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The Elements of Periodic Table

The Elements of Periodic Table

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Published by Murugesh
This contains complete details of ann the elements in the periodic table..and lots more........
Suitable for universities.
This contains complete details of ann the elements in the periodic table..and lots more........
Suitable for universities.

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Published by: Murugesh on Mar 12, 2010
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THE ELEMENTS OF PERIODIC TABLE

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ALL THE ELEMENTS WITH HIGH RESOLUTION PICTURES

BY M. MURUGESH

Neutronium

1

Neutronium
0

N/A ← neutronium → hydrogen

Nt [not official]

He

periodic table - extended periodic table

General Name, Symbol, Number Element category Standard atomic weight Electron configuration Electrons per shell neutronium, Nt [not official], 0 none [1] g·mol none 0 Physical properties Phase unknown Miscellaneous Most-stable isotopes
−1

Main article: Isotopes of neutronium iso
1 2

NA ? ?

half-life 885.7 ± 0.8 s transitory β

DM

DE (MeV) unknown unknown
1 2

DP H H

Nt Nt

β− References

Neutronium is a hypothetical extremely dense phase of matter. The term was originally used in science fiction and in popular literature to refer to a highly dense phase of matter composed primarily of neutrons. The word was coined by scientist Andreas von Antropoff in 1926 (i.e. before the discovery of the neutron itself) for the conjectured 'element of atomic number zero' that he placed at the head of the periodic table.[1] [2] However, the meaning of the term has changed over time, and from the last half of the 20th century onward it has been used legitimately to refer to extremely dense phases of matter resembling the neutron-degenerate matter postulated to exist in the cores of neutron stars.

Neutronium

2

Neutronium and neutron stars
The term neutronium is used in popular literature to refer to the material present in the cores of neutron stars (stars which are too massive to be supported by electron degeneracy pressure and which collapse into a denser phase of matter). This term is very rarely used in scientific literature, for two reasons: • There is no universally agreed-upon definition for the term "neutronium". • There is considerable uncertainty over the composition of the material in the cores of neutron stars (it could be neutron-degenerate matter, strange matter, quark matter, or a variant or combination of the above). When neutron star core material is presumed to consist mostly of free neutrons, it is typically referred to as neutron-degenerate matter in scientific literature.

Neutronium and the periodic table
The term neutronium was coined in 1926 by Professor Andreas von Antropoff for a conjectured form of matter made up of neutrons with no protons, which he placed as the chemical element of atomic number zero at the head of his new version of the periodic table. It was subsequently placed as a noble gas in the middle of several spiral representations of the periodic system for classifying the chemical elements, such as the Chemical Galaxy (2005). Although the term is not used in the scientific literature either for a condensed form of matter, or as an element, there have been reports that, besides the free neutron, there may exist two bound forms of neutrons without protons.[3] However, these reports have not been further substantiated. Further information can be found in the following articles: • Mononeutron: Isolated neutrons undergo beta decay with a half-life of approximately 15 minutes, becoming protons (the nucleus of hydrogen), electrons and antineutrinos. • Dineutron: The dineutron, containing two neutrons, is not a bound particle, but has been proposed as an extremely short-lived state produced by nuclear reactions involving tritium. • Trineutron: A trineutron state consisting of three bound neutrons has not been detected, and is not expected to exist even for a short time. • Tetraneutron: A tetraneutron is a hypothetical particle consisting of four bound neutrons. Reports of its existence have not been replicated. If confirmed, it would require revision of current nuclear models.[4] [5] • Pentaneutron: Calculations indicate that the hypothetical pentaneutron state, consisting of a cluster of five neutrons, would not be bound. • And so on, through the numbers, up to icosaneutron, with 20 neutrons.[6] If one accepts neutronium to be an element, the above mentioned neutron clusters would be the isotopes of that element.

Neutronium in fiction
The term neutronium has been popular in science fiction since at least the middle of the 20th century. It typically refers to an extremely dense, incredibly strong form of matter. While presumably inspired by the concept of neutron-degenerate matter in the cores of neutron stars, the material used in fiction bears at most only a superficial resemblance, usually depicted as an extremely strong solid under Earth-like conditions, or possessing

Neutronium exotic properties such as the ability to manipulate time and space. In contrast, all proposed forms of neutron star core material are fluids and are extremely unstable at pressures lower than that found in stellar cores. Noteworthy appearances of neutronium in fiction include the following: • In Hal Clement's short story Proof (1942), neutronium is the only form of solid matter known to Solarians, the inhabitants of the Sun's interior. • In Vladimir Savchenko's Black Stars (1960), neutronium is mechanically and thermally indestructible substance. It is also used to make antimatter, which leads to a fusion explosion accident. • In Doctor Who (1963), neutronium is a substance which can shield spaces from time-shear when used as shielding in time-vessels. • In Larry Niven's Known Space fictional universe (1964), neutronium is actual neutron star core material. Niven does not make assumptions about its strength, but imagines that small blobs of it would remain stable (and inevitably spherical) under their own gravity. • In the Star Trek universe, neutronium is an extremely hard and durable substance, often used as armor, which conventional weapons cannot penetrate or even dent. • In the computer games Master of Orion (1993), Master of Orion 2 (1996), and Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri (1999), neutronium is the strongest armor type that can be researched in MoO1 and MoO2, and the third strongest in SMAC. MoO1 and MoO2 also feature "neutronium bombs", which are extremely powerful planetary bombardment weapons which causes damage due to gravitic effects. • In Peter F. Hamilton's novel The Neutronium Alchemist (1997), neutronium is created by the "aggressive" setting of a superweapon. • In Stargate SG-1 (1997), neutronium is a substance which is the basis of the technology of the advanced Asgard race, as well as a primary component of human-form Replicators.

3

See also
• Neutron star • Degenerate matter • Neutron-degenerate matter • Compact star

Bibliography
• Norman K. Glendenning, R. Kippenhahn, I. Appenzeller, G. Borner, M. Harwit (2000). Compact Stars (2nd ed.).

Neutronium

4

References
[1] von Antropoff, A. (1926). " Eine neue Form des periodischen Systems der Elementen. (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ cgi-bin/ fulltext/ 112256618/ PDFSTART)" (PDF). Z. Angew. Chem. 39 (23): 722–725. doi: 10.1002/ange.19260392303 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ ange. 19260392303). . Retrieved on 2007-12-12. [2] Stewart, Philip J. (October 2007). " A century on from Dmitrii Mendeleev: tables and spirals, noble gases and Nobel prizes (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ 6503n26633601877/ )". Foundations of Chemistry 9 (3): 235–245. doi: 10.1007/s10698-007-9038-x (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s10698-007-9038-x). . Retrieved on 2007-12-12. [3] Timofeyuk, N. K. (2003). "Do multineutrons exist?". arΧiv: nucl-th/0301020 (http:/ / www. arxiv. org/ abs/ nucl-th/ 0301020) [nucl-th]. [4] Bertulani, C. A.; Zelevinsky, V. (2002). "Is the tetraneutron a bound dineutron-dineutron molecule?". arΧiv: nucl-th/0212060 (http:/ / www. arxiv. org/ abs/ nucl-th/ 0212060) [nucl-th]. [5] Timofeyuk, N. K. (2002). "On the existence of a bound tetraneutron". arΧiv: nucl-th/0203003 (http:/ / www. arxiv. org/ abs/ nucl-th/ 0203003) [nucl-th]. [6] Bevelacqua, J. J. (June 11, 1981). " Particle stability of the pentaneutron (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TVN-472K3HG-2K1& _coverDate=06/ 11/ 1981& _alid=349075295& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _qd=1& _cdi=5539& _sort=d& view=c& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=f052b79209dd914c85a1bc0d32f774ab)". Physics Letters B 102 (2–3): 79–80. doi: 10.1016/0370-2693(81)91033-9 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ 0370-2693(81)91033-9). .

Article Sources and Contributors

5

Article Sources and Contributors
Neutronium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=305188587  Contributors: 130.94.122.xxx, 24.93.53.xxx, 3Juno3, Aaryna, Acroterion, Alan Peakall, Anchovee, Arcadian, Arthur Rubin, Ayeroxor, Betacommand, BillC, Bkell, Brighterorange, Bryan Derksen, Cacycle, Caesura, Chairboy, ChrisO, Christopher Thomas, Conversion script, CosineKitty, Cyberia23, Daran, David Latapie, David R. Ingham, Dillee1, Dirac66, Dorftrottel, Dsmith77, Eequor, Evgeny, Gaius Cornelius, Gavinmcq, Geregen2, Gurch, Happy8, Headbomb, Hqb, Hyuri, Iggy Koopa, Ilyak, JHFTC, Jeff G., John Darrow, Joriki, Jwissick, KapilTagore, Keenan Pepper, Kkmurray, Klaxton, Leon..., Ljofa, Looxix, Mac Davis, Manning Bartlett, Mark Foskey, MarkS, Melchoir, MementoVivere, Netizen, Nightscream, Nik42, Nonagonal Spider, OS2Warp, OlEnglish, Omegatron, Oracle7168, Osssua, Pakaran, Pearle, Philip Trueman, PierreAbbat, Prottos007, RJFJR, Rbj, Reyk, Rjwilmsi, Robo37, SFH, Salsb, ScienceApologist, Seminumerical, Shenme, Sobolewski, SocratesJedi, Someguy1221, Soumyasch, Spacepotato, Spartaz, That Guy, From That Show!, The Anome, The Great Attractor, Themel, Tlesinski, Tobyk777, TomTheHand, Trelvis, Urhixidur, Yamamoto Ichiro, 189 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:-TableImage.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:-TableImage.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Bastique, Bibi Saint-Pol, Kwamikagami, Lantrix, Mdd4696, Popolon, Soeb, Tietew, 1 anonymous edits

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Hydrogen

1

Hydrogen
neutronium ← hydrogen → heliume− ↑ H ↓ Li

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

1H
Periodic table

Appearance colorless gas General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointTriple pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 10 100 1k 10 k 15 100 k 20

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energiesCovalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivitySpeed of soundCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of hydrogen
iso
1

N.A. 99.985% 0.015% trace
1

half-life H is stable with 0 neutron H is stable with 1 neutron β−

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

H H H

2

2

3

12.32 y

0.01861

3

He

Hydrogen hydrogen, H, 1 nonmetal1, 1, s1.00794(7) g·mol−1 1s1 1 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 0.08988 g/L 14.01 K,−259.14 °C,−434.45 °F 20.28 K,−252.87 °C,−423.17 °F 13.8033 K (-259°C), 7.042 kPa 32.97 K, 1.293 MPa (H2) 0.117 kJ·mol−1 (H2) 0.904 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) (H2) −1 −1 28.836 J·mol ·K 1, −1 (amphoteric oxide) 2.20 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1312.0 kJ·mol−131±5 pm 120 pm hexagonal diamagnetic[1] (300 K) 180.5 m W·m−1·K−1 (gas, 27 °C) 1310 m/s 1333-74-0 Hydrogen (pronounced /ˈhaɪdrədʒən/[2] ) is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless, highly flammable diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. With an atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest element. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the universe's elemental mass.[3] Stars in the main sequence are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. Elemental hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth. Industrial production is from hydrocarbons such as methane with most being used "captively" at the production site. The two largest uses are in fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production mostly for the fertilizer market. Hydrogen may be produced from the electrolysis of water or other hydrogen production methods like the reforming of natural gas.[4] The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol H) with a single proton and no neutrons. In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H−), or as a positively-charged species H+. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species. Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds. It plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. As the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrödinger equation, the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. Hydrogen is important in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals,[5] complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.[6] Hydrogen is highly soluble in many rare earth and transition metals[7] and is soluble in both nanocrystalline and amorphous metals.[8] Hydrogen solubility in metals is influenced by local distortions or impurities in the crystal lattice.[9]

2

Hydrogen

3

Combustion
Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen[10] ) is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume.[11] The enthalpy of combustion for hydrogen is −286 kJ/mol:[12] 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol)[13] Hydrogen-oxygen mixtures are explosive across a wide range of proportions. Its autoignition temperature, the temperature at which it ignites spontaneously in air, is 560 °C (1040 °F).[14] Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and are The Space Shuttle Main nearly invisible to the naked eye as illustrated by the faint Engine burns hydrogen with plume of the Space Shuttle main engine compared to the highly oxygen, producing a nearly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster). The invisible flame detection of a burning hydrogen leak may require a flame detector; such leaks can be very dangerous. The explosion of the Hindenburg airship was an infamous example of hydrogen combustion; the cause is debated, but the visible flames were the result of combustible materials in the ship's skin.[15] Because hydrogen is buoyant in air, hydrogen flames tend to ascend rapidly and cause less damage than hydrocarbon fires. Two-thirds of the Hindenburg passengers survived the fire, and many deaths were instead the result of falls or burning diesel fuel.[16] H2 reacts with every oxidizing element. Hydrogen can react spontaneously and violently at room temperature with chlorine and fluorine to form the corresponding halides: hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.[17]

Electron energy levels
The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 92 nm.[18] The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the sun. However, the electromagnetic force attracts electrons and protons to one another, while planets and celestial objects are attracted to each other by gravity. Because of the discretization of angular momentum postulated in early quantum mechanics by Bohr, the electron in the Bohr model can only occupy certain allowed distances from the proton, and therefore only certain allowed energies.[19]

Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale).

A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation or the equivalent Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton.[20]

Hydrogen

4

Elemental molecular forms
There exist two different spin isomers of hydrogen diatomic molecules that differ by the relative spin of their nuclei.[21] In the orthohydrogen form, the spins of the two protons are parallel and form a triplet state; in the parahydrogen form the spins are antiparallel and form a singlet. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen gas contains about 25% of the para form and 75% of the ortho form, also known as the "normal form".[22] The equilibrium ratio of orthohydrogen to parahydrogen depends on temperature, but since the ortho form is an excited state and has a higher energy than the para form, it is unstable and cannot be purified. At very low temperatures, the equilibrium state is composed almost exclusively of the para form. The liquid and gas phase thermal properties of pure First tracks observed in liquid parahydrogen differ significantly from those of the hydrogen bubble chamber at the normal form because of differences in rotational heat Bevatron capacities, as discussed more fully in Spin isomers of hydrogen.[23] The ortho/para distinction also occurs in other hydrogen-containing molecules or functional groups, such as water and methylene, but is of little significance with respect to thermal properties.[24] The uncatalyzed interconversion between para and ortho H2 increases with increasing temperature; thus rapidly condensed H2 contains large quantities of the high-energy ortho form that convert to the para form very slowly.[25] The ortho/para ratio in condensed H2 is an important consideration in the preparation and storage of liquid hydrogen: the conversion from ortho to para is exothermic and produces enough heat to evaporate the hydrogen liquid, leading to loss of the liquefied material. Catalysts for the ortho-para interconversion, such as ferric oxide, activated carbon, platinized asbestos, rare earth metals, uranium compounds, chromic oxide, or some nickel[26] compounds, are used during hydrogen cooling.[27] A molecular form called protonated molecular hydrogen, or H+3, is found in the interstellar medium (ISM), where it is generated by ionization of molecular hydrogen from cosmic rays. It has also been observed in the upper atmosphere of the planet Jupiter. This molecule is relatively stable in the environment of outer space due to the low temperature and density. H+3 is one of the most abundant ions in the Universe, and it plays a notable role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium.[28]

Compounds
Covalent and organic compounds
While H2 is not very reactive under standard conditions, it does form compounds with most elements. Millions of hydrocarbons are known, but they are not formed by the direct reaction of elementary hydrogen and carbon. Hydrogen can form compounds with elements that are more electronegative, such as halogens (e.g., F, Cl, Br, I); in these compounds

Hydrogen hydrogen takes on a partial positive charge.[29] When bonded to fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen, hydrogen can participate in a form of strong noncovalent bonding called hydrogen bonding, which is critical to the stability of many biological molecules.[30] [31] Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as the metals and metalloids, in which it takes on a partial negative charge. These compounds are often known as hydrides.[32] Hydrogen forms a vast array of compounds with carbon. Because of their general association with living things, these compounds came to be called organic compounds;[33] the study of their properties is known as organic chemistry[34] and their study in the context of living organisms is known as biochemistry.[35] By some definitions, "organic" compounds are only required to contain carbon. However, most of them also contain hydrogen, and since it is the carbon-hydrogen bond which gives this class of compounds most of its particular chemical characteristics, carbon-hydrogen bonds are required in some definitions of the word "organic" in chemistry.[33] In inorganic chemistry, hydrides can also serve as bridging ligands that link two metal centers in a coordination complex. This function is particularly common in group 13 elements, especially in boranes (boron hydrides) and aluminium complexes, as well as in clustered carboranes.[36]

5

Hydrides
Compounds of hydrogen are often called hydrides, a term that is used fairly loosely. The term "hydride" implies that the H atom has acquired a negative or anionic character, denoted H−, and is used when hydrogen forms a compound with a more electropositive element. The existence of the hydride anion, suggested by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 for group I and II salt-like hydrides, was demonstrated by Moers in 1920 with the electrolysis of molten lithium hydride (LiH), that produced a stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen at the anode.[37] For hydrides other than group I and II metals, the term is quite misleading, considering the low electronegativity of hydrogen. An exception in group II hydrides is BeH2, which is polymeric. In lithium aluminium hydride, the AlH−4 anion carries hydridic centers firmly attached to the Al(III). Although hydrides can be formed with almost all main-group elements, the number and combination of possible compounds varies widely; for example, there are over 100 binary borane hydrides known, but only one binary aluminium hydride.[38] Binary indium hydride has not yet been identified, although larger complexes exist.[39]

Protons and acids
Oxidation of hydrogen, in the sense of removing its electron, formally gives H+, containing no electrons and a nucleus which is usually composed of one proton. That is why H+ is often called a proton. This species is central to discussion of acids. Under the Bronsted-Lowry theory, acids are proton donors, while bases are proton acceptors. A bare proton, H+, cannot exist in solution or in ionic crystals, because of its unstoppable attraction to other atoms or molecules with electrons. Except at the high temperatures associated with plasmas, such protons cannot be removed from the electron clouds of atoms and molecules, and will remain attached to them. However, the term 'proton' is sometimes used loosely and metaphorically to refer to positively charged or cationic hydrogen attached to other species in this fashion, and as such is denoted "H+" without any

Hydrogen implication that any single protons exist freely as a species. To avoid the implication of the naked "solvated proton" in solution, acidic aqueous solutions are sometimes considered to contain a less unlikely fictitious species, termed the "hydronium ion" (H3O+). However, even in this case, such solvated hydrogen cations are thought more realistically physically to be organized into clusters that form species closer to H9O+4.[40] Other oxonium ions are found when water is in solution with other solvents.[41] Although exotic on earth, one of the most common ions in the universe is the H3+ ion, known as protonated molecular hydrogen or the triatomic hydrogen cation.[42]

6

Isotopes
Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, denoted 1H, 2H and 3H. Other, highly unstable nuclei (4H to 7H) have been synthesized in the laboratory but not observed in nature.[43] [44] •
1

H is the most common hydrogen isotope with an

abundance of more than 99.98%. Because the nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single proton, it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name protium.[45] •
2

H, the other stable hydrogen isotope, is known as

deuterium and contains one proton and one neutron Protium, the most common isotope of in its nucleus. Essentially all deuterium in the hydrogen, has one proton and one universe is thought to have been produced at the electron. Unique among all stable time of the Big Bang, and has endured since that isotopes, it has no neutrons (see time. Deuterium is not radioactive, and does not diproton for discussion of why others do not exist). represent a significant toxicity hazard. Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called heavy water. Deuterium and its compounds are used as a non-radioactive label in chemical experiments and in solvents for 1H-NMR spectroscopy.[46] Heavy water is used as a neutron moderator and coolant for nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial nuclear fusion.[47] •
3

H is known as tritium and contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus. It is radioactive, decaying into Helium-3 through beta decay with a half-life of 12.32 years.[36] Small amounts of tritium occur naturally because of the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases; tritium has also been released during nuclear weapons tests.[48] It is used in nuclear fusion reactions,[49] as a tracer in isotope geochemistry,[50] and specialized in self-powered lighting devices.[51] Tritium has also been used in chemical and biological labeling experiments as a radiolabel.[52]

Hydrogen is the only element that has different names for its isotopes in common use today. (During the early study of radioactivity, various heavy radioactive isotopes were given names, but such names are no longer used). The symbols D and T (instead of 2H and 3 H) are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium, but the corresponding symbol P is already in use for phosphorus and thus is not available for protium.[53] In its nomenclatural guidelines, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry allows any of D, T, 2H,

Hydrogen and 3H to be used, although 2H and 3H are preferred.[54]

7

Natural occurrence
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, making up 75% of normal matter by mass and over 90% by number of atoms.[55] This element is found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets. Molecular clouds of H2 are associated with star formation. Hydrogen plays a vital role in powering stars through proton-proton reaction and CNO cycle nuclear fusion.[56] Throughout the universe, hydrogen is mostly found in the atomic and plasma states whose properties are quite different from molecular hydrogen. As a plasma, hydrogen's electron and proton are not bound together, NGC 604, a giant region of ionized resulting in very high electrical conductivity and high hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy emissivity (producing the light from the sun and other stars). The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields. For example, in the solar wind they interact with the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the aurora. Hydrogen is found in the neutral atomic state in the Interstellar medium. The large amount of neutral hydrogen found in the damped Lyman-alpha systems is thought to dominate the cosmological baryonic density of the Universe up to redshift z=4.[57] Under ordinary conditions on Earth, elemental hydrogen exists as the diatomic gas, H2 (for data see table). However, hydrogen gas is very rare in the Earth's atmosphere (1 ppm by volume) because of its light weight, which enables it to escape from Earth's gravity more easily than heavier gases. However, hydrogen (in chemically combined form) is the third most abundant element on the Earth's surface.[58] Most of the Earth's hydrogen is in the form of chemical compounds such as hydrocarbons and water.[36] Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae and is a natural component of flatus. Methane is a hydrogen source of increasing importance.[59]

History
Discovery and use
Hydrogen gas, H2, was first artificially produced and formally described by T. Von Hohenheim (also known as Paracelsus, 1493–1541) via the mixing of metals with strong acids.[60] He was unaware that the flammable gas produced by this chemical reaction was a new chemical element. In 1671, Robert Boyle rediscovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas.[61] In 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a discrete substance, by identifying the gas from a metal-acid reaction as "inflammable air" and further finding in 1781 that the gas produces water when burned. He is usually given credit for its discovery as an element.[62] [63] In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen (from the Greek hydro meaning water and genes meaning creator)[64] when he and Laplace

Hydrogen reproduced Cavendish's finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned.[63] Hydrogen was liquefied for the first time by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask.[63] He produced solid hydrogen the next year.[63] Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and tritium was prepared in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck.[62] Heavy water, which consists of deuterium in the place of regular hydrogen, was discovered by Urey's group in 1932.[63] François Isaac de Rivaz built the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in 1806. Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe in 1819. The Döbereiner's lamp and limelight were invented in 1823.[63] The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783.[63] Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable form of air-travel following the 1852 invention of the first hydrogen-lifted airship by Henri Giffard.[63] German count Ferdinand von Zeppelin promoted the idea of rigid airships lifted by hydrogen that later were called Zeppelins; the first of which had its maiden flight in 1900.[63] Regularly scheduled flights started in 1910 and by the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, they had carried 35,000 passengers without a serious incident. Hydrogen-lifted airships were used as observation platforms and bombers during the war. The first non-stop transatlantic crossing was made by the British airship R34 in 1919. Regular passenger service resumed in the 1920s and the discovery of helium reserves in the United States promised increased safety, but the U.S. government refused to sell the gas for this purpose. Therefore, H2 was used in the Hindenburg airship, which was destroyed in a midair fire over New Jersey on May 6, 1937.[63] The incident was broadcast live on radio and filmed. Ignition of leaking hydrogen as widely assumed to be the cause but later investigations pointed to ignition of the aluminized fabric coating by static electricity. But the damage to hydrogen's reputation as a lifting gas was already done. In the same year the first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator went into service with gaseous hydrogen as a coolant in the rotor and the stator in 1937 at Dayton, Ohio, by the Dayton Power & Light Co,[65] because of the thermal conductivity of hydrogen gas this is the most common type in its field today. The nickel hydrogen battery was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U.S. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2).[66] For example, the ISS,[67] Mars Odyssey[68] and the Mars Global Surveyor[69] are equipped with nickel-hydrogen batteries. The Hubble Space Telescope, at the time its original batteries were finally changed in May 2009, more than 19 years after launch, led with the highest number of charge/discharge cycles of any NiH2 battery in low earth orbit.[70]

8

Role in quantum theory
Because of its relatively simple atomic structure, consisting only of a proton and an electron, the hydrogen atom, Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series together with the spectrum of light produced from it or absorbed by it, has been central to the development of the theory of atomic structure.[71] Furthermore, the corresponding simplicity of the hydrogen molecule and the corresponding cation H2+ allowed fuller understanding of the nature of the chemical bond, which followed

Hydrogen shortly after the quantum mechanical treatment of the hydrogen atom had been developed in the mid-1920s. One of the first quantum effects to be explicitly noticed (but not understood at the time) was a Maxwell observation involving hydrogen, half a century before full quantum mechanical theory arrived. Maxwell observed that the specific heat capacity of H2 unaccountably departs from that of a diatomic gas below room temperature and begins to increasingly resemble that of a monatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. According to quantum theory, this behavior arises from the spacing of the (quantized) rotational energy levels, which are particularly wide-spaced in H2 because of its low mass. These widely spaced levels inhibit equal partition of heat energy into rotational motion in hydrogen at low temperatures. Diatomic gases composed of heavier atoms do not have such widely spaced levels and do not exhibit the same effect.[72]

9

Production
H2 is produced in chemistry and biology laboratories, often as a by-product of other reactions; in industry for the hydrogenation of unsaturated substrates; and in nature as a means of expelling reducing equivalents in biochemical reactions.

Laboratory
In the laboratory, H2 is usually prepared by the reaction of acids on metals such as zinc with Kipp's apparatus. Zn + 2 H+ → Zn2+ + H2 Aluminium can also produce H2 upon treatment with bases: 2 Al + 6 H2O + 2 OH− → 2 Al(OH)4− + 3 H2 The electrolysis of water is a simple method of producing hydrogen. A low voltage current is run through the water, and gaseous oxygen forms at the anode while gaseous hydrogen forms at the cathode. Typically the cathode is made from platinum or another inert metal when producing hydrogen for storage. If, however, the gas is to be burnt on site, oxygen is desirable to assist the combustion, and so both electrodes would be made from inert metals. (Iron, for instance, would oxidize, and thus decrease the amount of oxygen given off.) The theoretical maximum efficiency (electricity used vs. energetic value of hydrogen produced) is between 80–94%.[73] 2H2O(aq) → 2H2(g) + O2(g) In 2007, it was discovered that an alloy of aluminium and gallium in pellet form added to water could be used to generate hydrogen. The process also creates alumina, but the expensive gallium, which prevents the formation of an oxide skin on the pellets, can be re-used. This has important potential implications for a hydrogen economy, since hydrogen can be produced on-site and does not need to be transported.[74]

Industrial
Hydrogen can be prepared in several different ways, but economically the most important processes involve removal of hydrogen from hydrocarbons. Commercial bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of natural gas.[75] At high temperatures (1000–1400 K, °C;700–1100 °C or 1,300–2,000 °F), steam (water vapor) reacts with methane to yield carbon monoxide and H2.

Hydrogen CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 This reaction is favored at low pressures but is nonetheless conducted at high pressures (2.0  MPa, 20 atm or 600 inHg) since high pressure H2 is the most marketable product. The product mixture is known as "synthesis gas" because it is often used directly for the production of methanol and related compounds. Hydrocarbons other than methane can be used to produce synthesis gas with varying product ratios. One of the many complications to this highly optimized technology is the formation of coke or carbon: CH4 → C + 2 H2 Consequently, steam reforming typically employs an excess of H2O. Additional hydrogen can be recovered from the steam by use of carbon monoxide through the water gas shift reaction, especially with an iron oxide catalyst. This reaction is also a common industrial source of carbon dioxide:[75] CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Other important methods for H2 production include partial oxidation of hydrocarbons:[76] 2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2 and the coal reaction, which can serve as a prelude to the shift reaction above:[75] C + H2O → CO + H2 Hydrogen is sometimes produced and consumed in the same industrial process, without being separated. In the Haber process for the production of ammonia, hydrogen is generated from natural gas.[77] Electrolysis of brine to yield chlorine also produces hydrogen as a co-product.[78]

10

Thermochemical
There are more than 200 thermochemical cycles which can be used for water splitting, around a dozen of these cycles such as the iron oxide cycle, cerium(IV) oxide-cerium(III) oxide cycle, zinc zinc-oxide cycle, sulfur-iodine cycle, copper-chlorine cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle are under research and in testing phase to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water and heat without using electricity.[79] A number of laboratories (including in France, Germany, Greece, Japan, and the USA) are developing thermochemical methods to produce hydrogen from solar energy and water.[80]

Applications
Large quantities of H2 are needed in the petroleum and chemical industries. The largest application of H2 is for the processing ("upgrading") of fossil fuels, and in the production of ammonia. The key consumers of H2 in the petrochemical plant include hydrodealkylation, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. H2 has several other important uses. H2 is used as a hydrogenating agent, particularly in increasing the level of saturation of unsaturated fats and oils (found in items such as margarine), and in the production of methanol. It is similarly the source of hydrogen in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid. H2 is also used as a reducing agent of metallic ores.[81] Apart from its use as a reactant, H2 has wide applications in physics and engineering. It is used as a shielding gas in welding methods such as atomic hydrogen welding.[82] [83] H2 is used as the rotor coolant in electrical generators at power stations, because it has the highest thermal conductivity of any gas. Liquid H2 is used in cryogenic research, including

Hydrogen superconductivity studies.[84] Since H2 is lighter than air, having a little more than the density of air, it was once widely used as a lifting gas in balloons and airships.
[85] 1

11

⁄15 of

In more recent applications, hydrogen is used pure or mixed with nitrogen (sometimes called forming gas) as a tracer gas for minute leak detection. Applications can be found in the automotive, chemical, power generation, aerospace, and telecommunications industries.[86] Hydrogen is an authorized food additive (E 949) that allows food package leak testing among other anti-oxidizing properties.[87] Hydrogen's rarer isotopes also each have specific applications. Deuterium (hydrogen-2) is used in nuclear fission applications as a moderator to slow neutrons, and in nuclear fusion reactions.[63] Deuterium compounds have applications in chemistry and biology in studies of reaction isotope effects.[88] Tritium (hydrogen-3), produced in nuclear reactors, is used in the production of hydrogen bombs,[89] as an isotopic label in the biosciences,[52] and as a radiation source in luminous paints.[90] The triple point temperature of equilibrium hydrogen is a defining fixed point on the ITS-90 temperature scale at 13.8033 kelvins.[91]

Energy carrier
Hydrogen is not an energy resource,[92] except in the hypothetical context of commercial nuclear fusion power plants using deuterium or tritium, a technology presently far from development.[93] The Sun's energy comes from nuclear fusion of hydrogen, but this process is difficult to achieve controllably on Earth.[94] Elemental hydrogen from solar, biological, or electrical sources require more energy to make it than is obtained by burning it, so in these cases hydrogen functions as an energy carrier, like a battery. Hydrogen may be obtained from fossil sources (such as methane), but these sources are unsustainable.[92] The energy density per unit volume of both liquid hydrogen and compressed hydrogen gas at any practicable pressure is significantly less than that of traditional fuel sources, although the energy density per unit fuel mass is higher.[92] Nevertheless, elemental hydrogen has been widely discussed in the context of energy, as a possible future carrier of energy on an economy-wide scale.[95] For example, CO2 sequestration followed by carbon capture and storage could be conducted at the point of H2 production from fossil fuels.[96] Hydrogen used in transportation would burn relatively cleanly, with some NOx emissions,[97] but without carbon emissions.[96] However, the infrastructure costs associated with full conversion to a hydrogen economy would be substantial.[98]

Biological reactions
H2 is a product of some types of anaerobic metabolism and is produced by several microorganisms, usually via reactions catalyzed by iron- or nickel-containing enzymes called hydrogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reversible redox reaction between H2 and its component two protons and two electrons. Creation of hydrogen gas occurs in the transfer of reducing equivalents produced during pyruvate fermentation to water.[99] Water splitting, in which water is decomposed into its component protons, electrons, and oxygen, occurs in the light reactions in all photosynthetic organisms. Some such organisms—including the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacteria—have evolved a second step in the dark reactions in which protons and electrons are reduced to form H2 gas by specialized hydrogenases in the chloroplast.[100] Efforts have been

Hydrogen undertaken to genetically modify cyanobacterial hydrogenases to efficiently synthesize H2 gas even in the presence of oxygen.[101] Efforts have also been undertaken with genetically modified alga in a bioreactor.[102]

12

Safety and precautions
Hydrogen poses a number of hazards to human safety, from potential detonations and fires when mixed with air to being an asphyxant in its pure, oxygen-free form.[104] In addition, liquid hydrogen is a cryogen and presents dangers (such as frostbite) associated with very cold liquids.[105] Hydrogen dissolves in some metals, and, in addition to leaking out, may have adverse effects on them, such as hydrogen embrittlement.[106] Hydrogen gas leaking into external air may spontaneously ignite. Moreover, hydrogen fire, while being extremely hot, is almost invisible, and thus can lead to accidental burns.[107] Even interpreting the hydrogen data (including safety data) is confounded by a number of phenomena. Many Inhalation of air with high physical and chemical properties of hydrogen depend concentration of hydrogen as with on the parahydrogen/orthohydrogen ratio (it often takes hydrox and hydreliox displaces oxygen and may cause the above symptoms as days or weeks at a given temperature to reach the [103] an asphyxant. equilibrium ratio, for which the data is usually given). Hydrogen detonation parameters, such as critical detonation pressure and temperature, strongly depend on the container geometry.[104]

See also
• Antihydrogen • • • • • • • • • • • • • Blacklight Power Hydrogen cycle Hydrogen leak testing Hydrogen-like atom Hydrogen line Hydrogen planes Hydrogen spectral series Hydrogen station Hydrogen technologies Hydrogen vehicle Metallic hydrogen Oxyhydrogen Photohydrogen

Hydrogen

13

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" New process generates hydrogen from aluminum alloy to run engines, fuel cells (http:/ / news. uns. purdue. edu/ x/ 2007a/ 070515WoodallHydrogen. html)". Purdue University. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [75] Oxtoby, D. W. (2002). Principles of Modern Chemistry (5th edition ed.). Thomson Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0030353734. [76] " Hydrogen Properties, Uses, Applications (http:/ / www. uigi. com/ hydrogen. html)". Universal Industrial Gases, Inc.. 2007. . Retrieved 2008-03-11. [77] Funderburg, Eddie (2008). " Why Are Nitrogen Prices So High? (http:/ / www. noble. org/ Ag/ Soils/ NitrogenPrices/ Index. htm)". The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation. . Retrieved 2008-03-11. [78] Lees, Andrew (2007). " Chemicals from salt (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ schools/ gcsebitesize/ chemistry/ usefulproductsrocks/ chemicals_saltrev3. shtml)". BBC. . Retrieved 2008-03-11. 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ScienceDirect (Ankara, Turkey: Gazi University) 25 (1): 19–23. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2003.07.004 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. matdes. 2003. 07. 004). . Retrieved 2008-04-06. [83] " Atomic Hydrogen Welding (http:/ / www. specialwelds. com/ underwater-welding/ atomic-hydrogen-welding. htm)". Specialty Welds. 2007. . [84] Hardy, Walter N. (2003-03-19). " From H2 to cryogenic H masers to HiTc superconductors: An unlikely but rewarding path (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TVJ-485PG6D-D& _user=10& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d& view=c& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=f4ec8a7def03583c043dd9e60aa0c07e)". Physica C: Superconductivity (Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia) 388–389: 1–6. doi: 10.1016/S0921-4534(02)02591-1 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S0921-4534(02)02591-1). . Retrieved 2008-03-25. [85] Barnes, Matthew (2004). " LZ-129, Hindenburg (http:/ / www. ciderpresspottery. com/ ZLA/ greatzeps/ german/ Hindenburg. html)". The Great Zeppelins. . Retrieved 2008-03-18. [86] Block, Matthias (3 September 2004). " Hydrogen as Tracer Gas for Leak Detection (http:/ / www. ndt. net/ abstract/ wcndt2004/ 523. htm)". 16th WCNDT 2004. Montreal, Canada: Sensistor Technologies. [87] " Report from the Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake (http:/ / ec. europa. eu/ food/ fs/ sfp/ addit_flavor/ flav15_en. pdf)" (PDF). European Union. . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [88] Reinsch, J; A Katz, J Wean, G Aprahamian, JT MacFarland (10 October 1980). " The deuterium isotope effect upon the reaction of fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and butyryl-CoA (http:/ / www. jbc. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 255/ 19/ 9093)". J. Biol. Chem. 255 (19): 9093–97. PMID 7410413. . Retrieved 2008-03-24. [89] Bergeron, Kenneth D. (January–February 2004). " The Death of no-dual-use (http:/ / find. galegroup. com/ itx/ start. do?prodId=SPJ. SP06)". 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17

Further reading
• Chart of the Nuclides (http:/ / chartofthenuclides. com/ default. html). Fourteenth Edition. General Electric Company. 1989. http:/ / chartofthenuclides. com/ default. html. • Ferreira-Aparicio, P; M. J. Benito, J. L. Sanz (2005). "New Trends in Reforming Technologies: from Hydrogen Industrial Plants to Multifuel Microreformers". Catalysis Reviews 47: 491–588. doi: 10.1080/01614940500364958 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1080/ 01614940500364958). • Newton, David E. (1994). The Chemical Elements. New York, NY: Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-531-12501-7.

Hydrogen • Rigden, John S. (2002). Hydrogen: The Essential Element. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-531-12501-7. • Romm, Joseph, J. (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-703-X. Author interview (http:/ / www. globalpublicmedia. com/ transcripts/ 635) at Global Public Media. • Stwertka, Albert (2002). A Guide to the Elements. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515027-9.

18

External links
• Basic Hydrogen Calculations of Quantum Mechanics (http:/ / www. physics. drexel. edu/ ~tim/ open/ hydrofin/ ) • Hydrogen phase diagram (http:/ / www. astro. washington. edu/ users/ larson/ Astro150b/ Lectures/ JupSatUraNep/ hydrogen_phase. gif) • Wavefunction of hydrogen (http:/ / hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/ Hbase/ quantum/ hydwf. html#c3)

Article Sources and Contributors

19

Article Sources and Contributors
Hydrogen  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307051115  Contributors: (jarbarf), -- April, -jmac-, 0kdal, 16@r, 65.68.87.xxx, AStudent, Abarry, Acerty123, Acroterion, Adambro, Adashiel, Addshore, Adimovk5, Aervanath, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Akusarujin, Alexf, Alexfusco5, AlexiusHoratius, Allstarecho, Alrasheedan, Alsandro, Ancheta Wis, AndreasJS, Andrei Ramanonov, Andres, Andy M. Wang, Anonymous56789, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, Archimerged, Army1987, Arsonal, Ashmedai, Ashmoo, Atelaes, Atlant, AxelBoldt, AySz88, AzaToth, BAZZA42, BBird, BD2412, BRG, Basicdesign, Bcorr, Beetstra, BenFrantzDale, Bender235, Benjamnjoel2, Benji Franklyn, Bensaccount, Bibbidbabbidi, BigBen212, Blahbleh, Blainster, Blimpguy, Blind Man Walking, BlueEarth, Bobo192, Bongitybongbong, Bookandcoffee, BorgQueen, Borgdylan, Bpeps, BradBeattie, Brandonrush, Bravehart10000, Brendenhull, Brighterorange, Bryan Derksen, Buckyboy314, Bunnyhop11, Buster79, Bù hán ér lì, C'est moi, CStyle, CYD, CambridgeBayWeather, Cameron Nedland, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canageek, CaptainVindaloo, Carlobus, Carnildo, Casull, Celarnor, Cerealkiller13, Cfailde, ChaoticLlama, Charles Gaudette, Chemkid1, ChicXulub, Chochopk, Chowbok, Chris Dybala, Chrisjj, Chrislk02, Christopher Parham, Cimbalom, Civil Engineer III, Clicketyclack, Code E, Colbuckshot, Commander Keane, Condem, Contango, Conversion script, Coppro, Corporal butters, Cosmium, Costyn, Coviekiller5, Crescentnebula, Cryptic, Cryptic C62, CyclePat, Cyclotronwiki, Cyrius, D. 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Jpbuccat, Jredmond, Jrockley, Jsroberts, Jtgibson, Jumbuck, Junglecat, Just Another Victim Of The Ambient Morality, KJS77, Kaisershatner, Kaldosh, Kargoneth, Karn, Karol Langner, Katalaveno, Kbh3rd, Kchishol1970, Keilana, Kenb215, Kesac, Killthemonkey, King of Hearts, Kingoffries7, Kingturtle, Kjkolb, Klosterdev, KnowledgeBased, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kontar, Kpjas, KrakatoaKatie, Krash, Kristod, Ktsquare, Kungfuadam, Kuru, Kwamikagami, Kwksi, Lacrymachristi, Lanma726, LeadSongDog, LegitimateAndEvenCompelling, LeonardoRob0t, Lesnail, Levil, Lewis R, Libraryopolis, Lightdarkness, Lightmouse, Lights, Linnell, Littlecode, Lkc159, Llamallama, Loonymonkey, Lord Emsworth, Luna Santin, Lyellin, Lysdexia, MJCdetroit, MZMcBride, Mac, Maestro52193, Magicjigpipe, Magnus Manske, Mahlonmahlon, Majorly, Malomeat, Mangersz, Mark10101, Marlith, Marnanel, Marskell, Maseracing, Master of Puppets, Materialscientist, Matt Gies, Matt McIrvin, Mattd4u2nv, Mav, Maximus Rex, Me...™, Mesmoras, Mets501, Michaelas10, Michaelbarreto, Michaelbusch, Mikael Häggström, Mike Rosoft, Mike Young, Mike6271, Mikecron, Mikewille54, Minesweeper, Minus198, Mion, Mkosmul, Mmortal03, Moeron, Monre, Mr. Lefty, MrZap, MuchForgottenLore, Mufka, Mxn, Nakon, Nat Krause, Nationalparks, NawlinWiki, Nergaal, Netizen, Neverquick, NewEnglandYankee, Nibuod, Nick2588, Nigenet, Nihiltres, Nilfanion, Nintendofanatic, Nishkid64, Njál, Nk, Nkayesmith, Nolanus, NonChalance, Nono64, Noren, Notea42, Oatmeal batman, Obradovic Goran, Oddity-, Oliphaunt, Oliverkeenan, Omegatron, Omicronpersei8, Onco p53, Oo64eva, Oofgeg, Opabinia regalis, Opelio, OrangeDog, Orderud, Oscarthecat, Ossi, Outflowboundary, OwenX, Oxymoron83, Paine, Papa November, Paraballo, Partapdua1, Patrick, Patstuart, Paul August, Pcbene, Persian Poet Gal, Peter Ellis, PeterJeremy, Pgk, Phenz, Phil Boswell, Phileas, Philosopher, PhySusie, Physchim62, Pifreak94, Pkpat2011, Plantsurfer, Polymerbringer, Poolkris, Porges, Postdlf, Poszwa, Pr0f3550r, Probus, Prodego, Proton44, Pschemp, PseudoOne, PseudoSudo, Pstanton, Psyche825, Public Menace, Pumpie, Pwjb, Pyrotec, Qsdf, Quadell, Quadpus, Quaeler, Qxz, RB972, RJASE1, RJHall, RMHED, RTC, Raghunathan, Ralesk, Rallette, Rangek, Raul654, Ravedave, Ravn, Rdsmith4, Reallybadtrip, Reedy, Regardless143, Rei, Remember, Renesis, Revotfel, RexNL, Rhobite, Riana, Rich Farmbrough, Richardglendenning, RichiH, Rifleman 82, Rjhansen, Rjmx, Rjwilmsi, Rlandmann, RobertAustin, RobertG, Robth, Rocio Nadat, RossPatterson, RoyBoy, Rttd411, RucasHost, Rursus, Ryankrameretc, Ryanwammons, Ryulong, SCEhardt, SETIGuy, SEWilco, SJP, ST47, Salsb, SaltyBoatr, Samesjr, Samsara, Sandy of the CSARs, SandyGeorgia, Sanfranman59, Sango123, Saperaud, Sarvagna, Sbharris, Scarian, Schneelocke, Schutz, Scog, Scot.parker, Scwlong, Securiger, Sengkang, Senor Cuete, Sensen, Sewings, Shadow7789, Shambolic Entity, Shanel, Shanes, Shellreef, Shep9882, Shiftmain7, Shimmin, Shizane, Shrikethestalker, Sietse Snel, Sigurdur.j, Sillybilly, SimonP, 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Ufwuct, Ungvichian, Urhixidur, Uruiamme, Utcursch, Valencerian, Vanderdecken, Vegaswikian, Viddin66, Viskonsas, Vlectric, Vortexrealm, Vsmith, Vssun, Vuo, WAS 4.250, WJBscribe, WadeSimMiser, Waggers, Walkerma, Walton One, Warrenokeefe, Watch37264, Wavelength, Wayward, Webguy, WelshMatt, Whirling Sands, Wii Wiki, Wiki alf, Wikibob, Wikicali00, Wikipediarules2221, Wikispork, Wikiwert, William Allen Simpson, WillowW, Wimt, Wk muriithi, Wms editor, Wolfkeeper, Wtshymanski, Wyllium, XJamRastafire, Xaoa, Xenonice, Xevi, Xnuala, Xy7, Xyzzyplugh, Yath, Yidisheryid, Yinon, Yorktown1776, Zach4636, ZayZayEM, Zoe, 1504 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:hexagonal.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hexagonal.svg  License: BSD  Contributors: Original uploader was Danieljamesscott at en.wikipedia file:Electron shell 001 Hydrogen.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_001_Hydrogen.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 Image:Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing cropped edited and reduced.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shuttle_Main_Engine_Test_Firing_cropped_edited_and_reduced.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Avron, WTCA Image:hydrogen atom.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hydrogen_atom.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Bensaccount Image:Liquid hydrogen bubblechamber.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Liquid_hydrogen_bubblechamber.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pieter Kuiper, Saperaud Image:Hydrogen.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hydrogen.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Mets501, Mion, Soeb, Treisijs, Xxxx00, 4 anonymous edits Image:Triangulum.nebula.full.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Triangulum.nebula.full.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Aarchiba, Dbenbenn, Denniss, Juiced lemon, Kluka, Lars Lindberg Christensen, Locos epraix, Tryphon, 5 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Emission spectrum-H.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Emission_spectrum-H.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: user:Merikanto Image:Main symptoms of hydrogen toxicity.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Main_symptoms_of_hydrogen_toxicity.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mikael Häggström

20

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Helium

1

Helium
hydrogen ← helium → lithiumNt ↑ He ↓ Ne

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

2He
Periodic table

Appearance colorless gas General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure (defined by ITS-90)
P/Pa at T/K 1 10 100 1.23 1k 1.67 10 k 2.48 100 k 4.21

Atomic properties ElectronegativityIonization energies 2nd: 5250.5 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivityThermal expansionCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of helium
iso
3

N.A. 0.000137%* 99.999863%*
3

half-life

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

He He

He is stable with 1 neutron He is stable with 2 neutron

4

4

*Atmospheric value, abundance may differ elsewhere.

