the Internet.
Internet Addiction can be used to refer to any disorder which is related to the modern medium Internet. It can emerge from different backgrounds. The four main risk types of Internet Addiction are on-line games, chats and instant messaging services, Internet communities and forums, and Internet pornography. Furthermore, there are many miscellaneous risk types. Internet Addiction is mainly characterized by an excessive Internet use. Apart from this common feature, the symptoms of this addiction are more complex. Its cause often originates in the life story of the concerned person, but there are also many more issues which are responsible for the existence of Internet Addiction.
Nowadays, no general treatment method exists. At an early stage self therapy, accompanied or unaccompanied group therapies can be applied. At later stages is it wise to go and seek professional psychological care. Even though scientists and psychologists dealt with this topic throughout the last decade, they were not able to include the whole scope of it. Therefore, the development of Internet technologies and their negative side effects pay their tribute to people who are using the Internet.

More info:

Published by: Bob Ferris on Mar 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/04/2011

pdf

text

original

Report on INTERNET ADDICTION - A PHENOMENON OF THE MODERN SOCIETY?

submitted to Matthew Schlegel University of Technology Dresden Dresden July 19, 2007

by Thomas Gängler University of Technology Dresden Department of Computer Science

This report contains information on the background of Internet Addiction and researches about this phenomenon. The background covers the types, causes and symptoms of Internet Addiction and its treatments. The research sections discuss whether Internet Addiction exist as a real disorder or not and shows the change of the results of the research projects over the years.

ABSTRACT
Internet Addiction can be used to refer to any disorder which is related to the modern medium Internet. It can emerge from different backgrounds. The four main risk types of Internet Addiction are on-line games, chats and instant messaging services, Internet communities and forums, and Internet pornography. Furthermore, there are many miscellaneous risk types. Internet Addiction is mainly characterized by an excessive Internet use. Apart from this common feature, the symptoms of this addiction are more complex. Its cause often originates in the life story of the concerned person, but there are also many more issues which are responsible for the existence of Internet Addiction. Nowadays, no general treatment method exists. At an early stage self therapy, accompanied or unaccompanied group therapies can be applied. At later stages is it wise to go and seek professional psychological care. Even though scientists and psychologists dealt with this topic throughout the last decade, they were not able to include the whole scope of it. Therefore, the development of Internet technologies and their negative side effects pay their tribute to people who are using the Internet.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... ii LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................ iv I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1 II.INTERNET ADDICTION ..................................................................................... 2
Related risk types for Internet Addiction .................................................................................... 2 On-line games ....................................................................................................................... 2 Chats and instant messaging services .................................................................................. 2 Internet communities and forums .......................................................................................... 3 Internet pornography ............................................................................................................. 3 Miscellaneous risk types ....................................................................................................... 3 Causes of Internet Addiction ...................................................................................................... 4 The environment ................................................................................................................... 4 The new thing ........................................................................................................................ 4 Psychological problem .......................................................................................................... 4 Symptoms of Internet Addiction ................................................................................................. 5 Physical symptoms ................................................................................................................ 5 Psychological symptoms ....................................................................................................... 5 Behavioural symptoms .......................................................................................................... 5

III.TYPES OF TREATMENT .................................................................................. 7
Self therapy ................................................................................................................................ 7 Group therapy ............................................................................................................................ 8 Professional psychological care ................................................................................................ 8

IV.RESEARCH RESULTS ..................................................................................... 9
Research results of the past year .............................................................................................. 9 Recent research results ............................................................................................................. 9 The change of research results ................................................................................................. 10

V.EXISTENCE OF INTERNET ADDICTION .........................................................11
Internet Addiction Disorder ......................................................................................................... 11 Addiction comparison ................................................................................................................. 12