Helium helium, He, 2 noble gases 18, 1, s4.002602(2) g·mol−1 1s2 2 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 0.1786 g/L (at 2.5 MPa) 0.95 K,−272.20 °C,−457.96 °F 4.22 K,−268.93 °C,−452.07 °F 5.19 K, 0.227 MPa 0.0138 kJ·mol−1 0.0829 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1 no data (Pauling −1 [1] scale) 1st: 2372.3 kJ·mol 28 pm 140 pm hexagonal close-packed diamagnetic (300 K) −1 −1 −1 −1 0.1513  W·m ·K (25 °C) { µm·m ·K 7440-59-7 Helium (pronounced /ˈhiːliəm/) is the chemical element with atomic number 2, and is represented by the symbol He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling and melting points are the lowest among the elements and it exists only as a gas except in extreme conditions. An unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight was first observed from a solar eclipse in 1868 by French astronomer Pierre Janssen. Janssen is jointly credited with the discovery of the element with Norman Lockyer, who observed the same eclipse and was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element which he named helium. In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in the natural gas fields of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas. Helium is used in cryogenics, in deep-sea breathing systems, to cool superconducting magnets, in helium dating, for inflating balloons, for providing lift in airships and as a protective gas for many industrial uses (such as arc welding and growing silicon wafers). Inhaling a small volume of the gas temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice. The behavior of liquid helium-4's two fluid phases, helium I and helium II, is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics (in particular the phenomenon of superfluidity) and to those looking at the effects that temperatures near absolute zero have on matter (such as superconductivity). Helium is the second lightest element and is the second most abundant in the observable universe, being present in the universe in masses more than 12 times those of all the other elements heavier than helium combined. Helium's abundance is also similar to this in our own Sun and Jupiter. This high abundance is due to the very high binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium (lithium, beryllium, and boron). This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for its commonality as a product in both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, and was formed during the Big Bang. Some new helium is being created presently as a result of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen, in all but the very heaviest stars, which fuse helium into heavier elements at the extreme ends of their lives. On Earth, the lightness of helium has caused its evaporation from the gas and dust cloud from which the planet condensed, and it is thus relatively rare. What helium is present today has been mostly created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium), as the alpha particles that are emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei. This radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations up to seven percent by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation.

2

Helium

3

History
Scientific discoveries
The first evidence of helium was observed on August 18, 1868 as a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nanometers in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun. The line was detected by French astronomer Pierre Janssen during a total solar eclipse in Guntur, India.[2] [3] This line was initially assumed to be sodium. On October 20 of the same year, English astronomer Norman Lockyer observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum, which he named the D3 Fraunhofer line because it was near the known D1 and D2 lines of sodium.[4] He concluded that it was caused by an element in the Sun unknown on Earth. Lockyer and English chemist Edward Frankland named the element with the Greek word for the Sun, ἥλιος (helios).[5] [6] On March 26, 1895 British chemist Sir William Ramsay isolated helium on Earth by treating the mineral cleveite (a variety of uraninite with at least 10% rare earth elements) with mineral acids. Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating Spectral lines of helium nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid, he noticed a bright yellow line that matched the D3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.[4] [7] [8] [9] These samples were identified as helium by Lockyer and British physicist William Crookes. It was independently isolated from cleveite in the same year by chemists Per Teodor Cleve and Abraham Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden, who collected enough of the gas to accurately determine its atomic weight.[3] [10] [11] Helium was also isolated by the American geochemist William Francis Hillebrand prior to Ramsay's discovery when he noticed unusual spectral lines while testing a sample of the mineral uraninite. Hillebrand, however, attributed the lines to nitrogen. His letter of congratulations to Ramsay offers an interesting case of discovery and near-discovery in science.[12] In 1907, Ernest Rutherford and Thomas Royds demonstrated that alpha particles are helium nuclei by allowing the particles to penetrate the thin glass wall of an evacuated tube, then creating a discharge in the tube to study the spectra of the new gas inside. In 1908, helium was first liquefied by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes by cooling the gas to less than one kelvin.[13] He tried to solidify it by further reducing the temperature but failed because helium does not have a triple point temperature at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases are at equilibrium. Onnes' student Willem Hendrik Keesom was eventually able to solidify 1 cm3 of helium in 1926.[14] In 1938, Russian physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa discovered that helium-4 has almost no viscosity at temperatures near absolute zero, a phenomenon now called superfluidity.[15] This phenomenon is related to Bose-Einstein condensation. In 1972, the same phenomenon was observed in helium-3, but at temperatures much closer to absolute zero, by American physicists Douglas D. Osheroff, David M. Lee, and Robert C. Richardson. The phenomenon in helium-3 is thought to be related to pairing of helium-3 fermions to make bosons, in analogy to Cooper pairs of electrons producing superconductivity.[16]

Helium

4

Extraction and use
After an oil drilling operation in 1903 in Dexter, Kansas produced a gas geyser that would not burn, Kansas state geologist Erasmus Haworth collected samples of the escaping gas and took them back to the University of Kansas at Lawrence where, with the help of chemists Hamilton Cady and David McFarland, he discovered that the gas consisted of, by volume, 72% nitrogen, 15% methane (a combustible percentage only with sufficient oxygen), 1% hydrogen, and 12% an unidentifiable gas.[3] [17] With further analysis, Cady and McFarland discovered that 1.84% of the gas sample was helium.[18] [19] This showed that despite its overall rarity on Earth, helium was concentrated in large quantities under the American Great Plains, available for extraction as a byproduct of natural gas.[20] The greatest reserves of helium were in the Hugoton and nearby gas fields in southwest Kansas and the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma. This enabled the United States to become the world's leading supplier of helium. Following a suggestion by Sir Richard Threlfall, the United States Navy sponsored three small experimental helium production plants during World War I. The goal was to supply barrage balloons with the non-flammable, lighter-than-air gas. A total of 200 thousand cubic feet (5,700 m3) of 92% helium was produced in the program even though only a few cubic feet (less than 100 liters) of the gas had previously been obtained.[4] Some of this gas was used in the world's first helium-filled airship, the U.S. Navy's C-7, which flew its maiden voyage from Hampton Roads, Virginia to Bolling Field in Washington, D.C. on December 1, 1921.[21] Although the extraction process, using low-temperature gas liquefaction, was not developed in time to be significant during World War I, production continued. Helium was primarily used as a lifting gas in lighter-than-air craft. This use increased demand during World War II, as well as demands for shielded arc welding. The helium mass spectrometer was also vital in the atomic bomb Manhattan Project.[22] The government of the United States set up the National Helium Reserve in 1925 at Amarillo, Texas with the goal of supplying military airships in time of war and commercial airships in peacetime.[4] Due to a US military embargo against Germany that restricted helium supplies, the Hindenburg was forced to use hydrogen as the lift gas. Helium use following World War II was depressed but the reserve was expanded in the 1950s to ensure a supply of liquid helium as a coolant to create oxygen/hydrogen rocket fuel (among other uses) during the Space Race and Cold War. Helium use in the United States in 1965 was more than eight times the peak wartime consumption.[23] After the "Helium Acts Amendments of 1960" (Public Law 86–777), the U.S. Bureau of Mines arranged for five private plants to recover helium from natural gas. For this helium conservation program, the Bureau built a 425 mile (684 km) pipeline from Bushton, Kansas to connect those plants with the government's partially depleted Cliffside gas field, near Amarillo, Texas. This helium-nitrogen mixture was injected and stored in the Cliffside gas field until needed, when it then was further purified.[24] By 1995, a billion cubic meters of the gas had been collected and the reserve was US$1.4 billion in debt, prompting the Congress of the United States in 1996 to phase out the reserve.[3] [25] The resulting "Helium Privatization Act of 1996"[26] (Public Law 104–273) directed the United States Department of the Interior to start emptying the reserve by 2005.[27]

Helium Helium produced between 1930 and 1945 was about 98.3% pure (2% nitrogen), which was adequate for airships. In 1945, a small amount of 99.9% helium was produced for welding use. By 1949, commercial quantities of Grade A 99.95% helium were available.[28] For many years the United States produced over 90% of commercially usable helium in the world, while extraction plants in Canada, Poland, Russia, and other nations produced the remainder. In the mid-1990s, a new plant in Arzew, Algeria producing 600 million cubic feet (17 million cubic meters) began operation, with enough production to cover all of Europe's demand. Meanwhile, by 2000, the consumption of helium within the US had risen to above 15,000 metric tons.[29] In 2004–2006, two additional plants, one in Ras Laffen, Qatar and the other in Skikda, Algeria were built, but as of early 2007, Ras Laffen is functioning at 50%, and Skikda has yet to start up. Algeria quickly became the second leading producer of helium.[30] Through this time, both helium consumption and the costs of producing helium increased.[31] In the 2002 to 2007 period helium prices doubled,[32] and during 2008 alone the major suppliers raised prices about 50%.

5

Characteristics
The helium atom
Helium atom

An illustration of the helium atom, depicting the nucleus (pink) and the electron cloud distribution (black). The nucleus (upper right) in helium-4 is in reality spherically symmetric and closely resembles the electron cloud, although for more complicated nuclei this is not always the case. The black bar is one ångström, equal to 10−10 m or 100,000 fm.

Helium is the next simplest atom to solve using the rules of quantum mechanics, after the hydrogen atom. Helium is composed of two electrons in orbit around a nucleus containing two protons along with some neutrons. However, as in Newtonian mechanics, no system consisting of more than two particles can be solved with an exact analytical mathematical approach (see 3-body problem) and helium is no exception. Thus, numerical mathematical methods are required, even to solve the system of one nucleus and two electrons. The hydrogen atom quantum model has been used extensively to aid in solving the helium atom. The Niels Bohr model of the atom gave a very accurate explanation of the hydrogen

Helium spectrum, but when it came to helium, it collapsed. Werner Heisenberg developed a modification of Bohr's analysis but it involved half-integral values for the quantum numbers[33] . Thomas-Fermi theory also known as density functional theory is used to obtain the ground state energy levels of the helium atom along with the Hartree-Fock method. These methods have been used to create a quantum mechanical picture of helium electron binding which is accurate to within < 2% of the correct value, within a few numerical approximation steps. In such a model, various influences must be taken account of, including the electric repulsion of the electrons for each other, and the fact that one electron will, in part, screen the charge of the nucleus for the other. In the case of helium, it has been found that the effective nuclear charge "Z" which each electron sees, is about 1.69 units, not the 2 charges of a classic "bare" helium nucleus. The nucleus of the helium-4 atom, which is identical with an alpha particle is particularly interesting, inasmuch as high energy electron-scattering experiments show its charge to decrease exponentially from a maximum at a central point, exactly as does the charge density of helium's own electron cloud. The reason for this symmetry is elegant: the pair of neutrons and pair of protons in helium's nucleus both obey exactly the same quantum mechanical rules as do helium's pair of electrons (although the nuclear particles are subject to a different nuclear binding potential), so that all these fermions fully occupy 1s orbitals in pairs, none of them possessing orbital angular momentum, and each cancelling the other's intrinsic spin. This arrangement is energetically extremely stable for all these particles, and this stability accounts for many crucial facts regarding helium in nature. For example, the stability and low energy of the electron cloud state in helium accounts for the element's chemical inertness (the most extreme of all the elements), and also the lack of interaction of helium atoms with themselves, producing the lowest melting and boiling points of all the elements. In a similar way, the particular energetic stability of the helium-4 nucleus, produced by similar effects, accounts for the ease of helium-4 production in atomic reactions involving both heavy-particle emission, and fusion. The stability of helium-4 is the reason hydrogen is converted to helium-4 (not deuterium or helium-3 or heavier elements) in the Sun. It is also responsible for the fact the alpha particle is by far the most common type of baryonic particle to be ejected from atomic nuclei—that is, (alpha decay is far more common than cluster decay). The unusual stability of the helium-4 nucleus is also important cosmologically—it explains the fact that in the first few mintutes after the Big Bang, as the soup of free protons and neutrons which had been created in about 6:1 ratio, cooled to the point that nuclear binding was possible, the first nuclei to form were helium-4 nuclei. So tight was helium-4 binding, in fact, than it consumed nearly all of the free neutrons before they could beta-decay, leaving very few left to form any lithium, beryllium, or boron. Helium-4 nuclear binding is stronger than in any of these elements (see nucleogenesis and binding energy) and thus no energetic drive was available, once helium had been formed, to make elements 3, 4 and 5. It was barely energetically favorable for helium to fuse into the next element with a lower energy per nucleon, carbon. However, due to lack of intermediate elements, this process would take three helium nuclei striking each other nearly simultaneously (see triple alpha process). There was thus no time for significant carbon to be formed in the Big Bang, before the early expanding universe cooled in a matter of minutes to the temperature and pressure point where helium fusion to carbon was no longer possible. This left the early

6

Helium universe with a very similar ratio of hydrogen to helium as is seen today (3 parts hydrogen to 1 part helium-4 by mass), with nearly all the neutrons in the universe (even as it exists today) trapped in the helium-4. All heavier elements (including those necessary for rocky planets like the Earth, and for carbon-based or other life), have thus had to be created since the Big Bang, in stars which were hot enough to burn not just hydrogen (for this produces only more helium), but hot enough to burn helium itself. Such stars are massive and therefore rare, and this fact accounts for the fact that all other chemical elements after hydrogen and helium today account for only 2% of the mass of atomic mater in the universe. Helium-4, by contrast, makes up about 23% of the universe's ordinary matter—nearly all the ordinary matter which isn't hydrogen.

7

Gas and plasma phases
Helium is the least reactive noble gas after neon and thus the second least reactive of all elements; it is inert and monatomic in all standard conditions. Due to helium's relatively low molar (atomic) mass, in the gas phase its thermal conductivity, specific heat, and sound speed are all greater than any other gas except hydrogen. For similar reasons, and also due to the small size of helium atoms, helium's diffusion rate through solids is three times that of air and around 65% that of hydrogen.[4] Helium is less water soluble than any other gas known,[34] and helium's index of refraction is closer to unity than that of any other gas.[35] Helium has a negative Joule-Thomson coefficient at normal ambient temperatures, meaning it heats up when allowed to freely expand. Only below its Joule-Thomson inversion temperature (of about 32 to 50 K at 1 atmosphere) does it cool upon free expansion.[4] Once precooled below this temperature, helium can be liquefied through expansion cooling.

Helium discharge tube shaped like the element's atomic symbol

Most extraterrestrial helium is found in a plasma state, with properties quite different from those of atomic helium. In a plasma, helium's electrons are not bound to its nucleus, resulting in very high electrical conductivity, even when the gas is only partially ionized. The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields. For example, in the solar wind together with ionized hydrogen, the particles interact with the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the aurora.[36]

Solid and liquid phases
Unlike any other element, helium will remain liquid down to absolute zero at normal pressures. This is a direct effect of quantum mechanics: specifically, the zero point energy of the system is too high to allow freezing. Solid helium requires a temperature of 1–1.5 K (about −272 °C or −457 °F) and about 25 bar (2.5 MPa) of pressure.[37] It is often hard to distinguish solid from liquid helium since the refractive index of the two phases are nearly the same. The solid has a sharp melting point and has a crystalline structure, but it is highly compressible; applying pressure in a laboratory can decrease its volume by more than 30%.[38] With a bulk modulus on the order of 5×107 Pa[39] it is 50 times more compressible

Helium than water. Solid helium has a density of 0.214 ± 0.006 g/ml at 1.15 K and 66 atm; the projected density at 0 K and 25 bar is 0.187 ± 0.009 g/ml.[40] Helium I state Below its boiling point of 4.22 kelvin and above the lambda point of 2.1768 kelvin, the isotope helium-4 exists in a normal colorless liquid state, called helium I.[4] Like other cryogenic liquids, helium I boils when it is heated and contracts when its temperature is lowered. Below the lambda point, however, helium doesn't boil, and it expands as the temperature is lowered further. Helium I has a gas-like index of refraction of 1.026 which makes its surface so hard to see that floats of styrofoam are often used to show where the surface is.[4] This colorless liquid has a very low viscosity and a density one-eighth that of water, which is only one-fourth the value expected from classical physics.[4] Quantum mechanics is needed to explain this property and thus both types of liquid helium are called quantum fluids, meaning they display atomic properties on a macroscopic scale. This may be an effect of its boiling point being so close to absolute zero, preventing random molecular motion (thermal energy) from masking the atomic properties.[4] Helium II state Liquid helium below its lambda point begins to exhibit very unusual characteristics, in a state called helium II. Boiling of helium II is not possible due to its high thermal conductivity; heat input instead causes evaporation of the liquid directly to gas. The isotope helium-3 also has a superfluid phase, but only at much lower temperatures; as a result, less is known about such properties in the isotope helium-3.[4]

8

Helium

9

Helium II is a superfluid, a quantum-mechanical state of matter with strange properties. For example, when it flows through capillaries as thin as 10−7 to 10−8 m it has no measurable viscosity.[3] However, when measurements were done between two moving discs, a viscosity comparable to that of gaseous helium was observed. Current theory explains this using the two-fluid model for helium II. In this model, liquid helium below the lambda point is viewed as containing a proportion of helium atoms in a ground state, which are superfluid and flow with exactly zero viscosity, and a proportion of helium atoms in an excited state, which behave more like an ordinary fluid.[41] In the fountain effect, a chamber is constructed which is connected to a reservoir of helium II by a sintered disc through which superfluid helium leaks easily but through which non-superfluid helium cannot pass. If the interior of the container is heated, the superfluid helium changes to non-superfluid helium. In order to maintain the equilibrium fraction of superfluid helium, superfluid helium leaks through and increases the pressure, causing liquid to fountain out of the container.[42]

Unlike ordinary liquids, helium II will creep along surfaces in order to reach an equal level; after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize. The Rollin film also covers the interior of the larger container; if it were not sealed, the [4] helium II would creep out and escape.

The thermal conductivity of helium II is greater than that of any other known substance, a million times that of helium I and several hundred times that of copper.[4] This is because heat conduction occurs by an exceptional quantum-mechanical mechanism. Most materials that conduct heat well have a valence band of free electrons which serve to transfer the heat. Helium II has no such valence band but nevertheless conducts heat well. The flow of heat is governed by equations that are similar to the wave equation used to characterize sound propagation in air. When heat is introduced, it moves at 20 meters per second at 1.8 K through helium II as waves in a phenomenon known as second sound.[4] Helium II also exhibits a creeping effect. When a surface extends past the level of helium II, the helium II moves along the surface, seemingly against the force of gravity. Helium II will escape from a vessel that is not sealed by creeping along the sides until it reaches a warmer region where it evaporates. It moves in a 30 nm-thick film regardless of surface material. This film is called a Rollin film and is named after the man who first characterized this trait, Bernard V. Rollin.[4] [43] [44] As a result of this creeping behavior and helium II's ability to leak rapidly through tiny openings, it is very difficult to confine liquid helium. Unless the container is carefully constructed, the helium II will creep along the surfaces and through valves until it reaches somewhere warmer, where it will evaporate. Waves propagating across a Rollin film are governed by the same equation as gravity waves in shallow water, but rather than gravity, the restoring force is the Van der Waals force.[45] These waves are known as third sound.[46]

Helium

10

Isotopes
There are eight known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. In the Earth's atmosphere, there is one 3He atom for every million 4He atoms.[3] Unlike most elements, helium's isotopic abundance varies greatly by origin, due to the different formation processes. The most common isotope, helium-4, is produced on Earth by alpha decay of heavier radioactive elements; the alpha particles that emerge are fully ionized helium-4 nuclei. Helium-4 is an unusually stable nucleus because its nucleons are arranged into complete shells. It was also formed in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleosynthesis.[47] Helium-3 is present on Earth only in trace amounts; most of it since Earth's formation, though some falls to Earth trapped in cosmic dust.[48] Trace amounts are also produced by the beta decay of tritium.[49] Rocks from the Earth's crust have isotope ratios varying by as much as a factor of ten, and these ratios can be used to investigate the origin of rocks and the composition of the Earth's mantle.[48] 3He is much more abundant in stars, as a product of nuclear fusion. Thus in the interstellar medium, the proportion of 3He to 4He is around 100 times higher than on Earth.[50] Extraplanetary material, such as lunar and asteroid regolith, have trace amounts of helium-3 from being bombarded by solar winds. The Moon's surface contains helium-3 at concentrations on the order of 0.01 ppm.[51] [52] A number of people, starting with Gerald Kulcinski in 1986,[53] have proposed to explore the moon, mine lunar regolith and use the helium-3 for fusion. Liquid helium-4 can be cooled to about 1 kelvin using evaporative cooling in a 1-K pot. Similar cooling of helium-3, which has a lower boiling point, can achieve about 0.2 kelvin in a helium-3 refrigerator. Equal mixtures of liquid 3He and 4He below 0.8 K separate into two immiscible phases due to their dissimilarity (they follow different quantum statistics: helium-4 atoms are bosons while helium-3 atoms are fermions).[4] Dilution refrigerators use this immiscibility to achieve temperatures of a few millikelvins. It is possible to produce exotic helium isotopes, which rapidly decay into other substances. The shortest-lived heavy helium isotope is helium-5 with a half-life of 7.6 × 10−22 seconds. Helium-6 decays by emitting a beta particle and has a half life of 0.8 seconds. Helium-7 also emits a beta particle as well as a gamma ray. Helium-7 and helium-8 are created in certain nuclear reactions.[4] Helium-6 and helium-8 are known to exhibit a nuclear halo. Helium-2 (two protons, no neutrons) is a radioisotope that decays by proton emission into protium, with a half-life of 3 × 10−27 seconds.[4]

Compounds
Helium is chemically unreactive under all normal conditions due to its valence of zero.[38] It is an electrical insulator unless ionized. As with the other noble gases, helium has metastable energy levels that allow it to remain ionized in an electrical discharge with a voltage below its ionization potential.[4] Helium can form unstable compounds, known as excimers, with tungsten, iodine, fluorine, sulfur and phosphorus when it is subjected to an electric glow discharge, to electron bombardment, or else is a plasma for another reason. HeNe, HgHe10, WHe2 and the molecular ions He+2, He2+2, HeH+, and HeD+ have been created this way.[54] This technique has also allowed the production of the neutral molecule He2, which has a large number of band systems, and HgHe, which is apparently only held together by polarization forces.[4] Theoretically, other true compounds may also be possible, such as helium fluorohydride (HHeF) which would be analogous to HArF,

Helium discovered in 2000.[55] . Calculations show that two new compounds containing a helium-oxygen bond could be stable.[56] . The two new molecular species, predicted using theory, CsFHeO and N(CH3)4FHeO, are derivatives of a metastable [F– HeO] anion first theorized in 2005 by a group from Taiwan. If confirmed by experiment such compounds will [57] end helium's chemical nobility, and the only remaining noble element will be neon. Helium has been put inside the hollow carbon cage molecules (the fullerenes) by heating under high pressure. The endohedral fullerene molecules formed are stable up to high temperatures. When chemical derivatives of these fullerenes are formed, the helium stays inside.[58] If helium-3 is used, it can be readily observed by helium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.[59] Many fullerenes containing helium-3 have been reported. Although the helium atoms are not attached by covalent or ionic bonds, these substances have distinct properties and a definite composition, like all stoichiometric chemical compounds.

11

Occurrence and production
Natural abundance
Helium is the second most abundant element in the known Universe (after hydrogen), constituting 23% of the baryonic mass of the Universe.[3] The vast majority of helium was formed by Big Bang nucleosynthesis from one to three minutes after the Big Bang. As such, measurements of its abundance contribute to cosmological models. In stars, it is formed by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in proton-proton chain reactions and the CNO cycle, part of stellar nucleosynthesis.[47] In the Earth's atmosphere, the concentration of helium by volume is only 5.2 parts per million.[60] [61] The concentration is low and fairly constant despite the continuous production of new helium because most helium in the Earth's atmosphere escapes into space by several processes.[62] [63] In the Earth's heterosphere, a part of the upper atmosphere, helium and other lighter gases are the most abundant elements. Nearly all helium on Earth is a result of radioactive decay, and thus an Earthly helium balloon is essentially a bag of retired alpha particles. Helium is found in large amounts in minerals of uranium and thorium, including cleveites, pitchblende, carnotite and monazite, because they emit alpha particles (helium nuclei, He2+) to which electrons immediately combine as soon as the particle is stopped by the rock. In this way an estimated 3000 tonnes of helium are generated per year throughout the lithosphere.[64] [65] [66] In the Earth's crust, the concentration of helium is 8 parts per billion. In seawater, the concentration is only 4 parts per trillion. There are also small amounts in mineral springs, volcanic gas, and meteoric iron. Because helium is trapped in a similar way by non-permeable layer of rock like natural gas the greatest concentrations on the planet are found in natural gas, from which most commercial helium is derived. The concentration varies in a broad range from a few ppm up to over 7% in a small gas field in San Juan County, New Mexico.[67] [68]

Helium

12

Modern extraction
For large-scale use, helium is extracted by fractional distillation from natural gas, which contains up to 7% helium.[69] Since helium has a lower boiling point than any other element, low temperature and high pressure are used to liquefy nearly all the other gases (mostly nitrogen and methane). The resulting crude helium gas is purified by successive exposures to lowering temperatures, in which almost all of the remaining nitrogen and other gases are precipitated out of the gaseous mixture. Activated charcoal is used as a final purification step, usually resulting in 99.995% pure Grade-A helium.[4] The principal impurity in Grade-A helium is neon. In a final production step, most of the helium that is produced is liquefied via a cryogenic process. This is necessary for applications requiring liquid helium and also allows helium suppliers to reduce the cost of long distance transportation, as the largest liquid helium containers have more than five times the capacity of the largest gaseous helium tube trailers.[30] [70] In 2005, approximately 160 million cubic meters of helium were extracted from natural gas or withdrawn from helium reserves, with approximately 83% from the United States, 11% from Algeria, and most of the remainder from Russia and Poland.[71] In the United States, most helium is extracted from natural gas of the Hugoton and nearby gas fields in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.[30] Diffusion of crude natural gas through special semipermeable membranes and other barriers is another method to recover and purify helium.[72] Helium can be synthesized by bombardment of lithium or boron with high-velocity protons, but this is not an economically viable method of production.[73]

Applications
Helium is used for many purposes that require some of its unique properties, such as its low boiling point, low density, low solubility, high thermal conductivity, or inertness. Helium is commercially available in either liquid or gaseous form. As a liquid, it can be supplied in small containers called Dewars which hold up to 1,000 liters of helium, or in large ISO containers which have nominal capacities as large as 11,000 US gallons (42 m3). In gaseous form, small quantities of helium are supplied in high pressure cylinders holding up to 300 standard cubic feet, while large quantities of high pressure gas are supplied in tube trailers which have capacities of up to 180,000 standard cubic feet. Airships, balloons and rocketry Because it is lighter than air, airships and balloons are inflated with helium for lift. While hydrogen gas is approximately 7% more buoyant, helium has the advantage of being non-flammable (in addition to being Because of its low density and fire retardant).[25] In rocketry, helium is used as an incombustibility, helium is the gas of ullage medium to displace fuel and oxidizers in storage choice to fill airships such as the tanks and to condense hydrogen and oxygen to make Goodyear blimp. rocket fuel. It is also used to purge fuel and oxidizer from ground support equipment prior to launch and to pre-cool liquid hydrogen in space vehicles. For example, the Saturn V booster used in the Apollo program needed about 13 million cubic feet (370,000 m3) of helium to launch.[38] Commercial and recreational

Helium Helium alone is less dense than atmospheric air, so it will change the timbre (not pitch[74] ) of a person's voice when inhaled. However, inhaling it from a typical commercial source, such as that used to fill balloons, can be dangerous due to the risk of asphyxiation from lack of oxygen, and the number of contaminants that may be present. These could include trace amounts of other gases, in addition to aerosolized lubricating oil. For its low solubility in nervous tissue, helium mixtures such as trimix, heliox and heliair are used for deep diving to reduce the effects of narcosis.[75] [76] At depths below 150 metres (490 ft) small amounts of hydrogen are added to a helium-oxygen mixture to counter the effects of high pressure nervous syndrome.[77] At these depths the low density of helium is found to considerably reduce the effort of breathing.[78] Helium-neon lasers have various applications, including barcode readers.[3] Industrial For its inertness and high thermal conductivity, neutron transparency, and because it does not form radioactive isotopes under reactor conditions, helium is used as a heat-transfer medium in some gas-cooled nuclear reactors.[79] Helium is used as a shielding gas in arc welding processes on materials that are contaminated easily by air.[3] Helium is used as a protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals, in titanium and zirconium production, and in gas chromatography,[38] because it is inert. Because of its inertness, thermally and calorically perfect nature, high speed of sound, and high value of the heat capacity ratio, it is also useful in supersonic wind tunnels[80] and impulse facilities[81] . Because it diffuses through solids at three times the rate of air, helium is used as a tracer gas to detect leaks in high-vacuum equipment and high-pressure containers.[79] Helium, mixed with a heavier gas such as xenon, is useful for thermoacoustic refrigeration due to the resulting high heat capacity ratio and low Prandtl number.[82] The inertness of helium has environmental advantages over conventional refrigeration systems which contribute to ozone depletion or global warming.[83] Scientific The use of helium reduces the distorting effects of temperature variations in the space between lenses in some telescopes, due to its extremely low index of refraction.[4] This method is especially used in solar telescopes where a vacuum tight telescope tube would be too heavy.[84] [85] The age of rocks and minerals that contain uranium and thorium can be estimated by measuring the level of helium with a process known as helium dating.[3] [4]

13

Liquid helium is used to cool certain metals to the extremely low temperatures required for superconductivity, such as in superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN uses 96 tonnes of liquid helium to maintain the temperature at 1.9 Kelvin.[86] Helium at low temperatures is also used in cryogenics. Helium is a commonly used carrier gas for gas chromatography. The leak rate of industrial vessels (typically vacuum chambers and cryogenic tanks) is measured using helium because of its small molecular diameter and because it is inert. No other inert substance will leak

Liquid helium is used to cool the superconducting magnets in modern MRI scanners.

Helium through micro-cracks or micro-pores in a vessel's wall at a greater rate than helium. A helium leak detector (see Helium mass spectrometer) is used to find leaks in vessels. Helium leaks through cracks should not be confused with gas permeation through a bulk material. While helium has documented permeation constants (thus a calculable permeation rate) through glasses, ceramics, and syntheic materials, inert gasses such as helium will not permeate most bulk metals.[87]

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Safety
Neutral helium at standard conditions is non-toxic, plays no biological role and is found in trace amounts in human blood. If enough helium is inhaled that oxygen needed for normal respiration is replaced asphyxia is possible. The safety issues for cryogenic helium are similar to those of liquid nitrogen; its extremely low temperatures can result in cold burns and the liquid to gas expansion ratio can cause explosions if no pressure-relief devices are installed. Containers of helium gas at 5 to 10 K should be handled as if they contain liquid helium due to the rapid and significant thermal expansion that occurs when helium gas at less than 10 K is warmed to room temperature.[38]

Biological effects
The human voice is not like a string instrument, in which the a primarily vibrating object completely sets the pitch of the sound. Rather, in a human, the vocal folds act as a source of polytonic vibration, much like the reed(s) in woodwind musical instruments. As in a woodwind, the size of the resonant cavity plays a large part in picking out and amplifying a given fundamental or overtone frequency of vibration, during soundmaking. The voice of a person who has inhaled helium temporarily changes in timbre in a way that makes it sound high-pitched, because higher overtones are being amplified. The speed of sound in helium is nearly three times the speed of sound in air; because the fundamental frequency of a gas-filled cavity is proportional to the speed of sound in the gas, when helium is inhaled there is a corresponding increase in the pitch of the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract.[3] [88] (The opposite effect, lowering frequencies, can be obtained by inhaling a dense gas such as sulfur hexafluoride.) Inhaling helium can be dangerous if done to excess, since helium is a simple asphyxiant and so displaces oxygen needed for normal respiration.[3] [89] Breathing pure helium continuously causes death by asphyxiation within minutes. Inhaling helium directly from pressurized cylinders is extremely dangerous, as the high flow rate can result in barotrauma, fatally rupturing lung tissue.[89] [90] However, death caused by helium is quite rare, with only two fatalities reported between 2000 and 2004 in the United States.[90] At high pressures (more than about 20 atm or two MPa), a mixture of helium and oxygen (heliox) can lead to high pressure nervous syndrome, a sort of reverse-anesthetic effect; adding a small amount of nitrogen to the mixture can alleviate the problem.[91] [92]

Helium

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See also
• • • • • • • Abiogenic petroleum origin Helium-3 propulsion Leidenfrost effect Quantum solid Superfluid Tracer-gas leak testing method Helium atom

References
• Bureau of Mines (1967). Minerals yearbook mineral fuels Year 1965, Volume II (1967). U. S. Government Printing Office. • "Chart of the Nuclides: Fourteenth Edition [93]". General Electric Company. 1989. http:/ / chartofthenuclides. com/ default. html. • Emsley, John (1998). The Elements (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198558187. • "Mineral Information for Helium [94]" (PDF). United States Geological Survey (usgs.gov). http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ helium/ heliumcs07. pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-05. • Vercheval, J. (January 2003). "The thermosphere: a part of the heterosphere [95]". Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050101090349/ www. oma. be/ BIRA-IASB/ Public/ Research/ Thermo/ Thermotxt. en. html. Retrieved on 2008-07-12. • Zastenker, G. N.; E. Salerno, F. Buehler, P. Bochsler, M. Bassi, Y. N. Agafonov, N. A. Eismont, V. V. Khrapchenkov, H. Busemann (April 2002). "Isotopic Composition and Abundance of Interstellar Neutral Helium Based on Direct Measurements [96]". Astrophysics 45 (2): 131–142. doi:10.1023/A:1016057812964 [97]. http:/ / www. ingentaconnect. com/ content/ klu/ asys/ 2002/ 00000045/ 00000002/ 00378626.

External links
General • The Periodic Table of Videos - Helium
[98] [99]

• US Government' Bureau of Land Management: Sources, Refinement, and Shortage. With some History of Helium. • U.S. Geological Survey Publicationson Helium [100] beginning 1996 • It's Elemental – Helium [101] More detail

• Helium [102] at the Helsinki University of Technology; includes pressure-temperature phase diagrams for helium-3 and helium-4 • Lancaster University, Ultra Low Temperature Physics [103] - includes a summary of some low temperature techniques Miscellaneous • Physics in Speech [104] with audio samples that demonstrate the unchanged voice pitch • Article about helium and other noble gases [105]

Helium

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[70] Z. Cai; R. Clarke, N. Ward, W. J. Nuttall, B. A. Glowacki (2007). " Modelling Helium Markets (http:/ / www. jbs. cam. ac. uk/ programmes/ phd/ downloads/ conference_spring2007/ papers/ cai. pdf)" (PDF). University of Cambridge. [71] " Helium (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ helium/ heliumcs04. pdf)" (PDF). Mineral Commodity Summaries. U.S. Geological Survey. January 2004. pp. 78–79. [72] Belyakov, V.P.; S. G. Durgar'yan, B. A. Mirzoyan, et al. (1981). "Membrane technology — A new trend in industrial gas separation". Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 17 (1): 19–21. doi: 10.1007/BF01245721 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ BF01245721). [73] Dee, P. I.; E. T. S. Walton (1933). "A Photographic Investigation of the Transmutation of Lithium and Boron by Protons and of Lithium by Ions of the Heavy Isotope of Hydrogen". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 141 (845): 733–742. doi: 10.1098/rspa.1933.0151 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rspa. 1933. 0151). [74] " Physics in speech (http:/ / www. phys. unsw. edu. au/ PHYSICS_!/ SPEECH_HELIUM/ speech. html)". phys.unsw.edu.au.. . Retrieved on 2008-07-20. [75] Fowler, B; Ackles KN, Porlier G (1985). " Effects of inert gas narcosis on behavior—a critical review (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 3019)". Undersea Biomedical Research Journal. PMID 4082343. . Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [76] Thomas, J. R. (1976). " Reversal of nitrogen narcosis in rats by helium pressure (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 2771)". Undersea Biomed Res. 3 (3): 249–59. PMID 969027. . Retrieved on 2008-08-06. [77] Rostain, J. C.; M. C. Gardette-Chauffour, C. Lemaire, R. Naquet (1988). " Effects of a H2-He-O2 mixture on the HPNS up to 450 msw (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 2487)". Undersea Biomed. Res. 15 (4): 257–70. ISSN 0093-5387 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0093-5387). OCLC 2068005 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 2068005). PMID 3212843. . Retrieved on 2008-06-24. [78] Butcher, Scott J.; Richard L. Jones, Jonathan R. Mayne, Timothy C. Hartley, Stewart R. Petersen (December 2007). "Impaired exercise ventilatory mechanics with the self-contained breathing apparatus are improved with heliox". European Journal of Applied Physiology (Netherlands: Springer) 101 (6): 659(11). doi: 10.1007/s00421-007-0541-5 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s00421-007-0541-5). [79] Considine, Glenn D., ed (2005). "Helium". Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. Wylie-Interscience. pp. 764–765. ISBN 0-471-61525-0. [80] Beckwith, I.E.; C. G. Miller III (1990). "Aerothermodynamics and Transition in High-Speed Wind Tunnels at Nasa Langley". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 22: 419–439. doi: 10.1146/annurev.fl.22.010190.002223 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1146/ annurev. fl. 22. 010190. 002223). [81] Morris, C.I. (2001) (PDF). Shock Induced Combustion in High Speed Wedge Flows (http:/ / thermosciences. stanford. edu/ pdf/ TSD-143. pdf). Stanford University Thesis. . [82] Belcher, James R.; William V. Slaton, Richard Raspet, Henry E. Bass, Jay Lightfoot (1999). "Working gases in thermoacoustic engines". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 105 (5): 2677–2684. doi: 10.1121/1.426884 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1121/ 1. 426884). [83] Makhijani, Arjun; Kevin Gurney (1995). Mending the Ozone Hole: Science, Technology, and Policy. MIT Press. ISBN 0262133083. [84] Jakobsson, H. (1997). "Simulations of the dynamics of the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope". Astronomical & Astrophysical Transactions 13 (1): 35–46. doi: 10.1080/10556799708208113 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1080/ 10556799708208113). [85] Engvold, O.; R.B. Dunn, R. N. Smartt, W. C. Livingston (1983). " Tests of vacuum VS helium in a solar telescope (http:/ / adsabs. harvard. edu/ cgi-bin/ nph-bib_query?bibcode=1983ApOpt. . 22. . . 10E& amp;db_key=AST)". Applied Optics 22: 10–12. doi: 10.1364/AO.22.000010 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1364/ AO. 22. 000010). . Retrieved on 2008-07-27. [86] " LHC Guide booklet CERN - LHC: Facts and Figures (http:/ / visits. web. cern. ch/ visits/ guides/ tools/ presentation/ LHC_booklet-2. pdf)". CERN. LHC Guide booklet. Retrieved on 2008-04-30. [87] Jack W. Ekin (2006). Experimental Techniques for Low-Temperature measurements (http:/ / books. google. co. jp/ books?id=Q9tmZQTDPiYC). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198570546. . [88] Ackerman MJ, Maitland G (December 1975). " Calculation of the relative speed of sound in a gas mixture (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 2738)". Undersea Biomed Res 2 (4): 305–10. PMID 1226588. . Retrieved on 2008-08-09. [89] () Grassberger, Martin; Astrid Krauskopf (2007). "Suicidal asphyxiation with helium: Report of three cases Suizid mit Helium Gas: Bericht über drei Fälle" (in German & English). Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 119 (9–10): 323–325. doi: 10.1007/s00508-007-0785-4 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s00508-007-0785-4). [90] Engber, Daniel (2006-06-13). " Stay Out of That Balloon! (http:/ / www. slate. com/ id/ 2143631/ )". Slate.com. . Retrieved on 2008-07-14. [91] Rostain JC, Lemaire C, Gardette-Chauffour MC, Doucet J, Naquet R (April 1983). " Estimation of human susceptibility to the high-pressure nervous syndrome (http:/ / jap. physiology. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long&

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pmid=6853282)". J Appl Physiol 54 (4): 1063–70. PMID 6853282. . Retrieved on 2008-08-09. [92] Hunger Jr, W. L.; P. B. Bennett. (1974). " The causes, mechanisms and prevention of the high pressure nervous syndrome (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 2661)". Undersea Biomed. Res. 1 (1): 1–28. ISSN 0093-5387 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0093-5387). OCLC 2068005 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 2068005). PMID 4619860. . Retrieved on 2008-08-09. [93] http:/ / chartofthenuclides. com/ default. html [94] http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ helium/ heliumcs07. pdf [95] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050101090349/ www. oma. be/ BIRA-IASB/ Public/ Research/ Thermo/ Thermotxt. en. html [96] http:/ / www. ingentaconnect. com/ content/ klu/ asys/ 2002/ 00000045/ 00000002/ 00378626 [97] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1023%2FA%3A1016057812964 [98] http:/ / uk. youtube. com/ watch?v=a8FJEiI5e6Q [99] http:/ / www. blm. gov/ wo/ st/ en/ info/ newsroom/ 2007/ january/ NR0701_2. html [100] http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ helium/ [101] http:/ / education. jlab. org/ itselemental/ ele002. html [102] http:/ / boojum. hut. fi/ research/ theory/ helium. html [103] http:/ / www. lancs. ac. uk/ depts/ physics/ research/ condmatt/ ult/ index. html [104] http:/ / www. phys. unsw. edu. au/ PHYSICS_!/ SPEECH_HELIUM/ speech. html [105] http:/ / www. du. edu/ ~jcalvert/ phys/ helium. htm

20

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21

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Helium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307843166  Contributors: 162.83.144.xxx, A.C. Norman, A2Kafir, ALargeElk, ARM, Aarchiba, Aaron of Mpls, Abeg92, Adamgarrigus, Adashiel, Addshore, Adimovk5, Adrian, Adrian kubesh, Adrian.benko, Aeseisgod, Ageekgal, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Alexfusco5, AlexiusHoratius, Alphus, Alsandro, Altenmann, Amarkov, AndonicO, Andre Engels, AndreasJS, Andres, Andrew c, AndrewWTaylor, Andy Christ, Andy M. 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Lithium

1

Lithium
helium ← lithium → berylliumH ↑ Li ↓ Na

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

3Li
Periodic table

Appearance silvery white (seen here in oil)

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 797 10 885 100 995 1k 1144 10 k 1337 100 k 1610

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies 2nd: 7298.1 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 11815.0 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radiusVan der Waals radius

Lithium Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusMohs hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of lithium
iso
6

2

N.A. 7.5% 92.5%
6

half-life

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

Li Li

Li is stable with 3 neutron Li is stable with 4 neutron
6

7

7

Li content may be as low as 3.75% in natural samples. 7Li would therefore have a content of up to 96.25%.

lithium, Li, 3 alkali metal1, 2, s6.941(2) g·mol−1 1s2 2s1 2, 1 (Image) solid 0.534 g·cm−3 0.512 g·cm−3 453.69 K,180.54 °C,356.97 °F 1615 K,1342 °C,2456.6 °F (extrapolated) 3223 K, 67 MPa 3.00 kJ·mol−1 147.1 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 24.860 J·mol−1·K−1+1, -1 (strongly basic oxide) 0.98 (Pauling scale) 1st: 520.2 kJ·mol−1152 pm128±7 pm 182 pm body-centered cubic paramagnetic (20 °C) 92.8 nΩ·m (300 K) 84.8 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 46 µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 6000 m/s 4.9 GPa 4.2 GPa 11 GPa 0.6 7439-93-2 Lithium (pronounced /ˈlɪθiəm/) is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. It is represented by the symbol Li and has an atomic number of 3. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of oil. When cut open lithium exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with oxygen quickly turns it back to a dull silvery gray color. Lithium in its elemental state is highly flammable. According to theory, lithium was one of the few elements synthesized in the Big Bang. Since its current estimated abundance in the universe is vastly less than that predicted by theory[1] ; the processes by which new lithium is created and destroyed, and the true value of its abundance,[2] continue to be active matters of study in astronomy.[3] [4] [5] The nuclei of lithium are relatively fragile: the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have lower binding energies per nucleon than any other stable compound nuclides, save for the exotic and rare deuterium, and 3He. [6] Though very light in atomic weight, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements. [7] Due to its high reactivity it only appears naturally in the form of compounds. Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but is also commonly obtained from brines and clays. On a commercial scale, lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. Trace amounts of lithium are present in the oceans and in some organisms, though the element serves no apparent vital biological function in humans. However, the lithium ion Li+ administered as any of several lithium salts has proved to be useful as a mood stabilizing drug due to neurological effects of the ion in the human body. Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, and lithium batteries. Lithium also has important links to nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to tritium was the first man-made form of a nuclear fusion reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.