VI.CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................13 APPENDIX A: TERMINOLOGY ........................................................................... 14 APPENDIX B: BIBLIOGRAPHY ...........................................................................16

iii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Grohol's Model of Pathological Internet Use .............................................................. 6

iv

I. INTRODUCTION
The Internet represents the most increasing mass medium of the last years. Besides television, radio and print mediums, it belongs to the most important media to get information and news from. Moreover, the Internet is a multi functional medium with a lot of interfaces to fulfil several services. Apart from the simple task of providing information and news, it serves the human desire of communication through Emails, chats, forums and Internet telephony. Furthermore, it provides a medium to satisfy nearly all primary and secondary human needs. In this context the Internet represents the most powerful medium of modern mass media, because it provides a huge number of services with a great variety. However, such a powerful tool involves a certain danger. A noticeable one is the so-called Internet Addiction - the topic of this report. The term is an attempt to describe the observed behaviour of Internet overuse. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to explain the negative side of this modern technology and its surroundings. Due to this fact, the report is written in a simple language to reach a broad audience, because the majority of people using the Internet is also manifold. This report will be broken into four main sections with the first section containing background knowledge about Internet Addiction. This will include risk types, its cause, and its symptoms. The second section is an attempt of describing possible treatments. It will discuss self therapy, group therapy and professional psychological care. The third section will focus on the research results, which scientists and psychologists received from their research. Finally, the fourth section will analyse the existence of Internet Addiction. This is followed by a description of the scientific term Internet Addiction Disorder and a comparison to other kind of addictions.

1

II. INTERNET ADDICTION
This section introduces the related risk types, the causes and the symptoms of Internet Addiction. It provides a common ground to get in touch with this recently discussed topic and to think about what Internet Addiction is or where the Internet merely provide the medium for an addiction.

Related risk types of Internet Addiction

This division of the related risk types is only an attempt to differentiate the types from each other and the last type will explain that there are many more. Risk type in this context means that the described types might play a role in becoming addicted.

On-line games. On-line games are one of the most discussed topics in relation to Internet Addiction. There are two big groups of on-line games. On the one hand, there are multi player on-line games (MPOG) and on the other hand, there are single player on-line games (SPOG). Representatives of the first group are World of Warcraft, Counter Strike or Second Life. Games which belong to the second group are mainly Flash games. Where the MPOGs develop more and more into the professional sector like complete Esport leagues, the single player games are only for simple entertainment in the coffee break. Both of them have the potential to be recognized as Pathological Gambling, a recognized disorder of the DSM-IV, the first maybe more than the second group. MPOGs reflect the tightrope walk between a sporting challenge and an obsession because you have got to be excellent to play games in higher E-sport leagues. The little Flash games could turn into a ritual or a normal task in your daily agenda like playing the game every day after lunch for 10 minutes. The risk of playing the game for a longer period is insignificant in contrast to MPOGs. It is more the issue of how often one plays these little games. The potentially obsessive may begin to play the little games to fill a gap between the tasks he has to do and ends with playing the game every break and neglecting the actual tasks. MPOGs are the extension of traditional games of all kinds like strategy games, roll playing games or ego shooters while giving the customer the opportunity to play with real challengers instead of precomputed dummies, with not necessarily sitting next to them.

Chats and instant messaging services. Chats belong to a more traditional form of Internet communication. They substitute at first the voice of a human individual into text messages. At a first sight ,this substitution likes to transform a very different thing into a more uniform one because, in general, every text message has the same format. Across the evolution of the internet this

2

instrument gets more customized. Instant messaging services are a product of this evolution. Nowadays chats are not only the simple exchange of text messages. Chats, and their surroundings, are more another interesting form of communication. Chat platforms contain a more individual way to communicate like expressing moods with special smileys (as a picture) or avatars, or simulating a virtual room where you can move in. Instant messaging services (IMS) are like a metaphor of a telephone with an answering machine to the text form. Generally, they provide the same functionality as chats with the exception that one only writes to a single encounter in a single instance (like a query in a chat). The advantage is that you can write a message to your encounter even when he is offline and he will get the message at the next time when he goes on-line. Common IMSs are ICQ, MSN or AIM. The development of this service is to provide more than just message exchange. Today, you can also play little games with your mates or share data between each other. The benefit of this risk type is to satisfy the primary need of communication that means a chat or IMS is the medium to communicate with other people.