Lithium

3

History and etymology
Petalite (LiAlSi4O10, or lithium aluminum silicate) was first discovered in 1800 by the Brazilian scientist José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva, who discovered the mineral in a Swedish mine on the island of Utö.[8] [9] [10] However, it was not until 1817 that Johan August Arfwedson, then working in the laboratory of Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discovered the presence of a new element while analyzing petalite ore.[11] [12] [13] The element formed compounds similar to those of sodium and potassium, though its carbonate and hydroxide were less water soluble and more basic.[14] Berzelius gave the alkaline material the name "lithos", from the Greek λιθoς (lithos, "stone"), to reflect its discovery in a mineral, as opposed to sodium and potassium, which had been discovered in plant tissue; its name was later standardized as "lithium".[13] [9] [15] Arfwedson later showed that this same element was present in the mineral ores spodumene and lepidolite. In 1818 Christian Gmelin was the first to observe that lithium salts give a bright red color in flame. However, both Arfwedson and Gmelin tried and failed to isolate the element from its salts.[16] [17] [13] The element was not isolated until 1821, when William Thomas Brande isolated the element by performing electrolysis on lithium oxide, a process previously employed by Sir Humphry Davy to isolate potassium and sodium.[17] [18] [19] Brande also described pure salts of lithium, such as the chloride, and performed an estimate of its atomic weight. In 1855 Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen produced large quantities of the metal by electrolysis of lithium chloride. The discovery of this procedure eventually led to commercial production of lithium metal, begun in 1923 by the German company Metallgesellschaft AG through the electrolysis of a molten mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.[16] [20]

Properties
Like the other alkali metals, lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.[15] Because of this, it is both a good conductor of both heat and electricity and highly reactive, though it is the least reactive of the alkali metals due to the proximity of its valence electron to the nucleus.[15] Lithium is soft enough to be cut with a knife; it is the lightest and softest of the metals on the periodic table. When cut, it possesses a silvery-white color that quickly Lithium pellets (covered in white changes to gray due to oxidation.[15] It also has a low lithium hydroxide) density (approximately 0.534 g/cm3) and thus will float on water, though it reacts easily with water. This reaction is energetic, forming hydrogen gas and lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution.[15] Due to its reactivity with water, lithium is usually stored under cover of mineral oil or kerosene.[15] Lithium possesses a low coefficient of thermal expansion and the highest specific heat capacity of any solid element. Lithium is superconductive below 400 μK at standard pressure[21] and at higher temperatures (more than 9 kelvin) at very high pressures (over 200,000 atmospheres)[22] At cryogenic temperatures, lithium, like sodium, undergoes diffusionless phase change transformations. At 4.2K it has a rhombohedral crystal system (with a nine-layer repeat spacing)[23] ; at higher temperatures it transforms to

Lithium face-centered cubic and then body-centered cubic. At liquid-helium temperatures (4 K) the rhombohedral structure is the most prevalent.

4

Chemistry
In moist air, lithium metal rapidly tarnishes to form a black coating of lithium hydroxide (LiOH and LiOH·H2O), lithium nitride (Li3N) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3, the result of a secondary reaction between LiOH and CO2).[24] When placed over a flame lithium gives off a striking crimson color, but when it burns strongly the flame becomes a brilliant white. Lithium will ignite and burn in oxygen when exposed to water or water vapours. It is the only metal that reacts with nitrogen at room temperature. Lithium metal is flammable and potentially explosive when exposed to air and especially water, though less so than other alkali metals. The lithium-water reaction at normal temperatures is brisk but not violent, though the hydrogen produced can ignite. Like all alkali metals, lithium fires are difficult to extinguish, requiring dry powder fire extinguishers, specifically Class D type (see Types of extinguishing agents).

Lithium compounds
Lithium has a diagonal relationship with magnesium, an element of similar atomic and ionic radius. Chemical resemblances between the two metals include the formation of a nitride by reaction with N2, the formation of an oxide when burnt in O2, salts with similar solubilities, and thermal instability of the carbonates and nitrides.[24]

Isotopes
Naturally occurring lithium is composed of two stable isotopes, 6Li and 7Li, the latter being the more abundant (92.5 percent natural abundance).[25] [15] Both natural isotopes have anomalously low nuclear binding energy per nucleon compared to the next lighter and heavier elements, Helium and Beryllium, which means that alone among stable light elements, Lithium can produce net energy through nuclear fission. Seven radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 8Li with a half-life of 838 ms and 9Li with a half-life of 178.3 ms. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are shorter than 8.6 ms. The shortest-lived isotope of lithium is 4Li, which decays through proton emission and has a half-life of 7.58043x10−23 s.
7

Li is one of the primordial elements (or, more properly, primordial isotopes) produced in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. A small amount of both 6Li and 7Li are produced in stars, but are thought to be burned as fast as it is produced.[26] Additional small amounts of lithium of both 6Li and 7Li may be generated from solar wind, cosmic rays, and early solar system 7Be and 10Be radioactive decay.[27] 7Li can also be generated in carbon stars.[28] Lithium isotopes fractionate substantially during a wide variety of natural processes,[29] including mineral formation (chemical precipitation), metabolism, and ion exchange. Lithium ions substitute for magnesium and iron in octahedral sites in clay minerals, where 6 Li is preferred to 7Li, resulting in enrichment of the light isotope in processes of hyperfiltration and rock alteration. The exotic 11Li is known to exhibit a nuclear halo.

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Natural occurrence
According to theory, the stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li were created in the Big Bang, but the amounts are unclear. Lithium is a fusion fuel in main sequence stars, and there is general agreement that there were larger amounts of lithium in the past than the cosmos contains today. Because of the method by which elements are built up by fusion in stars, there is a general trend in the cosmos Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper that the lighter elements are continental crust, on a per-atom basis. more common. However, lithium (element number 3) is tied with krypton as the 32nd/33rd most abundant element in the cosmos (see Cosmochemical Periodic Table of the Elements in the Solar System), being less common than any element between carbon (element 6) and scandium (element 21). It is not until atomic number 36 (krypton) and beyond that chemical elements are found to be universally less common in the cosmos than lithium. The reasons have to do with the failure of any good mechanisms to synthesize lithium in the fusion reactions between nuclides in supernovae. Due to the absence of any quasi-stable nuclide with five nucleons, nuclei of lithium-5 produced from helium and a proton has no time to fuse with a second proton or neutron to form a six nucleon isotope which might decay to lithium-6, even under extreme conditions of bombardment. Also, the product of helium-helium fusion (berylium-8) is immediately unstable toward disintegration to helium again, and is thus not available for formation of lithium. Some lithium-7 is formed in the pp III branch of the proton-proton chain in main sequence and red giant stars, but it is normally consumed by lithium burning as fast as it is formed. This leaves new formation of the stable isotopes lithium 6 and 7 to rare cosmic ray spallation on carbon or other elements in cosmic dust. Meanwhile, existing Li-6 and Li-7 is destroyed in many nuclear reactions in supernovae and by lithium burning in main sequence stars, resulting in net removal of lithium from the cosmos. In turn the destruction of lithium isotopes is due to their very low energy of binding per nucleon with regard to all other nuclides save deuterium (also destroyed in stars) and helium-3.[30] This low energy of binding encourages breakup of lithium in favor of more tightly-bound nuclides under thermonuclear reaction conditions. Lithium is widely distributed on Earth but does not naturally occur in elemental form due to its high reactivity.[15] Estimates for crustal content range from 20 to 70 ppm by weight.[24] In keeping with its name, lithium forms a minor part of igneous rocks, with the largest concentrations in granites. Granitic pegmatites also provide the greatest abundance of lithium-containing minerals, with spodumene and petalite being the most commercially viable sources.[24] A newer source for lithium is hectorite clay, the only active development of which is through Western Lithium Corp. in the USA. [31]

Lithium According to the Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium, "Lithium is a comparatively rare element, although it is found in many rocks and some brines, but always in very low concentrations. There are a fairly large number of both lithium mineral and brine deposits but only comparatively a few of them are of actual or potential commercial value. Many are [32] very small, others are too low in grade." At 0.00002 kg lithium per kg of Earth's crust [33] , lithium is the 25th most abundant element. Nickel and lead have the about the same abundance. The largest reserve base of lithium is in the Salar de Uyuni area of Bolivia, which has 5.4 million tons. According to the US Geological Survey, the production and reserves of lithium in metric tons are as follows[34] :
Country Argentina Australia Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile China Portugal United States of America Zimbabwe World Total 2008 Mine Production (est) 3200 6900 None 180 710 12,000 3,500 570 Withheld 300 27,400 Reserves Not Available 170,000 None 190,000 180,000 3,000,000 540,000 Not Available 38,000 23,000 4,100,000 Reserve Base Not Available 220,000 5,400,000 910,000 360,000 3,000,000 1,100,000 Not Available 410,000 27,000 11,000,000

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Contrary to the USGS data above, other estimates put Chile's reserve base at 7,520,000 metric tons of lithium, and Argentina's at 6,000,000 metric tons.[35] Seawater contains an estimated 230 billion tons of lithium, though at a low concentration of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.[36]

Major applications of the metal
Because of its specific heat capacity, the highest of all solids, lithium is often used in heat transfer applications. In the latter years of the 20th century lithium became important as an anode material. Used in lithium-ion batteries because of its high electrochemical potential, a typical cell can generate approximately 3 volts, compared with 1.5 volts for lead/acid or zinc cells. Because of its low atomic mass, it also has a high charge- and power-to-weight ratio. Lithium is also used in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industry in the manufacture of organolithium reagents, which are used both as strong bases and as reagents for the formation of carbon carbon bonds. Organolithiums are also used in polymer synthesis as catalysts/initiators[37] in anionic polymerisation of unfunctionalised olefins.[38] [39] [40]

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Medical use
Lithium salts were used during the 19th century to treat gout. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers. They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder since, unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment antidepressants. Because of Lithium's nephrogenic diabetes insipidus effects, it can be used to help treat the syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH). It was also sometimes prescribed as a preventive treatment for migraine disease and cluster headaches.[41] The active principle in these salts is the lithium ion Li+. Although this ion has a smaller diameter than either Na+ or K+, in a watery environment like the cytoplasmic fluid, Li+ binds to the hydrogen atoms of water, making it effectively larger than either Na+ or K+ ions. How Li+ works in the CNS is still a matter of debate. Li+ elevates brain levels of tryptophan, 5-HT (serotonin), and 5-HIAA (a serotonin metabolite). Serotonin is related to mood stability. Li+ also reduces catecholamine activity in the brain (associated with brain activation and mania), by enhancing reuptake and reducing release. Therapeutically useful amounts of lithium (~ 0.6 to 1.2 mmol/l) are only slightly lower than toxic amounts (>1.5 mmol/l), so the blood levels of lithium must be carefully monitored during treatment to avoid toxicity. Common side effects of lithium treatment include muscle tremors, twitching, ataxia[42] and hypothyroidism. Long term use is linked to hyperparathyroidism[43] , hypercalcemia (bone loss), hypertension, kidney damage, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (polyuria and polydipsia), seizures[44] and weight gain.[45] Some of the side-effects are a result of the increased elimination of potassium. There appears to be an increased risk of Ebstein (cardiac) Anomaly in infants born to women taking lithium during the first trimester of pregnancy. According to a study in 2009 at Oita University in Japan and published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, communities whose water contained larger amounts of lithium had significantly lower suicide rates[46] [47] [48] [49] but did not address whether lithium in drinking water causes the negative side effects associated with higher doses of the element.[50]

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Other uses
• Electrical and electronic uses: • Lithium batteries are disposable (primary) batteries with lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode. Lithium batteries are not to be confused with lithium-ion batteries, which are high energy-density rechargeable batteries. Other rechargeable batteries include the Lithium-ion polymer battery, Lithium iron phosphate battery, and the Nanowire battery. New technologies are constantly being announced. • Lithium niobate is used extensively in telecommunication products such as mobile phones and optical modulators, for such components as resonant crystals. Lithium applications are used in more than 60 percent of mobile phones.[51] • Chemical uses: • Lithium chloride and lithium bromide are extremely hygroscopic and are used as desiccants. • Lithium metal is used in the preparation of organo-lithium compounds. • General engineering:
The red lithium flame leads to Lithium's use in flares and pyrotechnics

• Lithium stearate is a common all-purpose, high-temperature lubricant. • When used as a flux for welding or soldering, lithium promotes the fusing of metals during and eliminates the forming of oxides by absorbing impurities. Its fusing quality is also important as a flux for producing ceramics, enamels and glass. • Alloys of the metal with aluminium, cadmium, copper and manganese are used to make high-performance aircraft parts (see also Lithium-aluminium alloys). • Optics: • Lithium is sometimes used in focal lenses, including spectacles and the glass for the 200-inch (5.08 m) telescope at Mt. Palomar. • The high non-linearity of lithium niobate also makes it useful in non-linear optics applications. • Lithium fluoride, artificially grown as crystal, is clear and transparent and often used in specialist optics for IR, UV and VUV (vacuum UV) applications. It has the lowest refractive index and the farthest transmission range in the deep UV of all common materials. • Rocketry: • Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides, such a Li[AlH4], are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants[3]. • Lithium peroxide, lithium nitrate, lithium chlorate and lithium perchlorate are used as oxidizers in rocket propellants, and also in oxygen candles that supply submarines and space capsules with oxygen.[52] • Nuclear applications: • Lithium deuteride was the fusion fuel of choice in early versions of the hydrogen bomb. When bombarded by neutrons, both 6Li and 7Li produce tritium—this reaction, which was not fully understood when hydrogen bombs were first tested, was responsible for the runaway yield of the Castle Bravo nuclear test. Tritium fuses with deuterium in a

Lithium fusion reaction that is relatively easy to achieve. Although details remain secret, lithium-6 deuteride still apparently plays a role in modern nuclear weapons, as a fusion material. • Lithium fluoride (highly enriched in the common isotope lithium-7) forms the basic constituent of the preferred fluoride salt mixture (LiF-BeF2) used in liquid-fluoride nuclear reactors. Lithium fluoride is exceptionally chemically stable and LiF/BeF2 mixtures have low melting points and the best neutronic properties of fluoride salt combinations appropriate for reactor use. • In conceptualized nuclear fusion power plants, Lithium will be used to produce tritium in magnetically confined reactors using deuterium and tritium as the fuel. Tritium does not occur naturally and will be produced by surrounding the reacting plasma with a 'blanket' containing lithium where neutrons from the deuterium-tritium reaction in the plasma will react with the lithium to produce more tritium. 6Li + n → 4He + 3H. Various means of doing this will be tested at the ITER reactor being built at Cadarache, France. • Lithium is used as a source for alpha particles, or helium nuclei. When 7Li is bombarded by accelerated protons 8Be is formed, which undergoes spontaneous fission to form two alpha particles. This was the first man-made nuclear reaction, produced by Cockroft and Walton in 1929. • Other uses: • Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is an important compound of lithium obtained from lithium carbonate (Li2CO3). It is a strong base, and when heated with a fat it produces a lithium soap. Lithium soap has the ability to thicken oils and is used to manufacture lubricating greases. • Lithium hydroxide and lithium peroxide are used in confined areas, such as aboard spacecraft and submarines, for air purification. Lithium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide from the air by reacting with it to form lithium carbonate, and is preferred over other alkaline hydroxides for its low weight. Lithium peroxide (Li2O2) in presence of moisture not only absorbs carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate, but also releases oxygen. For example 2 Li2O2 + 2 CO2 → 2 Li2CO3 + O2. • Lithium compounds are used in red fireworks and flares. • The Mark 50 Torpedo Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System (SCEPS) uses a small tank of sulfur hexafluoride gas which is sprayed over a block of solid lithium. The reaction generates enormous heat which is used to generate steam from seawater. The steam propels the torpedo in a closed Rankine cycle.[53]

9

Lithium

10

Production and world supply
Since the end of World War II lithium metal production has greatly increased. The metal is separated from other elements in igneous minerals such as those above. Lithium salts are extracted from the water of mineral springs, brine pools and brine deposits. The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused lithium and potassium chloride. In 1998 it was about US$ 43 per pound ($95 per kg).[54]

Deposits of lithium are found in South America throughout the Andes mountain chain. Chile is the leading lithium metal producer, followed by Argentina. Both countries recover the lithium from brine pools. In the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada.[55] Nearly half the world's known reserves are located in Bolivia, a nation sitting along the central eastern slope of the Andes. In 2009 Bolivia is negotiating with Japanese and French firms to begin extraction.[56] According to the US Geological Survey, Bolivia's Uyuni Desert has 5.4 million tons of lithium, which can be used to make batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles.[56] This is the largest amount of lithium in any country, compared to Chile's 3 million tons and the United States's 760,000 tons.[56] [57] China may emerge as a significant producer of brine-source lithium carbonate around 2010. There is potential production of up to 55,000 tons per year if projects in Qinghai province and Tibet proceed.[58] The total amount of lithium recoverable from global reserves has been estimated at 35 million tonnes, which includes 15 million tons of the known global lithium reserve base.[59] In 1976 a National Research Council Panel estimated lithium resources at 10.6 million tons for the Western World.[60] With the inclusion of Russian and Chinese resources as well as new discoveries in Australia, Serbia, Argentina and the United States, the total had nearly tripled by 2008.[61] [62]

Lithium mine, Salar del Hombre Muerto, Argentina. The brine in this salar is rich in lithium, and the mine concentrates the brine by pumping it into solar evaporation ponds. 2009 image from NASA’s EO-1 satellite.

Lithium

11

Precautions
Due to its alkaline tarnish, lithium metal is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact. Breathing lithium dust or lithium compounds (which are often alkaline) initially irritate the nose and throat, while higher exposure can cause a buildup of fluid in the lungs, leading to pulmonary edema. The metal itself is a handling hazard because of the caustic hydroxide produced when it is in contact with moisture. Lithium is safely stored in non-reactive compounds such as naphtha.[63]

Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black oxide tarnish

Regulation
Some jurisdictions limit the sale of lithium batteries, which are the most readily available source of lithium metal for ordinary consumers. Lithium can be used to reduce pseudoephedrine and ephedrine to methamphetamine in the Birch reduction method, which employs solutions of alkali metals dissolved in anhydrous ammonia. Carriage and shipment of some kinds of lithium batteries may be prohibited aboard certain types of transportation (particularly aircraft) because of the ability of most types of lithium batteries to fully discharge very rapidly when short-circuited, leading to overheating and possible explosion in a process called thermal runaway. Most consumer lithium batteries have thermal overload protection built-in to prevent this type of incident, or their design inherently limits short-circuit currents. Internal shorts have been known to develop due to manufacturing defects or damage to batteries that can lead to spontaneous thermal runaway.[64]

See also
• Lithium compounds • Lithium-based grease • Dilithium

External links
• • • • International Lithium Alliance [65] USGS: Lithium Statistics and Information WebElements.com – Lithium [67] It's Elemental – Lithium [68]
[66]

• University of Southampton, Mountbatten Centre for International Studies, Nuclear History Working Paper No5. [69]

Lithium

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" Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (http:/ / www. jabfm. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 12/ 1/ 43)". The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 12 (1): 43–47. . [45] " Weight Gain and Bipolar Disorder Treatment (http:/ / www. psycheducation. org/ hormones/ Insulin/ weightgain. htm)". PsychEducation.org. November 2007. . [46] " Lithium in drinking water may boost mood (http:/ / www. upi. com/ Science_News/ 2009/ 05/ 01/ Lithium-in-drinking-water-may-boost-mood/ UPI-66841241235675/ )". Science News (United Press International). May 1, 2009 at 11:41 PM. . Retrieved 2009-05-02. [47] Alleyne, Richard (10:01AM BST 01 May 2009). " Natural levels of lithium in drinking water help reduce suicides (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ health/ healthnews/ 5251365/ Natural-levels-of-lithium-in-drinking-water-help-reduce-suicides. html)". Health: Health News (Telegraph). . Retrieved 2009-05-02. 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Lithium
[50] " Lithium in water 'curbs suicide' (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ health/ 8025454. stm)". Health:Medical Notes. BBC. 09:22 GMT, Friday, 1 May 2009 10:22 UK. . Retrieved 2009-05-02. [51] " You’ve got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells (http:/ / nl. computers. toshiba-europe. com/ Contents/ Toshiba_nl/ NL/ WHITEPAPER/ files/ TISBWhitepapertech. pdf)" (PDF). Toshiba. . Retrieved 2009-05-17. [52] K. Ernst-Christian (2004). "Special Materials in Pyrotechnics: III. Application of Lithium and its Compounds in Energetic Systems". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 29 (2): 67–80. doi: 10.1002/prep.200400032 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ prep. 200400032). [53] T.G. Hughes, R.B. Smith, and D.H. Kiely (1983). "Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System for Underwater Applications". Journal of Energy 7 (2): 128–133. doi: 10.2514/3.62644 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 2514/ 3. 62644). [54] Ober, Joyce A. " Lithium (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ lithium/ 450798. pdf)" (pdf). United States Geological Survey. pp. 77-78. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. [55] C. R. Hammond (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. [56] Simon Romero (February 2, 2009). " In Bolivia, a Tight Grip on the Next Big Resource (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 02/ 03/ world/ americas/ 03lithium. html?ref=world)". New York Times. . [57] " USGS Mineral Commodities Summaries 2009 (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ mcs/ 2009/ mcs2009. pdf)". USGS. . [58] " The Trouble With Lithium 2 (http:/ / www. meridian-int-res. com/ Projects/ Lithium_Microscope. pdf)" (PDF). Meridian International Research. May 28, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-07-07. [59] " The Trouble with Lithium (http:/ / www. meridian-int-res. com/ Projects/ Lithium_Problem_2. pdf)" (PDF). Meridian International Research. January 2007. . Retrieved 2008-07-07. [60] R.K. Evans (1978). Lithium Reserves and Resources, Energy, Vol 3. Pergamon Press. [61] R.K. Evans (2008). " An Abundance of Lithium (http:/ / www. worldlithium. com/ Abstract. html)". . Retrieved 2009-07-07. [62] R.K. Evans (2008). " An Abundance of Lithium Part 2 (http:/ / www. worldlithium. com/ AN_ABUNDANCE_OF_LITHIUM_-_Part_2. html)". . Retrieved 2009-07-07. [63] A. Keith Furr. (2000). CRC handbook of laboratory safety (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=Oo3xAmmMlEwC& pg=PA244). Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 244–246. ISBN 9780849325236. . [64] Samuel C. Levy and Per Bro. (1994). Battery hazards and accident prevention (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=i7U-0IB8tjMC& pg=PA15). New York: Plenum Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9780306447587. . [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] http:/ / www. lithiumalliance. org/ http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ lithium/ http:/ / www. webelements. com/ lithium/ http:/ / education. jlab. org/ itselemental/ ele003. html http:/ / www. mcis. soton. ac. uk/ Site_Files/ pdf/ nuclear_history/ Working_Paper_No_5. pdf

14

Article Sources and Contributors

15

Article Sources and Contributors
Lithium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308229931  Contributors: 11graywe, 16@r, 213.253.39.xxx, 2D, 4hodmt, A Softer Answer, A-Hrafn, ABF, AKMask, ASmartKid, AWeishaupt, Academic Challenger, Accurizer, Adrian.benko, Aetheling, Agateller, Age Happens, Agjchs, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Alansohn, Alarob, Alasdair, Alexisfan, AlexiusHoratius, Alexostamp, Allstarecho, Alphachimp, Alsandro, Anclation, Andre Engels, AndreasJS, Andres, Antandrus, Anthony, Antonio Lopez, Anwar saadat, AprilHare, Arakunem, Archimerged, Arjun01, Aryonda, Ashgelic123, Astral, Athyn101:), Autocratique, Avono, BRG, Baccyak4H, Badgernet, Badocter, Bananamanttm69, Barneyg, Bartledan, BaseballDetective, Bbx, Beetstra, Beland, Benbest, Bender235, Benjah-bmm27, Betacommand, Big Bird, BigCow, Bigjimr, BillFlis, Billscottbob, Biochemnick, Blackdragonwings, Blanchardb, BlueEarth, Bmicomp, Bobo192, Bogdangiusca, Bogey97, Bomac, Borbrav, Bork, Bowlhover, Bradisgay, Breonna678, Breonnakilgore, Brion VIBBER, 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Ke4roh, Keegan, Keilana, Keithpoole, Kelly Martin, Kertrats, Khukri, King Toadsworth, Kingpin13, Klausok, Koavf, Koolkriz11, Koyaanis Qatsi, Kpjas, Kthb, Ktsquare, Kungfuadam, Kuru, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, LGagnon, LOL, Lahiru k, Law, Lawrenceraday, Lbr123, Lcarsdata, Lchiarav, Leahcim nai, LeaveSleaves, LeilaniLad, Levine2112, Lir, Lithium Bandit, Livin2ride, Lolstutle, Looxix, Lpgeffen, Luckas Blade, Luckylimey, LuigiManiac, Luk, M0nk3ym1nd, MER-C, MJSkia1, MZMcBride, Mad2Physicist, Magic.Wiki, Malcolmdesilva, Malljaja, MarcoTolo, Marek69, Marinlove, Materialscientist, Matt Deres, Mav, Maxis ftw, McSly, Mddlmgmt11, Mdf, Mdhellman, Meeples, Mentifisto, Merbabu, Metalmaniac69, MetsFan76, Mgimpel, Mhking, Michael Daly, Mike Rosoft, Mike.lifeguard, Minesweeper, Mion, Mjquin id, Mkweise, Mlb Indians, Morwen, Mradigan, Mushroom, Mxn, Myanw, Mygerardromance, NHRHS2010, Naddy, Nakon, NawlinWiki, Nergaal, Neut Nuttinbutter, Nick, Nick Rouse, Nihiltres, Nilfanion, Nilmerg, Nishkid64, Nitynate, 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:cubic-body-centered.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cubic-body-centered.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Stannered file:Electron shell 003 Lithium.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_003_Lithium.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:Lithium paraffin.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lithium_paraffin.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Tomihahndorf at de.wikipedia Image:LithiumPelletsUSGOV.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LithiumPelletsUSGOV.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bdamokos, Breeze, Joanjoc, Saperaud Image:Relative abundance of elements.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Relative_abundance_of_elements.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Aqua008, ItsProgrammable, Raul654, SEWilco, Sfan00 IMG, The Anome, 1 anonymous edits Image:FlammenfärbungLi.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FlammenfärbungLi.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Red devil 666, Saperaud File:Lithium mine, Salar del Hombre Muerto, Argentina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lithium_mine,_Salar_del_Hombre_Muerto,_Argentina.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA Earth Observatory Image:Limetal.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Limetal.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Dnn87

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Beryllium

1

Beryllium
lithium ← beryllium → boron ↑ Be ↓ Mg

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

4Be
Periodic table

Appearance white-gray metallic

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 1462 10 1608 100 1791 1k 2023 10 k 2327 100 k 2742

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 1757.1 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 14848.7 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent

radius

Beryllium Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusPoisson ratioMohs hardnessVickers hardnessBrinell hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of beryllium
iso
7

2

N.A. trace 53.12 d

half-life ε γ

DM 0.862 0.477

DE (MeV)
7

DP Li

Be

-

9

Be Be

100% trace

9

Be is stable with 5 neutron β− 0.556
10

10

1.51×106 y

B

beryllium, Be, 4 alkaline earth metal2, 2, s9.012182(3) g·mol−1 1s2 2s2 2, 2 (Image) solid 1.85 g·cm−3 1.690 g·cm−3 1560 K,1287 °C,2349 °F 2742 K,2469 °C,4476 °F 7.895 kJ·mol−1 297 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 16.443 J·mol−1·K−1 3,[1] 2, 1[2] (amphoteric oxide) 1.57 (Pauling scale) 1st: 899.5 kJ·mol−1112 pm96±3 pm hexagonal diamagnetic (300 K) 200 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 11.3 µm·m−1·K−1 (r.t.) 12870[3]  m·s−1 287 GPa 132 GPa 130 GPa 0.032 5.5 1670 MPa 600 MPa 7440-41-7 Beryllium (pronounced /bəˈrɪliəm/) is the chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. A bivalent element, beryllium is found naturally only combined with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include Beryl (aquamarines and emeralds) and Chrysoberyl (Alexandrite and Cat's eye). The free element is a steel-grey, strong, lightweight brittle alkaline earth metal. It is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, notably beryllium copper. Structurally, beryllium's very low density (1.85 times that of water), high melting point (1278 °C), high temperature stability, and low coefficient of thermal expansion, make it in many ways an ideal aerospace material, and it has been used in rocket nozzles and is a significant Beryllium, crystalline fragment component of planned space telescopes. Because of its relatively high transparency to X-rays and other ionizing radiation types, beryllium also has a number of uses as filters and windows for radiation and particle physics experiments. Commercial use of beryllium metal presents technical challenges due to the toxicity (especially by inhalation) of beryllium-containing dusts. Beryllium produces a direct corrosive effect to tissue, and can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease called berylliosis in susceptible persons. Beryllium is a relatively rare element in both the Earth and the universe, because it is not formed in conventional stellar nucleosynthesis, but rather during the Big Bang, and later from the action of cosmic rays on interstellar dust. The element is not known to be necessary or useful for either plant or animal life.

Beryllium

3

History
Beryllium was discovered by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin in 1798 as a component of beryl and in emeralds. Friedrich Wöhler[4] and Antoine Bussy independently isolated the metal in 1828 by reacting potassium and beryllium chloride. Beryllium's chemical similarity to aluminum was probably why beryllium was missed in previous searches.[5]

Etymology
The name beryllium comes from the Greek βήρυλλος, bērullos, beryl, from Prakrit veruliya, from Pāli veḷuriya; ] veḷiru or, viḷar, "to become pale," in reference to the pale semiprecious gemstone beryl.[6] For about 160 years, beryllium was also known as glucinium (with the accompanying chemical symbol "Gl"[7] ), the name coming from the Greek word for sweet, due to the sweet taste of its salts.

Characteristics
Physical
Beryllium has one of the highest melting points of the light metals. It has exceptional elastic rigidity (Young’s modulus 316 GPa). The modulus of elasticity of beryllium is approximately 50% greater than that of steel. The combination of this modulus plus beryllium's relatively low density gives it an unusually fast sound conduction speed at standard conditions (about 12.9 km/s). Other significant properties are the high values for specific heat (1925 J/kg·K) and thermal conductivity (216 W/m·K), which make beryllium the metal with the best heat dissipation characteristics per unit weight. In combination with the relatively low coefficient of linear thermal expansion (11.4 × 10−6 K−1), these characteristics ensure that beryllium demonstrates a unique degree of dimensional stability under conditions of thermal loading.[8] At standard temperature and pressures beryllium resists oxidation when exposed to air (its ability to scratch glass is due to the formation of a thin layer of the hard oxide BeO). It resists corrosion by concentrated nitric acid.[9]

Nuclear
Beryllium has a large scattering cross section for high energy neutrons, thus effectively slowing the neutrons to the thermal energy range where the cross section is low (0.008 barn). The predominant beryllium isotope 9Be also undergoes a (n,2n) neutron reaction to 8 Be, i.e. beryllium is a neutron multiplier, releasing more neutrons than it absorbs. Beryllium is highly permeable to X-rays, and neutrons are liberated when it is hit by alpha particles.[8]

Beryllium

4

Isotopes
Of beryllium's isotopes, only 9Be is stable and the others are relatively unstable or rare. It is thus a mononuclidic element. Cosmogenic 10Be is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen. Cosmogenic 10Be accumulates at the soil surface, where its relatively long half-life (1.51 million years) permits a long residence time before decaying to 10 Plot showing variations in solar activity, including variation in B. Thus, 10Be and its daughter 10 Be concentration. Note that the beryllium scale is inverted, so products have been used to increases on this scale indictate lower beryllium-10 levels examine soil erosion, soil formation from regolith, the development of lateritic soils, as well as variations in solar activity and the age of ice cores. Solar activity is inversely correlated with Be-10 production, because solar-wind decreases flux of galactic cosmic rays which reach Earth. Beryllium-10 is also formed in nuclear explosions by a reaction of fast neutrons with 13C in the carbon dioxide in air, and is one of the historical indicators of past activity at nuclear test sites.[10] The fact that 7Be and 8Be are unstable has profound cosmological consequences as it means that elements heavier than beryllium could not be produced by nuclear fusion in the Big Bang, since there was insufficient time during the nucleosynthesis phase of the Big Bang expansion to produce carbon by fusion of 4He nuclei and the relatively low concentrations of 8Be available because of its short half-life. Astronomer Fred Hoyle first showed that the energy levels of 8Be and 12C allow carbon production by the triple-alpha process in helium-fueled stars where more synthetic time is available, thus making life possible from the supernova "ash" from these stars. (See also Big Bang nucleosynthesis).[11]
7

Be decays by electron capture, therefore its decay rate is dependent upon its electron configuration - a rare occurrence in nuclear decay.[12] The shortest-lived known isotope of beryllium is 13Be which decays through neutron emission. It has a half-life of 2.7 × 10−21 second. 6Be is also very short-lived with a half-life of 5.0 × 10−21 second.[13] The exotic isotopes
11

Be and

14

Be are known to exhibit a nuclear halo.[14]

Chemical
Beryllium has the electronic configuration [He]2s2. In its chemistry Beryllium exhibits the +2 oxidation state and the only evidence of lower valence of beryllium is in the solubility of the metal in BeCl2.[15] The small atomic radius ensures that the Be2+ ion would be highly polarizing leading to significant covalent character in beryllium's bonding.[16] Beryllium is 4 coordinate in complexes e.g. [Be(H2O)4]2+ and tetrahaloberyllates, BeX2−4. This characteristic is used in analytical techniques using EDTA as a ligand which preferentially

Beryllium forms octahedral complexes - thus absorbing other cations such as Al3+ which might interfere, for example in the solvent extraction of a complex formed between Be2+ and acetylacetone.[17] Beryllium metal sits above aluminium in the electrochemical series and would be expected to be a reactive metal, however it is passivated by an oxide layer and does not react with air or water even at red heat.[16] Once ignited however beryllium burns brilliantly forming a mixture of beryllium oxide and beryllium nitride.[16] Beryllium dissolves readily in non-oxidising acids, such as HCl and H2SO4, but not in nitric as this forms the oxide and this behaviour is similar to that of aluminium metal. Beryllium, again similarly to aluminium, dissolves in warm alkali to form the beryllate anion, Be(OH)2−4, and hydrogen gas. The solutions of salts, e.g. beryllium sulfate and beryllium nitrate are acidic because of hydrolysis of the [Be(H2O)4]2+ ion; for example [Be(H2O)4]2+ + H2O [Be(H2O)3(OH)]+ + H3O+

5

Compounds
Beryllium forms binary compounds with many non-metals. Beryllium hydride is an amorphous white solid believed to be built from corner-sharing {BeH4} tetrahedra.[18] All four anhydrous halides are known. BeF2 has a silica-like structure with corner-shared BeF4 tetrahedra. BeCl2 and BeBr2 have chain structures with edge-shared tetrahedra.[16] They all have linear monomeric gas phase forms.[16] Beryllium oxide, BeO, is a white, high-melting-point solid, which has the wurtzite structure with a thermal conductivity as high as some metals.[16] BeO is amphoteric. Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2 has low solubility in water and is amphoteric.[16] Salts of beryllium can be produced by reacting Be(OH)2 with acid. Beryllium sulfide, selenide and telluride all have the zincblende structure.[15] Beryllium nitride, Be3N2 is a high-melting-point compound which is readily hydrolysed.[15] Beryllium azide, BeN6 is known and beryllium phosphide, Be3P2 has a similar structure to Be3N2.[15] A number of beryllium borides are known, Be5B, Be4B, Be2B, BeB2, BeB6, BeB12.[15] Beryllium carbide, Be2C, is a high melting, brick red compound that reacts with water to give methane.[15] No beryllium silicide has been identified.[16] Basic beryllium nitrate and basic beryllium acetate have similar tetrahedral structures with four beryllium atoms coordinated to a central oxide ion.[15]

Occurrence
The beryllium content of the earth’s surface rocks is ca. 4 - 6 ppm. Beryllium is a constituent of about 100 out of about 4000 known minerals, the most important of which are bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2), beryl (Al2Be3Si6O18), chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4), and phenakite (Be2SiO4). Precious forms of beryl are aquamarine, bixbite and emerald.[8]

Production
Because of its high affinity for oxygen at elevated temperatures and its ability to reduce water when its oxide film is removed, the extraction of beryllium from its compounds is very difficult. Although electrolysis of a fused mixture of beryllium and sodium fluorides was

Beryllium used to isolate the element in the nineteenth century, the metal's high melting point makes this process more energy intensive than the corresponding production of alkali metals. Early in the twentieth century, the production of beryllium by the thermal decomposition of beryllium iodide was investigated following the success of a similar process for the [19] production of zirconium, but this proved to be uneconomic for volume production. Beryllium metal did not become readily available until 1957. Currently, most is produced by reducing beryllium fluoride with magnesium metal. The price on the US market for vacuum-cast beryllium ingots was 338 US$ per pound ($745/kg) in 2001.[20] BeF2 + Mg → MgF2 + Be

6

Applications
Radiation windows
Because of its low atomic number and very low absorption for X-rays, the oldest and still one of the most important applications of beryllium is in radiation windows for X-ray tubes. Extreme demands are placed on purity and cleanliness of Be to avoid artefacts in the X-ray images. Thin beryllium foils are used as radiation windows for X-ray detectors, and the extremely low absorption minimizes the heating effects caused by high intensity, low energy X-rays typical of synchrotron radiation. Vacuum-tight windows and beam-tubes for radiation experiments on synchrotrons are manufactured exclusively from beryllium. In scientific setups for various X-ray emission studies (e.g., Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) the sample holder is usually made of beryllium because its emitted X-rays have much lower energies (~100 eV) than X-rays from most studied materials.[8]

Beryllium target which "converts" a proton beam into a neutron beam

Because of its low atomic number beryllium is almost transparent to energetic particles. A square beryllium foil mounted in a steel case to be Therefore it is used to build the beam pipe used as a window between a vacuum chamber and an X-ray microscope. Beryllium, due to its low Z number around the collision region in collider is highly transparent to X-rays. particle physics experiments. Notably all four main detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb) use a beryllium beam-pipe. Also many high-energy particle physics collision experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider, the Tevatron, the SLAC and others contain beam pipes made of beryllium. Beryllium's low density allows collision products to reach the surrounding detectors without

Beryllium significant interaction, its stiffness allows a powerful vacuum to be produced within the pipe to minimize interaction with gases, its thermal stability allows it to function correctly at temperatures of only a few degrees above absolute zero, and its diamagnetic nature keeps it from interfering with the complex multipole magnet systems used to steer and [21] focus the particle beams.

7

Mechanical
Due to its stiffness, light weight, and dimensional stability over a wide temperature range, beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles and communication satellites. Several liquid-fueled rockets use nozzles of pure beryllium,[22] [23] Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in the production of beryllium copper, which contains up to 2.5% beryllium. Beryllium-copper alloys are used in many applications because of their combination of high electrical and thermal conductivity, high strength and hardness, nonmagnetic properties, along with good corrosion and fatigue resistance. These applications include the making of spot-welding electrodes, springs, non-sparking tools and electrical contacts. Beryllium was also used in Jason pistols which were used to strip paint from the hulls of ships. In this case, beryllium was alloyed to copper and used as a hardening agent.[24] The excellent elastic rigidity of beryllium has led to its extensive use in precision instrumentation, e.g. in gyroscope inertial guidance systems, and in support structures for optical systems.[8] Beryllium mirrors are a field of particular interest. Large-area mirrors, frequently with a honeycomb support structure, are used, for example, in meteorological satellites where low weight and long-term dimensional stability are critical. Smaller beryllium mirrors are used in optical guidance systems and in fire control systems, e.g. in the German Leopard I and II main battle tanks. In these systems, very rapid movement of the mirror is required which again dictates low mass and high rigidity. Usually the beryllium mirror is coated with hard electroless nickel which can be more easily polished to a finer optical finish than beryllium. In some applications, though, the beryllium blank is polished without any coating. This is particularly applicable to cryogenic operation where thermal expansion mismatch can cause the coating to buckle.[8] The James Webb Space Telescope[25] will have 18 hexagonal beryllium sections for its mirrors. Because JWST will face a temperature of 33 degrees K, the mirror is made of beryllium, capable of handling extreme cold better than glass. Beryllium contracts and deforms less than glass — and remains more uniform — in such temperatures.[26] For the same reason, the optics of the Spitzer Space Telescope are entirely built of beryllium metal.[27] An earlier major application of beryllium was in brakes for military aircraft because of its hardness, high melting point and exceptional heat dissipation. Environmental considerations have led to substitution by other materials.[8] Cross-rolled beryllium sheet is an excellent structural support for printed circuit boards in surface mounted technology. In critical electronic applications, beryllium is both a structural support and heat sink. The application also requires a coefficient of thermal expansion that is well matched to the alumina and polyimide-glass substrates. The beryllium-beryllium oxide composite “E-Materials” have been specially designed for these

Beryllium electronic applications and have the additional advantage that the thermal expansion coefficient can be tailored to match diverse substrate materials.[8]

8

Magnetic
• Due to its non-magnetic properties, Beryllium-based tools are often used by military naval EOD-personnel when working on or around sea-mines, as these often have fuses that detonate on direct magnetic contact or when influenced by a magnetic field. • Beryllium-based tools are used for maintenance and construction near MRI scanners. Magnetic tools would be pulled by the scanner's strong magnetic field. Apart from being difficult to remove once magnetic items are stuck in the scanner, the missile-effect can have dangerous consequences. • In the telecommunications industry, tools made of beryllium are used to tune the highly magnetic klystrons used for high power microwave applications.

Nuclear
• Beryllium is used in nuclear weapon designs as the outer layer of the pit of the primary stage, surrounding the fissile material. It is a good pusher for implosion, and a very good neutron reflector, as in Beryllium moderated reactors.[28] • Beryllium is sometimes used in neutron sources, in which the beryllium is mixed with an alpha emitter such as 210Po, 226Ra, 239Pu or 241Am.[28] • Beryllium is used in the Joint European Torus fusion research facility and will be used in ITER, to condition the plasma facing components.[29] • Beryllium has also been proposed as a cladding material for nuclear fuel, due to its combination of mechanical, chemical, and nuclear properties.[8]

Acoustics
• Beryllium's characteristics (low weight and high rigidity) make it useful as a material for high-frequency drivers. Until recently, most beryllium tweeters used an alloy of beryllium and other metals due to beryllium's high cost and difficulty to form. These challenges, coupled with the high performance of beryllium, caused some manufacturers to falsely claim using pure beryllium.[30] Some high-end audio companies manufacture pure beryllium tweeters or speakers using these tweeters. Because beryllium is many times more expensive than titanium, hard to shape due to its brittleness, and toxicity if mishandled, these tweeters are limited to high-end and public address applications.[31]
[32] [33]

Electronic
• Beryllium is an effective p-type dopant in III-V compound semiconductors. It is widely used in materials such as GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, and InAlAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).[34] • Beryllium oxide is useful for many applications that require the combined properties of an electrical insulator an excellent heat conductor, with high strength and hardness, with a very high melting point. Beryllium oxide is frequently used as an insulator base plate in high-power transistors in RF transmitters for telecommunications. Beryllium oxide is also being studied for use in increasing the thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel pellets.[35]

Beryllium • Beryllium compounds were once used in fluorescent lighting tubes, but this use was discontinued because of berylliosis in the workers manufacturing the tubes.[36]

9

Toxicity
According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), beryllium and beryllium compounds are Category 1 carcinogens; they are carcinogenic to both animals and humans.[37] Chronic berylliosis is a pulmonary and systemic granulomatous disease caused by exposure to beryllium. Acute beryllium disease in the form of chemical pneumonitis was first reported in Europe in 1933 and in the United States in 1943. Cases of chronic berylliosis were first described in 1946 Beryllium ore among workers in plants manufacturing fluorescent lamps in Massachusetts. Chronic berylliosis resembles sarcoidosis in many respects, and the differential diagnosis is often difficult. It occasionally killed early workers in nuclear weapons design, such as Herbert Anderson.[38] Although the use of beryllium compounds in fluorescent lighting tubes was discontinued in 1949, potential for exposure to beryllium exists in the nuclear and aerospace industries and in the refining of beryllium metal and melting of beryllium-containing alloys, the manufacturing of electronic devices, and the handling of other beryllium-containing material. Early researchers tasted beryllium and its various compounds for sweetness in order to verify its presence. Modern diagnostic equipment no longer necessitates this highly risky procedure and no attempt should be made to ingest this highly toxic substance. Beryllium and its compounds should be handled with great care and special precautions must be taken when carrying out any activity which could result in the release of beryllium dust (lung cancer is a possible result of prolonged exposure to beryllium laden dust). This substance can be handled safely if certain procedures are followed. No attempt should be made to work with beryllium before familiarization with correct handling procedures. A successful test for beryllium in air and on surfaces has been recently developed and published as a international voluntary consensus standard (ASTM D7202; www.astm.org). The procedure uses dilute ammonium bifluoride for dissolution and fluorescence detection with beryllium bound to sulfonated hydroxybenzoquinoline, allowing detection up to 100 times lower than the recommended limit for beryllium concentration in the workplace. Fluorescence increases with increasing beryllium concentration. The new procedure has been successfully tested on a variety of surfaces and is effective for the dissolution and ultratrace detection of refractory beryllium oxide and silicious beryllium (ASTM D7458).[39]

Inhalation
Beryllium is harmful if inhaled and the effects depend on period of exposure. If beryllium concentrations in air are high enough (greater than 100 µg/m³), an acute condition can result, called acute beryllium disease, which resembles pneumonia. Occupational and community air standards are effective in preventing most acute lung damage. Long-term beryllium exposure can increase the risk of developing lung cancer. The more common

Beryllium serious health problem from beryllium today is chronic beryllium disease (CBD), discussed below. It continues to occur in industries as diverse as metal recycling, dental laboratories, alloy manufacturing, nuclear weapons production and metal machine shops that work with alloys containing small amounts of beryllium. A 2008 report from the United States National Research Council said that worker exposure to beryllium should be kept "at the lowest feasible level," as the agency's research could not establish any safe level of exposure.[40] Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) Some people (1-15%) are sensitive to beryllium. Sensitization is not an illness, but some of these individuals, if inhaling sufficient quantities of beryllium dust in the micrometer-size range, may have an inflammatory reaction that principally targets the respiratory system and skin. This condition is called chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and can occur within a few months or many years after exposure to higher-than-normal levels of beryllium (greater than 0.2 µg/m³). This disease causes fatigue, weakness, night sweats and can cause difficulty in breathing and a persistent dry cough. It can result in anorexia, weight loss, and may also lead to right-side heart enlargement and heart disease in advanced cases. Some people who are sensitized to beryllium may not have symptoms, and just being sensitized is not a recognized health effect. CBD is treatable, but not curable with traditional drugs and medicine. CBD occurs when the body's immune system recognizes beryllium particles as foreign material and mounts an immune system attack against the particles. Because these particles are typically inhaled into the lungs, the lungs become the major site where the immune system responds. The lung sacs become inflamed and fill with large numbers of white blood cells that accumulate wherever beryllium particles are found. These cells form balls around the beryllium particles called “granulomas.” When enough of these develop, they interfere with the normal function of the organ. Over time, the lungs become stiff and lose their ability to help transfer oxygen from the air into the bloodstream. Patients with CBD develop difficulty inhaling and exhaling sufficient amounts of air, and the amount of oxygen in their bloodstreams falls. Treatment includes supplemental oxygen and immunosuppressants (such as prednisone) to lower the body's overreaction to beryllium. The general population is unlikely to develop acute or chronic beryllium disease because ambient air levels of beryllium are normally very low (<0.03 ng/m3).[41]

10

Ingestion
Swallowing beryllium has not been reported to cause effects in humans because very little beryllium is absorbed from the stomach and intestines. Harmful effects have sometimes been seen in animals ingesting beryllium.[42]

Dermatological effects
Beryllium can cause contact dermatitis. Beryllium contact with skin that has been scraped or cut may cause rashes, ulcers, or bumps under the skin called granulomas.[43]

Beryllium

11

Effects on children
There are no studies on the health effects of children exposed to beryllium, although individual cases of CBD have been reported in children of beryllium workers from the 1940s. It is unknown whether children differ from adults in their susceptibility to beryllium. It is unclear whether beryllium is teratogenic.[44]

Detection in the body
Beryllium can be measured in the urine and blood. The amount of beryllium in blood or urine may not indicate time or quantity of exposure. Beryllium levels can also be measured in lung and skin samples. While such measurements may help establish that exposure has occurred, other tests are used to determine if that exposure has resulted in health effects. A blood test, the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), identifies beryllium sensitization and has predictive value for CBD. The BeLPT has become the standard test for detecting beryllium sensitization and CBD in individuals who are suspected of having CBD and to help distinguish it from similar conditions such as sarcoidosis. It is also the main test used in industry health programs to monitor whether disease is occurring among current and former workers who have been exposed to beryllium on the job. The test can detect disease that is at an early stage, or can detect disease at more advanced stages of illness as well. The BeLPT can also be performed using cells obtained from a person's lung by a procedure called "bronchoscopy".[45]

Industrial release and occupational exposure limits
Typical levels of beryllium that industries may release into the air are of the order of 0.01 µg/m³, averaged over a 30-day period, or 2 µg/m³ of workroom air for an 8-hour work shift. Compliance with the current U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit for beryllium of 2 µg/m³ has been determined to be inadequate to protect workers from developing beryllium sensitization and CBD. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), which is an independent organization of experts in the field of occupational health, has proposed a threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.05 µg/m³ in a 2006 Notice of Intended Change (NIC). This TLV is 40 times lower than the current OSHA permissible exposure limit, reflecting the ACGIH analysis of best available peer-reviewed research data concerning how little airborne beryllium is required to cause sensitization and CBD. Because it can be difficult to control industrial exposures to beryllium, it is advisable to use any methods possible to reduce airborne and surface contamination by beryllium, to minimize the use of beryllium and beryllium-containing alloys whenever possible, and to educate people about the potential hazards if they are likely to encounter beryllium dust or fumes.[46] On 29 January 2009, the Los Alamos National Laboratory announced it was notifying nearly 2,000 current and former employees and visitors that they may have been exposed to beryllium in the lab and may be at risk of disease. Concern over possible exposure to the material was first raised in November 2008, when a box containing beryllium was received at the laboratory's short-term storage facility.[47]

Beryllium

12

See also
• Category:Beryllium compounds • Sucker Bait, a story by Isaac Asimov in which the health hazard of beryllium dust is an important plot point

References
• Burrell, AK. Ehler, DS. McClesky, TM. Minogue, EM. Taylor, TP. Development of a New Fluorescence Method for the Detection of Beryllium on Surfaces. Journal of ASTM International (JAI). 2005. Vol 2: Issue 9. http:/ / www. astm. org/ cgi-bin/ SoftCart. exe/ JOURNALS/ JAI/ PAGES/ JAI13168. htm?E+ mystore • Infante PF, Newman LS. "Commentary: Beryllium exposure and Chronic Beryllium Disease." Lancet 2004; 415-16. • Newman LS. "Beryllium." Chemical & Engineering News, 2003; 36:38. • Kelleher PC, Martyny JW, Mroz MM, Maier LA, Ruttenber JA, Young DA, Newman LS. "Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant." J Occup Environ Med 2001; 43:238-249. • Mroz MM, Balkissoon R, Newman LS. "Beryllium." In: Bingham E, Cohrssen B, Powell C (eds.) Patty’s Toxicology, Fifth Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons 2001, 177-220. • Beryllium and Compounds: TLV Chemical Substances Draft Documentation, Notice of Intended Change ACGIH Publication #7NIC-042

External links
• ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Beryllium Toxicity [48] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services • WebElements.com – Beryllium [49] • It's Elemental – Beryllium [50] • National Pollutant Inventory - Beryllium and compounds [51] • MSDS: ESPI Metals [52] • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – Beryllium Page [53] • Former Worker Medical Screening Program [54], U.S. Department of Energy • National Supplemental Screening Program (Oak Ridge Associated Universities) [55]

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Article Sources and Contributors

15

Article Sources and Contributors
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Boron

1

Boron
beryllium ← boron → carbon ↑ B ↓ Al

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

5B
Periodic table

Appearance black/brown

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties Phase Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k

Boron

2
at T/K 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 2427.1 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3659.7 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radius Miscellaneous Magnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Mohs hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of boron
iso
10

N.A. 19.9(7)%* 80.1(7)%*
10

half-life

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

B B

[1] B is stable with 5 neutron [1] B is stable with 6 neutron

11

11

*Boron-10 content may be as low as 19.1% and as high as 20.3% in natural samples. Boron-11 is [2] the remainder in such cases.

boron, B, 5 metalloid13, 2, p10.811(7) g·mol−1 [He] 2s2 2p1 2, 3 (Image) solid 2.08 g·cm−3 2349 K,2076 °C,3769 °F 4200 K,3927 °C,7101 °F 50.2 kJ·mol−1 480 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 11.087 J·mol−1·K−1 4,[3] 3, 2, 1[4] (mildly acidic oxide) 2.04 (Pauling scale) 1st: 800.6 kJ·mol−190 pm84±3 pm diamagnetic[5] (20 °C) ~106Ω·m (300 K) 27.4 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) (ß form) 5–7 [6] µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 16,200 m/s ~9.5 7440-42-8 Boron (pronounced /ˈbɔrɒn/) is the chemical element with atomic number 5 and the chemical symbol B. Boron is a trivalent metalloid element which occurs abundantly in the evaporite ores borax and ulexite. Several allotropes of boron exist: amorphous boron is a brown powder; whereas crystalline boron is black, extremely hard (9.3 on Mohs' scale), and a poor conductor at room temperature. Elemental boron is used as a dopant in the semiconductor industry, while boron compounds play important roles as light structural materials, insecticides and preservatives, and reagents for chemical synthesis. Boron is an essential plant nutrient. Whereas lack of boron results in boron deficiency disorder, high soil concentrations of boron may also be toxic to plants. As an ultratrace element, boron is necessary for the optimal health of rats and presumably other mammals, though its physiological role in animals is not yet fully understood.

Boron

3

Characteristics
Allotropes
Boron is similar to carbon in its capability to form stable covalently bonded molecular networks. Even nominally disordered (amorphous) boron contains regular boron icosahedra which are, however, bonded randomly to each other without long-range order.[7] [8] Crystalline boron is a very hard, black material with a high melting point of above 2000 °C. It exists in four major polymorphs: α, ß, γ and T. Whereas α, ß and T phases are based on B12 icosahedra, the γ-phase can be described as a rocksalt-type arrangement of the icosahedra and B2 atomic pairs.[9] It can be produced by compressing other boron phases to 12-20 GPa and heating to 1500-1800 °C; it remains stable after releasing the temperature and pressure. The T phase is produced Amorphous boron at similar pressures, but higher temperatures of 1800-2200 °C. As to the α and ß phases, they might both coexist at ambient conditions with the ß phase being more stable.[10] [9] Compressing boron above 160 GPa produces a boron phase with an as yet unknown structure, and this phase is a superconductor at temperatures 6-12 K.[11]
Boron phase Symmetry Atoms/unit cell Density (g/cm3) [9] α Rhombohedral 12 2.46 42 185 2 ß Rhombohedral ~105 2.35 45 224 1.6 γ Orthorhombic 28 2.52 50-58 227 2.1 2.36 T Tetragonal

[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]

Vickers hardness (GPa) Bulk modulus (GPa) Bandgap (eV)

[17] [18]

[17] [19]

Chemical
Chemically, boron is closer to silicon than to aluminium. Crystalline boron is chemically inert and resistant to attack by boiling hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid. When finely divided, it is attacked slowly by hot concentrated hydrogen peroxide, hot concentrated nitric acid, hot sulfuric acid or hot mixture of sulfuric and chromic acids.[20] [21] Oxidation of boron depends upon the crystallinity, particle size, purity and temperature. Boron does not react with air at room temperature, but at higher temperatures it burns to form boron trioxide: 4 B + 3 O2 (g) → 2 B2O3 (s) Boron reacts with sulfur to produce boron sulfide: 2 B + 3 S (g) → B2S3 (s) The first synthesis was performed by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1824. Another reaction, starting from boron and hydrogen sulfide, was conducted by Friedrich Wöhler and Henri

Boron Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and published in 1858.[22] 2 B + 3 H2S → B2S3 (s) + 3 H2 Wöhler and Deville also documented vigorous reactions between boron and the halogens resulting in boron trichloride, boron trifluoride and boron tribromide.[23] For example: 2 B + 3 Br2 → 2 BBr3 Boron can form compounds whose formal oxidation state is not three, such as B(IV) in boron carbide BC,[3] B(II) in B2F4,[24] and B(I) in boron fluoride BF.[4] Boron compounds such as BCl3 behave as electrophiles or Lewis acids in their reactions.[25] Boron is the least electronegative non-metal.[26]
[23]

4

Isotopes
Boron has two naturally occurring and stable isotopes, 11B (80.1%) and 10B (19.9%). The mass difference results in a wide range of δ11B values, which are defined as a fractional difference between the 11B and 10B and traditionally expressed in parts per thousand, in natural waters ranging from -16 to +59. There are 13 known isotopes of boron, the shortest-lived isotope is 7B which decays through proton emission and alpha decay. It has a half-life of 3.5×10−22 s. Isotopic fractionation of boron is controlled by the exchange reactions of the boron species B(OH)3 and B(OH)4. Boron isotopes are also fractionated during mineral crystallization, during H2O phase changes in hydrothermal systems, and during hydrothermal alteration of rock. The latter effect results in preferential removal of the 10B(OH)4 ion onto clays. It results in solutions enriched in 11B(OH)3 and therefore may be responsible for the large 11B enrichment in seawater relative to both oceanic crust and continental crust; this difference may act as an isotopic signature. [27] The exotic 17B exhibits a nuclear halo, i.e. its radius is appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.[28] Enriched boron (boron-10) The
10

B isotope is good at

capturing thermal neutrons. Natural boron is about 20% 10B and 80%11B. The nuclear industry enriches natural boron to nearly pure 10B. The waste product, or depleted boron, is nearly pure 11B. 11B is a candidate as a fuel for aneutronic fusion and is used in the semiconductor industry. Enriched boron or 10B is used in both radiation shielding and in boron neutron capture therapy. In the latter, a compound containing 10B is attached to a muscle near a

Neutron cross section of boron (top curve is for for 11B)

10

B and bottom curve

Boron tumor. The patient is then treated with a relatively low dose of thermal neutrons. This causes energetic and short range alpha radiation from the boron to bombard the tumor.[29]
[30] [31]

5

In nuclear reactors, 10B is used for reactivity control and in emergency shutdown systems. It can serve either function in the form of borosilicate control rods or as boric acid. In pressurized water reactors, boric acid is added to the reactor coolant when the plant is shut down for refueling. It is then slowly filtered out over many months as fissile material is used up and the fuel becomes less reactive.[32] In future manned interplanetary spacecraft, 10B has a theoretical role as structural material (as boron fibers or BN nanotube material) which would also serve a special role in the radiation shield. One of the difficulties in dealing with cosmic rays, which are mostly high energy protons, is that some secondary radiation from interaction of cosmic rays and spacecraft materials is high energy spallation neutrons. Such neutrons can be moderated by materials high in light elements such as polyethylene, but the moderated neutrons continue to be a radiation hazard unless actively absorbed in the shielding. Among light elements that absorb thermal neutrons, 6Li and 10B appear as potential spacecraft structural materials which serve both for mechanical reinforcement and radiation protection.[33] Depleted boron (boron-11) Cosmic radiation will produce secondary neutrons if it hits spacecraft structures; and neutrons cause fission in 10B if it is present in the spacecraft's semiconductors, producing a gamma ray, an alpha particle, and a lithium ion. The resultant fission products may then dump charge into nearby semiconductor 'chip' structures, causing data loss (bit flipping, or single event upset). In radiation hardened semiconductor designs, one countermeasure is to use depleted boron which is greatly enriched in 11B and contains almost no 10B. 11B is largely immune to radiation damage. Depleted boron is a by-product of the nuclear industry.[32]
11

B is also a candidate as a fuel for aneutronic fusion. When struck by a proton with energy of about 500 keV, it produces three alpha particles and 8.7 MeV of energy. Most other fusion reactions involving hydrogen and helium produce penetrating neutron radiation, which weakens reactor structures and induces long term radioactivity thereby endangering operating personnel. Whereas, the alpha particles from 11B fusion can be turned directly into electric power, and all radiation stops as soon as the reactor is turned off.[34]

Boron NMR spectroscopy Both 10B and 11B possess nuclear spin. The nuclear spin of 10B is 3 and that of 11B is 3/2. These isotopes are, therefore, of use in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and spectrometers specially adapted to detecting the boron-11 nuclei are available commercially. The 10B and 11B nuclei also cause splitting in the resonances of attached nuclei.[35]

6

Occurrence
Boron is a relatively rare element in the Earth's crust, representing only 0.001%. The worldwide commercial borate deposits are estimated as 10 million tonnes.[36] [37] Turkey and the United States are the world's [38] [39] largest producers of boron. Turkey has almost 72% of the world’s boron reserves.[40] Boron does not appear on Earth in elemental form but is found combined in borax, boric acid, colemanite, kernite, ulexite and borates. Boric acid is sometimes found in volcanic spring waters. Ulexite is a borate mineral; it is a fibrous crystal where individual fibers can guide light like optical fibers.[41] Economically important sources of boron are rasorite (kernite) and tincal (borax ore). They are both found in the Mojave Desert of California, but the largest borax deposits are in Central and Western Turkey including the provinces of Eskişehir, Kütahya and Balıkesir [42]
[43] [44] Borax crystals

A fragment of ulexite

History and etymology
The name boron originates from the Arabic word buraq or the Persian word burah;[45] which are names for the mineral borax.[46] Boron compounds were known thousands of years ago. Borax was known from the deserts of western Tibet, where it received the name of tincal, derived from the Sanskrit. Borax glazes were used in China from AD300, and some tincal even reached the West, where the Arabic alchemist Geber seems to mention it in 700. Marco Polo brought some glazes back to Italy in the 13th century. Agricola, around 1600, reports its use as a flux in metallurgy. In 1777, boric acid was recognized in the hot springs (soffioni) near Florence, Italy, and

Sassolite

Boron became known as sal sedativum, with mainly medical uses. The rare mineral is called sassolite, which is found at Sasso, Italy. This was the main source of European borax from 1827 to 1872, at which date American sources replaced it.[47] [48] Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard in 1808 through the reaction of boric acid and potassium. Davy called the element boracium.[49] Jöns Jakob Berzelius identified boron as an element in 1824. The first pure boron was arguably produced by the American chemist W. Weintraub in 1909.[50] [21]

7

Production
Pure elemental boron is difficult to extract. The earliest methods involved reduction of boric oxide with metals such as magnesium or aluminum. However the product is almost always contaminated with metal borides. Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures. Ultrapure boron, for the use in semiconductor industry, is produced by the decomposition of diborane at high temperatures and then further purified with the zone melting or Czochralski processes.[51]

Isotope enrichment
Because of its high neutron cross-section, boron-10 is often used to control fission in nuclear reactors as neutron-capturing substance. [52] Several industrial-scale enrichment processes have been developed, however only the fractionated vacuum distillation of the dimethyl ether adduct of boron trifluoride (DME-BF3) and column chromatography of borates are being used. [53]

Market trend
Estimated global consumption of boron rose to a record 1.8 million tonnes of B2O3 in 2005, following a period of strong growth in demand from Asia, Europe and North America. Boron mining and refining capacities are considered to be adequate to meet expected levels of growth through the next decade. The form in which boron is consumed has changed in recent years. The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content. Consumers have moved towards the use of refined borates and boric acid that have a lower pollutant content. The average cost of crystalline boron is $5/g.[54] Increasing demand for boric acid has led a number of producers to invest in additional capacity. Eti Mine Company of Turkey opened a new boric acid plant with the production capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year at Emet in 2003. Rio Tinto Group increased the capacity of its boron plant from 260,000 tonnes per year in 2003 to 310,000 tonnes per year by May 2005, with plans to grow this to 366,000 tonnes per year in 2006. Chinese boron producers have been unable to meet rapidly growing demand for high quality borates. This has led to imports of disodium tetraborate growing by a hundredfold between 2000 and 2005 and boric acid imports increasing by 28% per year over the same period.[55] [56] The rise in global demand has been driven by high growth rates in fiberglass and borosilicate production. A rapid increase in the manufacture of reinforcement-grade fiberglass in Asia with a consequent increase in demand for borates has offset the development of boron-free reinforcement-grade fiberglass in Europe and the USA. The recent rises in energy prices may lead to greater use of insulation-grade fiberglass, with consequent growth in the boron consumption. Roskill Consulting Group forecasts that

Boron world demand for boron will grow by 3.4% per year to reach 21 million tonnes by 2010. The highest growth in demand is expected to be in Asia where demand could rise by an average 5.7% per year.[55] [57]

8

Applications
Glass and ceramics
Nearly all boron ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into boric acid and sodium tetraborate. In the United States, 70% of the boron is used for the production of glass and ceramics.[58] Borosilicate glass, which is typically 12%-15% B2O3, 80% SiO2, and 2% Al2O3, has a low coefficient of thermal expansion giving it a good resistance to thermal shock. Duran and Pyrex are two major brand names for this glass.[59] Boron filaments are high-strength, lightweight

materials that are chiefly used for advanced aerospace structures as a component of composite materials, as well as limited production consumer and sporting goods such as golf clubs and fishing rods.[60] [61] The fibers can be produced by chemical vapor deposition of boron on a tungsten filament.[38] [62] Boron fibers and sub-millimeter sized crystalline boron
Borosilicate glassware. Displayed are two beakers and a test tube.

springs are produced by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Translation of the focused laser beam allows to produce even complex helical structures. Such structures show good mechanical properties (elastic modulus 450 GPa, fracture strain 3.7 %, fracture stress 17 GPa) and can be applied as reinforcement of ceramics or in micromechanical systems.[63]

Semiconductor industry
Boron is an important technological dopant for such important semiconductors as silicon, germanium and silicon carbide. Having one less valence electron than the host atom, it donates a hole resulting in p-type conductivity. Traditional method of introducing boron into semiconductors is via its atomic diffusion at high temperatures. This process uses either solid (B2O3), liquid (BBr3) or gaseous boron sources (B2H6 or BF3). However, after 1970s, it was mostly replaced by ion implantation, which relies mostly on BF3 as a boron source.[64] Boron trichloride gas is also an important chemical in semiconductor industry, however not for doping but rather for plasma etching of metals and their oxides.[65]

Boron

9

Engineering materials
Boron carbide, a ceramic material which is obtained by decomposing B2O3 with carbon in the electric furnace: 2 B2O3 + 7 C → B4C + 6 CO It is used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, and numerous other structural applications. Its ability to absorb neutrons without forming long lived radionuclides makes the material attractive as an absorbent for neutron radiation arising in nuclear power plants. Nuclear applications of boron carbide include shielding, control rod and shut down pellets. Within control rods, boron carbide is often powdered, to increase its surface area.[66]

Boron carbide is used for inner plates of ballistic vests

Magnesium diboride is an important superconducting material with the transition temperature of 39 K. MgB2 wires are produced with the powder-in-tube process and applied in superconducting magnets.[67] [68] Boron is a part of neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B), which is the strongest type of permanent magnet. It is found in all kinds of domestic and professional electromechanical and electronic devices, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), various motors and actuators, computer HDDs, CD and DVD players, mobile phones, timer switches, speakers, etc.[5]

High-hardness compounds Mechanical properties of BCN solids
Material Vickers hardness (GPa) Fracture toughness (MPa m1/2) Diamond 115 5.3 cubic-BC2N 76 4.5 cubic-BC5 71 9.5 cubic-BN 62 6.8 B4C 38 3.5 ReB2 22

Several boron compounds are known for their extreme hardness and toughness, including • Heterodiamond (also called BCN); • Boron nitride. This material is isoelectronic to carbon. Similar to carbon, it has both hexagonal (soft graphite-like h-BN) and cubic (hard, diamond-like c-BN) forms. h-BN is used as a high temperature component and lubricant. c-BN, also known under commercial name borazon,[69] is a superior abrasive. Its hardness is only slightly smaller, but chemical stability is superior to that of diamond. • Rhenium diboride can be produced at ambient pressures, but is rather expensive because of rhenium. The hardness of ReB2 exhibits considerable anisotropy because of its hexagonal layered structure. Its value is comparable to that of tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, titanium diboride or zirconium diboride.[70] • AlMgB14 + TiB2 composites possess high hardness and wear resistance and are used in either bulk form or as coatings for components exposed to high temperatures and wear loads. [71]

Boron Boron carbide and cubic boron nitride powders are widely used as abrasives. Metal borides are used for coating tools through chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition. Implantation of boron ions into metals and alloys, through ion implantation or ion beam deposition, results in a spectacular increase in surface resistance and microhardness. Laser alloying has also been successfully used for the same purpose. These borides are an alternative to diamond coated tools, and their (treated) surfaces have similar properties to those of the bulk boride. [72]

10

In chemistry
Sodium tetraborate pentahydrate (Na2B4O7 • 5H2O) is used in large amounts in making insulating fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach.[73] Sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Na2B4O7 • 10 H2O) can be found in adhesives and in anti-corrosion systems.[74] Sodium borates are used as a flux for soldering silver and gold and with ammonium chloride for welding ferrous metals.[75] They are also fire retarding additives to plastics and rubber articles.[76] Sodium perborate serves as a source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. It is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas.[73] Boric acid (also known as orthoboric acid) H3BO3 is used in the production of textile fiberglass and flat panel displays.[77] It also has antiseptic, antifungal, and antiviral properties and for this reasons is applied as a water clarifier in swimming pool water treatment.[78] Boric acid is also traditionally used as an insecticide, notably against ants, fleas, and cockroaches.[79] Triethylborane is a substance which ignites the JP-7 fuel of the Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet/ramjet engines powering the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird.[80] It was also used to ignite the F-1 Engines on the Saturn V Rocket utilized by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. Triethylborane is suitable for this because of its pyrophoric properties, especially the fact that it burns with very high temperature.[81] Triethylborane is an industrial initiator in radical Navy emergency flare reactions, where it is effective even at low temperatures. It is also injected into vapor deposition reactors as a boron source. Examples are the plasma deposition of boron-containing hard carbon films, silicon nitride-boron nitride films, and for doping of diamond film with boron.[82] Boron compounds show promise in treating arthritis.[83] Because of its distinctive green flame, amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares.[84] It is also used as a melting point depressant in nickel-chromium braze alloys.[85]

Boron

11

Biological role
There is a boron-containing natural antibiotic, boromycin, isolated from streptomyces.[86] [87] Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls. Conversely, high soil concentrations of > 1.0 ppm can cause marginal and tip necrosis in leaves as well as poor overall growth performance. Levels as low as 0.8 ppm can cause these same symptoms to appear in plants particularly sensitive to boron in the soil. Nearly all plants, even those somewhat tolerant of boron in the soil, will show at least some symptoms of boron toxicity when boron content in the soil is greater than 1.8 ppm. When this content exceeds 2.0 ppm, few plants will perform well and some may not survive. When boron levels in plant tissue exceed 200 ppm symptoms of boron toxicity are likely to appear.[88] [89] [90] As an ultratrace element, boron is necessary for the optimal health of rats, although it is necessary in such small amounts that ultrapurified foods and dust filtration of air is necessary to show the effects of boron deficiency, which manifest as poor coat/hair quality. Presumably, boron is necessary to other mammals. No deficiency syndrome in humans has been described. Small amounts of boron occur widely in the diet, and the amounts needed in the diet would, by analogy with rodent studies, is very small. The exact physiological role of boron in the animal kingdom is poorly understood.[91] Boron occurs in all foods produced from plants. Since 1989 its nutritional value has been argued. It is thought that boron plays several biochemical roles in animals, including humans.[92] The U.S. Department of agriculture conducted an experiment in which postmenopausal women took 3 mg of boron a day. The results showed that supplemental boron reduced excretion of calcium by 44%, and activated estrogen and vitamin D. However, whether these effects were conventionally nutritional, or medicinal, could not be determined. The US National Institutes of Health quotes this source: Total daily boron intake in normal human diets ranges from 2.1–4.3 mg boron/kg body weight (bw)/day. [93] [94]

Analytical quantification
For determination of boron content in food or materials the colorimetric curcumin method is used. Boron has to be transferred to boric acid or borates and on reaction with curcumin in acidic solution, a red colored boron-chelate complex, rosocyanine, is formed.[95]

Health issues
Elemental boron and borates are non-toxic to humans and animals (approximately similar to table salt). The LD50 (dose at which there is 50% mortality) for animals is about 6 g per kg of body weight. Substances with LD50 above 2 g are considered non-toxic. The minimum lethal dose for humans has not been established, but an intake of 4 g/day was reported without incidents, and medical dosages of 20 g of boric acid for neutron capture therapy caused no problems. Fish have survived for 30 min in a saturated boric acid solution and can survive longer in strong borax solutions.[96] Borates are more toxic to insects than to mammals. The boranes and similar gaseous compounds are quite poisonous. As usual, it is not an element that is intrinsically poisonous, but toxicity depends on structure.[47] [48] The boranes (boron hydrogen compounds) are toxic as well as highly flammable and require special care when handling. Sodium borohydride presents a fire hazard due to its reducing

Boron nature, and the liberation of hydrogen on contact with acid. Boron halides are corrosive.[97] Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2, a rare form of corneal dystrophy, is linked to mutations in SLC4A11 gene that encodes a transporter reportedly regulating the intracellular concentration of boron.[98]

12

See also
• • • • • • • • • Allotropes of boron Category:Boron compounds Boron deficiency Boron oxide Boron nitride Boron neutron capture therapy Boronic acid Hydroboration-oxidation reaction Suzuki coupling

External links
• Boron [99] • WebElements.com – Boron [100] • National Pollutant Inventory - Boron and compounds
[101]

References
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[89] " Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition (http:/ / www. borax. com/ agriculture/ files/ an203. pdf)" (PDF). U.S. Borax Inc.. . [90] Blevins, Dale G.; Lukaszewski, Krystyna M. (1998). "Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49: 481–500. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.481 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1146/ annurev. arplant. 49. 1. 481). [91] Nielsen, Forrest H. (1998). "Ultratrace elements in nutrition: Current knowledge and speculation". The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 11 (2–3): 251–274. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-670X(1998)11:2/3<251::AID-JTRA15>3.0.CO;2-Q (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ (SICI)1520-670X(1998)11:2/ 3<251::AID-JTRA15>3. 0. CO;2-Q). [92] " Boron (http:/ / www. pdrhealth. com/ drug_info/ nmdrugprofiles/ nutsupdrugs/ bor_0040. shtml)". PDRhealth. . Retrieved 2008-09-18. [93] Zook, E. G.; Lehman, J. (1965). "Total boron". J. Assoc. Off Agric. Chem 48: 850. [94] United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Staff (1993). Health advisories for drinking water contaminants: United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water health advisories (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=trUdm-GXchIC& pg=PA84). CRC Press. p. 84. ISBN 087371931X. . [95] Silverman, L.; Trego K. (1953). "Corrections-Colorimetric Microdetermination of Boron By The Curcumin-Acetone Solution Method". Anal. Chem. 25: 1639. doi: 10.1021/ac60083a061 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ac60083a061). [96] Donald E. Garrett (1998). Borates (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=imMJJP5T5rsC& pg=PA385). Academic Press. p. 385. ISBN 0122760603. . [97] " Environmental Health Criteria 204: Boron (http:/ / www. inchem. org/ documents/ ehc/ ehc/ ehc204. htm)". the IPCS. 1998. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [98] Vithana, En; Morgan, P; Sundaresan, P; Ebenezer, Nd; Tan, Dt; Mohamed, Md; Anand, S; Khine, Ko; Venkataraman, D; Yong, Vh; Salto-Tellez, M; Venkatraman, A; Guo, K; Hemadevi, B; Srinivasan, M; Prajna, V; Khine, M; Casey, Jr; Inglehearn, Cf; Aung, T (Jul 2006). "Mutations in sodium-borate cotransporter SLC4A11 cause recessive congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED2).". Nature genetics 38 (7): 755–7. doi: 10.1038/ng1824 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ ng1824). ISSN 1061-4036 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 1061-4036). PMID 16767101. [99] http:/ / www. du. edu/ ~jcalvert/ phys/ boron. htm [100] http:/ / www. webelements. com/ boron/ [101] http:/ / www. npi. gov. au/ database/ substance-info/ profiles/ 15. html

16

Article Sources and Contributors

17

Article Sources and Contributors
Boron  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307040971  Contributors: 2D, 8472, Abradude, Ace of Spades IV, Acroterion, Adrian.benko, Ak BigTrouble, Akldawgs, Alan012, Alanmarkrussell, Alansohn, Alex43223, Alexeymorgunov, AlexiusHoratius, Andre Engels, Andres, Andrew Kanaber, Antandrus, Anwar saadat, Aoganov, Applekid, Archfiendweazal, Archimerged, Arr0n456, Asiir, AtheWeatherman, Ausir, Aussie Alchemist, Avidallred, Avnjay, BRG, Bagatelle, Bantman, Bart133, Barticus88, Bassbonerocks, Beetstra, Bender235, Benjah-bmm27, Beyondthislife, Birdman1, Bkell, Blackangel25, BlueDevil, Bobkeyes, Bomac, Boron1111, Brighterorange, Brockert, Bryan Derksen, Bryce, Bunny Angel13, CWii, CYD, Cacycle, Calabraxthis, Calvin 1998, CanadianLinuxUser, Canley, CapitalR, Capricorn42, Captqrunch, CardinalDan, Carnildo, Cflm001, CharlesC, ChemNerd, Chowbok, Chris Dybala, Christian75, Ciphergoth, Closedmouth, Condem, Conversion script, CopperKettle, Coppertwig, Corbon, Cosmium, Cramapple, Cuchullain, Cyrloc, DRTllbrg, DVD R W, DabMachine, Danski14, Darrien, Darth Panda, David Latapie, DeadEyeArrow, Delldot, Delta G, DennyColt, DerHexer, Dhp1080, Die2u2, Dino, Discospinster, Dlae, Doctorfluffy, Drilnoth, Dwmyers, Dycedarg, ESRFBeam, EdJohnston, Edcolins, Edgar181, Edsanville, El C, Elassint, Eldin raigmore, Eltomzo, Emmyparker, Emperorbma, Epbr123, Eric119, Erik Zachte, Escape Artist Swyer, Evand, FJPB, Facka, FaerieInGrey, Faradayplank, Farosdaughter, Femto, FengRail, Frank Warmerdam, Frankenpuppy, Freedomlinux, Frencheigh, Frymaster, Funeral, Funky Monkey, Fvw, GFZLab, Gamer6484, Gary Cziko, Gene Nygaard, Giftlite, Glenn, Gluckman, Gman124, Grendelkhan, Gryphn, Hak-kâ-ngìn, Hanswaarle, HappyM, HappyVR, Harland1, Haza-w, Hda3ku, Hdt83, Helixblue, HenryLi, Herbee, HexaChord, Hibernian, Hockeyplayer101, HowardJWilk, Icairns, Iridescent, Itub, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, JRM, James A. Stewart, Jan eissfeldt, Jaraalbe, Jeff G., Jeronimo, Jetru, Jjeffrey, John, JohnCD, Jose77, Josh Parris, Jossi, Jrockley, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Katalaveno, Ke1v234, Keilana, KnowledgeOfSelf, Komojo, KonradG, Krellis, Ksbrown, Ktsquare, Kurykh, Kusunose, Kwamikagami, L'Aquatique, LA2, Lauriemchorse, Lawrence Cohen, Lazulilasher, LeaveSleaves, Lec CRP1, LightAnkh, LilHelpa, LinaMishima, Ling.Nut, Lon of Oakdale, LorenzoB, LtPowers, LuigiManiac, Lxseto93, MER-C, MPerel, MZMcBride, Madmarigold, Majestik Moose, Mani1, Marcsin, Marnanel, Master of Puppets, Materialscientist, Mav, Mayz, Mazca, McDogm, Mdf, Megaboz, Megan1967, Mgimpel, Mikemill, Milkbreath, Minesweeper, Minnesota1, Miss Madeline, MisterSheik, Mongreilf, Movedgood, Mr0t1633, MrFish, Mufka, Mxn, Mygerardromance, NHRHS2010, Naaa127, Nakon, Nandita 115, Nantoz, Navnløs, NbmMudder, Neillawrence, Nergaal, Netkinetic, Neutrality, Nickptar, Night Gyr, Nihiltres, Nik42, Nilmerg, Nk, Nono64, Noplasma, Numbo3, Ohnoitsjamie, Old Moonraker, Oliver Lineham, Olivier, Orca432, Oxymoron83, PDH, PStatic, Pabouk, Parker2334, PatVanHove, Paul from Michigan, Pb30, Pe1er1, Pegasus1138, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Phgao, Philip Trueman, PierreAbbat, Pikna, Pirkid, Pixel ;-), Pixelface, Plantsurfer, PoliteCarbide, Polonium, Poolkris, Pretzelpaws, Pschemp, Pseudomonas, Psyche825, Puchiko, Pyrotec, Quadell, RTC, RaseaC, Rawling, Red Thunder, RedCoat10, RedWolf, Remember, RexNL, Reyk, Reza kalani, Riana, Rich Farmbrough, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Richardb43, Richfife, Richnotts, Rifleman 82, Rjwilmsi, Robert Foley, Roberta F., Romanm, RoyBoy, Rplix, Rtcoles, Rursus, RyanJones, SEWilco, SH84, SMC, Salem 20078, SamWhitey, Sandahl, Saperaud, Sbharris, Sbmehta, ScaldingHotSoup, Schneelocke, Scott Burley, Sengkang, Shaddack, Shanes, Shirulashem, Sho Uemura, Shrew, Sietse Snel, Skarebo, SkyLined, Sl, Slowking Man, Slucas, Smokefoot, Snaxe920, Soliloquial, Solipsist, Solitude, Someone else, Squids and Chips, Ssbb1234, Staffwaterboy, StephanieM, Stephenb, Steve Crossin, Steven69, Stone, StrontiumDogs, Stui, Stwalkerster, Suisui, Sunborn, Supercoop, Syrthiss, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Taqi Haider, Tavilis, Tempodivalse, Tetracube, The Toque, TheSeer, Thingg, Thricecube, Thyraxus, Tim Starling, Tiphareth, Tiptoety, Titoxd, Tlusťa, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Tom harrison, Travis.Thurston, Trevor MacInnis, Trojancowboy, Trovatore, Ungvichian, Until It Sleeps, Urhixidur, VASANTH S.N., Vcelloho, Vikingforties, Viriditas, Voyagerfan5761, Vsmith, Vssun, Walkerma, Walton One, Warut, Watch37264, Whitepaw, Whkoh, Wikiman7, Wikisaver62, Wknight94, Woohookitty, Wyllium, Xiong Chiamiov, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yyy, Zach4636, Zelator, Zfr, Zotel, 948 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:Unknown.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Unknown.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mav file:Electron shell 005 Boron.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_005_Boron.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:Boron mNACTEC.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Boron_mNACTEC.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Xvazquez File:Bor 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bor_1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Maksim Image:Neutroncrosssectionboron.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Neutroncrosssectionboron.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Helix84 Image:ulexita br.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ulexita_br.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Andresboni, Ra'ike Image:Borax crystals.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Borax_crystals.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Aramgutang File:Sassolite.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sassolite.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Aramgutang File:Schott Duran glassware.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schott_Duran_glassware.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Skatebiker at en.wikipedia Image:Bodyarmor.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bodyarmor.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Jwissick, 3 anonymous edits Image:Navy emergency flare.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Navy_emergency_flare.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Kb

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Carbon

1

Carbon
boron ← carbon → nitrogen ↑ C ↓ Si

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HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

6C
Periodic table

Appearance Clear (diamond), black (graphite)

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Density (near r.t.) Density (near r.t.) Sublimation pointTriple pointHeat of fusionSpecific heat capacity Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Magnetic orderingThermal conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound

Carbon (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusPoisson ratioMohs hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of carbon
iso
12

2

N.A. 98.9% 1.1% trace
12

half-life C is stable with 6 neutron C is stable with 7 neutron beta-

DM

DE (MeV)

DP 15

C C C

13

13

14

5730 y

0.156

14

N

carbon, C, 6 nonmetal14, 2, p12.0107 g·mol−1 1s2 2s2 2p2 or [He] 2s2 2p2 2,4 (Image) Solid amorphous:[1] 1.8 - 2.1 g·cm−3 graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3 diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3 3915 K,3642 °C,6588 °F 4600 K (4327°C), 10800[2] [3]  kPa 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 8.517(graphite), 6.155(diamond) J·mol−1·K−14, 3 [4] , 2, 1 [5] , 0, -1, -2, -3, -4[6] 2.55 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm 170 pm diamagnetic[7] (300 K) 119-165 (graphite) 900-2300 (diamond) W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond) [8] µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m/s 1050 (diamond) [8] GPa 478 (diamond) [8] GPa 442 (diamond) [8] GPa 0.1 (diamond) [8] 1-2 (Graphite) 10 (Diamond) 7440-44-0 Carbon (pronounced /ˈkɑrbən/) is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5730 years.[9] Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[10] [11] The name "carbon" comes from Latin language carbo, coal, and, in some Romance and Slavic languages, the word carbon can refer both to the element and to coal. There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.[12] The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, diamond is highly transparent, while graphite is opaque and black. Diamond is among the hardest materials known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek word "to write"). Diamond has a very low electrical conductivity, while graphite is a very good conductor. Under normal conditions, diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of all known materials. All the allotropic forms are solids under normal conditions but graphite is the most thermodynamically stable. All forms of carbon are highly stable, requiring high temperature to react even with oxygen. The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and other transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil and methane clathrates. Carbon forms more compounds than any other element, with almost ten million pure organic compounds described to date, which in turn are a tiny fraction of such compounds that are theoretically possible under standard conditions.[13] Carbon is one of the least abundant elements in the Earth's crust, but the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is present in all known lifeforms, and in the human body carbon is the second most abundant element

Carbon by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.[14] This abundance, together with the unique diversity of organic compounds and their unusual polymer-forming ability at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth, make this element the chemical basis of all known life.

3

Characteristics
The different forms or allotropes of carbon (see below) include the hardest naturally occurring substance, diamond, and also one of the softest known substances, graphite. Moreover, it has an affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with such atoms. As a result, carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds; the large majority of all chemical compounds.[13] Carbon also has the highest Theoretically predicted phase diagram melting and sublimation point of all elements. At of carbon atmospheric pressure it has no melting point as its triple point is at 10.8 ± 0.2 MPa and 4600 ± 300 K,[2] [3] [15] [16] so it sublimates at about 3900 K. . Carbon sublimes in a carbon arc which has a temperature of about 5800 K. Thus, irrespective of its allotropic form, carbon remains solid at higher temperatures than the highest melting point metals such as tungsten or rhenium. Although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature. Carbon compounds form the basis of all known so far life on Earth, and the carbon-nitrogen cycle provides some of the energy produced by the Sun and other stars. Although it forms an extraordinary variety of compounds, most forms of carbon are comparatively unreactive under normal conditions. At standard temperature and pressure, it resists all but the strongest oxidizers. It does not react with sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, chlorine or any alkalis. At elevated temperatures carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon oxides, and will reduce such metal oxides as iron oxide to the metal. This exothermic reaction is used in the iron and steel industry to control the carbon content of steel: Fe3O4 + 4 C(s) → 3 Fe(s) + 4 CO(g) with sulfur to form carbon disulfide and with steam in the coal-gas reaction C(s) + H2O(g) → CO(g) + H2(g). Carbon combines with some metals at high temperatures to form metallic carbides, such as the iron carbide cementite in steel, and tungsten carbide, widely used as an abrasive and for making hard tips for cutting tools. As to 2009, graphene appears the strongest material ever tested.[17] However, the process of separating it from graphite will require some technological development before it is economical enough to be used in industrial processes.[18] The system of carbon allotropes spans a range of extremes:
Synthetic nanocrystalline diamond is the hardest materials known. Diamond is the ultimate abrasive. Graphite is one of the softest materials known.

Graphite is a very good lubricant.