Internet communities and forums. Internet communities and forums build a solid base for knowledge exchange on a specific field. For every kind of interest, hobby or whatever, exists at least one portal where you can find a particular group of like-minded people. These places are for answering detailed questions, providing deeper information, or asking for a solution to a specific problem. Furthermore, the communities reflect a sense of brotherhood that means to have the feeling of belonging to a group. Internet communities are like an association or club and its users can be seen as the members of this association. The content of these forums is extensive. It ranges from featuring a computer program to providing an address to turn to for a rare illness. Very common portals are MySpace, YouTube or the German StudiVZ.

Internet pornography. This risk type provides the easiest access to pornography and also maybe the most anonymous one. The benefit of this type mostly is to satisfy one's instinctual drives. Therefore, Internet pornography has the certain advantage to offer satisfaction to every variety of sexual needs. This variety and the multiple existence of it build the threat for an addiction. The comfortable access way make it also possible to provide children an entrance to pornography. There is a heap of material where legal protection for children and young persons is not enabled. This unsafe websites are a huge threat for this generation.

Miscellaneous risk types. There are several other risk types. To give an impression of the wide range of the other risk types I would only like to name some of them. At first there are the mixed forms of the risk types mentioned above. An example is, Internet communities containing multi 3

player on-line games including a forum and a chat for information exchange, or flirt platforms including a personal page and a chat. Another rare risk type is to keep the system up to date that means the user is obsessed to get every new update of the programs he has on his computer. Furthermore, there are the information getter, the people who can never fill their knowledge gap and surf for hours through the sites of Wikipedia from one article to another. At last I would like to mention excessive purchase behaviour in the Internet like buying needless tools at an Ebay auction.

Causes of Internet Addiction

The causes of Internet Addiction are of a great variety, but as I already mentioned in the introduction of this topic, you have to think about whether the causes depend on Internet Addiction or they have another background.

The environment. The environment always plays a big role while influencing one's behaviour. If you realize that all your friends are at the new on-line portal, your aid is also like to be with them and become a member of this portal. In contrast, one's environment is not always the couple of friends around, it can also be the encounters you make on the Internet via chat rooms or forums. Later, one might feel the urge to come back to this place in order to meet these people again. The environment is also responsible for the development of one's social behaviour in several scenarios. Thus the relationship between parents and their children, and the way they are being raised, is very important.

The new thing. This cause is normally observed with every new thing. The user gets enthusiastic and excited while exploring this new environment, an infinite world of new interesting things. The diversity of the Internet could stretch this phase to a longer period than those phases of enthusiasm at other new things. Some people will never reach the end of this period because they discover new exiting things in this expedition all the time.

Psychological problem. The Internet reflects a huge place or dimension where it is possible to get everything you would like to get or even imagining it. Therefore, the Internet offers a productive breeding ground for people with psychological problems, whether they realize their problem or not. This medium fulfils the whole range of social needs. It satisfied all primary and secondary needs of humans life. Focusing on an unsociable person, such a loner can get in touch with other people over the Internet especially in chat rooms or forums. To analyse this case more generally, if someone has a lack in one of the mentioned needs, he will find his satisfaction more or less in the environment of the Internet. However, it is nowadays

4

not possible to satisfy all human needs because the Internet or the computer, the common entrance to the Internet, could not satisfy all senses like the haptic one. A user could also develops a dependency to fulfil a desire he could only get in the world of the Internet like pathological sexual practices or other absurd things.

Symptoms of Internet Addiction

It is also nowadays not clear to separate symptoms of Internet Addiction from other symptoms. It depends always from the state of view, whether you see the Internet as a medium to satisfy another addiction or Internet Addiction as a standalone disorder.