Carbon

4
Graphite is a conductor of electricity. Some forms of graphite are used for thermal insulation (i.e. firebreaks and heat shields) Graphite is opaque. Graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system. Carbon nanotubes are among the most anisotropic materials ever produced.

Diamond is an excellent electrical insulator. Diamond is the best known naturally occurring thermal conductor Diamond is highly transparent. Diamond crystallizes in the cubic system. Amorphous carbon is completely isotropic.

Allotropes
Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and therefore, carbon is stabilized in various multi-atomic structures with different molecular configurations called allotropes. The three relatively well-known allotropes of carbon are amorphous carbon, graphite, and diamond. Once considered exotic, fullerenes are nowadays commonly synthesized and used in research; they include buckyballs,[19] [20] carbon nanotubes,[21] carbon nanobuds[22] and nanofibers.[23] [24] Several other exotic allotropes have also been discovered, such as lonsdaleite,[25] glassy carbon,[26] carbon nanofoam[27] and linear acetylenic carbon.[28] • The amorphous form, is an assortment of carbon atoms in a non-crystalline, irregular, glassy state, which is essentially graphite but not held in a crystalline macrostructure. It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoal, lampblack (soot) and activated carbon. • At normal pressures carbon takes the form of graphite, in which each atom is bonded trigonally to three others in a plane composed of fused hexagonal rings, just like those in aromatic hydrocarbons. The resulting network is 2-dimensional, and the resulting flat sheets are stacked and loosely bonded through weak Van der Waals forces. This gives graphite its softness and its cleaving properties (the sheets slip easily past one another). Because of the delocalization of one of the outer electrons of each atom to form a π-cloud, graphite conducts electricity, but only in the plane of each covalently bonded sheet. This results in a lower bulk electrical conductivity for carbon than for most metals. The delocalization also accounts for the energetic stability of graphite over diamond at room temperature.

Carbon

5

• At very high pressures carbon forms the more compact allotrope diamond, having nearly twice the density of graphite. Here, each atom is bonded tetrahedrally to four others, thus making a 3-dimensional network of puckered six-membered rings of atoms. Diamond has the same cubic structure as silicon and germanium and, thanks to the strength of the carbon-carbon bonds is the hardest naturally occurring substance in terms of resistance to scratching. Contrary to the popular belief that "diamonds are forever", they are in fact thermodynamically unstable Some allotropes of carbon: a) diamond; b) graphite; c) lonsdaleite; d–f) under normal conditions fullerenes (C60, C540, C70); g) amorphous carbon; h) carbon nanotube. and transform into graphite.[12] But due to a high activation energy barrier, the transition into graphite is so extremely slow at room temperature as to be unnoticeable. • Under some conditions, carbon crystallizes as lonsdaleite. This form has a hexagonal crystal lattice where all atoms are covalently bonded. Therefore, all properties of lonsdaleite are close to those of diamond. [25] • Fullerenes have a graphite-like structure, but instead of purely hexagonal packing, they also contain pentagons (or even heptagons) of carbon atoms, which bend the sheet into spheres, ellipses or cylinders. The properties of fullerenes (split into buckyballs, buckytubes and nanobuds) have not yet been fully analyzed and represents an intense area of research in nanomaterials. The names "fullerene" and "buckyball" are given after Richard Buckminster Fuller, popularizer of geodesic domes, which resemble the structure of fullerenes. The buckyballs are fairly large molecules formed completely of carbon bonded trigonally, forming spheroids (the best-known and simplest is the soccerball-shaped structure C60 buckminsterfullerene).[19] Carbon nanotubes are structurally similar to buckyballs, except that each atom is bonded trigonally in a curved sheet that forms a hollow cylinder.[20] [21] Nanobuds were first published in 2007 and are hybrid bucky tube/buckyball materials (buckyballs are covalently bonded to the outer wall of a nanotube) that combine the properties of both in a single structure.[22] • Of the other discovered allotropes, Carbon nanofoam is a ferromagnetic allotrope discovered in 1997. It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web, in which the atoms are bonded trigonally in

Carbon six- and seven-membered rings. It is among the lightest known solids, with a density of about 2 kg/m³.[29] Similarly, glassy carbon contains a high proportion of closed porosity.[26] But unlike normal graphite, the graphitic layers are not stacked like pages in a book, but have a more random arrangement. Linear acetylenic carbon[28] has the chemical structure[28] -(C:::C)n- .Carbon in this modification is linear with sp orbital hybridization, and is a polymer with alternating single and triple bonds. This type of carbyne is of considerable interest to nanotechnology as its Young's modulus is forty times that of the hardest known material - diamond.[30]

6

Occurrence
An estimate of the global carbon budget: Biosphere, oceans, atmosphere 0.45 x 1018 kilograms Crust Organic carbon Carbonates Mantle 1200 x 1018 kg 13.2 x 1018 kg 62.4 x 1018 kg

Carbon is the fourth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon is abundant in the Sun, stars, comets, and in the atmospheres of most planets. Some meteorites contain microscopic diamonds that were formed when the solar system was still a protoplanetary disk. Microscopic diamonds may also be formed by the intense pressure and high temperature at the sites of meteorite impacts.[31]
Graphite ore

In combination with oxygen in carbon dioxide, carbon is found in the Earth's atmosphere (in quantities of approximately 810 gigatonnes) and dissolved in all water bodies (approximately 36,000 gigatons). Around 1,900 gigatons are present in the biosphere. Hydrocarbons (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas) contain carbon as well—coal "reserves" (not "resources") amount to around 900 gigatons, and oil reserves around 150 gigatons. With smaller amounts of calcium, magnesium, and iron, carbon is a major component in very large masses of carbonate rock (limestone, dolomite, marble etc.).

Raw diamond crystal.

Carbon

7

Coal is a significant commercial source of mineral carbon; anthracite containing 92–98% carbon[32] and the largest source (4,000 Gt, or 80% of coal, gas and oil reserves) of carbon in a form suitable for use as fuel.[33] Graphite is found in large quantities in New York and Texas, the United States, Russia, Mexico, Greenland, and India. Natural diamonds occur in the rock kimberlite, found in "Present day" (1990s) sea surface ancient volcanic "necks," or "pipes". Most diamond dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (from the GLODAP deposits are in Africa, notably in South Africa, Namibia, climatology) Botswana, the Republic of the Congo, and Sierra Leone. There are also deposits in Arkansas, Canada, the Russian Arctic, Brazil and in Northern and Western Australia. Diamonds are now also being recovered from the ocean floor off the Cape of Good Hope. However, though diamonds are found naturally, about 30% of all industrial diamonds used in the U.S. are now made synthetically. Carbon-14 is formed in upper layers of the troposphere and the stratosphere, at altitudes of 9–15 km, by a reaction that is precipitated by cosmic rays. Thermal neutrons are produced that collide with the nuclei of nitrogen-14, forming carbon-14 and a proton.

Isotopes
Isotopes of carbon are atomic nuclei that contain six protons plus a number of neutrons (varying from 2 to 16). Carbon has two stable, naturally occurring isotopes.[9] The isotope carbon-12 (12C) forms 98.93% of the carbon on Earth, while carbon-13 (13C) forms the remaining 1.07%.[9] The concentration of 12C is further increased in biological materials because biochemical reactions discriminate against 13C.[34] In 1961 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted the isotope carbon-12 as the basis for atomic weights.[35] Identification of carbon in NMR experiments is done with the isotope 13 C. Carbon-14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioisotope which occurs in trace amounts on Earth of up to 1 part per trillion (0.0000000001%), mostly confined to the atmosphere and superficial deposits, particularly of peat and other organic materials.[36] This isotope decays by 0.158 MeV β- emission. Because of its relatively short half-life of 5730 years, 14C is virtually absent in ancient rocks, but is created in the upper atmosphere (lower stratosphere and upper troposphere) by interaction of nitrogen with cosmic rays.[37] The abundance of 14C in the atmosphere and in living organisms is almost constant, but decreases predictably in their bodies after death. This principle is used in radiocarbon dating, invented in 1949, which has been used extensively to determine the age of carbonaceous materials with ages up to about 40,000 years.[38] [39] There are 15 known isotopes of carbon and the shortest-lived of these is 8C which decays through proton emission and alpha decay and has a half-life of 1.98739x10-21 s.[40] The exotic 19C exhibits a nuclear halo, which means its radius is appreciably larger than would be expected if the nucleus was a sphere of constant density.[41]

Carbon

8

Formation in stars
Formation of the carbon atomic nucleus requires a nearly simultaneous triple collision of alpha particles (helium nuclei) within the core of a giant or supergiant star. This happens in conditions of temperature and helium concentration that the rapid expansion and cooling of the early universe prohibited, and therefore no significant carbon was created during the Big Bang. Instead, the interiors of stars in the horizontal branch transform three helium nuclei into carbon by means of this triple-alpha process. In order to be available for formation of life as we know it, this carbon must then later be scattered into space as dust, in supernova explosions, as part of the material which later forms second, third-generation star systems which have planets accreted from such dust. The Solar System is one such third-generation star system. One of the fusion mechanisms powering stars is the carbon-nitrogen cycle. Rotational transitions of various isotopic forms of carbon monoxide (e.g. 12CO, 13CO, and C18O) are detectable in the submillimeter regime, and are used in the study of newly forming stars in molecular clouds.

Carbon cycle
Under terrestrial conditions, conversion of one element to another is very rare. Therefore, the amount of carbon on Earth is effectively constant. Thus, processes that use carbon must obtain it somewhere and dispose of it somewhere else. The paths that carbon follows in the environment make up the carbon cycle. For example, plants draw carbon dioxide out of their environment and use it to build biomass, as in carbon respiration or the Calvin cycle, a process of Diagram of the carbon cycle. The black numbers indicate how carbon fixation. Some of this much carbon is stored in various reservoirs, in billions of tons ("GtC" stands for gigatons of carbon; figures are circa 2004). The biomass is eaten by animals, purple numbers indicate how much carbon moves between whereas some carbon is exhaled reservoirs each year. The sediments, as defined in this diagram, by animals as carbon dioxide. The do not include the ~70 million GtC of carbonate rock and carbon cycle is considerably more kerogen. complicated than this short loop; for example, some carbon dioxide is dissolved in the oceans; dead plant or animal matter may become petroleum or coal, which can burn with the release of carbon, should bacteria not consume it.[42]

Carbon

9

Compounds
Organic compounds
Carbon has the ability to form very long chains of interconnecting C-C bonds. This property is called catenation. Carbon-carbon bonds are strong, and stable. This property allows carbon to form an almost infinite number of compounds; in fact, there are more known carbon-containing compounds than all the compounds of the other chemical elements combined except those of hydrogen (because almost all organic compounds contain hydrogen too).

Structural formula of methane, the simplest possible organic compound.

Correlation between the carbon cycle and formation of organic compounds. In plants, carbon dioxide formed by carbon fixation can join with water in photosynthesis (green) to form organic compounds, which can be utilized and further converted by both plants and animals.

Carbon

10 The simplest form of an organic molecule is the hydrocarbon—a large family of organic molecules that are composed of hydrogen atoms bonded to a chain of carbon atoms. Chain length, side chains and functional groups all affect the properties of organic molecules. By IUPAC's definition, all the other organic compounds are functionalized compounds of hydrocarbons.

Carbon occurs in all known organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry. When united with hydrogen, it forms various flammable compounds called hydrocarbons which are important to industry as refrigerants, lubricants, solvents, as chemical feedstock for the manufacture of plastics and petrochemicals and as fossil fuels.
Carbon is the basis for all plastic materials that are used in common household items.

When combined with oxygen and hydrogen, carbon can form many groups of important biological compounds including sugars, lignans, chitins, alcohols, fats, and aromatic esters, carotenoids and terpenes. With nitrogen it forms alkaloids, and with the addition of sulfur also it forms antibiotics, amino acids, and rubber products. With the addition of phosphorus to these other elements, it forms DNA and RNA, the chemical-code carriers of life, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the most important energy-transfer molecule in all living cells.

Inorganic compounds
Commonly carbon-containing compounds which are associated with minerals or which do not contain hydrogen or fluorine, are treated separately from classical organic compounds; however the definition is not rigid (see reference articles above). Among these are the simple oxides of carbon. The most prominent oxide is carbon dioxide (CO2). This was once the principal constituent of the paleoatmosphere, but is a minor component of the Earth's atmosphere today.[43] Dissolved in water, it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), but as most compounds with multiple single-bonded oxygens on a single carbon it is unstable.[44] Through this intermediate, though, resonance-stabilized carbonate ions are produced. Some important minerals are carbonates, notably calcite. Carbon disulfide (CS2) is similar. The other common oxide is carbon monoxide (CO). It is formed by incomplete combustion, and is a colorless, odorless gas. The molecules each contain a triple bond and are fairly polar, resulting in a tendency to bind permanently to hemoglobin molecules, displacing oxygen, which has a lower binding affinity.[45] [46] Cyanide (CN–), has a similar structure, but behaves much like a halide ion (pseudohalogen). For example it can form the nitride cyanogen molecule ((CN)2), similar to diatomic halides. Other uncommon oxides are carbon suboxide (C3O2),[47] the unstable dicarbon monoxide (C2O),[48] [49] carbon trioxide (CO3), [50] [51] cyclopentanepentone (C5O5) [52] , cyclohexanehexone (C6O6) [52] , and mellitic anhydride (C12O9). With reactive metals, such as tungsten, carbon forms either carbides (C4–), or acetylides (C2−2) to form alloys with high melting points. These anions are also associated with methane and acetylene, both very weak acids. With an electronegativity of 2.5,[53] carbon prefers to form covalent bonds. A few carbides are covalent lattices, like carborundum (SiC), which resembles diamond.

Carbon

11

Organometallic compounds
Organometallic compounds by definition contain at least one carbon-metal bond. A wide range of such compounds exist; major classes include simple alkyl-metal compounds (e.g. tetraethyl lead), η2-alkene compounds (e.g. Zeise's salt, and η3-allyl compounds (e.g. allylpalladium chloride dimer; metallocenes containing cyclopentadienyl ligands (e.g. ferrocene); and transition metal carbene complexes. Many metal carbonyls exist (e.g. tetracarbonylnickel); some workers consider the carbon monoxide ligand to be purely inorganic, and not organometallic. While carbon is understood to exclusively form four bonds, an interesting compound containing an octahedral hexacoordinated carbon atom has been reported. The cation of the compound is [(Ph3PAu)6C]2+. This phenomenon has been attributed to the aurophilicity of the gold ligands.[54]

History and etymology
The English name carbon comes from the Latin carbo for coal and charcoal,[55] and hence comes from the French charbon, meaning charcoal. In German, Dutch and Danish, the names for carbon are Kohlenstoff, koolstof and kulstof respectively, all literally meaning coal-substance. Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations. Diamonds were known probably as early as 2500 BCE in China, while carbon in the form of charcoal was made around Roman times by the same chemistry as it is today, by heating wood in a pyramid covered with clay to exclude air.[56] [57] In 1722, René A. F. de Réaumur demonstrated that iron was transformed into steel through the absorption of some substance, now known to be carbon.[58] In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon, when he burned samples of carbon and diamond then showed that neither produced any water and that both released the same amount of carbon dioxide per gram. Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite, which had been thought of as a form of lead, was instead a type of carbon.[59] In 1786, the French scientists Claude Louis Berthollet, Gaspard Monge and C. A. Vandermonde then showed that this substance was carbon.[60] In their publication they proposed the name carbone (Latin carbonum) for this element. Antoine Lavoisier listed carbon as an element in his 1789 textbook.[61]

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Antoine Lavoisier in his youth

A new allotrope of carbon, fullerene, that was discovered in 1985[62] includes nanostructured forms such as buckyballs and nanotubes.[19] Their discoverers (Curl, Kroto, and Smalley) received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996.[63] The resulting renewed interest in new forms lead to the discovery of further exotic allotropes, including glassy carbon, and the realization that "amorphous carbon" is not strictly amorphous.[26]

Carbon

12

Production
Graphite
Commercially viable natural deposits of graphite occur in many parts of the world, but the most important sources economically are in China, India, Brazil, and North Korea.[64] Graphite deposits are of metamorphic origin, found in association with quartz, mica and feldspars in schists, gneisses and metamorphosed sandstones and limestone as lenses or veins, sometimes of a meter or more in thickness. Deposits of graphite in Borrowdale, Cumberland, England were at first of sufficient size and purity that, until the 1800s, pencils were made simply by sawing blocks of natural graphite into strips before encasing the strips in wood. Today, smaller deposits of graphite are obtained by crushing the parent rock and floating the lighter graphite out on water. According to the USGS, world production of natural graphite in 2006 was 1.03 million tons and in 2005 was 1.04 million tons (revised), of which the following major exporters produced: China produced 720,000 tons in both 2006 and 2005, Brazil 75,600 tons in 2006 and 75,515 tons in 2005 (revised), Canada 28,000 tons in both years, and Mexico (amorphous) 12,500 tons in 2006 and 12,357 tons in 2005 (revised). In addition, there are two specialist producers: Sri Lanka produced 3,200 tons in 2006 and 3,000 tons in 2005 of lump or vein graphite, and Madagascar produced 15,000 tons in both years, a large portion of it "crucible grade" or very large flake graphite. Some other producers produce very small amounts of "crucible grade". According to the USGS, U.S. (synthetic) graphite electrode production in 2006 was 132,000 tons valued at $495 million and in 2005 was 146,000 tons valued at $391 million, and high-modulus graphite (carbon) fiber production in 2006 was 8,160 tons valued at $172 million and in 2005 was 7,020 tons valued at $134 million.

Diamond
The diamond supply chain is controlled by a limited number of powerful businesses, and is also highly concentrated in a small number of locations around the world (see figure). Only a very small fraction of the diamond ore consists of actual diamonds. The ore is crushed, during which Diamond output in 2005 care has to be taken in order to prevent larger diamonds from being destroyed in this process and subsequently the particles are sorted by density. Today, diamonds are located in the diamond-rich density fraction with the help of X-ray fluorescence, after which the final sorting steps are done by hand. Before the use of X-rays became commonplace, the separation was done with grease belts; diamonds have a stronger tendency to stick to grease than the other minerals in the ore.[65] Historically diamonds were known to be found only in alluvial deposits in southern India.[66] India led the world in diamond production from the time of their discovery in approximately the 9th century BCE[67] to the mid-18th century AD, but the commercial potential of these sources had been exhausted by the late 18th century and at that time India was eclipsed by Brazil where the first non-Indian diamonds were found in 1725.[68]

Carbon Diamond production of primary deposits (kimberlites and lamproites) only started in the 1870s after the discovery of the Diamond fields in South Africa. Production has increased over time and now an accumulated total of 4.5 billion carats have been mined since that date.[69] Interestingly 20% of that amount has been mined in the last 5 years alone and during the last ten years 9 new mines have started production while 4 more are waiting to be opened soon. Most of these mines are located in Canada, Zimbabwe, Angola, and one in Russia.[69] In the United States, diamonds have been found in Arkansas, Colorado, and Montana.[70] [71] In 2004, a startling discovery of a microscopic diamond in the United States[72] led to the January 2008 bulk-sampling of kimberlite pipes in a remote part of Montana.[73] Today, most commercially viable diamond deposits are in Russia, Botswana, Australia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.[74] In 2005, Russia produced almost one-fifth of the global diamond output, reports the British Geological Survey. Australia boasts the richest diamantiferous pipe with production reaching peak levels of 42 metric tons (41 LT; 46 ST) per year in the 1990s.[70] There are also commercial deposits being actively mined in the Northwest Territories of Canada, Siberia (mostly in Yakutia territory, for example Mir pipe and Udachnaya pipe), Brazil, and in Northern and Western Australia. Diamond prospectors continue to search the globe for diamond-bearing kimberlite and lamproite pipes.

13

Applications
Carbon is essential to all known living systems, and without it life as we know it could not exist (see alternative biochemistry). The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. The uses of carbon and its compounds are extremely varied. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined
Sticks of vine and compressed charcoal.

Pencil lead for mechanical pencils are made of graphite.

Carbon

14 with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Charcoal is used as a drawing material in artwork, for grilling, and in many other uses including iron smelting. Wood, coal and oil are used as fuel for production of energy and space heating. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Plastics are made from fossil hydrocarbons, and carbon fiber, made by pyrolysis of synthetic polyester fibers is used to reinforce plastics to form advanced, lightweight composite materials. Carbon fiber is made by pyrolysis of extruded and stretched filaments of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and other organic substances. The crystallographic structure and mechanical properties of the fiber depend on the type of starting material, and on the subsequent processing. Carbon fibers made from PAN have structure resembling narrow filaments of graphite, but thermal processing may re-order the structure into a continuous rolled sheet. The result is fibers with higher specific tensile strength than steel.[75] Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. Carbon black is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Activated charcoal is used as an absorbent and adsorbent in filter material in applications as diverse as gas masks, water purification and kitchen extractor hoods and in medicine to absorb toxins, poisons, or gases from the digestive system. Carbon is used in chemical reduction at high temperatures. Coke is used to reduce iron ore into iron. Case hardening of steel is achieved by heating finished steel components in carbon powder. Carbides of silicon, tungsten, boron and titanium, are among the hardest known

A cloth of woven carbon filaments

Silicon carbide single crystal

The C60 fullerene in crystalline form

Tungsten carbide milling bits

Carbon materials, and are used as abrasives in cutting and grinding tools. Carbon compounds make up most of the materials used in clothing, such as natural and synthetic textiles and leather, and almost all of the interior surfaces in the built environment other than glass, stone and metal.

15

Diamonds
The diamond industry can be broadly separated into two basically distinct categories: one dealing with gem-grade diamonds and another for industrial-grade diamonds. While a large trade in both types of diamonds exists, the two markets act in dramatically different ways. A large trade in gem-grade diamonds exists. Unlike precious metals such as gold or platinum, gem diamonds do not trade as a commodity: there is a substantial mark-up in the sale of diamonds, and there is not a very active market for resale of diamonds. The market for industrial-grade diamonds operates much differently from its gem-grade counterpart. Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and heat conductivity, making many of the gemological characteristics of diamond, including clarity and color, mostly irrelevant. This helps explain why 80% of mined diamonds (equal to about 100 million carats or 20,000 kg annually), unsuitable for use as gemstones and known as bort, are destined for industrial use.[76] In addition to mined diamonds, synthetic diamonds found industrial applications almost immediately after their invention in the 1950s; another 3 billion carats (600 metric tons) of synthetic diamond is produced annually for industrial use.[77] The dominant industrial use of diamond is in cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. Most uses of diamonds in these technologies do not require large diamonds; in fact, most diamonds that are gem-quality except for their small size, can find an industrial use. Diamonds are embedded in drill tips or saw blades, or ground into a powder for use in grinding and polishing applications.[78] Specialized applications include use in laboratories as containment for high pressure experiments (see diamond anvil cell), high-performance bearings, and limited use in specialized windows.[79] [80] With the continuing advances being made in the production of synthetic diamonds, future applications are beginning to become feasible. Garnering much excitement is the possible use of diamond as a semiconductor suitable to build microchips from, or the use of diamond as a heat sink in electronics.[81]

Carbon

16

Precautions
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity and can be handled and even ingested safely in the form of graphite or charcoal. It is resistant to dissolution or chemical attack, even in the acidic contents of the digestive tract, for example. Consequently if it gets into body tissues it is likely to remain there indefinitely. Carbon black was probably one of the first pigments to be used for tattooing, and Ötzi the Iceman was found to have carbon tattoos that survived during his life and for 5200 years after his death.[82] However, inhalation of coal dust or soot (carbon black) in large quantities can be dangerous, irritating lung tissues and causing the congestive lung disease coalworker's pneumoconiosis. Similarly, diamond dust used as an abrasive can do harm if ingested or inhaled. Microparticles of carbon are produced in diesel engine exhaust Worker at carbon black plant in Sunray, fumes, and may accumulate in the lungs.[83] In these Texas (photo by John Vachon, 1942) examples, the harmful effects may result from contamination of the carbon particles, with organic chemicals or heavy metals for example, rather than from the carbon itself. Carbon may also burn vigorously and brightly in the presence of air at high temperatures, as in the Windscale fire, which was caused by sudden release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite core. Large accumulations of coal, which have remained inert for hundreds of millions of years in the absence of oxygen, may spontaneously combust when exposed to air, for example in coal mine waste tips. The great variety of carbon compounds include such lethal poisons as tetrodotoxin, the lectin ricin from seeds of the castor oil plant Ricinus communis, cyanide (CN-) and carbon monoxide; and such essentials to life as glucose and protein.

See also
• • • • • Carbon chauvinism Carbon footprint Low-carbon economy Organic chemistry Timeline of carbon nanotubes

Carbon

17

External links
• • • • • • • • • • • • Carbon - Periodic Table of Videos [84] Carbon on Britannica [85] WebElements.com – Carbon [86] Chemicool.com – Carbon [87] It's Elemental – Carbon [88] Extensive Carbon page at asu.edu [89] Electrochemical uses of carbon [90] Computational Chemistry Wiki [91] Carbon - Super Stuff. Animation with sound and interactive 3D-models. [92] BBC Radio 4 series "In Our Time", on Carbon, the basis of life, 15 June 2006 Introduction to Carbon Properties geared for High School students. [94] Comprehensive Data on Carbon [95]

[93]

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20

Article Sources and Contributors

21

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Carbon  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307529064  Contributors: 194.200.130.xxx, 40centking, ABF, Aarchiba, Acalamari, Achim1999, Acroterion, AdamJudd, Adashiel, Agnus, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Ajb112892, Alansohn, Alex853, Alexeymorgunov, AlexiusHoratius, Alii h, All the witty names have been taken, Allstarecho, Amaltheus, Amitparikh, Ams526, AndonicO, Andres, Andrewpmk, Andy45290, Andycjp, Ann Stouter, Anonymous Dissident, Anonymous editor, Antandrus, Antonio Lopez, Aoganov, Apparition11, Arakunem, Aravindk editing, Arcadie, Arch dude, Archaeogenetics, Archimerged, Arnfinn Christensen, Art LaPella, Artorius, Asldkjaskdjsalkjdk, Atlant, Aurick, Avocette, Avono, Awasthi.abhishek, B. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:Unknown.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Unknown.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mav file:Electron shell 006 Carbon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_006_Carbon.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:Diamond and graphite2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Diamond_and_graphite2.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Itub, User:Materialscientist File:Carbon basic phase diagram.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carbon_basic_phase_diagram.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: EugeneZelenko, Materialscientist, Saperaud Image:Eight Allotropes of Carbon.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eight_Allotropes_of_Carbon.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) Image:GraphiteOreUSGOV.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GraphiteOreUSGOV.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bkell, Ra'ike, Saperaud Image:Rough diamond.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rough_diamond.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unknown USGS employee File:WOA05 GLODAP pd DIC AYool.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WOA05_GLODAP_pd_DIC_AYool.png  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Plumbago Image:Carbon cycle-cute diagram.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carbon_cycle-cute_diagram.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User Kevin Saff on en.wikipedia Image:Methane-2D-stereo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Methane-2D-stereo.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: user:Patricia.fidi

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File:Auto-and heterotrophs.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Auto-and_heterotrophs.png  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Mikael Häggström Image:Plastic household items.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plastic_household_items.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:ImGz Image:Carl Wilhelm Scheele from Familj-Journalen1874.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carl_Wilhelm_Scheele_from_Familj-Journalen1874.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Celsius, Crux, Den fjättrade ankan, Sanao, 1 anonymous edits Image:Antoine lavoisier.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Antoine_lavoisier.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Kilom691, Matanya, Siebrand Image:Diamond output2.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Diamond_output2.PNG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Anwar_saadat/bubble_maps_(FAQ) Image:Mechanical pencil lead spilling out 051907.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mechanical_pencil_lead_spilling_out_051907.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Mrs Scarborough Image:Charcoal sticks 051907.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Charcoal_sticks_051907.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Mrs Scarborough Image:Kohlenstofffasermatte.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kohlenstofffasermatte.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Saperaud Image:SiC p1390066.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SiC_p1390066.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: David Monniaux Image:C60-Fulleren-kristallin.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:C60-Fulleren-kristallin.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Machmit, Saperaud Image:Tungsten carbide.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tungsten_carbide.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Splarka File:Worker at carbon black plant2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Worker_at_carbon_black_plant2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: John Vachon

22

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Nitrogen

1

Nitrogen
carbon ← nitrogen → oxygen ↑ N ↓ P

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

7N
Periodic table

Appearance colorless gas General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointTriple pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 37 10 41 100 46 1k 53 10 k 62 100 k 77

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 2856 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 4578.1 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivitySpeed of soundCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso
13

N.A. syn 99.634% 0.366%

half-life 9.965 min
14

DM ε 2.220

DE (MeV)
13

DP C

N N N

14

N is stable with 7 neutron N is stable with 8 neutron

15

15

Nitrogen nitrogen, N, 7 nonmetal15, 2, p14.0067(2) g·mol−1 1s2 2s2 2p3 2, 5 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 1.251 g/L 63.153 K,-210.00 °C,-346.00 °F 77.36 K,-195.79 °C,-320.3342 °F 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa (N2) 0.72 kJ·mol−1 (N2) 5.56 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) (N2) 29.124 J·mol−1·K−1 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3 (strongly acidic oxide) 3.04 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1402.3 kJ·mol−171±1 pm 155 pm hexagonal diamagnetic (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W·m−1·K−1 (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s 7727-37-9 Nitrogen (pronounced /ˈnaɪtrədʒɨn/) is a chemical element that has the symbol N and atomic number 7 and atomic mass 14.00674 u. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78% by volume of Earth's atmosphere. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causing difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting the N2 into useful compounds, and releasing large amounts of energy when these compounds burn or decay back into nitrogen gas. The element nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford, a Scottish physician, in 1772. Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms. It is a constituent element of amino acids and thus of proteins, and of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). It resides in the chemical structure of almost all neurotransmitters, and is a defining component of alkaloids, biological molecules produced by many organisms.

2

History
Nitrogen (Latin nitrogenium, where nitrum (from Greek nitron) means "saltpetre" (see nitre), and genes means "forming") is formally considered to have been discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air. That there was a fraction of air that did not support combustion was well known to the late 18th century chemist. Nitrogen was also studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley, who referred to it as burnt air or phlogisticated air. Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as "mephetic air" or azote, from the Greek word άζωτος (azotos) meaning "lifeless". Animals died in it, and it was the principal component of air in which animals had suffocated and flames had burned to extinction. Lavoisier's name for nitrogen is used in many languages (French, Russian, etc.) and still remains in English in the common names of many compounds, such as hydrazine and compounds of the azide ion. Compounds of nitrogen were known in the Middle Ages. The alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis (strong water). The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known as aqua regia (royal water), celebrated for its ability to dissolve gold (the king of metals). The earliest military, industrial and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds involved uses of saltpeter (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate), notably in gunpowder, and much later, as fertilizer.

Nitrogen

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Properties
Nitrogen is a nonmetal, with an electronegativity of 3.04. It has five electrons in its outer shell and is therefore trivalent in most compounds. The triple bond in molecular nitrogen (N2) is the strongest in nature. The resulting difficulty of converting N2 into other compounds, and the ease (and associated high energy release) of converting nitrogen compounds into elemental N2, have dominated the role of nitrogen in both nature and human economic activities. At atmospheric pressure molecular nitrogen condenses (liquifies) at 77 K (−195.8 °C) and freezes at 63 K (−210.0 °C) into the beta hexagonal close-packed crystal allotropic form. Below 35.4 K (−237.6 °C) nitrogen assumes the alpha cubic crystal allotropic form. Liquid nitrogen, a fluid resembling water in appearance, but with 80.8% of the density (the density of liquid nitrogen at its boiling point is 0.808 g/mL), is a common cryogen. Unstable allotropes of nitrogen consisting of more than two nitrogen atoms have been produced in the laboratory, like N3 and N4.[1] Under extremely high pressures (1.1 million atm) and high temperatures (2000 K), as produced using a diamond anvil cell, nitrogen polymerizes into the single-bonded cubic gauche crystal structure. This structure is similar to that diamond, and both have extremely strong covalent bonds. N4 is nicknamed "nitrogen diamond."[2]

Isotopes
There are two stable isotopes of nitrogen: 14N and 15N. By far the most common is 14N (99.634%), which is produced in the CNO cycle in stars. Of the ten isotopes produced synthetically, 13N has a half-life of ten minutes and the remaining isotopes have half-lives on the order of seconds or less. Biologically-mediated reactions (e.g., assimilation, nitrification, and denitrification) strongly control nitrogen dynamics in the soil. These reactions typically result in 15N enrichment of the substrate and depletion of the product. 0.73% of the molecular nitrogen in Earth's atmosphere is comprised of the isotopologue 14 15 N N and almost all the rest is 14N2.

Radioisotope 16N is the dominant radionuclide in the coolant of pressurized water reactors during normal operation. It is produced from 16O (in water) via (n,p) reaction. It has a short half-life of about 7.1 s, but during its decay back to 16O produces high-energy gamma radiation (5 to 7 MeV). Because of this, the access to the primary coolant piping must be restricted during reactor power operation[3] . 16N is one of the main means used to immediately detect even small leaks from the primary coolant to the secondary steam cycle.

Electromagnetic spectrum
Molecular nitrogen (14N2) is largely transparent to infrared and visible radiation because it is a homonuclear molecule and thus has no dipole moment to couple to electromagnetic radiation at these wavelengths. Significant absorption occurs at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, beginning around 100 nanometers. This is associated with electronic transitions in the molecule to states in which charge is not distributed evenly between nitrogen atoms. Nitrogen absorption leads to significant absorption of ultraviolet radiation in the Earth's upper atmosphere as well as in the atmospheres of other planetary bodies. For similar reasons, pure molecular nitrogen lasers typically emit light in the ultraviolet range.

Nitrogen Nitrogen also makes a contribution to visible air glow from the Earth's upper atmosphere, through electron impact excitation followed by emission. This visible blue air glow (seen in the polar aurora and in the re-entry glow of returning spacecraft) typically results not from molecular nitrogen, but rather from free nitrogen atoms combining with oxygen to form nitric oxide (NO).

4

Reactions
Nitrogen is generally unreactive at standard temperature and pressure. N2 reacts spontaneously with few reagents, being resilient to acids and bases as well as oxidants and most reductants. When nitrogen reacts spontaneously with a reagent, the net transformation is often called nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen reacts with elemental lithium at STP.[4] Lithium burns in an atmosphere of N2 to give lithium nitride: 6 Li + N2 → 2 Li3N Magnesium also burns in nitrogen, forming magnesium nitride. 3 Mg + N2 → Mg3N2 N2 forms a variety of adducts with transition metals. The first example of a dinitrogen complex is [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+ (see figure at right). Such compounds are now numerous, other examples include IrCl(N2)(PPh3)2, W(N2)2(Ph2CH2CH2PPh2)2, and 5 [(η -C5Me4H)2Zr]2(μ2,η²,η²-N2). These complexes illustrate how N2 might bind to the metal(s) in nitrogenase and the catalyst for the Haber process.[5] A catalytic process to reduce N2 to ammonia with the use of a molybdenum complex in the presence of a proton source was published in 2005.[4] (see nitrogen fixation) The starting point for industrial production of nitrogen compounds is the Haber process, in which nitrogen is fixed by reacting N2 and H2 over an iron(III) oxide (Fe3O4) catalyst at about 500 °C and 200 atmospheres pressure. Biological nitrogen fixation in free-living cyanobacteria and in the root nodules of plants also produces ammonia from molecular nitrogen. The reaction, which is the source of the bulk of nitrogen in the biosphere, is catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which contains Fe and Mo atoms, using energy derived from hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate (−20.5 kJ/mol).
Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+.

Occurrence
Nitrogen is the largest single constituent of the Earth's atmosphere (78.082% by volume of dry air, 75.3% by weight in dry air). It is created by fusion processes in stars, and is estimated to be the 7th most abundant chemical element by mass in the universe.[6] Molecular nitrogen and nitrogen compounds have been detected in interstellar space by astronomers using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer.[7] Molecular nitrogen is a major constituent of the Saturnian moon Titan's thick atmosphere, and occurs in trace amounts in other planetary atmospheres.[8]

Nitrogen Nitrogen is present in all living organisms, in proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules. It typically makes up around 4% of the dry weight of plant matter, and around 3% of the weight of the human body. It is a large component of animal waste (for example, guano), usually in the form of urea, uric acid, ammonium compounds and derivatives of these nitrogenous products, which are essential nutrients for all plants that are unable to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Nitrogen occurs naturally in a number of minerals, such as saltpetre (potassium nitrate), Chile saltpetre (sodium nitrate) and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). Most of these are relatively uncommon, partly because of the minerals' ready solubility in water. See also Nitrate minerals and Ammonium minerals.

5

Compounds
The main neutral hydride of nitrogen is ammonia (NH3), although hydrazine (N2H4) is also commonly used. Ammonia is more basic than water by 6 orders of magnitude. In solution ammonia forms the ammonium ion (NH+4). Liquid ammonia (boiling point 240 K) is amphiprotic (displaying either Brønsted-Lowry acidic or basic character) and forms ammonium and the less common amide ions (NH−2); both amides and nitride (N3−) salts are known, but decompose in water. Singly, doubly, triply and quadruply substituted alkyl compounds of ammonia are called amines (four substitutions, to form commercially and biologically important quaternary amines, results in a positively charged nitrogen, and thus a water-soluble, or at least amphiphilic, compound). Larger chains, rings and structures of nitrogen hydrides are also known, but are generally unstable. N2+2 is another polyatomic cation as in hydrazine. Other classes of nitrogen anions (negatively charged ions) are the poisonous azides (N−3), which are linear and isoelectronic to carbon dioxide, but which bind to important iron-containing enzymes in the body in a manner more resembling cyanide. Another molecule of the same structure is the colorless and relatively inert anesthetic gas Nitrous oxide (dinitrogen monoxide, N2O), also known as laughing gas. This is one of a variety of nitrogen oxides that form a family often abbreviated as NOx. Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), is a natural free radical used in signal transduction in both plants and animals, for example in vasodilation by causing the smooth muscle of blood vessels to relax. The reddish and poisonous nitrogen dioxide NO2 contains an unpaired electron and is an important component of smog. Nitrogen molecules containing unpaired electrons show an understandable tendency to dimerize (thus pairing the electrons), and are generally highly reactive. The corresponding acids are nitrous HNO2 and nitric acid HNO3, with the corresponding salts called nitrites and nitrates. The higher oxides dinitrogen trioxide N2O3, dinitrogen tetroxide N2O4 and dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5, are fairly unstable and explosive, a consequence of the chemical stability of N2. N2O4 is one of the most important oxidizers of rocket fuels, used to oxidize hydrazine in the Titan rocket and in the recent NASA MESSENGER probe to Mercury. N2O4 is an intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid HNO3, one of the few acids stronger than hydronium and a fairly strong oxidizing agent.

Nitrogen Nitrogen is notable for the range of explosively unstable compounds that it can produce. Nitrogen triiodide NI3 is an extremely sensitive contact explosive. Nitrocellulose, produced by nitration of cellulose with nitric acid, is also known as guncotton. Nitroglycerin, made by nitration of glycerin, is the dangerously unstable explosive ingredient of dynamite. The comparatively stable, but more powerful explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the standard explosive against which the power of nuclear explosions are measured. Nitrogen can also be found in organic compounds. Common nitrogen functional groups include: amines, amides, nitro groups, imines, and enamines. The amount of nitrogen in a chemical substance can be determined by the Kjeldahl method.

6

Applications
Nitrogen gas is an industrial gas produced by the fractional distillation of liquid air, or by mechanical means using gaseous air (i.e. pressurized reverse osmosis membrane or Pressure swing adsorption). Commercial nitrogen is often a byproduct of air-processing for industrial concentration of oxygen for steelmaking and other purposes. When supplied compressed in cylinders it is often referred to as OFN (oxygen-free nitrogen).[9] Nitrogen gas has a wide variety of applications, including serving as an inert replacement for air where oxidation is undesirable;
A computer rendering of the nitrogen molecule, N2.

• To preserve the freshness of packaged or bulk foods (by delaying rancidity and other forms of oxidative damage) • • • • • • In ordinary incandescent light bulbs as an inexpensive alternative to argon.[10] On top of liquid explosives as a safety measure The production of electronic parts such as transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits Dried and pressurized, as a dielectric gas for high voltage equipment The manufacturing of stainless steel Use in military aircraft fuel systems to reduce fire hazard, (see inerting system)

• Filling automotive and aircraft tires[11] due to its inertness and lack of moisture or oxidative qualities, as opposed to air, though this is not necessary for consumer automobiles.[12] [13] Nitrogen molecules are less likely to escape from the inside of a tire compared with the traditional air mixture used. Air consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen molecules have a larger effective diameter than oxygen molecules and therefore diffuse through porous substances more slowly.[14] Nitrogen is commonly used during sample preparation procedures for chemical analysis. Specifically, it is used as a means of concentrating and reducing the volume of liquid samples. Directing a pressurized stream of nitrogen gas perpendicular to the surface of the liquid allows the solvent to evaporate while leaving the solute(s) and un-evaporated solvent behind.[15] Nitrogen tanks are also replacing carbon dioxide as the main power source for paintball guns. The downside is that nitrogen must be kept at higher pressure than CO2, making N2 tanks heavier and more expensive.

Nitrogen

7

Nitrogenated beer
A further example of its versatility is its use as a preferred alternative to carbon dioxide to pressurize kegs of some beers, particularly stouts and British ales, due to the smaller bubbles it produces, which make the dispensed beer smoother and headier. A modern application of a pressure sensitive nitrogen capsule known commonly as a "widget" now allows nitrogen charged beers to be packaged in cans and bottles.[16]

Liquid nitrogen
Liquid nitrogen is a cryogenic liquid. At atmospheric pressure, it boils at −195.8 °C. When insulated in proper containers such as Dewar flasks, it can be transported without much evaporative loss. Like dry ice, the main use of liquid nitrogen is as a refrigerant. Among other things, it is used in the cryopreservation of blood, reproductive cells (sperm and egg), and other biological samples and materials. It is used in cold traps for certain laboratory equipment and to cool x-ray detectors. It has also been used to cool central processing units and other devices in computers which are overclocked, and which produce more heat than during normal operation.

Applications of nitrogen compounds
Molecular nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is relatively non-reactive due to its strong bond, and N2 plays an inert role in the human body, being neither produced nor destroyed. In nature, nitrogen is converted into biologically (and industrially) useful compounds by lightning, and by some living organisms, notably certain bacteria (i.e. nitrogen fixing bacteria – see Biological role below). Molecular nitrogen is released into the atmosphere in the process of decay, in dead plant and animal tissues. The ability to combine or fix molecular nitrogen is a key feature of modern industrial chemistry, where nitrogen and natural gas are converted into ammonia via the Haber process. Ammonia, in turn, can be used directly (primarily as a fertilizer, and in the synthesis of nitrated fertilizers), or as a precursor of many other important materials including explosives, largely via the production of nitric acid by the Ostwald process. The organic and inorganic salts of nitric acid have been important historically as convenient stores of chemical energy. They include important compounds such as potassium nitrate (or saltpeter used in gunpowder) and ammonium nitrate, an important fertilizer and explosive (see ANFO). Various other nitrated organic compounds, such as nitroglycerin and trinitrotoluene, and nitrocellulose, are used as explosives and propellants for modern firearms. Nitric acid is used as an oxidizing agent in liquid fueled rockets. Hydrazine and hydrazine derivatives find use as rocket fuels and monopropellants. In most of these compounds, the basic instability and tendency to burn or explode is derived from the fact that nitrogen is present as an oxide, and not as the far more stable nitrogen molecule (N2) which is a product of the compounds' thermal decomposition. When nitrates burn or explode, the formation of the powerful triple bond in the N2 produces most of the energy of the reaction. Nitrogen is a constituent of molecules in every major drug class in pharmacology and medicine. Nitrous oxide (N2O) was discovered early in the 19th century to be a partial anesthetic, though it was not used as a surgical anesthetic until later. Called "laughing gas", it was found capable of inducing a state of social disinhibition resembling

Nitrogen drunkenness. Other notable nitrogen-containing drugs are drugs derived from plant alkaloids, such as morphine (there exist many alkaloids known to have pharmacological effects; in some cases they appear natural chemical defenses of plants against predation). Nitrogen containing drugs include all of the major classes of antibiotics, and organic nitrate drugs like nitroglycerin and nitroprusside which regulate blood pressure and heart action by mimicking the action of nitric oxide.