Physical symptoms. There are no real physical symptoms which the scientists could charge to the Internet. If a Internet user surf in the Internet for hour it is not good for his eyes and he feel weak after a more or less long period of time. This physical symptom depends not on surfing in the Internet it depends on sitting in front of the computer and watching into the display and concentrating to the content which is displayed on the screen. Because the Internet is more a virtual thing you could not prove that the use of the Internet cause physical changes of one's behaviour only that if the user have not access to the Internet you do not know what to with himself.

Psychological symptoms. At this issue the scientists notice more changes on tested people. The analysed show a certain dependency to a subject which is distribute through the Internet and also physical symptoms like insomniac. Focus on the responsibility of that symptoms it clear that not the Internet as medium is guilty for that because the services which used the Internet are the perpetrators. Generally it is to observe that user who underlying a deprivation of Internet and ordinary using the Internet for whatever, showing a kind of disorder or desire to this medium.

Behavioural symptoms. This symptoms represent a kind of summary of the symptoms above. The use behaviour to the Internet is always reflecting in what matter you surf through the Internet. The kind of how is here the magical question. Is it a passion, a desire, necessity or an addiction? Is this behaviour through all matter you like to fulfil through the Internet or only through a special one? Is this behaviour because of the Internet as medium or its content? Does the Internet create this behaviour or does the Internet use or extend an existing behaviour? Nevertheless since the beginning of the Internet evolution the medium Internet change behaviours in several field like writing an email instead of writing a letter. The Internet reflects strong the change of behaviour pattern of the civilization through the progress of time. This developments are not the symptoms of an addiction this are normal one of our modern society.

5

Furthermore the psychologist John M. Grohol tries to sum up the progress of pathological Internet use in a sequence of phases [2]. He hypothesized a model, which can be more globally applied to on-line usage in general. Figure 1 below illustrates this model. Some people simply get caught in Stage I and never move beyond it. They may need some help to get into Stage III.

Figure 1. Grohol's Model of Pathological Internet Use

6

III. TYPES OF TREATMENT
Nowadays, there are general treatment methods developed for Internet Addiction, because it is not a recognized disorder and the field of this addiction is very wide and not well defined. Psychologist can only analyse their patients in respect of other kinds of addictions in order to conclude of their occurrence. In most cases, the cause of an obsessive behaviour of Internet use has a background not obviously related to one's Internet use.

Self therapy

If one realizes a pathological Internet use or think that he spends to munch time surfing the Internet, the suspect could ask himself several question like those below:
● ● ● ●

Are you unable to control your on-line use? Do you feel a need to spend more and more time on-line to achieve satisfaction? Do you feel restless or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop your on-line use? Do you go on-line to escape problems or relieve feelings such as helplessness, guilt, anxiety or depression?

Do you lie to family members or friends to conceal how often and how long you stay online?

Do you risk the loss of a significant relationship, job, or educational or career opportunity because of your on-line use?

● ●

Do you keep returning even after spending too much money on on-line fees? Do you go through withdrawal when offline, such as increased depression, moodiness, or irritability?

Do you stay on-line longer than originally intended?

If the interviewed person agreed to some of those questions, he should think about his usage of the Internet. Furthermore, he should analyse why he shows this behaviour. In most cases, the reason for excessive Internet use does not lie in the fascination for the medium itself, it is more an inner desire which the obsessive user feels. On the one hand, if the concerned person cannot find the reason for his problem of Internet overuse, he may ask some mates for help or try to see a doctor or seek professional psychological care. On the other hand, if he believes to have found the reason for this overuse, he should try to find a solution for this problem. Possibly the user realizes that he spends to much time in chats and on-line forums because he feels lonely. In this case, the concerned person is able find one's way back and fulfil his daily schedule with other activities like sports or meeting friends at a café. Another harder method, is the withdrawal of the Internet. One should only try this method, if previous

7

attempts fail. However, if the Internet-obsessed person is not able to solve the problem himself, he may seek professional psychological care. Nevertheless the suspect has to consider all possibilities in order to change his current behaviour. If one cannot grant this necessary condition, it will reduce the chance for change of his behaviour. In some cases, it is not easy for the concerned person, but it always useful to learn a healthful manner with the medium Internet and it way of satisfying human needs.

Group therapy

In most case is it easier to commonly cure the addiction, than it is on your own. If one realizes an excessive Internet use (as a result of having agreed with several questions above) not only on oneself but also on his friends, he could launch a group therapy with his mates. At first, the revelator has to draw the attention of the others to this problem. After having completed that task, he should make it clear to them to solve their problems. Furthermore, should the suspects diagnose that they all show the same behaviour like Pathological Gambling, they may encourage themselves to solve it together. Apart from a self-launched group therapy, it is always wise to join an already existing therapy group if one tries to do a self therapy. Therefore, many addresses exist to turn to for help on, in the Internet, but also the psychologist nearby can offer professional care. However the decision, a group therapy will make a difference to the persons' healing process.

Professional psychological care
It is always wise to go and seek professional psychological care, if one's problem turns out to be a more complex one with a deeper background. As recent and past studies prove, the reasons for excessive Internet use at a later stage have a more complex background. For this reason, it is necessary to turn to a psychologist. Nowadays, scientists are of the same opinion that there is no general method for healing this concerned people. Therefore, it needs a thorough analysis of their life story to draw conclusions.

8

IV. RESEARCH RESULTS
This section will give a short overview of recent and past results of researches and describe the changes of the results.

Research results of the past years
Since the mid-nineties scientists and especially psychologists preoccupy with the topic Internet Addiction or related ones. At the beginning of this analysis they drew the conclusion that Internet Addiction is similar to the recognized DSM-IV disorder Pathological Gambling. During the last few years researchers learned from their initial mistakes because in most cases they only tested a specifically analysed group and drew their conclusions from this test conditions. Due to these case studies, they ignored an important variety of Internet users. Focusing on the different kinds of people who make use of the medium Internet, we can point out some examples:

The business person, who likes to check his Emails or organize an Internet conference between long distance conference participants

● ●

The pupil, who likes to research information for a report The administrator, who likes to download a new version of the browser, which is used in his administrated network

● ● ●

The employee, who likes to do a little game in his coffee break The teenager, who likes to check out the party dates for next weekend ...

As the reader will see, there is a infinite list of user types and it will be a tough venture to name just all relevant ones. Furthermore the analysts recognized a more or less fast increase of the number of Internet user every time. Maybe this value is one of the high increased ones throughout the last decade. Characteristic for those studies is always a change and enlargement in the user types. An important research of the past is for example the "HomeNet"-analyse [3], where the scientists equiped a couple of families around Pittsburgh with computers and an Internet connection. They raised data like Internet connection time and interviewed the test persons about the content of their Internet sessions. Astonishingly, they diagnosed no increase of the on-line time and no general change of user's behaviour. The crucial mistake, which most of the researchers did at past analysis, was to work on a preconditioned goal, which did not contribute to an objective study, thus falsified it.

Recent research results
As the scientists and psychologists learned from their past mistakes, they additionally have to meet 9

the challenge of the change of the Internet. Not only during the past few years, even during the past few months or even quicker, the variety of the Internet grows and by it the number of different and / or new Internet users. Therefore, the analysed field constantly grows as well. The comfortable access of broadband Internet is the common method to connect to the Internet. The bandwidth also grew through the last decade. So the current researches concentrate rather on specific topics like the risk types mentioned above. However, the analysts have to merge the conclusions of the single researches together and draw a parallel or look for connections between those. Nowadays, the researchers also view this topic from another perspective than they did before.

The change of the research results
As the paragraphs with the recent and past results of the researches showed, researchers have to change their point of view while involving the changes of the technological aspect. Generally, an alteration of the analysing methods can be observed, but there is also a lot of work for the scientists and especially the psychologists, who have to deal with treatment methods to care concerned people. The technology development make does not make it easier for them. Nevertheless, it is a good signal that scientist view the reasons with different approaches. It would be a huge advantage, if the investigations in this research raised like in other disorder researches.