8

Biological role
Nitrogen is an essential building block of amino and nucleic acids, essential to life on Earth. Elemental nitrogen in the atmosphere cannot be used directly by either plants or animals, and must converted to a reduced (or 'fixed') state in order to be useful for higher plants and animals. Precipitation often contains substantial quantities of ammonium and nitrate, thought to result from nitrogen fixation by lightning and other atmospheric electric phenomena.[17] This was first proposed by Liebig in 1827 and later confirmed.[17] However, because ammonium is preferentially retained by the forest canopy relative to atmospheric nitrate, most fixed nitrogen that reaches the soil surface under trees as nitrate. Soil nitrate is preferentially assimilated by these tree roots relative to soil ammonium. Specific bacteria (e.g. Rhizobium trifolium) possess nitrogenase enzymes which can fix atmospheric nitrogen (see nitrogen fixation) into a form (ammonium ion) that is chemically useful to higher organisms. This process requires a large amount of energy and anoxic conditions. Such bacteria may live freely in soil (e.g. Azotobacter) but normally exist in a symbiotic relationship in the root nodules of leguminous plants (e.g. clover, Trifolium, or soybean plant, Glycine max). Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are also symbiotic with a number of unrelated plant species such as alders (Alnus) spp., lichens (Casuarina), Myrica, liverworts, and Gunnera. As part of the symbiotic relationship, the plant converts the 'fixed' ammonium ion to nitrogen oxides and amino acids to form proteins and other molecules, (e.g. alkaloids). In return for the 'fixed' nitrogen, the plant secretes sugars to the symbiotic bacteria. Some plants are able to assimilate nitrogen directly in the form of nitrates which may be present in soil from natural mineral deposits, artificial fertilizers, animal waste, or organic decay (as the product of bacteria, but not bacteria specifically associated with the plant). Nitrates absorbed in this fashion are converted to nitrites by the enzyme nitrate reductase, and then converted to ammonia by another enzyme called nitrite reductase. Nitrogen compounds are basic building blocks in animal biology as well. Animals use nitrogen-containing amino acids from plant sources, as starting materials for all nitrogen-compound animal biochemistry, including the manufacture of proteins and nucleic acids. Plant-feeding insects are dependent on nitrogen in their diet, such that varying the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to a plant can affect the reproduction rate of insects feeding on fertilized plants.[18] Soluble nitrate is an important limiting factor in the growth of certain bacteria in ocean waters. In many places in the world, artificial fertilizers applied to crop-lands to increase yields result in run-off delivery of soluble nitrogen to oceans at river mouths. This process can result in eutrophication of the water, as nitrogen-driven bacterial growth depletes water oxygen to the point that all higher organisms die. Well-known "dead zone" areas in the U.S. Gulf Coast and the Black Sea are due to this important polluting process.

Nitrogen Many saltwater fish manufacture large amounts of trimethylamine oxide to protect them from the high osmotic effects of their environment (conversion of this compound to dimethylamine is responsible for the early odor in not fresh saltwater fish [19] . In animals, free radical nitric oxide (NO) (derived from an amino acid), serves as an important regulatory molecule for circulation. Animal metabolism of NO results in production of nitrite. Animal metabolism of nitrogen in proteins generally results in excretion of urea, while animal metabolism of nucleic acids results in excretion of urea and uric acid. The characteristic odor of animal flesh decay is caused by the creation of long-chain, nitrogen-containing amines, such as putrescine and cadaverine. Decay of organisms and their waste products may produce small amounts of nitrate, but most decay eventually returns nitrogen content to the atmosphere, as molecular nitrogen . The circulation of nitrogen from atmosphere to organic compounds and back is referred to as the nitrogen cycle.

9

Safety
Rapid release of nitrogen gas into an enclosed space can displace oxygen, and therefore represents an asphyxiation hazard. This may happen with few warning symptoms, since the human carotid body is a relatively slow and a poor low-oxygen (hypoxia) sensing system.[20] An example occurred shortly before the launch of the first Space Shuttle mission in 1981, when two technicians lost consciousness and died after they walked into a space located in the Shuttle's Mobile Launcher Platform that was pressurized with pure nitrogen as a precaution against fire. The technicians would have been able to exit the room if they had experienced early symptoms from nitrogen-breathing. When inhaled at high partial pressures (more than about 4 bar, encountered at depths below about 30 m in scuba diving) nitrogen begins to act as an anesthetic agent. It can cause nitrogen narcosis, a temporary semi-anesthetized state of mental impairment similar to that caused by nitrous oxide.[21] [22] Nitrogen also dissolves in the bloodstream and body fats. Rapid decompression (particularly in the case of divers ascending too quickly, or astronauts decompressing too quickly from cabin pressure to spacesuit pressure) can lead to a potentially fatal condition called decompression sickness (formerly known as caisson sickness or more commonly, the "bends"), when nitrogen bubbles form in the bloodstream, nerves, joints, and other sensitive or vital areas.[23] [24] Other "inert" gases (those gases other than carbon dioxide and oxygen) cause the same effects from bubbles composed of them, so replacement of nitrogen in breathing gases may prevent nitrogen narcosis, but does not prevent decompression sickness.[25] Direct skin contact with liquid nitrogen will eventually cause severe frostbite (cryogenic burns). This may happen almost instantly on contact, depending on the form of liquid nitrogen. Bulk liquid nitrogen causes less rapid freezing than a spray of nitrogen mist (such as is used to freeze certain skin growths in the practice of dermatology). The extra surface area provided by nitrogen-soaked materials is also important, with soaked clothing or cotton causing far more rapid damage than a spill of direct liquid to skin. Full "contact" between naked skin and large droplets or pools of undisturbed liquid nitrogen may be prevented for a few seconds by a layer of insulating gas from the Leidenfrost effect. However, liquid nitrogen applied to skin in mists, and on fabrics, bypasses this effect.

Nitrogen

10

See also
• • • • • • • • Industrial gas Liquid nitrogen Nitrogen asphyxiation Nitrogenomics Nutrient Reactive nitrogen species Tetranitrogen TKN

Further reading
• Garrett, Reginald H.; Grisham, Charles M. (1999). Biochemistry (2nd ed.). Fort Worth: Saunders College Publ.. ISBN 0030223180. • Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0080220576. • "Nitrogen [26]". Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2003-10-20. http:/ / periodic. lanl. gov/ elements/ 7. html.

External links
• • • • • • • • Etymology of Nitrogen [27] Why high nitrogen density in explosives? [28] WebElements.com – Nitrogen [29] It's Elemental – Nitrogen [30] Schenectady County Community College – Nitrogen Nitrogen N2 Properties, Uses, Applications [32] Handling procedures for liquid nitrogen [33] Material Safety Data Sheet [34]

[31]

References
[1] " A new molecule and a new signature - Chemistry - tetranitrogen (http:/ / www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m1200/ is_7_161/ ai_83477565)". Science News. February 16, 2002. . Retrieved 2007-08-18. [2] " Polymeric nitrogen synthesized (http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news693. html)". physorg.com. 2004-08-05. . Retrieved 2009-06-22. [3] Karl Heinz Neeb (1997). The Radiochemistry of Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter. [4] Richard R. Schrock (2005). "Catalytic Reduction of Dinitrogen to Ammonia at a Single Molybdenum Center". Acc. Chem. Res. 38: 955–962. doi: 10.1021/ar0501121 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ar0501121). [5] Fryzuk, M. D. and Johnson, S. A. (2000). "The continuing story of dinitrogen activation". Coordination Chemistry Reviews 200–202: 379. doi: 10.1016/S0010-8545(00)00264-2 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S0010-8545(00)00264-2). [6] Croswell, Ken (February 1996). Alchemy of the Heavens (http:/ / kencroswell. com/ alchemy. html). Anchor. ISBN 0-385-47214-5. . [7] Daved M. Meyer, Jason A. Cardelli, and Ulysses J. Sofia (1997). " Abundance of Interstellar Nitrogen (http:/ / arxiv. org/ abs/ astro-ph/ 9710162v1)". arXiv. . Retrieved 2007-12-24. [8] Calvin J. Hamilton. " Titan (Saturn VI) (http:/ / www. solarviews. com/ eng/ titan. htm)". Solarviews.com. . Retrieved 2007-12-24. [9] Reich, Murray; Kapenekas, Harry (1957). "Nitrogen Purfication. Pilot Plant Removal of Oxygen". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 49: 869. doi: 10.1021/ie50569a032 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ie50569a032).

Nitrogen
[10] ed. by Charlie Harding ... Royal Society Chemistry; Open University. (2002). Elements of the p Block (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=W0HW8wgmQQsC& pg=PA90). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 9780854046904. . [11] " Why don't they use normal air in race car tires? (http:/ / auto. howstuffworks. com/ question594. htm)". Howstuffworks. . Retrieved 2006-07-22. [12] " Diffusion, moisture and tyre expansion (http:/ / www. cartalk. com/ content/ columns/ Archive/ 1997/ September/ 05. html)". Car Talk. . Retrieved 2006-07-22. [13] " Is it better to fill your tires with nitrogen instead of air? (http:/ / www. straightdope. com/ columns/ 070216. html)". The Straight Dope. . Retrieved 2007-02-16. [14] G. J. Van Amerongen (1946). "The Permeability of Different Rubbers to Gases and Its Relation to Diffusivity and Solubility". Journal of Applied Physics 17 (11): 972–985. doi: 10.1063/1.1707667 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 1707667). [15] Kemmochi, Y (2002). "Centrifugal concentrator for the substitution of nitrogen blow-down micro-concentration in dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl sample preparation". Journal of Chromatography A 943: 295. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)01466-2 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S0021-9673(01)01466-2). [16] " How does the widget in a beer can work? (http:/ / recipes. howstuffworks. com/ question446. htm)". Howstuffworks. . [17] Rakov, Vladimir A.; Uman, Martin A. (2007). Lightning: Physics and Effects. Cambridge University Press. p. 508. ISBN 9780521035415. [18] Jahn, GC, LP Almazan, and J Pacia (2005). " Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) (http:/ / puck. esa. catchword. org/ vl=33435372/ cl=21/ nw=1/ rpsv/ cw/ esa/ 0046225x/ v34n4/ s26/ p938)". Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938–943. . [19] Nielsen, Mk; Jørgensen, Bm (Jun 2004). "Quantitative relationship between trimethylamine oxide aldolase activity and formaldehyde accumulation in white muscle from gadiform fish during frozen storage.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 52 (12): 3814–22. doi: 10.1021/jf035169l (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ jf035169l). ISSN 0021-8561 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0021-8561). PMID 15186102. [20] " Biology Safety - Cryogenic materials. The risks posed by them (http:/ / www. bath. ac. uk/ internal/ bio-sci/ bbsafe/ asphyx. htm)". University of Bath. . Retrieved 2007-01-03. [21] Fowler, B; Ackles, KN; Porlier, G (1985). " Effects of inert gas narcosis on behavior--a critical review. (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 3019)". Undersea Biomed. Res. 12 (4): 369–402. ISSN 0093-5387 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0093-5387). OCLC 2068005 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 2068005). PMID 4082343. . Retrieved 2008-09-21. [22] W. H. Rogers; G. Moeller (1989). " Effect of brief, repeated hyperbaric exposures on susceptibility to nitrogen narcosis (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 2522)". Undersea Biomed. Res. 16 (3): 227–32. ISSN 0093-5387 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0093-5387). OCLC 2068005 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 2068005). PMID 2741255. . Retrieved 2008-09-21. [23] Acott, C. (1999). " A brief history of diving and decompression illness. (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 6004)". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 29 (2). ISSN 0813-1988 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0813-1988). OCLC 16986801 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 16986801). . Retrieved 2008-09-21. [24] Kindwall, E. P.; A. Baz; E. N. Lightfoot; E. H. Lanphier; A. Seireg. (1975). " Nitrogen elimination in man during decompression. (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 2741)". Undersea Biomed. Res. 2 (4): 285–97. ISSN 0093-5387 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0093-5387). OCLC 2068005 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 2068005). PMID 1226586. . Retrieved 2008-09-21. [25] US Navy Diving Manual, 6th revision (http:/ / www. supsalv. org/ 00c3_publications. asp?destPage=00c3& pageID=3. 9). United States: US Naval Sea Systems Command. 2006. . Retrieved 2008-04-24. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] http:/ / periodic. lanl. gov/ elements/ 7. html http:/ / www. balashon. com/ 2008/ 07/ neter-and-nitrogen. html http:/ / www. newton. dep. anl. gov/ askasci/ chem99/ chem99306. htm http:/ / www. webelements. com/ nitrogen/ http:/ / education. jlab. org/ itselemental/ ele007. html http:/ / www. sunysccc. edu/ academic/ mst/ ptable/ n. html http:/ / www. uigi. com/ nitrogen. html http:/ / www. 2spi. com/ catalog/ instruments/ nitrodew-supp. html http:/ / www. safety. vanderbilt. edu/ pdf/ hcs_msds/ NitrogenCryo_G103_06_04. pdf

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
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Oxygen

1

Oxygen
nitrogen ← oxygen → fluorine ↑ O ↓ S

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

8O
Periodic table

Appearance liquid oxygen with bubbles of oxygen gas

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 10 100 1k 61 10 k 73 100 k 90

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 3388.3 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 5300.5 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivitySpeed of soundCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of oxygen

Oxygen

2

iso
16

N.A. 99.76% 0.039% 0.201%
16

half-life O is stable with 8 neutron O is stable with 9 neutron O is stable with 10 neutron

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

O O O

17

17

18

18

oxygen, O, 8 nonmetal, chalcogens 16, 2, p15.9994(3) g·mol−1 1s2 2s2 2p4 2, 6 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 1.429 g/L 54.36 K,-218.79 °C,-361.82 °F 90.20 K,-182.95 °C,-297.31 °F 154.59 K, 5.043 MPa (O2) 0.444 kJ·mol−1 (O2) 6.82 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) (O2) 29.378 J·mol−1·K−12, 1, −1, −2 (neutral oxide) 3.44 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1313.9 kJ·mol−166±2 pm 152 pm cubic paramagnetic (300 K) 26.58x10-3  W·m−1·K−1 (gas, 27 °C) 330 m/s 7782-44-7 Oxygen (pronounced /ˈɒksɨdʒɨn/, from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp", from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, literally begetter) is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, and is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with almost all other elements. At standard temperature and pressure two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and helium[1] and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust.[2] Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.9% of the volume of air.[3] All major classes of structural molecules in living organisms, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, contain oxygen, as do the major inorganic compounds that comprise animal shells, teeth, and bone. Oxygen in the form of O2 is produced from water by cyanobacteria, algae and plants during photosynthesis and is used in cellular respiration for all complex life. Oxygen is toxic to obligately anaerobic organisms, which were the dominant form of early life on Earth until O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere 2.5 billion years ago.[4] Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone (O3), helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation with the high-altitude ozone layer, but is a pollutant near the surface where it is a by-product of smog. At even higher low earth orbit altitudes atomic oxygen is a significant presence and a cause of erosion for spacecraft.[5] Oxygen was independently discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774, but Priestley is often given priority because his publication came out in print first. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier,[6] whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. Oxygen is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquefied air, use of zeolites to remove carbon dioxide and nitrogen from air, electrolysis of water and other means. Uses of oxygen include the production of steel, plastics and textiles; rocket propellant; oxygen therapy; and life support in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.

Oxygen

3

Characteristics
Structure
At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a colorless, odorless gas with the molecular formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration. This bond has a bond order of two, and is often simplified in description as a double bond[7] or as a combination of one two-electron bond and two three-electron bonds.[8] Triplet oxygen is the ground state of the O2 molecule.[9] The electron configuration of the molecule has two unpaired electrons occupying two degenerate molecular orbitals.[10] These orbitals are classified as antibonding (weakening the bond order from three to two), so the diatomic oxygen bond is weaker than the diatomic nitrogen triple bond in which all bonding molecular orbitals are filled, but some antibonding orbitals are not.[9] In normal triplet form, O2 molecules are paramagnetic—they form a magnet in the presence of a magnetic field—because of the spin magnetic moments of the unpaired electrons in the molecule, and the negative exchange energy between neighboring O2 molecules.[11] Liquid oxygen is attracted to a magnet to a sufficient extent that, in laboratory demonstrations, a bridge of liquid oxygen may be supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet.[12] [13] Singlet oxygen, a name given to several higher-energy species of molecular O2 in which all the electron spins are paired, is much more reactive towards common organic molecules. In nature, singlet oxygen is commonly formed from water during photosynthesis, using the energy of sunlight.[14] It is also produced in the troposphere by the photolysis of ozone by light of short wavelength,[15] and by the immune system as a source of active oxygen.[16] Carotenoids in photosynthetic organisms (and possibly also in animals) play a major role in absorbing energy from singlet oxygen and converting it to the unexcited ground state before it can cause harm to tissues.[17]

Oxygen

4

Allotropes
The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth is called dioxygen, O2. It has a bond length of 121 pm and a bond energy of 498 kJ·mol-1.[18] This is the form that is used by complex forms of life, such as animals, in cellular respiration (see Biological role) and is the form that is a major part of the Earth's atmosphere (see Occurrence). Other aspects of O2 are covered in the remainder of this article. Trioxygen (O3) is usually known as ozone and is a very reactive allotrope of oxygen that is damaging to lung tissue.[19] Ozone is produced in the upper atmosphere when O2 combines with atomic oxygen made by the splitting of O2 by ultraviolet (UV) radiation.[6] Since ozone absorbs strongly in the UV region of the spectrum, the ozone layer of the upper atmosphere functions as a protective radiation shield for the planet.[6] Near the Earth's surface, however, it is a pollutant formed as a by-product of automobile exhaust.[20]

Ozone is a rare gas on Earth found mostly in the stratosphere

The metastable molecule tetraoxygen (O4) was discovered in 2001,[21] [22] and was assumed to exist in one of the six phases of solid oxygen. It was proven in 2006 that this phase, created by pressurizing O2 to 20 GPa, is in fact a rhombohedral O8 cluster.[23] This cluster has the potential to be a much more powerful oxidizer than either O2 or O3 and may therefore be used in rocket fuel.[21] [22] A metallic phase was discovered in 1990 when solid oxygen is subjected to a pressure of above 96 GPa[24] and it was shown in 1998 that at very low temperatures, this phase becomes superconducting.[25]

Physical properties
Oxygen is more soluble in water than nitrogen; water contains approximately 1 molecule of O2 for every 2 molecules of N2, compared to an atmospheric ratio of approximately 1:4. The solubility of oxygen in water is temperature-dependent, and about twice as much (14.6 mg·L−1) dissolves at 0 °C than at 20 °C (7.6 mg·L−1).[26] [27] At 25 °C and 1 standard atmosphere (101.3 kPa) of air, freshwater contains about 6.04 milliliters (mL) of oxygen per liter, whereas seawater contains about 4.95 mL per liter.[28] At 5 °C the solubility increases to 9.0 mL (50% more than at 25 °C) per liter for water and 7.2 mL (45% more) per liter for sea water. Oxygen condenses at 90.20 K (−182.95 °C, −297.31 °F), and freezes at 54.36 K (−218.79 °C, −361.82 °F).[29] Both liquid and solid O2 are clear substances with a light sky-blue color caused by absorption in the red (in contrast with the blue color of the sky, which is due to Rayleigh scattering of blue light). High-purity liquid O2 is usually obtained by the fractional distillation of liquefied air;[30] Liquid oxygen may also be produced by condensation out of air, using liquid nitrogen as a coolant. It is a highly reactive substance and must be segregated from combustible materials.[31]

Oxygen

5

Isotopes and stellar origin
Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes, 16O, 17O, and 18O, with 16O being the most abundant (99.762% natural abundance).[32] Most 16O is synthesized at the end of the helium fusion process in stars but some is made in the neon burning process.[33] 17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle, making it a common isotope in the hydrogen burning zones of stars.[33] Most 18O is produced when 14N (made abundant from CNO burning) captures a 4He nucleus, making 18O common in the helium-rich zones of stars.[33]

Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized, the 15 most stable being O with a half-life of 14 122.24 seconds (s) and O with a half-life of 70.606 s.[32] All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 27 s and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 83 milliseconds.[32] The most common decay mode of the isotopes lighter than 16 O is β+ decay[34] [35] [36] to yield nitrogen, and the most common mode for the isotopes heavier than 18O is beta decay to yield fluorine.[32]

Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell

Occurrence
Oxygen is the most abundant chemical element, by mass, in our biosphere, air, sea and land. Oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.[1] About 0.9% of the Sun's mass is oxygen.[3] Oxygen constitutes 49.2% of the Earth's crust by mass[2] and is the major component of the world's oceans (88.8% by mass).[3] Oxygen gas is the second most common component of the Earth's atmosphere, taking up 21.0% of its volume and 23.1% of its mass (some 1015 tonnes).[3] [37] [38] Earth is unusual among the planets of the Solar System in having such a high concentration of oxygen gas in its atmosphere: Mars (with 0.1% O2 by volume) and Venus have far lower concentrations. However, the O2 surrounding these other planets is produced solely by ultraviolet radiation impacting oxygen-containing molecules such as carbon dioxide. The unusually high concentration of oxygen gas on Earth is the result of the oxygen cycle. This biogeochemical cycle describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs on Earth: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for modern Earth's atmosphere. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, while respiration and decay Cold water holds more dissolved O2. remove it from the atmosphere. In the present equilibrium, production and consumption occur at the same rate of roughly 1/2000th of the entire atmospheric oxygen per year.

Oxygen Free oxygen also occurs in solution in the world's water bodies. The increased solubility of O2 at lower temperatures (see Physical properties) has important implications for ocean life, as polar oceans support a much higher density of life due to their higher oxygen content.[39] Polluted water may have reduced amounts of O2 in it, depleted by decaying algae and other biomaterials (see eutrophication). Scientists assess this aspect of water quality by measuring the water's biochemical oxygen demand, or the amount of O2 needed to restore it to a normal concentration.[40]

6

Biological role
Photosynthesis and respiration
In nature, free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis. Green algae and cyanobacteria in marine environments provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on earth and the rest is produced by terrestrial plants.[41] A simplified overall formula for photosynthesis is:[42] 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + photons → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
(or simply carbon dioxide + water + sunlight → glucose + dioxygen)

Photolytic oxygen evolution occurs in the thylakoid membranes of photosynthetic organisms and requires the energy of four photons.[43] Many steps are involved, but the result is the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP via photophosphorylation.[44] The O2 remaining after oxidation of the water molecule is released into the atmosphere.[45]

Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar

Oxygen

7 Molecular dioxygen, O2, is essential for cellular respiration in all aerobic organisms. Oxygen is used in mitochondria to help generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis and is simplified as: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 2880 kJ·mol-1 In vertebrates, O2 is diffused through membranes in the lungs and into red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds O2, changing its color from bluish red to bright red.[19] [46] Other animals use hemocyanin (molluscs and some arthropods) or hemerythrin (spiders and lobsters).[37] A liter of blood can dissolve 200 cm3 of O2.[37]

Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide ion (O−2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are dangerous by-products of oxygen use in organisms.[37] Parts of the immune system of higher organisms, however, create peroxide, superoxide, and singlet oxygen to destroy invading microbes. Reactive oxygen species also play an important role in the hypersensitive response of plants against pathogen attack.[44] An adult human in rest inhales 1.8 to 2.4 grams of oxygen per minute.[47] This amounts to more than 6 billion tonnes of oxygen inhaled by humanity per year. [48]

Relation between photosynthesis and respiration. Oxygen (at left) is consumed in respiration of organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. These can again produce oxygen and organic compounds in photosynthesis.

Build-up in the atmosphere
Free oxygen gas was almost nonexistent in Earth's atmosphere before photosynthetic archaea and bacteria evolved. Free oxygen first appeared in significant quantities during the Paleoproterozoic era (between 2.5 and 1.6 billion years ago). At first, the oxygen combined with dissolved iron in the oceans to form banded iron formations. Free oxygen started to gas out of the oceans 2.7 billion years ago, reaching 10% of its present level around 1.7 billion years ago.[49]

O2 build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no O2 produced; 2) O2 produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3) O2 starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4-5) O2 sinks filled and the gas accumulates

The presence of large amounts of dissolved and free oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere may have driven most of the anaerobic organisms then living to extinction during the

Oxygen oxygen catastrophe about 2.4 billion years ago. However, cellular respiration using O2 enables aerobic organisms to produce much more ATP than anaerobic organisms, helping the former to dominate Earth's biosphere.[50] Photosynthesis and cellular respiration of O2 allowed for the evolution of eukaryotic cells and ultimately complex multicellular organisms such as plants and animals. Since the beginning of the Cambrian era 540 million years ago, O2 levels have fluctuated between 15% and 30% by volume.[51] Towards the end of the Carboniferous era (about 300 million years ago) atmospheric O2 levels reached a maximum of 35% by volume,[51] allowing insects and amphibians to grow much larger than today's species. Human activities, including the burning of 7 billion tonnes of fossil fuels each year have had very little effect on the amount of free oxygen in the atmosphere.[11] At the current rate of photosynthesis it would take about 2,000 years to regenerate the entire O2 in the present atmosphere.[52]

8

History
Early experiments
One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the second century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle and surrounding the vessel's neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck.[53] Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries later Leonardo da Vinci built on Philo's work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration.[54] In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion. English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus or just nitroaereus.[55] In one experiment he found that placing either a mouse or a lit candle in a closed container over water caused the water to rise and replace one-fourteenth of the air's volume before extinguishing the subjects.[56] From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both respiration and combustion.

Philo's experiment inspired later investigators

Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, and inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it.[55] He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body.[55] Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract "De respiratione".[56]

Oxygen

9

Phlogiston theory
Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as an element.[26] This may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, which was then the favored explanation of those processes. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. J. Becher, and modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731,[57] phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts. One part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx.[54]

Stahl helped develop and popularize the phlogiston theory.

Highly combustible materials that leave little residue, such as wood or coal, were thought to be made mostly of phlogiston; whereas non-combustible substances that corrode, such as iron, contained very little. Air did not play a role in phlogiston theory, nor were any initial quantitative experiments conducted to test the idea; instead, it was based on observations of what happens when something burns, that most common objects appear to become lighter and seem to lose something in the process.[54] The fact that a substance like wood actually gains overall weight in burning was hidden by the buoyancy of the gaseous combustion products. Indeed one of the first clues that the phlogiston theory was incorrect was that metals, too, gain weight in rusting (when they were supposedly losing phlogiston).

Discovery
Oxygen was first discovered by Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. He had produced oxygen gas by heating mercuric oxide and various nitrates by about 1772.[3] [54] Scheele called the gas 'fire air' because it was the only known supporter of combustion. He wrote an account of this discovery in a manuscript he titled Treatise on Air and Fire, which he sent to his publisher in 1775. However, that document was not published until 1777.[58]
Carl Wilhelm Scheele beat Priestley to the discovery but published afterwards.

Oxygen

10 In the meantime, an experiment was conducted by the British clergyman Joseph Priestley on August 1, 1774 focused sunlight on mercuric oxide (HgO) inside a glass tube, which liberated a gas he named 'dephlogisticated air'.[3] He noted that candles burned brighter in the gas and that a mouse was more active and lived longer while breathing it. After breathing the gas himself, he wrote: "The feeling of it to my lungs was not sensibly different from that of common air, but I fancied that my breast felt peculiarly light and easy for some time afterwards."[26] Priestley published his findings in 1775 in a paper titled "An Account of Further Discoveries in Air" which was included in the second volume of his book titled Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air.[54] [59] Because he published his findings first, Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.

Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery

The noted French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier later claimed to have discovered the new substance independently. However, Priestley visited Lavoisier in October 1774 and told him about his experiment and how he liberated the new gas. Scheele also posted a letter to Lavoisier on September 30, 1774 that described his own discovery of the previously unknown substance, but Lavoisier never acknowledged receiving it (a copy of the letter was found in Scheele's belongings after his death).[58]

Lavoisier's contribution
What Lavoisier did indisputably do (although this was disputed at the time) was to conduct the first adequate quantitative experiments on oxidation and give the first correct explanation of how combustion works.[3] He used these and similar experiments, all started in 1774, to discredit the phlogiston theory and to prove that the substance discovered by Priestley and Scheele was a chemical element. In one experiment, Lavoisier observed that there was no overall increase in weight when tin and air were heated in a closed container.[3] He noted that air rushed in when he opened the container, which indicated that part of the trapped air had been consumed. He also noted that the tin had increased in weight and that increase was the same as the weight of the air that rushed back in. This and other experiments on combustion were documented in his book Sur la combustion en général, which was published in 1777.[3] In that work, he proved that air is a mixture of two gases; 'vital air', which is essential to Antoine Lavoisier discredited the Phlogiston theory combustion and respiration, and azote (Gk. ἄζωτον "lifeless"), which did not support either. Azote later became nitrogen in English, although it has kept the name in French and several other European languages.[3] Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygène in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp," from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, literally begetter), because he mistakenly believed that oxygen was a constituent of all acids.[6] Chemists eventually determined that Lavoisier was wrong in this regard, but by that time it was too

Oxygen late, the name had taken. Actually, the gas that could more appropriately have been given the description, "acid producer," is hydrogen. Oxygen entered the English language despite opposition by English scientists and the fact that the Englishman Priestley had first isolated the gas and written about it. This is partly due to a poem praising the gas titled "Oxygen" in the popular book The Botanic Garden (1791) by Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin.[58]

11

Later history
John Dalton's original atomic hypothesis assumed that all elements were monoatomic and that the atoms in compounds would normally have the simplest atomic ratios with respect to one another. For example, Dalton assumed that water's formula was HO, giving the atomic mass of oxygen as 8 times that of hydrogen, instead of the modern value of about 16.[60] In 1805, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen; and by 1811 Amedeo Avogadro had arrived at the correct interpretation of water's composition, based on what is now called Avogadro's law and the assumption of diatomic elemental molecules.[61] [62] By the late 19th century scientists realized that air
Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket

could be liquefied, and its components isolated, by compressing and cooling it. Using a cascade method, Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pierre Pictet evaporated liquid sulfur dioxide in order to liquefy carbon dioxide, which in turn was evaporated to cool oxygen gas enough to liquefy it. He sent a telegram on December 22, 1877 to the French Academy of Sciences in Paris announcing his discovery of liquid oxygen.[63] Just two days later, French physicist Louis Paul Cailletet announced his own method of liquefying molecular oxygen.[63] Only a few drops of the liquid were produced in either case so no meaningful analysis could be conducted. Oxygen was liquified in stable state for the first time on March 29, 1877 by Polish scientists from Jagiellonian University, Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski.[64] In 1891 Scottish chemist James Dewar was able to produce enough liquid oxygen to study.[11] The first commercially viable process for producing liquid oxygen was independently developed in 1895 by German engineer Carl von Linde and British engineer William Hampson. Both men lowered the temperature of air until it liquefied and then distilled the component gases by boiling them off one at a time and capturing them.[65] Later, in 1901, oxyacetylene welding was demonstrated for the first time by burning a mixture of acetylene and compressed O2. This method of welding and cutting metal later became common.[65] In 1923 the American scientist Robert H. Goddard became the first person to develop a rocket engine; the engine used gasoline for fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Goddard successfully flew a small liquid-fueled rocket 56 m at 97 km/h on March 16, 1926 in Auburn, Massachusetts, USA.[65] [66]

Oxygen

12

Industrial production
Two major methods are employed to produce 100 million tonnes of O2 extracted from air for industrial uses annually.[58] The most common method is to fractionally distill liquefied air into its various components, with nitrogen N2 distilling as a vapor while oxygen O2 is left as a liquid.[58] The other major method of producing O2 gas involves passing a stream of clean, dry air through one bed of a pair of identical zeolite molecular sieves, which absorbs the nitrogen and delivers a gas stream that is 90% to 93% O2.[58] Simultaneously, nitrogen gas is released from the other nitrogen-saturated zeolite bed, by reducing the chamber operating pressure and diverting part of the oxygen gas from the producer bed through it, in the reverse direction of flow. After a set cycle time the operation of the two beds is interchanged, thereby allowing for a continuous supply of gaseous oxygen to be pumped through a pipeline. This is known as pressure swing adsorption. Oxygen gas is increasingly obtained by these non-cryogenic technologies (see also the related vacuum swing adsorption).[67] Oxygen gas can also be produced through electrolysis of water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen. DC electricity must be used: if AC is used, the gases in each limb consist of hydrogen and oxygen in the explosive ratio 2:1. Contrary to popular belief, the 2:1 ratio observed in the DC electrolysis of acidified water does not prove that the empirical formula of water is H2O unless certain assumptions are made about the molecular formulae of hydrogen and oxygen themselves.
Hoffman electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water.

A similar method is the electrocatalytic O2 evolution from oxides and oxoacids. Chemical catalysts can be used as well, such as in chemical oxygen generators or oxygen candles that are used as part of the life-support equipment on submarines, and are still part of standard equipment on commercial airliners in case of depressurization emergencies. Another air separation technology involves forcing air to dissolve through ceramic membranes based on zirconium dioxide by either high pressure or an electric current, to produce nearly pure O2 gas.[40] In large quantities, the price of liquid oxygen in 2001 was approximately $0.21/kg.[68] Since the primary cost of production is the energy cost of liquefying the air, the production cost will change as energy cost varies. For reasons of economy, oxygen is often transported in bulk as a liquid in specially insulated tankers, since one litre of liquefied oxygen is equivalent to 840 liters of gaseous oxygen at atmospheric pressure and 20 °C.[58] Such tankers are used to refill bulk liquid oxygen storage containers, which stand outside hospitals and other institutions with a need for large volumes of pure oxygen gas. Liquid oxygen is passed through heat exchangers, which convert the cryogenic liquid into gas before it enters the building. Oxygen is also stored and shipped in smaller cylinders containing the compressed gas; a form that is

Oxygen useful in certain portable medical applications and oxy-fuel welding and cutting.[58]

13

Applications
Medical
Uptake of O2 from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation is used in medicine. Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, some heart disorders, and any disease that impairs the body's ability to take up and use gaseous oxygen.[69] Treatments are flexible enough to be used in hospitals, the patient's home, or increasingly by portable devices. Oxygen tents were once commonly used in oxygen supplementation, but have since been replaced mostly by the use of oxygen masks or nasal cannulas.[70] Hyperbaric (high-pressure) medicine uses special oxygen An oxygen concentrator in an chambers to increase the partial pressure of O2 around the [71] emphysema patient's house patient and, when needed, the medical staff. Carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene, and decompression sickness (the 'bends') are sometimes treated using these devices.[72] Increased O2 concentration in the lungs helps to displace carbon monoxide from the heme group of hemoglobin.[73] [74] Oxygen gas is poisonous to the anaerobic bacteria that cause gas gangrene, so increasing its partial pressure helps kill them.[75] [76] Decompression sickness occurs in divers who decompress too quickly after a dive, resulting in bubbles of inert gas, mostly nitrogen and helium, forming in their blood. Increasing the pressure of O2 as soon as possible is part of the treatment.[69] [77] [78] Oxygen is also used medically for patients who require mechanical ventilation, often at concentrations above 21% found in ambient air.

Life support and recreational use
A notable application of O2 as a low-pressure breathing gas is in modern space suits, which surround their occupant's body with pressurized air. These devices use nearly pure oxygen at about one third normal pressure, resulting in a normal blood partial pressure of O2.[79] [80] This trade-off of higher oxygen concentration for lower pressure is needed to maintain flexible spacesuits. Scuba divers and submariners also rely on artificially delivered O2, but most often use normal pressure, and/or mixtures of oxygen and air. Pure or nearly pure O2 use in diving at higher-than-sea-level pressures is usually limited to rebreather, decompression, or

Low pressure pure O2 is used in space suits

Oxygen emergency treatment use at relatively shallow depths (~6 meters depth, or less).[81] [82] Deeper diving requires significant dilution of O2 with other gases, such as nitrogen or helium, to help prevent oxygen toxicity.[81] People who climb mountains or fly in non-pressurized fixed-wing aircraft sometimes have supplemental O2 supplies.[83] Passengers traveling in (pressurized) commercial airplanes have an emergency supply of O2 automatically supplied to them in case of cabin depressurization. Sudden cabin pressure loss activates chemical oxygen generators above each seat, causing oxygen masks to drop and forcing iron filings into the sodium chlorate inside the canister.[40] A steady stream of oxygen gas is produced by the exothermic reaction. However, even this may pose a danger if inappropriately triggered: a ValuJet airplane crashed after use-date-expired O2 canisters, which were being shipped in the cargo hold, activated and caused fire. The canisters were mis-labeled as empty, and carried against dangerous goods regulations.[84] Oxygen, as a supposed mild euphoric, has a history of recreational use in oxygen bars and in sports. Oxygen bars are establishments, found in Japan, California, and Las Vegas, Nevada since the late 1990s that offer higher than normal O2 exposure for a fee.[85] Professional athletes, especially in American football, also sometimes go off field between plays to wear oxygen masks in order to get a supposed "boost" in performance. However, the reality of a pharmacological effect is doubtful; a placebo or psychological boost being the most plausible explanation.[85] Available studies support a performance boost from enriched O2 mixtures only if they are breathed during actual aerobic exercise.[86] Other recreational uses include pyrotechnic applications, such as George Goble's five-second ignition of barbecue grills.[87]

14

Industrial
Smelting of iron ore into steel consumes 55% of commercially produced oxygen.[40] In this process, O2 is injected through a high-pressure lance into molten iron, which removes sulfur impurities and excess carbon as the respective oxides, SO2 and CO2. The reactions are exothermic, so the temperature increases to [40] 1,700 °C. Another 25% of commercially produced oxygen is used by the chemical industry.[40] Ethylene is reacted with Most commercially produced O2 is O2 to create ethylene oxide, which, in turn, is converted used to smelt iron into steel. into ethylene glycol; the primary feeder material used to manufacture a host of products, including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics).[40] Most of the remaining 20% of commercially produced oxygen is used in medical applications, metal cutting and welding, as an oxidizer in rocket fuel, and in water treatment.[40] Oxygen is used in oxyacetylene welding burning acetylene with O2 to produce a very hot flame. In this process, metal up to 60 cm thick is first heated with a small oxy-acetylene flame and then quickly cut by a large stream of O2.[88] Rocket propulsion requires a fuel and an oxidizer. Larger rockets use liquid oxygen as their oxidizer, which is mixed and ignited with the fuel for propulsion.

Oxygen

15

Scientific
Paleoclimatologists measure the ratio of oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 in the shells and skeletons of marine organisms to determine what the climate was like millions of years ago (see oxygen isotope ratio cycle). Seawater molecules that contain the lighter isotope, oxygen-16, evaporate at a slightly faster rate than water molecules containing the 12% heavier oxygen-18; this disparity increases at lower temperatures.[89] During periods of lower global 500 million years of climate change vs 18O temperatures, snow and rain from that evaporated water tends to be higher in oxygen-16, and the seawater left behind tends to be higher in oxygen-18. Marine organisms then incorporate more oxygen-18 into their skeletons and shells than they would in a warmer climate.[89] Paleoclimatologists also directly measure this ratio in the water molecules of ice core samples that are up to several hundreds of thousands of years old. Planetary geologists have measured different abundances of oxygen isotopes in samples from the Earth, the Moon, Mars, and meteorites, but were long unable to obtain reference values for the isotope ratios in the Sun, believed to be the same as those of the primordial solar nebula. However, analysis of a silicon wafer exposed to the solar wind in space and returned by the crashed Genesis spacecraft has shown that the Sun has a higher proportion of oxygen-16 than does the Earth. The measurement implies that an unknown process depleted oxygen-16 from the Sun's disk of protoplanetary material prior to the coalescence of dust grains that formed the Earth.[90] Oxygen presents two spectrophotometric absorption bands peaking at the wavelengths 687 and 760 nm. Some remote sensing scientists have proposed using the measurement of the radiance coming from vegetation canopies in those bands to characterize plant health status from a satellite platform.[91] This approach exploits the fact that in those bands it is possible to discriminate the vegetation's reflectance from its fluorescence, which is much weaker. The measurement is technically difficult owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the physical structure of vegetation; but it has been proposed as a possible method of monitoring the carbon cycle from satellites on a global scale.

Oxygen

16

Compounds
The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen. The oxidation state −1 is found in a few compounds such as peroxides.[92] Compounds containing oxygen in other oxidation states are very uncommon: −1/2 (superoxides), −1/3 (ozonides), 0 (elemental, hypofluorous acid), +1/2 (dioxygenyl), +1 (dioxygen difluoride), and +2 (oxygen difluoride).

Oxides and other inorganic compounds
Water (H2O) is the oxide of hydrogen and the most familiar oxygen compound. Hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to Water (H2O) is the most oxygen in a water molecule but also have an additional familiar oxygen compound. attraction (about 23.3 kJ·mol−1 per hydrogen atom) to an adjacent oxygen atom in a separate molecule.[93] These hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them approximately 15% closer than what would be expected in a simple liquid with just Van der Waals forces.[94] [95] Due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other elements at elevated temperatures to give corresponding oxides. However, some elements readily form oxides at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the rusting of iron is an example. The surface of metals like aluminium and titanium are oxidized in the presence of air and become coated with a thin film of oxide that passivates the metal and slows further corrosion. Some Oxides, such as iron oxide or rust form of the transition metal oxides are found in nature as when oxygen combines with other non-stoichiometric compounds, with a slightly less elements. metal than the chemical formula would show. For example, the natural occurring FeO (wüstite) is actually written as Fe1 − xO, where x is usually around 0.05.[96] Oxygen as a compound is present in the atmosphere in trace quantities in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). The earth's crustal rock is composed in large part of oxides of silicon (silica SiO2, found in granite and sand), aluminium (aluminium oxide Al2O3, in bauxite and corundum), iron (iron(III) oxide Fe2O3, in hematite and rust) and other metals. The rest of the Earth's crust is also made of oxygen compounds, in particular calcium carbonate (in limestone) and silicates (in feldspars). Water-soluble silicates in the form of Na4SiO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2Si2O5 are used as detergents and adhesives.[97] Oxygen also acts as a ligand for transition metals, forming metal–O2 bonds with the iridium atom in Vaska's complex,[98] with the platinum in PtF6,[99] and with the iron center of the heme group of hemoglobin.

Oxygen

17

Organic compounds and biomolecules
Among the most important classes of organic compounds that contain oxygen are (where "R" is an organic group): alcohols (R-OH); ethers (R-O-R); ketones (R-CO-R); aldehydes (R-CO-H); carboxylic acids (R-COOH); esters (R-COO-R); acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R); and amides (R-C(O)-NR2). There are many important organic solvents that contain oxygen, including: acetone, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, furan, THF, diethyl ether, dioxane, ethyl acetate, DMF, DMSO, acetic acid, and formic acid. Acetone ((CH3)2CO) and phenol (C6H5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of many different substances. Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic anhydride, and acetamide. Epoxides are ethers in which the oxygen atom is part of a ring of three atoms. Oxygen reacts spontaneously with many organic

Acetone is an important feeder material in the chemical industry (oxygen is in red, carbon in black and hydrogen in white).

compounds at or below room temperature in a process called autoxidation.[100] Most of the organic compounds that contain oxygen are not made by direct action of O2. Organic compounds important in industry and commerce that are made by direct oxidation of a precursor include ethylene oxide and peracetic acid.[97]

Oxygen represents more than 40% of the molecular mass of the ATP molecule.

The element is found in almost all biomolecules that are important to (or generated by) life. Only a few common complex biomolecules, such as squalene and the carotenes, contain no oxygen. Of the organic compounds with biological relevance, carbohydrates contain the largest proportion by mass of oxygen. All fats, fatty acids, amino acids, and proteins contain oxygen (due to the presence of carbonyl groups in these acids and their ester residues). Oxygen also occurs in phosphate (PO3−4) groups in the biologically important energy-carrying molecules ATP and ADP, in the backbone and the purines (except adenine) and pyrimidines of RNA and DNA, and in bones as calcium phosphate and hydroxylapatite.

Oxygen

18

Safety and Precautions
Toxicity
Oxygen gas (O2) can be toxic at elevated partial pressures, leading to convulsions and other health problems.[81] [102] [103] Oxygen toxicity usually begins to occur at partial pressures more than 50 kilopascals (kPa), or 2.5 times the normal sea-level O2 partial pressure of about 21 kPa. Therefore, air supplied through oxygen masks in medical applications is typically composed of 30% O2 by volume (about 30 kPa at standard pressure).[26] At one time, premature babies were placed in incubators containing O2-rich air, but this practice was discontinued after some babies were blinded by it.[26]
[104]

Main symptoms of oxygen toxicity.

[101]

Breathing

pure

O

2

in

space

Oxygen toxicity occurs when lungs take in a higher than normal O2 partial pressure, which can occur in deep scuba diving.

applications, such as in some modern space suits, or in early spacecraft such as Apollo, causes no damage due to the low total pressures used.[79] [105] In the case of spacesuits, the O2 partial pressure in the breathing gas is, in general, about 30 kPa (1.4 times normal), and the resulting O2 partial pressure in the astronaut's arterial blood is only marginally more than normal sea-level O2 partial pressure (see arterial blood gas).

Oxygen toxicity to the lungs and central nervous system can also occur in deep scuba diving and surface supplied diving.[26] [81] Prolonged breathing of an air mixture with an O2 partial pressure more than 60 kPa can eventually lead to permanent pulmonary fibrosis.[106] Exposure to a O2 partial pressures greater than 160 kPa may lead to convulsions (normally fatal for divers). Acute oxygen toxicity can occur by breathing an air mixture with 21% O2 at 66 m or more of depth while the same thing can occur by breathing 100% O2 at only 6 m.[106] [107] [108] [109]

Oxygen

19

Combustion and other hazards

0 0 0
OX Highly concentrated sources of oxygen promote rapid combustion. Fire and explosion hazards exist when concentrated oxidants and fuels are brought into close proximity; however, an ignition event, such as heat or a spark, is needed to trigger combustion.[110] Oxygen itself is not the fuel, but the oxidant. Combustion hazards also apply to compounds of oxygen with a high oxidative potential, such as peroxides, chlorates, nitrates, perchlorates, and dichromates because they can donate oxygen to a fire.