10

V. EXISTENCE OF INTERNET ADDICTION
This section deals with the existence of Internet Addiction. It will explain the more or less scientifically described Internet Addiction Disorder and will compare it with other addition types.

Internet Addiction Disorder
IAD is a theorized disorder made by Ivan Goldberg in 1995 [1]. It should be a suggestion to be included into the forthcoming DSM-V. Nevertheless, IAD is not mentioned with a single word in the "Research Agenda for DSM-V" from the year 2002. At the beginning, Dr. Goldberg posted his specification in a psychological forum as a comparison to Pathological Gambling and as a little joke about the rigid format of the DSM. However, here are his proposed criteria in compact [10]:

Tolerance: This refers to the need for increasing amounts of time on the Internet to achieve satisfaction and/or significantly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of time on the Internet

Two or more withdrawal symptoms developing within days to one month after reduction of Internet use or cessation of Internet use (i.e., quitting cold turkey), and these must cause distress or impair social, personal or occupational functioning (These include: psychomotor agitation, i.e. trembling, tremors; anxiety; obsessive thinking about what is happening on the Internet; fantasies or dreams about the Internet; voluntary or involuntary typing movements of the fingers)

● ● ●

Use of the Internet is engaged in to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms The Internet is often accessed more often, or for longer periods of time than was intended A significant amount of time is spent in activities related to Internet use ( e.g., Internet books, trying out new World Wide Web browsers, researching Internet vendors, etc.)

Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of Internet use

The individual risks the loss of a significant relationship, job, educational or career opportunity because of excessive use of the Internet

Three or more of these criteria must be present at any time during a twelve month period. In recent research, other characteristics have been identified, like:
● ●

Feeling of restlessness or irritability when attempting to cut down or stop Internet use The Internet is used as a way of escaping problems or relieving feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety or depression

The user lies to family members or friends to conceal the extent of involvement with the Internet

The user returns repeatedly despite excessive fees 11

Addiction comparison
As already mentioned the comparison between Internet Addiction and Pathological Gambling is obsolete. But how to deal with the term Internet Addiction? Is it just a bad trial to describe an existing phenomenon or is it a kind of meta level to summarize all occurrences of addiction disorder related to the medium Internet? Nevertheless, the Internet is an abstract definition for many modern things. It is a big protagonist of the computer revolution and representative of our contemporary society helper. Finally, maybe every comparison with other addiction types is obsolete, because the Internet only supports existing additions or creates new ones, which are only possible after the progress of the development of Internet related technologies.

12

VI. CONCLUSION
As the reader can see, this report is just a short survey to border the problematic nature of a common problem of our modern society. I tried to give a compact view, but the topic is too complex to present an entire overview of it. Several scientists and psychologists have dealt with this problem and changed their point of view or broadened their knowledge about it. Nevertheless, it is a shame that they had drawn conclusions of results of analysis, where the test persons were not randomly selected. However, there are a lot of interesting studies and articles about it, as can be seen in the bibliography. To draw a true conclusion to the related topic of the report is not an easy task. Indeed, I will give it a try. My hypothesis is that Internet Addiction as an existing term could only fulfil the definition of a generic term, which includes all addictions related to the medium Internet except all existing addictions where this medium offers just a breeding ground to satisfy them. Like is the case with every new thing where mankind has to learn how to use the medium Internet in healthy way. A majority of our society not to underestimate is not able to control the use of modern technologies, because the rapid progress of this technological development is too fast for them. As I already mentioned the Internet represents a high technology medium, which can fulfil the range of most human needs in an easy accessible manner. Perhaps, there is the big fault of speaking of a new phenomenon. Here I like to quote the Integration Principle from John Suler [7]: "Internet use becomes pathological when it is dissociated from in-person life. It becomes healthy when it is integrated with in-person living." It can merely be an invitation to all scientists and psychologist, who deal with related topics like addiction disorder of every kind, to analyse the impact of modern media like Internet, according to their research fields. They have to create a kind of meta level to prevent the prejudice that the progress of modern technologies is responsible for such disorders, and to provide a basis to explain a healthy behaviour in the use new technologies to the majority of users. Furthermore, it is useful to develop preventive measures like manuals for self therapies or group therapies for concerned people. Finally, the Internet as a marvellous milestone in the history of our civilization should support the global process of bonding and the intercommunication between people all over the world. It should not just be illustrated as a medium which support addictions.

13

APPENDIX A: TERMINOLOGY

MPOG: Multi-player on-line game; a game where several challenger play together a computer game via Internet

SPOG: Single-player on-line game; a game where a challenger plays a computer game via Internet

World of Warcraft: A common strategy MPOG with a fantasy story as background and a high potential of addiction

Counter Strike: A common Ego-shooter MPOG where the challengers can play the role of terrorists or the army

Second Life: A relatively new role MPOG where the participants can try to copy real life into a virtual world

Flash: A tool to program and represent interactive content / scenarios; also commonly used to program little simple games for on-line use

E-sport: A term to describe computer games, which could be played in competitions and supporting the sportive attitude behind it

DSM: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; published by the American Psychiatric Association; is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States; it is intended to be applicable in a wide array of contexts and used by clinicians and researchers of many different orientations ; it also contains diagnostic codes that can be used to satisfy record-keeping and reimbursement needs; the current version is DSM-IV; the forthcoming version DSM-V should be available after 2011 [11]

Pathological Gambling: A recognized disorder of the DSM-IV dealing with gambling addiction

● ●

Smiley: An image of a mostly yellow face showing different emotions IMS: Instant messaging service; a Internet messaging tool for exchanging messages between on-line encounters where a server can save messages and provide them for mates who are off-line

● ● ●

ICQ: I seek you; a common representative of the communication tool class IMS MSN: Microsoft messenger; a common representative of the communication tool class IMS AIM: AOL instant messenger; a common representative of the communication tool class IMS

MySpace: A Internet portal where everyone can have a own site to represent oneself; this Internet platform is mostly used by musicians

YouTube: An Internet portal where everyone can represent one's own, mostly funny videos that can be viewed by every visitor of this website

14

StudiVZ: A German Internet portal where every student can have his own site and meet other students and mates in a huge network

Wikipedia: An on-line information portal where everyone can publish definitions and explanations of a term, or seek for term; this Internet platform would be administrated from the user of it; Wikipedia is available in several languages

Ebay: The biggest on-line auction portal where everyone can offer own article or bet on offered ones from other people

IAD: Internet Addiction Disorder; a suggested description of Internet overuse for the DSM firstly named by John Goldberg

15

APPENDIX B: BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Several authors. "Internet Addiction Disorder" 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_addiction_disorder

[2] Grohol, John M., Psy. D. "Internet Addiction Guide" 2006. http://psychcentral.com/netaddiction/

[3] Kraut, Robert, Prof. "HomeNet" 1998. http://homenet.andrew.cmu.edu/progress/

[4] Suler, John, Ph. D. "Why is This Thing Eating My Life?" 1996. http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/eatlife.html

[5] Suler, John, Ph. D. "Computer and Cyberspace Addiction" 2004. http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/cybaddict.html

[6] Suler, John, Ph. D. "To Get What You Need" 1999. http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/getneed.html

[7] Suler, John, Ph. D. "Bringing Online and Offline Living Together" 2000. http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/integrate.html

[8] Suler, John, Ph. D. "Mom, Dad, Computer" 1998. http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/comptransf.html

[9] Suler, John, Ph. D. "Internet Addiction in a Nutshell" 1999. http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/nutshell.html

[10] Ferris, Jennifer R. "Internet Addiction Disorder" . http://www.chem.vt.edu/chem-dept/dessy/honors/papers/ferris.html

[11] Several authors. "DSM-V" . http://www.dsm5.org/

16

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->