Concentrated O2 will allow combustion to proceed rapidly and energetically.[110] Steel pipes and storage vessels used to store and transmit both gaseous and liquid oxygen will act as a fuel; and therefore the design and manufacture of O2 systems requires special training to ensure that ignition sources are minimized.[110] The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew on a test launch pad spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure O2 but at slightly more than atmospheric pressure, instead of the ⅓ normal pressure that would be used in a mission.[111] [112] Liquid oxygen spills, if allowed to soak into organic matter, such as wood, petrochemicals, and asphalt can cause these materials to detonate unpredictably on subsequent mechanical impact.[110] As with other cryogenic liquids, on contact with the human body it can cause burns to the skin and the eyes.

Pure O2 at higher than normal pressure and a spark led to a fire and the loss of the Apollo 1 crew.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • Oxygen compounds Hypoxia, a lack of oxygen Hypoxia (environmental) for O2 depletion in aquatic ecology Optode for a method of measuring O2 concentration in solution Oxygen Catastrophe The sudden rise in Oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.4B years ago Oxygen isotope ratio cycle Oxygen plant Oxygen sensor Winkler test for dissolved oxygen Limiting oxygen concentration

Oxygen

20

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Oxygen sici?sici=0260-7085%281775%2965%3C384%3AAAOFDI%3E2. 0. CO%3B2-N. Retrieved 2007-12-16. • Raven, Peter H.; Ray F. Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn (2005). Biology of Plants, 7th Edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers. pp. 115–27. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2. • Roscoe, Henry Enfield; Schorlemmer, Carl (1883). A Treatise on Chemistry. D. Appleton and Co.. pp. 38. • Shimizu, K.; Suhara, K., Ikumo, M., Eremets, M. I. & Amaya, K. (1998). "Superconductivity in oxygen". Nature 393: 767–69. doi:10.1038/31656
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• Smart, Lesley E.; Elaine A. Moore (2005). Solid State Chemistry: An Introduction (3rd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 214. ISBN 978-0748775163. • Stwertka, Albert (1998). Guide to the Elements (Revised ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508083-1. • Walker, J. (1980). "The oxygen cycle". in Hutzinger O.. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Volume 1. Part A: The natural environment and the biogeochemical cycles. Berlin; Heidelberg; New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 258. ISBN 0387096884. • Wentworth Jr., Paul; Jonathan E. McDunn, Anita D. Wentworth, Cindy Takeuchi, Jorge Nieva, Teresa Jones, Cristina Bautista, Julie M. Ruedi, Abel Gutierrez, Kim D. Janda, Bernard M. Babior, Albert Eschenmoser, Richard A. Lerner (2002-12-13). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science 298 (5601): 2195–219. doi:10.1126/science.1077642 [138]. PMID 12434011. • Werley, Barry L. (Edtr.) (1991). "Fire Hazards in Oxygen Systems". ASTM Technical Professional training. Philadelphia: ASTM International Subcommittee G-4.05. • World of Chemistry contributors (2005). "John Mayow [139]". World of Chemistry. Thomson Gale. http:/ / www. bookrags. com/ John_Mayow. Retrieved 2007-12-16.

External links
• Oxidizing Agents > Oxygen [140] • Oxygen (O2) Properties, Uses, Applications • Roald Hoffmann article on "The Story of O" • WebElements.com – Oxygen [143] pnb:‫نجیسکآ‬
[141] [142]

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[45] Water oxidation is catalyzed by a manganese-containing enzyme complex known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) or water-splitting complex found associated with the lumenal side of thylakoid membranes. Manganese is an important cofactor, and calcium and chloride are also required for the reaction to occur.(Raven 2005) [46] CO2 is released from another part of hemoglobin (see Bohr effect) [47] "For humans, the normal volume is 6-8 liters per minute." (http:/ / www. patentstorm. us/ patents/ 6224560-description. html) [48] (1.8 grams/min/person)×(60 min/h)×(24 h/day)×(365 days/year)×(6.6 billion people)/1,000,000 g/t=6.24 billion tonnes [49] Campbell 2005, 522–23 [50] Freeman 2005, 214, 586 [51] Berner 1999, 10955–57 [52] Dole 1965, 5–27 [53] Jastrow 1936, 171 [54] Cook & Lauer 1968, p.499. [55] Britannica contributors 1911, "John Mayow" [56] World of Chemistry contributors 2005, "John Mayow" [57] Morris 2003 [58] Emsley 2001, p.300 [59] Priestley 1775, 384–94 [60] DeTurck, Dennis; Gladney, Larry and Pietrovito, Anthony (1997). " The Interactive Textbook of PFP96 (http:/ / www. physics. upenn. edu/ courses/ gladney/ mathphys/ Contents. html)". University of Pennsylvania. . Retrieved 2008-01-28. [61] Roscoe 1883, 38 [62] However, these results were mostly ignored until 1860. Part of this rejection was due to the belief that atoms of one element would have no chemical affinity towards atoms of the same element, and part was due to apparent exceptions to Avogadro's law that were not explained until later in terms of dissociating molecules. [63] Daintith 1994, p.707 [64] Poland - Culture, Science and Media. Condensation of oxygen and nitrogen (http:/ / www. poland. gov. pl/ Karol,Olszewski,and,Zygmunt,Wroblewski:,condensation,of,oxygen,and,nitrogen,1987. html). Retrieved on 2008-10-04. [65] How Products are Made contributors, "Oxygen" [66] " Goddard-1926 (http:/ / grin. hq. nasa. gov/ ABSTRACTS/ GPN-2002-000132. html)". NASA. . Retrieved 2007-11-18. [67] " Non-Cryogenic Air Separation Processes (http:/ / www. uigi. com/ noncryo. html)". UIG Inc.. 2003. . Retrieved 2007-12-16. [68] Space Shuttle Use of Propellants and Fluids (http:/ / www-pao. ksc. nasa. gov/ kscpao/ nasafact/ ps/ SSP. ps), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001-09, , retrieved 2007-12-16, "NASAFacts FS-2001-09-015-KSC" [69] Cook & Lauer 1968, p.510 [70] Sim MA, Dean P, Kinsella J, Black R, Carter R, Hughes M (2008). "Performance of oxygen delivery devices when the breathing pattern of respiratory failure is simulated". Anaesthesia 63 (9): 938–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05536.x (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1111/ j. 1365-2044. 2008. 05536. x). PMID 18540928. [71] Stephenson RN, Mackenzie I, Watt SJ, Ross JA (1996). " Measurement of oxygen concentration in delivery systems used for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 2245)". Undersea Hyperb Med 23 (3): 185–8. PMID 8931286. . Retrieved 2008-09-22. [72] Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. " Indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (http:/ / www. uhms. org/ Default. aspx?tabid=270)". . Retrieved 2008-09-22. [73] Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. " Carbon Monoxide (http:/ / www. uhms. org/ ResourceLibrary/ Indications/ CarbonMonoxidePoisoning/ tabid/ 272/ Default. aspx)". . Retrieved 2008-09-22. [74] Piantadosi CA (2004). " Carbon monoxide poisoning (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 4002)". Undersea Hyperb Med 31 (1): 167–77. PMID 15233173. . Retrieved 2008-09-22. [75] Hart GB, Strauss MB (1990). " Gas Gangrene - Clostridial Myonecrosis: A Review (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 4428)". J. Hyperbaric Med 5 (2): 125–144. . Retrieved 2008-09-22. [76] Zamboni WA, Riseman JA, Kucan JO (1990). " Management of Fournier's Gangrene and the role of Hyperbaric Oxygen (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 4431)". J. Hyperbaric Med 5 (3): 177–186. . Retrieved 2008-09-22.

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[77] Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. " Decompression Sickness or Illness and Arterial Gas Embolism (http:/ / www. uhms. org/ ResourceLibrary/ Indications/ DecompressionSickness/ tabid/ 275/ Default. aspx)". . Retrieved 2008-09-22. [78] Acott, C. (1999). " A brief history of diving and decompression illness (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 6004)". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 29 (2). ISSN 0813-1988 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0813-1988). OCLC 16986801 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 16986801). . Retrieved 2008-09-22. [79] Morgenthaler GW, Fester DA, Cooley CG (1994). "As assessment of habitat pressure, oxygen fraction, and EVA suit design for space operations". Acta Astronaut 32 (1): 39–49. doi: 10.1016/0094-5765(94)90146-5 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ 0094-5765(94)90146-5). PMID 11541018. [80] Webb JT, Olson RM, Krutz RW, Dixon G, Barnicott PT (1989). "Human tolerance to 100% oxygen at 9.5 psia during five daily simulated 8-hour EVA exposures". Aviat Space Environ Med 60 (5): 415–21. PMID 2730484. [81] Acott, C. (1999). " Oxygen toxicity: A brief history of oxygen in diving (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 6014)". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society journal 29 (3). ISSN 0813-1988 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0813-1988). OCLC 16986801 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 16986801). . Retrieved 2008-09-21. [82] Longphre, J. M.; P. J. DeNoble; R. E. Moon; R. D. Vann; J. J. Freiberger (2007). " First aid normobaric oxygen for the treatment of recreational diving injuries. (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 5514)". Undersea Hyperb Med. 34 (1): 43–49. ISSN 1066-2936 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 1066-2936). OCLC 26915585 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 26915585). PMID 17393938. . Retrieved 2008-09-21. [83] The reason is that increasing the proportion of oxygen in the breathing gas at low pressure acts to augment the inspired O2 partial pressure nearer to that found at sea-level. [84] " NTSB Summary report (http:/ / www. ntsb. gov/ NTSB/ brief. asp?ev_id=20001208X05743& key=1)". National Transportation Safety Board. . Retrieved 2007-12-16.) [85] Bren, Linda (November–December 2002). " Oxygen Bars: Is a Breath of Fresh Air Worth It? (http:/ / www. fda. gov/ Fdac/ features/ 2002/ 602_air. html)". FDA Consumer magazine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. . Retrieved 2007-12-23. [86] " Ergogenic Aids (http:/ / www. pponline. co. uk/ encyc/ 1008. htm)". Peak Performance Online. . Retrieved 2008-01-04. [87] " George Goble's extended home page (mirror) (http:/ / www. bkinzel. de/ misc/ ghg/ index. html)". . [88] Cook & Lauer 1968, p.508 [89] Emsley 2001, p.304 [90] Hand, Eric (2008-03-13). " The Solar System's first breath (http:/ / www. nature. com/ news/ 2008/ 080313/ full/ 452259a. html)". Nature 452: 259. doi: 10.1038/452259a (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 452259a). . Retrieved 2009-03-18. [91] Miller et al. 2003 [92] Greenwood & Earnshaw 1997, 28 [93] Maksyutenko et al. 2006 [94] Chaplin, Martin (2008-01-04). " Water Hydrogen Bonding (http:/ / www. lsbu. ac. uk/ water/ hbond. html)". . Retrieved 2008-01-06. [95] Also, since oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, the charge difference makes it a polar molecule. The interactions between the different dipoles of each molecule cause a net attraction force. [96] Smart 2005, 214 [97] Cook & Lauer 1968, p.507 [98] Crabtree 2001, 152 [99] Cook & Lauer 1968, p.505 [100] Cook & Lauer 1968, p.506 [101] Dharmeshkumar N Patel, Ashish Goel, SB Agarwal, Praveenkumar Garg, Krishna K Lakhani (2003). " Oxygen Toxicity (http:/ / medind. nic. in/ jac/ t03/ i3/ jact03i3p234. pdf)". Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine 4 (3): 234. . [102] Since O2's partial pressure is the fraction of O2 times the total pressure, elevated partial pressures can occur either from high O2 fraction in breathing gas or from high breathing gas pressure, or a combination of both. [103] Cook & Lauer 1968, p.511 [104] Drack AV (1998). "Preventing blindness in premature infants". N. Engl. J. Med. 338 (22): 1620–1. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199805283382210 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1056/ NEJM199805283382210). PMID 9603802. [105] Wade, Mark (2007). " Space Suits (http:/ / www. astronautix. com/ craftfam/ spasuits. htm)". Encyclopedia Astronautica. . Retrieved 2007-12-16. [106] Wilmshurst P (1998). " Diving and oxygen (http:/ / www. pubmedcentral. nih. gov/ articlerender. fcgi?tool=pmcentrez& artid=1114047)". BMJ 317 (7164): 996–9. PMID 9765173. [107] Donald 1992

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
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28

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Fluorine

1

Fluorine
Oxygen ← Fluorine → Neon ↑ F ↓ Cl

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

9F
Periodic table

Appearance Yellowish brown gas General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 38 10 44 100 50 1k 58 10 k 69 100 k 85

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 3374.2 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 6050.4 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivityCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of Fluorine
iso
18

N.A. syn

half-life 109.77 min

DM β+ (97%) ε (3%) 0.64 1.656

DE (MeV)
18

DP O O

F

18

19

F

100%

19

F is stable with 10 neutron

Fluorine Fluorine, F, 9 halogen17, 2, p18.9984032(5) g·mol−1 1s2 2s2 2p5 2, 7 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 1.7 g/L 53.53 K,−219.62 °C,−363.32 °F 85.03 K,−188.12 °C,−306.62 °F 144.13 K, 5.172 MPa (F2) 0.510 kJ·mol−1 (F2) 6.62 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) (F2) −1 −1 31.304 J·mol ·K −1 (Weaklyacidic oxide) 3.98 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1681.0 kJ·mol−157±3 pm −1 −1 (see covalent radius of fluorine)147 pm cubic nonmagnetic (300 K) 27.7 m W·m ·K 7782-41-4 Fluorine is the chemical element with atomic number 9, represented by the symbol F. Fluorine forms a single bond with itself in elemental form, resulting in the diatomic F2 molecule. F2 is a supremely reactive, poisonous, pale, yellowish brown gas. Elemental fluorine is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements. For example, it will readily "burn" hydrocarbons at room temperature, in contrast to the combustion of hydrocarbons by oxygen, which requires an input of energy with a spark. Therefore, molecular fluorine is highly dangerous, more so than other halogens such as the poisonous chlorine gas. Fluorine's highest electronegativity and small atomic radius give unique properties to many of its compounds. For example, the enrichment of 235U, the principal nuclear fuel, relies on the volatility of UF6. Also, the carbon–fluorine bond is one of the strongest bonds in organic chemistry. This contributes to the stability and persistence of fluoroalkane based organofluorine compounds, such as PTFE/(Teflon) and PFOS. The carbon–fluorine bond's inductive effects result in the strength of many fluorinated acids, such as triflic acid and trifluoroacetic acid. Drugs are often fluorinated at biologically reactive positions, to prevent their metabolism and prolong their half-lives.

2

Characteristics
F2 is a corrosive pale yellow or brown[1] gas that is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is the most reactive and most electronegative of all the elements on the classic Pauling scale (4.0), and readily forms compounds with most other elements. It has an oxidation number -1, except when bonded to another fluorine in F2 which gives it an oxidation number of 0. Fluorine even combines with the noble gases argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Even in dark, cool conditions, fluorine reacts explosively with hydrogen. The reaction with hydrogen occurs even at extremely low temperatures, using liquid hydrogen and solid fluorine. It is so reactive that metals, and even water, as well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas. In moist air it reacts with water to form the also dangerous hydrofluoric acid. Fluorides are compounds that combine fluorine with some positively charged counterpart. They often consist of crystalline ionic salts. Fluorine compounds with metals are among the most stable of salts. Hydrogen fluoride is a weak acid when dissolved in water, but is still very corrosive and attacks glass. Consequently, fluorides of alkali metals produce basic solutions. For example, a 1 M solution of NaF in water has a pH of 8.59 compared to a 1 M solution of NaOH, a strong base, which has a pH of 14.00.[2]

Fluorine

3

Isotopes
Although fluorine (F) has multiple isotopes, only one of these isotopes (F-19) is stable, and the others have short half-lives and are not found in nature. Fluorine is thus a mononuclidic element. The nuclide 18F is the radionuclide of fluorine with the longest half life (about 110 minutes = almost 2 hours), and commercially is an important source of positrons-- finding its major use in positron emission tomography scanning.

Applications
Elemental fluorine, F2, is mainly used for the production of two compounds of commercial interest, uranium hexafluoride and sulfur hexafluoride.[3] Industrial use of fluorine-containing compounds: • Atomic fluorine and molecular fluorine are used for plasma etching in semiconductor manufacturing, flat panel display production and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication.[4] Xenon difluoride is also used for this last purpose. • Hydrofluoric acid (chemical formula HF) is used to etch glass in light bulbs and other products. • Tetrafluoroethylene and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are directly used in the production of low friction plastics such as Teflon (or polytetrafluoroethylene). • Fluorine is used indirectly in the production of halons such as freon. • Along with some of its compounds, fluorine is used in the production of pure uranium from uranium hexafluoride and in the synthesis of numerous commercial fluorochemicals, including vitally important pharmaceuticals, agrochemical compounds, lubricants, and textiles. • Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are used extensively in air conditioning and in refrigeration. Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned for these applications because they contribute to ozone destruction and the ozone hole. Interestingly, since it is chlorine and bromine radicals which harm the ozone layer, not fluorine, compounds which do not contain chlorine or bromine but contain only fluorine, carbon and hydrogen (called hydrofluorocarbons) are not on the United States Environmental Protection Agency list of ozone-depleting substances,[5] and have been widely used as replacements for the chlorine- and bromine-containing fluorocarbons. Hydrofluorocarbons do have a greenhouse effect, but a small one compared with carbon dioxide and methane. • Sodium hexafluoroaluminate (cryolite), is used in the electrolysis of aluminium. • In much higher concentrations, sodium fluoride has been used as an insecticide, especially against cockroaches. • Fluorides have been used in the past to help molten metal flow, hence the name. • Some researchers including US space scientists in the early 1960s have studied elemental fluorine gas as a possible rocket propellant due to its exceptionally high specific impulse. The experiments failed because fluorine proved difficult to handle, and its combustion products proved extremely toxic and corrosive. • Compounds of fluorine such as fluoropolymers, potassium fluoride and cryolite are utilized in applications such as anti-reflective coatings and dichroic mirrors on account of their unusually low refractive index.

Fluorine

4

Dental and medical uses
• Inorganic compounds of fluoride, including sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF2) and sodium MFP, are used in toothpaste to prevent dental cavities. These or related compounds are also added to some municipal water supplies, a process called water fluoridation, although the practice has remained controversial since its beginnings in 1945. • Many important agents for general anesthesia such as sevoflurane, desflurane, and isoflurane are hydrofluorocarbon derivatives. • The fluorinated antiinflammatories dexamethasone and triamcinolone are among the most potent of the synthetic corticosteroids class of drugs.[6] • Fludrocortisone ("Florinef") is one of the most common mineralocorticoids, a class of drugs which mimics the actions of aldosterone. • Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. • Fluoroquinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. • SSRI antidepressants, except in a few instances, are fluorinated molecules. These include citalopram, escitalopram oxalate, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine maleate, and paroxetine. A notable exception is sertraline. Because of the difficulty of biological systems in dealing with metabolism of fluorinated molecules, fluorinated antibiotics and antidepressants are among the major fluorinated organics found in treated city sewage and wastewater. • Compounds containing 18F, a radioactive isotope that emits positrons, are often used in positron emission tomography, because its half-life of 110 minutes is long by the standards of positron-emitters. One such species is fluorodeoxyglucose.

Chemistry of fluorine
Fluorine forms a variety of very different compounds, owing to its small atomic size and covalent behavior. Elemental fluorine is a dangerously powerful oxidant, reflecting the extreme electronegativity of fluorine. Hydrofluoric acid is extremely dangerous, whereas in synthetic drugs incorporating an aromatic ring (e.g. flumazenil), fluorine is used to help prevent toxication or to delay metabolism. The fluoride ion is basic, therefore hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid in water solution. However, water is not an inert solvent in this case: when less basic solvents such as anhydrous acetic acid are used, hydrofluoric acid is the strongest of the hydrohalogenic acids. Also, owing to the basicity of the fluoride ion, soluble fluorides give basic water solutions. The fluoride ion is a Lewis base, and has a high affinity to certain elements such as calcium and silicon. For example, deprotection of silicon protecting groups is achieved with a fluoride. The fluoride ion is poisonous. Fluorine as a freely reacting oxidant gives the strongest oxidants known. The reactivity of fluorine toward the noble gas xenon was first reported by Neil Bartlett in 1962. Fluorides of krypton and radon have also been prepared. Argon fluorohydride has been observed at cryogenic temperatures. The carbon-fluoride bond is covalent and very stable. The use of a fluorocarbon polymer, poly(tetrafluoroethene) or Teflon, is an example: it is thermostable and waterproof enough to be used in frying pans. Organofluorines may be safely used in applications such as drugs, without the risk of release of toxic fluoride. In synthetic drugs, toxication can be prevented.

Fluorine For example, an aromatic ring is useful but presents a safety problem: enzymes in the body metabolize some of them into poisonous epoxides. When the para position is substituted with fluorine, the aromatic ring is protected and epoxide is no longer produced. The substitution of fluorine for hydrogen in organic compounds offers a very large number of compounds. An estimated fifth of pharmaceutical compounds and 30% of agrochemical compounds contain fluorine.[7] The -CF3 and -OCF3 moieties provide further variation, and more recently the -SF5 group.[8]

5

Fluorite (CaF2) crystals

Production
Industrial production of fluorine entails the electrolysis of hydrogen fluoride in the presence of potassium fluoride. This method is based on the pioneering studies by Moissan (see below). Fluorine gas forms at the anode, and hydrogen gas at the cathode. Under these conditions, the potassium fluoride (KF) converts to potassium bifluoride (KHF2), which is the actual electrolyte, This potassium bifluoride aids electrolysis by greatly increasing the electrical conductivity of the solution. HF + KF → KHF2 2 KHF2 → 2 KF + H2 + F2 The HF required for the electrolysis is obtained as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid. Phosphate-containing minerals contain significant amounts of calcium fluorides, such as fluorite. Upon treatment with sulfuric acid, these minerals release hydrogen fluoride:

Fluorine cell room at F2 Chemicals Ltd, Preston, UK

Fluorine CaF2 + H2SO4 → 2 HF + CaSO4 In 1986, when preparing for a conference to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of fluorine, Karl Christe discovered a purely chemical preparation involving the reaction of solutions in anhydrous HF, K2MnF6, and SbF5 at 150 °C:[9] K2MnF6 + 2 SbF5 → 2 KSbF6 + MnF3 + ½ F2 Though not a practical synthesis on the large scale, this report demonstrates that electrolysis is not the sole route to the element.

6

History
The mineral fluorspar (also called fluorite), consisting mainly of calcium fluoride, was described in 1530 by Georgius Agricola for its use as a flux.[10] Fluxes are used to promote the fusion of metals or minerals. The etymology of the element's name reflects its history: Fluorine pronounced /ˈflʊəriːn/, /ˈflʊərɨn/, or commonly /ˈflɔr-/; from Latin: fluere, meaning "to flow". In 1670 Schwanhard found that glass was etched when it was exposed to fluorspar that had been treated with acid. Carl Wilhelm Scheele and many later researchers, including Humphry Davy, Caroline Menard, Gay-Lussac, Antoine Lavoisier, and Louis Thenard all would experiment with hydrofluoric acid, easily obtained by treating fluorite with concentrated sulfuric acid. Owing to its extreme reactivity, elemental fluorine was not isolated until many years after the characterization of fluorite. Progress in isolating elemental fluorine was slowed because it could only be prepared electrolytically and even then under stringent conditions since the gas attacks many materials. In 1886, the isolation of elemental fluorine was reported by Henri Moissan after almost 74 years of effort by other chemists.[11] The generation of elemental fluorine from hydrofluoric acid is exceptionally dangerous, killing or blinding several scientists who attempted early experiments on this halogen. These individuals came to be referred to as "fluorine martyrs".[12] For Moissan, it earned him the 1906 Nobel Prize in chemistry.[13] The first large-scale production of fluorine was undertaken in support of the Manhattan project, where the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) had been selected as the form of uranium that would allow separation of its 235U and 238U isotopes. Today both the gaseous diffusion process and the gas centrifuge process use gaseous UF6 to produce enriched uranium for nuclear power applications. In the Manhattan Project, it was found that UF6 decomposed into UF4 and F2. The corrosion problem due to the F2 was eventually solved by electrolytically coating all UF6 carrying piping with nickel metal, which forms a nickel difluoride that is not attacked by fluorine. Joints and flexible parts were made from teflon, then a very recently discovered fluorocarbon plastic which is also not attacked by F2.

Biological role
Though F2 is too reactive to have any natural biological role, fluorine is incorporated into compounds with biological activity. Naturally occurring organofluorine compounds are rare, the most notable example is fluoroacetate, which functions as a plant defence against herbivores in at least 40 plants in Australia, Brazil and Africa.[14] The enzyme adenosyl-fluoride synthase catalyzes the formation of 5'-deoxy-5'-fluoroadenosine. Fluorine is not an essential nutrient, but its importance in preventing tooth decay is well-recognized.[15] The effect is predominantly topical, although prior to 1981 it was

Fluorine considered primarily systemic (occurring through ingestion).[16]

7

Precautions
Elemental fluorine
Elemental fluorine (fluorine gas) is a highly toxic, corrosive oxidant, which can cause ignition of organic material. Fluorine gas has a characteristic pungent odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 20 ppb. As it is so reactive, all materials of construction must be carefully selected and metal surfaces must be passivated.

Fluoride ion
Fluoride ions are toxic: the lethal dose of sodium fluoride for a 70 kg human is estimated at 5–10 g.[17]

Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid
Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are dangerous, far more so than the related hydrochloric acid, because undissociated molecular HF penetrates the skin and biological membranes, causing deep and painless burns. The free fluoride, once released from HF in dissociation, also is capable of chelating calcium ion to the point of causing death by cardiac dysrhythmia. Burns with areas larger than 25 square inches (160 cm2) have the potential to cause serious systemic toxicity.[18]

Organofluorines
Organofluorines are naturally rare compounds. They can be nontoxic (perflubron and perfluorodecalin) or highly toxic (perfluoroisobutylene and fluoroacetic acid). Many pharmacuticals are organofluorines, such as the anti-cancer fluorouracil. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant.

See also
• • • • Fluorocarbon Isotopes of fluorine Halide minerals Water fluoridation

References
• Los Alamos National Laboratory – Fluorine
[19]

External links
• • • • WebElements.com – Fluorine [20] It's Elemental – Fluorine [21] Picture of liquid fluorine – chemie-master.de Chemsoc.org [23]
[22]

Fluorine

8

References
[1] Theodore Gray. " Real visible fluorine (http:/ / theodoregray. com/ PeriodicTable/ Samples/ 009. 5/ index. s12. html)". The Wooden Periodic Table. . [2] " pKa's of Inorganic and Oxo-Acids (http:/ / www2. lsdiv. harvard. edu/ labs/ evans/ pdf/ evans_pKa_table. pdf)". Evans Group. . Retrieved 2008-11-29. [3] M. Jaccaud, R. Faron, D. Devilliers, R. Romano (2005). Fluorine, in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3527310975. [4] Leonel R Arana, Nuria de Mas, Raymond Schmidt, Aleksander J Franz, Martin A Schmidt and Klavs F Jensen (2007). "Isotropic etching of silicon in fluorine gas for MEMS micromachining". J. Micromech. Microeng. 17: 384. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/17/2/026 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1088/ 0960-1317/ 17/ 2/ 026). [5] " Class I Ozone-Depleting Substances (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ ozone/ ods. html)". Ozone Depletion. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. . [6] Steve S Lim. " eMedicine - Corticosteroid-Induced Myopathy (http:/ / www. emedicine. com/ pmr/ topic35. htm)". . [7] " Fluorine's treasure trove (http:/ / www. icis. com/ Articles/ 2006/ 09/ 30/ 2016413/ fluorines-treasure-trove. html)". ICIS news. 2006-10-02. . Retrieved 2008-11-29. [8] Bernhard Stump, Christian Eberle, W. Bernd Schweizer, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, R. Luise Krauth-Siegel, Dieter Lentz, François Diederich (2009). "Pentafluorosulfanyl as a Novel Building Block for Enzyme Inhibitors: Trypanothione Reductase Inhibition and Antiprotozoal Activities of Diarylamines". ChemBioChem 10: 79. doi: 10.1002/cbic.200800565 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ cbic. 200800565). [9] K. Christe (1986). "Chemical synthesis of elemental fluorine". Inorg. Chem. 25: 3721–3724. doi: 10.1021/ic00241a001 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ic00241a001). [10] " Discovery of fluorine (http:/ / www. fluoride-history. de/ fluorine. htm)". Fluoride History. . [11] H. Moissan (1886). " Action d'un courant électrique sur l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre (http:/ / gallica. bnf. fr/ ark:/ 12148/ bpt6k3058f/ f1541. chemindefer)". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences 102: 1543–1544. . [12] Richard D. Duncan. (2008). Elements of faith : faith facts and learning lessons from the periodic table (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=kgVAlzGXx6oC). Green Forest, Ark.: Master Books. p. 22. ISBN 9780890515471. . [13] " The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906 (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ chemistry/ laureates/ 1906/ )". Nobelprize.org. . Retrieved 2009-07-07. [14] Proudfoot AT, Bradberry SM, Vale JA (2006). "Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning". Toxicol Rev 25 (4): 213–9. doi: 10.2165/00139709-200625040-00002 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 2165/ 00139709-200625040-00002). PMID 17288493. [15] Olivares M and Uauy R (2004). " Essential nutrients in drinking-water (Draft) (http:/ / www. who. int/ water_sanitation_health/ dwq/ en/ nutoverview. pdf)". WHO. . Retrieved 2008-12-30. [16] Pizzo G, Piscopo MR, Pizzo I, Giuliana G (September 2007). "Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review". Clin Oral Investig 11 (3): 189–93. doi: 10.1007/s00784-007-0111-6 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s00784-007-0111-6). PMID 17333303. [17] Aigueperse, Jean; Paul Mollard, Didier Devilliers, Marius Chemla, Robert Faron, Renée Romano, Jean Pierre Cuer (2005), "Fluorine Compounds, Inorganic", in Ullmann, Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH [18] " Recommended Medical Treatment for Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure (http:/ / www51. honeywell. com/ sm/ hfacid/ common/ documents/ HF_medical_book. pdf)" (PDF). Honeywell Specialty Materials. . Retrieved 2009-05-06. [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] http:/ / periodic. lanl. gov/ elements/ 9. html http:/ / www. webelements. com/ fluorine/ http:/ / education. jlab. org/ itselemental/ ele009. html http:/ / www. chemie-master. de/ pse/ pse. php?modul=F http:/ / www. chemsoc. org/ viselements/ pages/ fluorine. html

Article Sources and Contributors

9

Article Sources and Contributors
Fluorine  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=306561968  Contributors: 12dstring, A. Carty, A3r0, AAAAA, ACSE, Ace of Spades IV, Aeluwas, Aerion, Ahoerstemeier, Alansohn, AllHailZeppelin, Amazon10x, Andres, Andrewa, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, Antidisestablishmentarinism, Antonio Lopez, Archimerged, AtheWeatherman, AxelBoldt, Axeman89, Az7997, Beantwo, Beetstra, Benbest, Benjah-bmm27, BlackIvy88, BlastOButter42, Blazersmel, BlueEarth, Bobo192, Bomac, Brianga, Brianski, Brighterorange, Bryan Derksen, Bubba Joe, Buckslayer, ByAppointmentTo, CWii, CYD, Camembert, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Capricorn42, Carboxen, CardinalDan, Carey Evans, Carnildo, Causesobad, Centrx, Ched Davis, ChemNerd, Chris Dybala, Chris G, ChrisHamburg, Christian List, Circeus, ClanCC, Clutch, Cmichael, Colbuckshot, Conversion script, Cosmium, Cxz111, DMacks, Dajwilkinson, Dalesgay, DanielCD, Darrenr99, Darrien, David Latapie, Davidhorman, Deli nk, Delirium, Delldot, DennyColt, DerHexer, Discospinster, Doulos Christos, DrBob, Drini, Dukeofomnium, Dwmyers, Dycedarg, Dylan Lake, EGGS, EL Willy, Ed Poor, EdBever, Edgar181, Edgepedia, Edsanville, Ee79, Ekrub-ntyh, El C, Elassint, Eldin raigmore, Elerium, Eman120494, Emperorbma, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Eric-Wester, Eric119, Erik Zachte, Esrever, F2Andy, Femto, Fivemack, Flamingrok3, Flink the blind hemophiliac, Flyguy649, FreplySpang, Frosty0814snowman, Gene Nygaard, Giftlite, Gman124, Grendelkhan, Groucho NL, Ground Zero, Gurch, Guyzero, Hadal, Hak-kâ-ngìn, Halokid211, HappyCamper, Hawaiian717, Hdt83, Heron, HexaChord, Hike395, Hurricane Devon, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, IRP, Icairns, Icewedge, ImperfectlyInformed, Iridescent, Itub, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, Jack, Jacobbirdy128, James086, Jaraalbe, Jclemens, Jcook56050, Jessemerriman, Jjasi, JoanneB, John, Johnbrownsbody, Jose77, Jrockley, Jushi, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Kbdank71, Keenan Pepper, Kelly Martin, Kenken71, Kilo-Lima, Kkmurray, KnowledgeOfSelf, Koyaanis Qatsi, Kpjas, Krm500, Ktsquare, Kukini, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, LOL, Laguna72, Lankiveil, Leonard G., Leuko, Leytonwd, Lmbstl, LorenzoB, LouScheffer, Luna Santin, MZMcBride, Malbi, Mandor, MarcoTolo, Mark Ryan, MarkSweep, Marnanel, MartinHarper, Masterx, Materialscientist, Matnkat, Matthewmayer, Mav, Maximillion Pegasus, Maxis ftw, MchlWngr, Meeples, Megaboz, Mentisock, Mgimpel, Mikez, Minesweeper, Mo0, MoogleDan, Mr Stephen, Mr.Z-man, Mrholybrain, Musser, Mwoolf, Mww113, Mxn, N4nojohn, NPChristmas, Nakon, Nanogene, NawlinWiki, Neil916, Nergaal, Neurolysis, Nick, Nihiltres, Nonagonal Spider, NuclearWarfare, Obiwanskywalker, Oliphaunt, Oxymoron83, Patstuart, Paul August, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Philip Trueman, Piano non troppo, PierreAbbat, PigFlu Oink, Pishogue, Plumbago, PoliteCarbide, Polonium, Poolkris, Poor Yorick, PopUpPirate, PrestonH, Puchiko, Quintote, RTC, Ratherhaveaheart, Raul654, Razorflame, Remember, Reusche, Revived, RexNL, Reza kalani, Richnotts, Rifleman 82, Rmhermen, RobertAustin, Roberta F., Robertb-dc, Romanm, Rrburke, Rursus, SJP, Sam Korn, Saperaud, Sbharris, Sceptre, Schneelocke, Sengkang, Sharkface217, Shawn in Montreal, Sheitan, Shimmin, Shirifan, Shootbamboo, Sietse Snel, SigmaEpsilon, Sk8er5000, Skatebiker, Sl, Smokefoot, Snezzy, Snowolf, Soliloquial, Solipsist, Someone else, Sorfane, SorrryCharlie, Spellmaster, Spiffytease45, Squids and Chips, Starom, StaticGull, Stephen Gilbert, Stephenb, Stifynsemons, Stone, Suisui, Sullivan.t.j, Sunborn, Synchronism, T-borg, TeaDrinker, Tengfred, Tetracube, That Guy, From That Show!, Thaurisil, The Rambling Man, The sunder king, TheBendster, Thehelpfulone, Thingg, Thricecube, Tide rolls, Tim Starling, Tloser, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Tom harrison, Travis.Thurston, Tsunaminoai, Twang, Velvetron, Vera Cruz, Vhyntsze, Viktor-viking, Vlad4599, Vsmith, Vssun, Vuo, Warut, Washburnmav, Watch37264, Wes!, Wikiscrewcumdumpsta, Wknight94, Wtmitchell, Wyllium, Xaosflux, Xenophon777, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yyy, Zach4636, Ziyaddd, Τις, 840 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:cubic.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cubic.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Stannered file:Electron shell 009 Fluorine.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_009_Fluorine.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 Image:Fluorite crystals 270x444.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fluorite_crystals_270x444.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: HereToHelp, Jurema Oliveira, MushiHoshiIshi, Ra'ike, Saperaud Image:Fluorine cell room.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fluorine_cell_room.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: F2 Chemicals Ltd (AK Joel)

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Neon

1

Neon
fluorine ← neon → sodiumHe ↑ Ne ↓ Ar

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

10Ne
Periodic table

Appearance colorless gas General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointTriple pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 12 10 13 100 15 1k 18 10 k 21 100 k 27

Atomic properties Oxidation states Ionization energies (more) 2nd: 3952.3 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 6122 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivitySpeed of soundBulk modulusCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of neon
iso
20

N.A. 90.48% 0.27% 9.25%
20

half-life

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

Ne Ne Ne

Ne is stable with 10 neutron Ne is stable with 11 neutron Ne is stable with 12 neutron

21

21

22

22

Neon neon, Ne, 10 noble gases 18, 2, p20.1797(6) g·mol−1 1s2 2s2 2p6 2, 8 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 0.9002 g/L 24.56 K,-248.59 °C,-415.46 °F 27.07 K,-246.08 °C,-410.94 °F 24.5561 K (-249°C), 43[1] [2]  kPa 44.4 K, 2.76 MPa 0.335 kJ·mol−1 1.71 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) −1 −1 −1 20.786 J·mol ·K no data 1st: 2080.7 kJ·mol 58 pm 154 pm face-centered cubic diamagnetic[3] (300 K) 49.1x10-3  W·m−1·K−1 (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s 654 GPa 7440-01-9 Neon (pronounced /ˈniːɒn/) is the chemical element that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Although a very common element in the universe, it is rare on Earth. A colorless, inert noble gas under standard conditions, neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in discharge tubes and neon lamps.[4] [5] It is commercially extracted from air, in which it is found in trace amounts.

2

History
Neon (Greek νέον (neon) meaning "new one") was discovered in 1898 by Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay (1852–1916) English chemist Morris W. Travers (1872–1961) in London, England.[6] Neon was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of the atmosphere until it became a liquid, then warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off. The three gases that boiled off were krypton, xenon, and neon.[7] In December 1910, French engineer Georges Claude made a lamp from an electrified tube of neon gas. On January 19, 1915, Claude began selling his tubes to U.S. companies; the Packard car dealership in Los Angeles was one of the first to buy it.[8]

Isotopes
Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22 Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.[9] Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.[10]

Neon

3

Characteristics
Neon is the second-lightest noble gas. It glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube. According to recent studies, neon is the least reactive noble gas and thus the least reactive of all elements[11] . Also, neon has the narrowest liquid range of any element: from 24.55 K to 27.05 K (-248.45 °C to −245.95 °C, or −415.21 °F to −410.71 °F). It has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis).[12] In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium.[13] Neon plasma has the most intense light discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the noble gases. The average colour of this light to the human eye is red-orange Spectrum of neon with ultraviolet lines (at left) and infrared (at right) shown in white due to many lines in this range; it also contains a strong green line which is hidden, unless the visual components are dispersed by a spectroscope.[14] Two quite different kinds of neon lights are in common use. Glow-discharge lamps are typically tiny, and often designed to operate at 120 volts; they are widely used as power-on indicators and in circuit-testing equipment. Neon signs and other arc-discharge devices operate instead at high voltages, often 3–15 kilovolts (3,000–15,000 volts); they can be made into (often bent) tubes a few meters long.

Occurrence
Neon is actually abundant on a universal scale: the fifth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass, after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and carbon (see chemical element). Its relative rarity on Earth, like that of helium, is due to its relative lightness and chemical inertness, both properties keeping it from being trapped in the condensing gas and dust clouds of the formation of smaller and warmer solid planets like Earth. Neon is monatomic, making it lighter than the molecules of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen which form the bulk of Earth's atmosphere; a balloon filled with neon will rise up into the air, albeit more slowly than a helium balloon.[15] Mass abundance in the universe is about 1 part in 750 and in the Sun and presumably in the proto-solar system nebula, about 1 part in 600. The Galileo spacecraft atmospheric entry probe found that even in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, neon is reduced by about a factor of 10, to 1 part in 6,000 by mass. This may indicate that even the ice-planetesmals which brought neon into Jupiter from the outer solar system, formed in a region which was too warm for them to have kept their neon (abundances of heavier inert gases on Jupiter are several times that found in the Sun).[16] Neon is a monatomic gas at standard conditions. Neon is rare on Earth, found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 (by volume) or 1 part in 83,000 by mass. It is industrially produced by cryogenic fractional distillation of liquefied air.[12]

Neon

4

Applications
Neon is often used in signs and produces an unmistakable bright reddish-orange light. Although still referred to as "neon", all other colours are generated with the other Noble Gases or by many colours of fluorescent lighting. Neon is used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers. Liquefied neon is commercially used as a cryogenic refrigerant in applications not A neon sign in the shape of its name. requiring the lower temperature range attainable with more extreme liquid helium refrigeration. Liquid neon is actually quite expensive, and nearly impossible to obtain in small quantities for laboratory tests. For small quantities, liquid neon can be >55x more expensive than liquid helium. The driver for expense is actually rarity of the gas, not the liquefaction process. The triple point temperature of Neon (24.5561 K) is a defining fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990.[1]

Compounds
Neon is the first p-block noble gas. Theoretically neon is the least reactive of all noble gases (including helium which produces a metastable compound HHeF), and therefore generally considered to be inert. The calculated bond energies of neon with noble metals, hydrogen, beryllium and boron are lesser than that of helium or any other noble gas. No true compounds including the neutral compounds of neon are known. However, the ions Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+) have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric studies, and there are some unverified reports of an unstable hydrate.[12]

See also
• Expansion ratio • Neon sign • Neon lamp

External links
• • • • • • WebElements.com – Neon [17] It's Elemental – Neon [18] Computational Chemistry Wiki [19] USGS Periodic Table - Neon [20] Atomic Spectrum of Neon [21] Neon Museum, Las Vegas [22]

Neon

5

References
[1] Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). " The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) (http:/ / www. bipm. org/ en/ publications/ its-90. html)". Metrologia 27: 3-10. . [2] "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th edition ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2005. [3] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition, CRC press. [4] Harold P Coyle (2001). Project STAR: The Universe in Your Hands (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=KwTzo4GMlewC& pg=PA127). Kendall Hunt. ISBN 9780787267636. . [5] Kohtaro Kohmoto (1999). " Phosphors for lamps (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lWlcJEDukRIC& pg=PA380)". in Shigeo Shionoya and William M. Yen. Phosphor Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849375606. . [6] William Ramsay, Morris W. Travers (1898). " On the Companions of Argon (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 116011)". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 63: 437–440. doi: 10.1098/rspl.1898.0057 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rspl. 1898. 0057). . [7] " Neon: History (http:/ / nautilus. fis. uc. pt/ st2. 5/ scenes-e/ elem/ e01000. html)". Softciências. . Retrieved 2007-02-27. [8] " Neon: A Brief History (http:/ / nymag. com/ shopping/ features/ 41814/ )". New York Magazine. . Retrieved 2008-05-20. [9] " Neon: Isotopes (http:/ / nautilus. fis. uc. pt/ st2. 5/ scenes-e/ elem/ e01093. html)". Softciências. . Retrieved 2007-02-27. [10] Anderson, Don L.. " Helium, Neon & Argon (http:/ / www. mantleplumes. org/ Ne. html)". Mantleplumes.org. . Retrieved 2006-07-02. [11] Errol G. Lewars (2008). " Modelling Marvels (http:/ / books. google. co. in/ books?id=whdw2qlXjD0C& pg)". Springer. . [12] C. R. Hammond (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elements. pdf). CRC press. p. 19. ISBN 0849304814. . [13] " NASSMC: News Bulletin (http:/ / www. nassmc. org/ bulletin/ dec05bulletin. html#table)". 30. . Retrieved 2007-03-05. [14] " Plasma (http:/ / www. electricalfun. com/ plasma. htm)". . Retrieved 2007-03-05. [15] R. Gallagher and P. Ingram (2001). Chemistry for Higher Tier (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=SJtWSy69eVsC& pg=PA96). University Press. ISBN 9780199148172. . [16] Morse, David (26). " Galileo Probe Science Result (http:/ / www2. jpl. nasa. gov/ sl9/ gll38. html)". Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2007-02-27. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] http:/ / www. webelements. com/ neon/ http:/ / education. jlab. org/ itselemental/ ele010. html http:/ / www. compchemwiki. org/ index. php?title=Neon http:/ / wwwrcamnl. wr. usgs. gov/ isoig/ period/ ne_iig. html http:/ / hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/ Hbase/ quantum/ atspect2. html http:/ / www. neonmuseum. org/

Article Sources and Contributors

6

Article Sources and Contributors
Neon  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307518699  Contributors: 000lynx, 05clareb, A new name 2008, A2Kafir, ABF, AEMoreira042281, Aadgray, Abrech, Adashiel, Adrian.benko, Aeluwas, Aeon1006, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Alansohn, Ale jrb, Aleenf1, Alexanderveringa, Alphachimp, Amicon, Anclation, Andre Engels, AndreasJS, Andres, Anonymous Dissident, Anoop.m, Antandrus, Anthony, Aperram, Arakunem, Archanamiya, Archimerged, ArglebargleIV, Arjun01, AtheWeatherman, BRG, Badocter, Baronnet, Basawala, Batmanbb, BeaverMonkey, Beetstra, Berkunt, Bexxx x3, Big Bird, Black-Velvet, BlastOButter42, BlueEarth, Bobbyjoe58963, Bobo192, Bogey97, Bomac, Briscanator, Bubba hotep, BunsenH, Buttchug, Bye bye now, CYD, Calair, Camw, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanisRufus, Capricorn42, Capybara21, CardinalDan, Carnildo, Casper2k3, Casull, Catgut, ChemNerd, Chitrapa, Chris Dybala, Chrislk02, Chuggo, Chun-hian, Closedmouth, Cloud Strife, Conversion script, Cool Blue, Cosmium, Cratbro, Croat 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Sodium

1

Sodium
neon ← sodium → magnesiumLi ↑ Na ↓ K

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

11Na
Periodic table

Appearance silvery white metallic

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 554 10 617 100 697 1k 802 10 k 946 100 k 1153

Sodium

2

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 4562 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 6910.3 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusMohs hardnessBrinell hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of sodium
iso
22

N.A. syn 2.602 y

half-life β+→γ

DM 0.5454

DE (MeV)
22

DP Ne* Ne Ne* Ne Ne

Na

[1] 1.27453(2) ε→γ 1.27453(2) β+
23

22

22

22

1.8200

22

Na

100%

23

Na is stable with 12 neutron

sodium, Na, 11 alkali metal1, 3, s22.98976928(2) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s1 2,8,1 (Image) solid 0.968 g·cm−3 0.927 g·cm−3 370.87 K,97.72 °C,207.9 °F 1156 K,883 °C,1621 °F (extrapolated) 2573 K, 35 MPa 2.60 kJ·mol−1 97.42 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 28.230 J·mol−1·K−1+1, -1 (strongly basic oxide) 0.93 (Pauling scale) 1st: 495.8 kJ·mol−1186 pm166±9 pm 227 pm body-centered cubic paramagnetic (20 °C) 47.7 nΩ·m (300 K) 142 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 71 µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 3200 m/s 10 GPa 3.3 GPa 6.3 GPa 0.5 0.69 MPa 7440-23-5 Sodium (pronounced /ˈsoʊdiəm/) is a metallic element with a symbol Na (from Latin natrium or Arabic natrun) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals within "group 1" (formerly known as ‘group IA’). It has only one stable isotope, 23Na. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1806 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on Earth, but quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as a liquid hydrocarbon. The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis and heat transfer applications. Sodium ion is soluble in water in nearly all of its compounds, and is thus present in great quantities in the Earth's oceans and other stagnant bodies of water. In these bodies it is mostly counterbalanced by the chloride ion, causing evaporated ocean water solids to consist mostly of sodium chloride, or common table salt. Sodium ion is also a component of many minerals. Sodium is an essential element for all animal life and for some plant species. In animals, sodium ions are used in opposition to potassium ions, to allow the organism to build up an electrostatic charge on cell membranes, and thus allow transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is allowed to dissipate by a moving wave of voltage change. Sodium is thus classified as a “dietary inorganic macro-mineral” for animals. Sodium's relative rarity on land is due to its solubility in water, thus causing it to be leached into bodies of long-standing water by rainfall. Such is its relatively large requirement in animals, in contrast to its relative scarcity in many inland soils, that herbivorous land animals have developed a special taste receptor for sodium ion.

Sodium

3

Characteristics
At room temperature, sodium metal is soft enough that it can be cut with a knife. In air, the bright silvery luster of freshly exposed sodium will rapidly tarnish. The density of alkali metals generally increases with increasing atomic number, but sodium is denser than potassium.

Chemical properties
Compared with other alkali metals, sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium,[2] in accordance with "periodic law": for example, their reaction in water, chlorine gas, etc.; Sodium reacts exothermically with water: small pea-sized pieces will bounce across the surface of the water until they are consumed by it, whereas large pieces will explode. While sodium reacts with water at room temperature, the sodium piece melts with the heat of the reaction to form a sphere, if the reacting sodium piece is large enough. The reaction with water produces very caustic sodium hydroxide (lye) and highly flammable hydrogen gas. These are extreme hazards (see Precautions section below). When burned in air, sodium forms sodium peroxide Na2O2, or with limited oxygen, the oxide Na2O (unlike lithium, the nitride is not formed). If burned in oxygen under pressure, sodium superoxide NaO2 will be produced. In chemistry, most sodium compounds are considered soluble but nature Sodium metal provides examples of many insoluble sodium compounds such as the (approx 10g) under feldspars. There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium oil bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25• 4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4. Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7• H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form.[3]

Compounds
Sodium compounds are important to the chemical, glass, metal, paper, petroleum, soap, and textile industries. Hard soaps are generally sodium salt of certain fatty acids (potassium produces softer or liquid soaps).[4] The sodium compounds that are the most important to industries are common salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (hypo, Na2S2O3 · 5H2O), and borax (Na2B4O7 · 10H2O).[4]

Spectroscopy
When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame, they turn the flame a bright yellow color.
Sodium spectral lines.

Sodium

4 One notable atomic spectral line of sodium vapor is the so-called D-line, which may be observed directly as the sodium flame-test line (see Applications) and also the major light output of low-pressure sodium lamps (these produce an unnatural yellow, rather than the peach-colored glow of high pressure lamps). The D-line is one of the classified Fraunhofer lines observed in the visible spectrum of the Sun's electromagnetic radiation. Sodium vapor in the upper layers of the Sun creates a dark line in the emitted spectrum of electromagnetic radiation by absorbing visible light in a band of wavelengths around 589.5 nm. This wavelength corresponds to transitions in atomic sodium in which the valence-electron transitions from a 3p to 3s electronic state. Closer examination of the visible spectrum of atomic sodium reveals that the D-line actually consists of two lines called the D1 and D2 lines at 589.6 nm and 589.0 nm, respectively. This fine structure results from a spin-orbit interaction of the valence electron in the 3p electronic state. The spin-orbit interaction couples the spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum of a 3p electron to form two states that are respectively notated as and in the LS in lower state lower Even closer coupling scheme. The 3s state of the electron gives rise to a single state which is notated as electronic transition between and state and an electronic transition between upper state. the LS coupling scheme. The D1-line results from an upper state. The D2-line results from

A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power (detail)

examination of the visible spectrum of atomic sodium would reveal that the D-line actually consists
A FASOR tuned to the D2A component of the sodium D line, used at the Starfire Optical Range to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.

of a lot more than two lines. These lines are associated with hyperfine structure of the 3p upper states and 3s lower states. Many different transitions involving visible light near 589.5 nm may occur between the different upper and lower

hyperfine levels.[5]

[6]

A practical use for lasers which work at the sodium D-line transition (see FASOR illustration) is to create artificial laser guide stars (artificial star-like images from sodium in the upper atmosphere) which assist in the adaptive optics for large land-based visible light telescopes.

Sodium

5

Isotopes
Thirteen isotopes of sodium have been recognized. The only stable isotope is 23Na. Sodium has two radioactive cosmogenic isotopes which are also the two isotopes with longest half life, 22Na, with a half-life of 2.6 years and 24Na with a half-life of 15 hours. All other isotopes have a half life of less than one minute.[7] Acute neutron radiation exposure (e.g., from a nuclear criticality accident) converts some of the stable 23Na in human blood plasma to 24Na. By measuring the concentration of this isotope, the neutron radiation dosage to the victim can be computed.[8]

History
Salt has been an important commodity in human activities, as testified by the English word salary, referring to salarium, the wafers of salt sometimes given to Roman soldiers along with their other wages. In medieval Europe a compound of sodium with the Latin name of sodanum was used as a headache remedy. The name sodium probably originates from the Arabic word suda meaning headache as the headache-alleviating properties of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in early times.[9] Sodium's chemical abbreviation Na was first

Although sodium (sometimes called "soda" in English) has long been recognized in compounds, it was not isolated until 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy through the electrolysis of caustic soda.[12] Sodium imparts an intense yellow color to flames. As early as 1860, Kirchhoff and Bunsen noted the high sensitivity that a flame test for sodium could give. They state in Annalen der Physik und der Chemie in the paper "Chemical Analysis by Observation of Spectra": In a corner of our 60 cu.m. room farthest away from the apparatus, we exploded 3 mg. of sodium chlorate with milk sugar while observing the nonluminous flame before the slit. After a while, it glowed a bright yellow and showed a strong sodium line that disappeared only after 10 minutes. From the weight of the sodium salt and the volume of air in the room, we easily calculate that one part by weight of air could not contain more than 1/20 millionth

The flame test for sodium displays a brilliantly bright yellow emission due to the so called "sodium D-lines" at 588.9950 and 589.5924 nanometers.

published by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols (Thomas Thomson, Annals of Philosophy[10] ) and is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium which refers to the Egyptian natron,[11] the word for a natural mineral salt whose primary ingredient is hydrated sodium carbonate. Hydrated sodium carbonate historically had several important industrial and household uses later eclipsed by soda ash, baking soda and other sodium compounds.

Sodium weight of sodium.

6

Occurrence
Owing to its high reactivity, sodium is found in nature only as a compound and never as the free element. Sodium makes up about 2.6% by weight of the Earth's crust, making it the sixth most abundant element overall[13] and the most abundant alkali metal. Sodium is found in many different minerals, of which the most common is ordinary salt (sodium chloride), which occurs in vast quantities dissolved in seawater, as well as in solid deposits (halite). Others include amphibole, cryolite, soda niter and zeolite. Sodium is relatively abundant in stars and the D spectral lines of this element are among the most prominent in star light. Though elemental sodium has a rather high vaporization temperature, its relatively high abundance and very intense spectral lines have allowed its presence to be detected by ground telescopes and confirmed by spacecraft (Mariner 10 and MESSENGER) in the thin atmosphere of the planet Mercury.[14]

Commercial production
Sodium was first produced commercially in 1855 by thermal reduction of sodium carbonate with carbon at 1100 °C, in what is known as the Deville process.[15] A process based on the reduction of sodium hydroxide was developed in 1886.[15] Sodium is now produced commercially through the electrolysis of liquid sodium chloride, based on a process patented in 1924.[16] [17] This is done in a Downs Cell in which the NaCl is mixed with calcium chloride to lower the melting point below 700 °C. As calcium is less electropositive than sodium, no calcium will be formed at the anode. This method is less expensive than the previous Castner process of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide. Very pure sodium can be isolated by the thermal decomposition of sodium azide.[18] Metallic sodium costs about 15 to 20 US cents per pound (US$0.30/kg to US$0.45/kg) in 1997, but reagent grade (ACS) sodium cost about US$35 per pound (US$75/kg) in 1990. Na2CO3 (liquid) + 2 C (solid) → 2 Na (vapor) + 3 CO (gas).

Applications
Sodium in its metallic form can be used to refine some reactive metals, such as zirconium and potassium, from their compounds. This alkali metal as the Na+ ion is vital to animal life. Other uses: • In certain alloys to improve their structure. • In soap, in combination with fatty acids. Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps. • To descale metal (make its surface smooth). • To purify molten metals. • In some medicine formulations, the salt form of the active ingredient usually with sodium or potassium is a common modification to improve bioavailability. • In sodium vapor lamps, an efficient means of producing light from electricity (see the picture), often used for street lighting in cities. Low-pressure sodium lamps give a distinctive yellow-orange light which consists primarily of the twin sodium D lines. High-pressure sodium lamps give a more natural peach-colored light, composed of

Sodium wavelengths spread much more widely across the spectrum. • As a heat transfer fluid in some types of nuclear reactors and inside the hollow valves of high-performance internal combustion engines. • Sodium chloride (NaCl), a compound of sodium ions and chloride ions, is an important heat transfer material. • In organic synthesis, sodium is used as a reducing agent, for example in the Birch reduction. • In chemistry, sodium is often used either alone or with potassium in an alloy, NaK as a desiccant for drying solvents. Used with benzophenone, it forms an intense blue coloration when the solvent is dry and oxygen-free.

7

Biological role
In maintenance of body fluid volume in animals
The serum sodium and urine sodium play important roles in medicine, both in the maintenance of sodium and total body fluid homeostasis, and in the diagnosis of disorders causing homeostatic disruption of salt/sodium and water balance. In mammals, decreases in blood pressure and decreases in sodium concentration sensed within the kidney result in the production of renin, a hormone which acts in a number of ways, one of them being to act indirectly to cause the generation of aldosterone, a hormone which decreases the excretion of sodium in the urine. As the body of the mammal retains more sodium, other osmoregulation systems which sense osmotic pressure in part from the concentration of sodium and water in the blood, act to generate antidiuretic hormone. This, in turn, which causes the body to retain water, thus helping to restoring the body's total amount of fluid. There is also a counterbalancing system, which senses volume. As fluid is retained, receptors in the heart and vessels which sense distension and pressure, cause production of atrial natriuretic peptide, which is named in part for the Latin word for sodium. This hormone acts in various ways to cause the body to lose sodium in the urine. This causes the body's osmotic balance to drop (as low concentration of sodium is sensed directly), which in turn causes the osmoregulation system to excrete the "excess" water. The net effect is to return the body's total fluid levels back toward normal.

In maintenance of resting electrical potential in excitable tissues in animals
Sodium cations are important in neuron (brain and nerve) function, and in influencing osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid, with their distribution mediated in all animals (but not in all plants) by the so-called Na+/K+-ATPase pump.[19] Sodium is the chief cation in fluid residing outside cells in the mammalian body (the so-called extracellular compartment), with relatively little sodium residing inside cells. The volume of extracellular fluid is typically 15 litres in a 70 kg human, and the 50 grams of sodium it contains is about 90% of the body's total sodium content.

Sodium

8

Dietary uses
The most common sodium salt, sodium chloride (table salt), is used for seasoning and warm-climate food preservation, such as pickling and making jerky (the high osmotic content of salt inhibits bacterial and fungal growth). The human requirement for sodium in the diet is about 500 mg per day,[20] which is typically less than a tenth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste." Most people consume far more sodium than is physiologically needed. For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a harmful effect on health. However, low sodium intake may lead to sodium deficiency.

Precautions
Extreme care is required in handling elemental/metallic sodium. Sodium is potentially explosive in water (depending on quantity) and is a corrosive substance, since it is rapidly converted to sodium hydroxide on contact with moisture. The powdered form may combust spontaneously in air or oxygen. Sodium must be stored either in an inert (oxygen and moisture free) atmosphere (such as nitrogen or argon), or under a liquid hydrocarbon such as mineral oil or kerosene. The reaction of sodium and water is a familiar one in chemistry labs, and is reasonably safe if amounts of sodium smaller than a pencil eraser are used and the reaction is done behind a plastic shield by people wearing eye protection. However, the sodium-water reaction does not scale up well, and is treacherous when larger amounts of sodium are used. Larger pieces of sodium melt under the heat of the reaction, and the molten ball of metal is buoyed up by hydrogen and may appear to be stably reacting with water, until splashing covers more of the reaction mass, causing thermal runaway and an explosion which scatters molten sodium, lye solution, and sometimes flame. (18.5 g explosion [21]) This behavior is unpredictable, and among the alkali metals it is usually sodium which invites this surprise phenomenon, because lithium is not reactive enough to do it, and potassium is so reactive that chemistry students are not tempted to try the reaction with larger potassium pieces. Sodium is much more reactive than magnesium; a reactivity which can be further enhanced due to sodium's much lower melting point. When sodium catches fire in air (as opposed to just the hydrogen gas generated from water by means of its reaction with sodium) it more easily produces temperatures high enough to melt the sodium, exposing more of its surface to the air and spreading the fire. Few common fire extinguishers work on sodium fires. Water, of course, exacerbates sodium fires, as do water-based foams. CO2 and Halon are often ineffective on sodium fires, which reignite when the extinguisher dissipates. Among the very few materials effective on a sodium fire are Pyromet and Met-L-X. Pyromet is a NaCl/(NH4)2HPO4 mix, with flow/anti-clump agents. It smothers the fire, drains away heat, and melts to form an impermeable crust. This is the standard dry-powder canister fire extinguisher for all classes of fires. Met-L-X is mostly sodium chloride, NaCl, with approximately 5% Saran plastic as a crust-former, and flow/anti-clumping agents. It is most commonly hand-applied, with a scoop. Other extreme fire extinguishing materials include Lith+, a graphite based dry powder with an organophosphate flame retardant; and Na+, a Na2CO3-based material. Because of the reaction scale problems discussed above, disposing of large quantities of sodium (more than 10 to 100 grams) must be done through a licensed hazardous materials disposer. Smaller quantities may be broken up and neutralized carefully with ethanol

Sodium (which has a much slower reaction than water), or even methanol (where the reaction is more rapid than ethanol's but still less than in water), but care should nevertheless be taken, as the caustic products from the ethanol or methanol reaction are just as hazardous to eyes and skin as those from water. After the alcohol reaction appears complete, and all pieces of reaction debris have been broken up or dissolved, a mixture of alcohol and water, then pure water, may then be carefully used for a final cleaning. This should be allowed to stand a few minutes until the reaction products are diluted more thoroughly and flushed down the drain. The purpose of the final water soaking and washing of any reaction mass or container which may contain sodium, is to ensure that alcohol does not carry unreacted sodium into the sink trap, where a water reaction may generate hydrogen in the trap space which can then be potentially ignited, causing a confined sink trap explosion.

9

See also
• Alkali metals • Sodium compounds

External links
• • • • • • The Periodic Table of Videos - Sodium [22] Etymology of "natrium" - source of symbol Na [23] WebElements.com – Sodium [24] The Wooden Periodic Table Table's Entry on Sodium [25] Dietary Sodium [26] Sodium isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's

[27]

References
[1] Endt, P. M. ENDT, ,1 (1990) (12/1990). "Energy levels of A = 21-44 nuclei (VII)". Nuclear Physics A 521: 1. doi: 10.1016/0375-9474(90)90598-G (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ 0375-9474(90)90598-G). [2] Prof. N. De Leon. " Reactivity of Alkali Metals (http:/ / www. iun. edu/ ~cpanhd/ C101webnotes/ modern-atomic-theory/ alkali-reac. html)". Indiana University Northwest. . Retrieved 2007-12-07. [3] Lange's Handbook of Chemistry [4] Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; (1985). "Natrium" (in German). Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 931–943. ISBN 3-11-007511-3. [5] Citron, M. L., et al. (1977). " Experimental study of power broadening in a two level atom (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PRA/ v16/ i4/ p1507_1)". Physical Review A 16: 1507. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.16.1507 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1103/ PhysRevA. 16. 1507). . [6] Daniel A. Steck. " Sodium D. Line Data (http:/ / george. ph. utexas. edu/ ~dsteck/ alkalidata/ sodiumnumbers. pdf)" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (technical report). . [7] Audi, Georges (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass Data Center) 729: 3–128. doi: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. nuclphysa. 2003. 11. 001). [8] Sanders, F. W.; Auxier, J. A. (1962). " Neutron Activation of Sodium in Anthropomorphous Phantoms (http:/ / www. health-physics. com/ pt/ re/ healthphys/ abstract. 00004032-196208000-00005. htm)". Health Physics 8 (4): 371–379. doi: 10.1097/00004032-196208000-00005 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1097/ 00004032-196208000-00005). . [9] David E. Newton, Chemical Elements, ISBN 0-7876-2847-6 [10] van der Krogt, Peter. " Elementymology & Elements Multidict (http:/ / www. vanderkrogt. net/ elements/ elem/ na. html)". . Retrieved 2007-06-08. [11] Newton [12] Davy, Humphry (1808). " On some new Phenomena of Chemical Changes produced by Electricity, particularly the Decomposition of the fixed Alkalies, and the Exhibition of the new Substances, which constitute their Bases (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Kg9GAAAAMAAJ)". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of

Sodium
London 98: 1–45. doi: 10.1098/rstl.1808.0001 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rstl. 1808. 0001). . [13] CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 2004 [14] " Sodium found in Mercury's atmosphere (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m1200/ is_v128/ ai_3898126)". BNET. 1985-08-17. . Retrieved 2008-09-18. [15] Eggeman, Tim. Sodium and Sodium Alloys. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published online 2007. doi: 10.1002/0471238961.1915040912051311.a01.pub2 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ 0471238961. 1915040912051311. a01. pub2) [16] Pauling, Linus, General Chemistry, 1970 ed., Dover Publications [17] " Los Alamos National Laboratory – Sodium (http:/ / periodic. lanl. gov/ elements/ 11. html)". . Retrieved 2007-06-08. [18] Merck Index, 9th ed., monograph 8325 [19] Campbell, Neil (1987). Biology. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co.. pp. 795. ISBN 0-8053-1840-2. [20] Implementing recommendations for dietary salt reduction: Where are we?. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1428929096. [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] http:/ / video. google. de/ videoplay?docid=-2158222101210607510& q=sodium http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=YvSkXd_VVYk http:/ / www. balashon. com/ 2008/ 07/ neter-and-nitrogen. html http:/ / www. webelements. com/ sodium/ http:/ / www. theodoregray. com/ PeriodicTable/ Elements/ 011/ index. html http:/ / www. americanheart. org/ presenter. jhtml?identifier=4708 http:/ / ie. lbl. gov/ education/ parent/ Na_iso. htm

10

Article Sources and Contributors

11

Article Sources and Contributors
Sodium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=306291367  Contributors: (jarbarf), -Ozone-, 1Shaggy1, 21655, 2D, 454Casull, AAA!, ABF, Abrutt, Academic Challenger, Acroterion, AdamRetchless, Adashiel, Addshore, Adrian.benko, Aeluwas, Agateller, Agüeybaná, Ahoerstemeier, Aircavbob, Alansohn, Aleenf1, Alexfusco5, Alexwcovington, Alison, All Is One, Allstarecho, Alton, Ameliorate!, AndreasJS, Andres, AndrewMcQ, Andrewa, Andrewrost3241981, AnnaFrance, Anonymous101, Antandrus, Antonio Lopez, Anwar saadat, Aoganov, Arcadian, Archimerged, Arwack, Arx Fortis, Asb002, Ascend, Ascidian, Ashleybabe92, AtomicDragon, Atrzcins, Balwan, Bchalfin, Bcorr, Beetstra, Bella Swan, BenFrantzDale, Benbest, Bensaccount, BernardM, Bihco, Binary TSO, Blue520, BlueEarth, Bobo The Ninja, Bobo192, Bomac, Bongwarrior, Bookandcoffee, Bookwyrm404, Borbrav, Borislav Dopudja, Bornhj, Brian Crawford, Bryan Derksen, Bubba hotep, Bubblecourt, Bucketsofg, C.lettinga, CHawke, CYD, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanisRufus, Canyoyoman, Capricorn42, Captain panda, Carlj7, Carnildo, Cbh, Cburnett, Celarnor, Cfrehr, Chairman S., Chaser, ChemGardener, Chris the speller, Chriswaterguy, Chun-hian, Chunky Rice, Clemwang, Click23, Closedmouth, Cloud Strife, Colbuckshot, Cometstyles, Conversion script, Coppertwig, Corpx, Cow Revolution, Cowman109, Cremepuff222, Crownmethod, Cureden, D, DB, DMacks, Daniel 1992, Daniel Olsen, DanielCD, Darguz Parsilvan, DarrenHarold, Darrien, Daverocks, David Latapie, Dbtfz, DeadEyeArrow, Deglr6328, Delta G, Deor, DerHexer, Digger318, Digitalme, Dina, Discospinster, Dlohcierekim, Docboat, Donarreiskoffer, DougsTech, Doulos Christos, Dppowell, DrBob, Dracosummoner, DragonflySixtyseven, Dreadstar, Drini, Droll, Drunkenmonkey, Dysepsion, EJF, ESkog, Eddideigel, Edgar181, Eenu, El C, Eldin raigmore, Elektron, Ellywa, Emperorbma, Encyclopedia77, Enigmaman, Enviroboy, Eob, Epbr123, Epolk, Eric119, Erik Zachte, Erik9, Eternal Pink, Euchiasmus, Everyking, Evil Monkey, Excirial, Faradayplank, Farosdaughter, Fdp, Femto, Fieldday-sunday, Firzen67, Flo422, Fonzy, FourteenDays, FrancoGG, Friginator, Func, Fvw, GHe, Gail, Galoubet, Gdo01, Gene Nygaard, Giftlite, Ginkgo100, Glen, Glenn, Gman124, Gmmaple, Gogo Dodo, GraYoshi2x, Gravecat, GreatMizuti, Greenhorn1, Grendelkhan, Greylion, Guitarmankev1, Gurch, Gwen Gale, Gwernol, Hadal, Hak-kâ-ngìn, Hankwang, Hatmatbbat10, Hda3ku, HenryLi, Herbee, HexaChord, Hodiedodie, Hppybob, Hqb, Hraefen, Hu, Husayt, Hydrogen Iodide, I already forgot, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Iamsam478, Icairns, Iloveorange, Insanity Incarnate, Instinct, Invincible Ninja, Iridescent, Iris lorain, Island, Itub, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, JCO312, JForget, Jagged 85, Jamesontai, JamieS93, Jaraalbe, Jauerback, JavierMC, Jcw69, Jdurg, Jeff G., Jeffreyapm, JericoReyes, Jhbayless, JimQ, Jj137, JoanneB, John, John David Wright, John254, Jonnyl94, Jose77, Jpeeling, JuJube, Juliancolton, Jumbuck, JustShin, Kaisershatner, Karenjc, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Karn, Katalaveno, Kazrak, Keandobus, Kesac, Kevin Dufendach, Kevindavid, Kfrohlinger, Killiondude, Klausness, Knowledge Seeker, KnowledgeOfSelf, Knutux, KonradG, Koobalocks, Kpjas, Kralizec!, Ktsquare, Kungfuadam, Kuru, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, Kwsn, LaMenta3, Larry laptop, LarryMorseDCOhio, Laudaka, Lindmere, LittleOldMe, Lizadances, Lone star06, Loren.wilton, LorenzoB, Lradrama, LuigiManiac, Luvy, MER-C, MFago, MZMcBride, Mac Davis, Malcolm Farmer, Man vyi, Manofradio, Marek69, Marnanel, Martian.knight, Materialscientist, Mav, Maxberners, May0208, Mayamaya305, Meekywiki, Menchi, Metal Militia, Mexcellent, Mgimpel, Mgonz5, Mhking, Midgley, Mikael Häggström, Mike133742, Mike2vil, Mikemastelero, Minesweeper, MisterWiki, Mithunc, Mjp797, Mnuskey, Mononomic, Moreschi, Mr.Z-man, Mwanner, Mxn, MysteryDog, Nakon, Nateinbliss, NathanHurst, NawlinWiki, Nehrams2020, Neillawrence, Neurolysis, NewEnglandYankee, Nick, Nick UA, Nickgully, Nihiltres, Ninja Wizard, Nivix, Nsaa, NuclearWarfare, Num3boy, Ocatecir, Oda Mari, Ohnoitsjamie, Oliver Lineham, Onceonthisisland, Oore, Ossmann, Owen, Oxymoron83, Oysterguitarist, Padfoot addict, Pairadox, ParisianBlade, Patstuart, PaulHanson, Pedriana, Peruvianllama, Peter bertok, Pharos, Phil Boswell, Philip Trueman, Phillman5, Piano non troppo, Pilotguy, Pkl$$$123, Plantsurfer, PoliteCarbide, Poolkris, Postdlf, Psyche825, Puchiko, Quadell, Quantockgoblin, Quintote, Quinwound, RDBrown, RJaguar3, RSido, RTC, Ranveig, Raymondwinn, Rchandra, Rdsmith4, Recognizance, Red Thunder, Reddi, Remember, Res2216firestar, Rettetast, RexNL, Riana, Rich Farmbrough, Richard D. 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file:cubic-body-centered.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cubic-body-centered.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Stannered file:Electron shell 011 Sodium.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_011_Sodium.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:Nametal.JPG.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nametal.JPG.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Original uploader was Dnn87 at en.wikipedia Image:Sodium.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sodium.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Greenhorn1 Image:Sodium spectrum.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sodium_spectrum.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Itub Image:Na-lamp-2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Na-lamp-2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Skatebiker, 1 anonymous edits Image:Starfield Optical Range - sodium laser.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Starfield_Optical_Range_-_sodium_laser.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fastfission, Herbythyme, Mike1024, Phillman5, Pieter Kuiper, Siebrand, Tony Wills, WikipediaMaster, 13 anonymous edits Image:Flametest--Na.swn.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flametest--Na.swn.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Benjah-bmm27, Dirk Hünniger, Saperaud, Swn

License
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Magnesium

1

Magnesium
sodium ← magnesium → aluminiumBe ↑ Mg ↓ Ca

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HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

12Mg
Periodic table

Appearance silvery white solid

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 701 10 773 100 861 1k 971 10 k 1132 100 k 1361

Magnesium

2

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 1450.7 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 7732.7 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusPoisson ratioMohs hardnessBrinell hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of magnesium
iso
24

N.A. 78.99% 10% 11.01%
24

half-life

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

Mg Mg Mg

Mg is stable with 12 neutron Mg is stable with 13 neutron Mg is stable with 14 neutron

25

25

26

26

magnesium, Mg, 12 alkaline earth metal2, 3, s24.3050(6) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s2 2, 8, 2 (Image) solid 1.738 g·cm−3 1.584 g·cm−3 923 K,650 °C,1202 °F 1363 K,1091 °C,1994 °F 8.48 kJ·mol−1 128 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 24.869 J·mol−1·K−12, 1 [1] (strongly basic oxide) 1.31 (Pauling scale) 1st: 737.7 kJ·mol−1160 pm141±7 pm 173 pm hexagonal paramagnetic (20 °C) 43.9 nΩ·m (300 K) 156 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 24.8 µm·m−1·K−1 (r.t.) (annealed) 4940 m·s−1 45 GPa 17 GPa 45 GPa 0.290 2.5 260 MPa 7439-95-4 Magnesium (pronounced /mæɡˈniːziəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.3050 and common oxidation number +2. Magnesium, an alkaline earth metal, is the ninth most abundant element in the universe by mass.[2] This preponderance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from a single reaction between three helium nuclei at once). Magnesium constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust by mass, which makes it the eighth most abundant element in the crust.[3] Magnesium ion's high solubility in water helps ensure that it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater.[4] Magnesium is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body; its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions in order to function. Magnesium is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers.[5] Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (i.e., milk of magnesia), and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required (i.e., to treat eclampsia). Magnesium ions are sour to the taste, and in low concentrations help to impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters. The free element (metal) is not found naturally on Earth, since it is highly reactive (though once produced, is coated in a thin layer of oxide—see passivation—which partly masks this reactivity). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant white light, making it a useful ingredient in flares. The metal is now mainly obtained by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine. Commercially, the chief use for the metal is as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called "magnalium" or "magnelium". Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength.

Magnesium

3

Notable characteristics
Elemental magnesium is a fairly strong, silvery-white, light-weight metal (two thirds the density of aluminium). It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although unlike the alkaline metals, storage in an oxygen-free environment is unnecessary because magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide which is fairly impermeable and hard to remove. Like its lower periodic table group neighbor calcium, magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly than calcium. When it is submerged in water, hydrogen bubbles will almost unnoticeably begin to form on the surface of the metal, though if powdered it will react much more rapidly. The reaction will occur faster with higher temperatures (see precautions). Magnesium also reacts exothermically with most acids, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl). As with aluminium, zinc and many other metals, the reaction with hydrochloric acid produces the chloride of the metal and releases hydrogen gas. Magnesium is a highly flammable metal, but while it is easy to ignite when powdered or shaved into thin strips, it is difficult to ignite in mass or bulk. Once ignited, it is difficult to extinguish, being able to burn in both nitrogen (forming magnesium nitride), and carbon dioxide (forming magnesium oxide and carbon). On burning in air, magnesium produces a brilliant white light. Thus magnesium powder (flash powder) was used as a source of illumination in the early days of photography. Later, magnesium ribbon was used in electrically ignited flash bulbs. Magnesium powder is used in the manufacture of fireworks and marine flares where a brilliant white light is required. Flame temperatures of magnesium and magnesium alloys can reach 1371 °C (2500 °F), although flame height above the burning metal is usually less than 300 mm (12 in).[6] Magnesium compounds are typically white crystals. Most are soluble in water, providing the sour-tasting magnesium ion Mg2+. Small amounts of dissolved magnesium ion contributes to the tartness and taste of natural waters. Magnesium ion in large amounts is an ionic laxative, and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) is sometimes used for this purpose. So-called "milk of magnesia" is a water suspension of one of the few insoluble magnesium compounds, magnesium hydroxide. The undissolved particles give rise to its appearance and name. Milk of magnesia is a mild base commonly used as an antacid.

Applications
As the metal

Magnesium

4 Magnesium is the third most commonly used structural metal, following steel and aluminium. Magnesium compounds, primarily magnesium oxide (MgO), are used mainly as refractory material in furnace linings for producing iron, steel, nonferrous metals, glass and cement. Magnesium oxide and other compounds also are used in agricultural, chemical and construction industries. As a metal, this element's principal use is as an alloying additive to aluminium with these aluminium-magnesium alloys being used mainly for beverage cans. Magnesium, in its purest form, can be compared with

An unusual application of magnesium as an illumination source while wakeskating in 1931

aluminium, and is strong and light, so it is used in several high volume part manufacturing applications, including automotive and truck components. Specialty, high-grade car wheels of magnesium alloy are called "mag wheels". In 1957 a Corvette SS, designed for racing, was constructed with magnesium body panels. An earlier Mercedes-Benz race car model, the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR, had a body made from Elektron, a magnesium alloy; these cars ran (with successes) at Le Mans, the Mille Miglia, and other world-class race events in 1955 (though one was involved in the single worst accident in auto racing history, in terms of human casualties, at the Le Mans race.) Porsche's all-out quest to decrease the weight of their race cars led to the use of magnesium frames in the famous 917/053 which won Le Mans in 1971, and still holds the absolute distance record. The 917/30 Can-Am car also featured a magnesium spaceframe, helping it to make the most of its prodigious 1100-1500hp. Volkswagen has used magnesium in its engine components for many years. For a long time, Porsche used magnesium alloy for its engine blocks due to the weight advantage. There is renewed interest in magnesium engine blocks, as featured in the 2006 BMW 325i and 330i models. The BMW engine uses an aluminium alloy insert for the cylinder walls and cooling jackets surrounded by a high temperature magnesium alloy AJ62A. The application of magnesium AE44 alloy in the 2006 Corvette Z06 engine cradle has advanced the technology of designing robust automotive parts in magnesium. Both of these alloys are recent developments in high temperature low creep magnesium alloys. Mitsubishi Motors also uses magnesium (branded magnesium alloy) for its paddle shifters. The general strategy for such alloys is to form intermetallic precipitates at the grain boundaries, for example by adding mischmetal or calcium.[7] New alloy development and lower costs, which are becoming competitive to aluminium, will further the number of automotive applications.

Magnesium

5 The second application field of magnesium is electronic devices. Due to low weight, good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components.

Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II. The Germans coined Products made of magnesium: the name 'Elektron' for magnesium alloy which is still firestarter and shavings, sharpener, used today. Due to perceived hazards with magnesium magnesium ribbon parts in the event of fire, the application of magnesium in the commercial aerospace industry was generally restricted to engine related components. Currently the use of magnesium alloys in aerospace is increasing, mostly driven by the increasing importance of fuel economy and the need to reduce weight. The development and testing of new magnesium alloys continues, notably Elektron 21 which has successfully undergone extensive aerospace testing for suitability in engine, internal and airframe components. The European Community runs three R&D magnesium projects in the Aerospace priority of Six Framework Program. • Incendiary use: Magnesium is flammable, burning at a temperature of approximately 2500 K (2200 °C, 4000 °F), and the autoignition temperature of magnesium is approximately 744 K (473 °C, 883 °F) in air. The extremely high temperature at which magnesium burns makes it a handy tool for starting emergency fires during outdoor recreation. Other related uses include flashlight photography, flares, pyrotechnics, fireworks sparklers, and incendiary bombs. Magnesium is also used: • To remove sulfur from iron and steel. • To refine titanium in the Kroll process. • To photoengrave plates in the printing industry. • To combine in alloys, where this metal is essential for airplane and missile construction. • In the form of turnings or ribbons, to prepare Grignard reagents, which are useful in organic synthesis. • As an alloying agent, improving the mechanical, fabrication and welding characteristics of aluminium. • As an additive agent in conventional propellants and the production of nodular graphite in cast iron. • As a reducing agent for the production of uranium and other metals from their salts. • As a desiccant, since it easily reacts with water. • As a sacrificial (galvanic) anode to protect underground tanks, pipelines, buried structures, and water heaters.
Magnesium firestarter (in left hand), used with a pocket knife and flint to create sparks which ignite the shavings

Magnesium

6

In magnesium compounds
• The magnesium ion is necessary for all life (see magnesium in biology), so magnesium salts are an additive for foods, fertilizers (Mg is a component of chlorophyll), and culture media. • Magnesium hydroxide is used in milk of magnesia, its chloride, oxide, gluconate, malate, orotate and citrate used as oral magnesium supplements, and its sulfate (Epsom salts) for various purposes in medicine, and elsewhere (see the article for more). Oral magnesium supplements have been claimed to be therapeutic for some individuals who suffer from Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). • Magnesium borate, magnesium salicylate and magnesium sulfate are used as antiseptics. • Magnesium bromide is used as a mild sedative (this action is due to the bromide, not the magnesium). • Dead-burned magnesite is used for refractory purposes such as brick and liners in furnaces and converters. • Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) powder is also used by athletes, such as gymnasts and weightlifters, to improve the grip on objects – the apparatus or lifting bar. • Magnesium stearate is a slightly flammable white powder with lubricative properties. In pharmaceutical technology it is used in the manufacturing of tablets, to prevent the tablets from sticking to the equipment during the tablet compression process (i.e., when the tablet's substance is pressed into tablet form). • Magnesium sulfite is used in the manufacture of paper (sulfite process). • Magnesium phosphate is used to fireproof wood for construction. • Magnesium hexafluorosilicate is used in mothproofing of textiles.

History
The name originates from the Greek word for a district in Thessaly called Magnesia. It is related to magnetite and manganese, which also originated from this area, and required differentiation as separate substances. See manganese for this history. Magnesium is the seventh most abundant element in the Earth's crust by mass and eighth by molarity.[3] It is found in large deposits of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals, and in mineral waters, where magnesium ion is soluble. In 1618 a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water from a well. They refused to drink because of the water's bitter taste. However the farmer noticed that the water seemed to heal scratches and rashes. The fame of Epsom salts spread. Eventually they were recognized to be hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO4. The metal itself was first produced in England by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 using electrolysis of a mixture of magnesia and mercury oxide. Antoine Bussy prepared it in coherent form in 1831. Davy's first suggestion for a name was magnium, but the name magnesium is now used.

Magnesium

7

Sources
Ores
Although magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, only dolomite, magnesite, brucite, carnallite, talc, and olivine are of commercial importance.

Sea water
The Mg2+ cation is the second most abundant cation in sea water (occurring at about 12% of the mass of sodium there), which makes sea water and sea-salt an attractive commercial source of Mg. To extract the magnesium, calcium hydroxide is added to sea water to form magnesium hydroxide precipitate. MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2 → Mg(OH)2 + CaCl2 Magnesium hydroxide is insoluble in water so it can be filtered out, and reacted with hydrochloric acid to obtain concentrated magnesium chloride. Mg(OH)2 + 2 HCl → MgCl2 + 2 H2O From magnesium chloride, electrolysis produces magnesium.

Electrolysis
In the United States, magnesium is principally obtained by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride from brines, wells, and sea water. At the cathode, the Mg2+ ion is reduced by two electrons to magnesium metal: Mg2+ + 2 e− → Mg At the anode, each pair of Cl− ions is oxidised to chlorine gas, releasing two electrons to complete the circuit: 2 Cl− → Cl2 (g) + 2 e− The United States has traditionally been the major world supplier of this metal, supplying 45% of world production even as recently as 1995. Today, the US market share is at 7%, with a single domestic producer left, US Magnesium, a company born from now-defunct Magcorp.[8] As of 2005, China has taken over as the dominant supplier, pegged at 60% world market share, which increased from 4% in 1995. Unlike the above described electrolytic process, China is almost completely reliant on a different method of obtaining the metal from its ores, the silicothermic Pidgeon process (the reduction of the oxide at high temperatures with silicon).

Biological role
Due to the important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions, magnesium ions are essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, and thus are essential to all cells of all known living organisms. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those which use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA. ATP exists in cells normally as a chelate of ATP and a magnesium ion. Plants have an additional use for magnesium in that chlorophylls are magnesium-centered porphyrins. Magnesium deficiency in plants causes late-season yellowing between leaf

Magnesium veins, especially in older leaves, and can be corrected by applying Epsom salts (which is rapidly leached), or else crushed dolomitic limestone to the soil. Magnesium is a vital component of a healthy human diet. Human magnesium deficiency (including conditions which show few overt symptoms) is relatively common, with only 32% of the United States meeting the RDA-DRI,[9] and has been implicated in the development of a number of human illnesses such as asthma, osteoporosis, and ADHD.[10] Adult human bodies contain about 24 grams of magnesium, with 60% in the skeleton, 39% intracellular (20% in skeletal muscle), and 1% extracellular. Serum levels are typically 0.7 – 1.0 mmol/L. Serum magnesium levels may appear normal even in cases of underlying intracellular deficiency, although no known mechanism maintains a homeostatic level in the blood other than renal excretion of high blood levels. Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Magnesium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, Food sources of magnesium with more absorbed when status is lower. In humans, magnesium appears to facilitate calcium absorption. Low and high protein intake inhibit magnesium absorption, and other factors such as phosphate, phytate, and fat affect absorption. Absorbed dietary magnesium is largely excreted through the urine, although most magnesium "administered orally" is excreted through the feces.[11] Magnesium status may be assessed roughly through serum and erythrocyte Mg concentrations and urinary and fecal excretion, but intravenous magnesium loading tests are likely the most accurate and practical in most people.[12] In these tests, magnesium is injected intravenously; a retention of 20% or more indicates deficiency.[13] Other nutrient deficiencies are identified through biomarkers, but none are established for magnesium.[14] Spices, nuts, cereals, coffee, cocoa, tea, and vegetables (especially green leafy ones) are rich sources of magnesium. Observations of reduced dietary magnesium intake in modern Western countries as compared to earlier generations may be related to food refining and modern fertilizers which contain no magnesium.[11] There are a number of magnesium dietary supplements available. Magnesium oxide, one of the most common because it has a high magnesium content per weight, has been reported to be the least bioavailable.[15] [16] Magnesium citrate has been reported as more bioavailable than oxide or amino-acid chelate (glycinate) forms.[17] Excess magnesium in the blood is freely filtered at the kidneys, and for this reason it is difficult to overdose on magnesium from dietary sources alone.[10] With supplements, overdose is possible, however, particularly in people with poor renal function; occasionally, with use of high cathartic doses of magnesium salts, severe hypermagnesemia has been reported to occur even without renal dysfunction.[18] Alcoholism can produce a magnesium deficiency which is easily reversed by oral or parenteral administration, depending on the degree of deficiency.[19]

8

Magnesium

9

Isotopes
Magnesium has three stable isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg. All are present in significant amounts (see table of isotopes above). About 79% of Mg is 24Mg. The isotope 28Mg is radioactive and in the 1950s to 1970s was made commercially by several nuclear power plants for use in scientific experiments. This isotope has a relatively short half-life (21 hours) and so its use was limited by shipping times.
26

Mg has found application in isotopic geology, similar to that of aluminium. 26Mg is a radiogenic daughter product of 26Al, which has a half-life of 717,000 years. Large enrichments of stable 26Mg have been observed in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions of some carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The anomalous abundance of 26Mg is attributed to the decay of its parent 26Al in the inclusions. Therefore, the meteorite must have formed in the solar nebula before the 26Al had decayed. Hence, these fragments are among the oldest objects in the solar system and have preserved information about its early history. It is conventional to plot 26Mg/24Mg against an Al/Mg ratio. In an isochron dating plot, the Al/Mg ratio plotted is27Al/24Mg. The slope of the isochron has no age significance, but indicates the initial 26Al/27Al ratio in the sample at the time when the systems were separated from a common reservoir.

Precautions
Magnesium metal and its alloys are explosive hazards; they are highly flammable in their pure form when molten or in powder or in ribbon form. Burning or molten magnesium metal reacts violently with water. When working with powdered magnesium, safety glasses with welding eye protection are employed, because the bright white light produced by burning magnesium contains ultraviolet light that can permanently damage the retinas of the eyes.[20] Magnesium is capable of reducing water to the highly-flammable hydrogen gas:[21] Mg (s) + 2 H2O → Mg(OH)2 (s) + H2 (g) As a result, water cannot be used to extinguish magnesium fires; the hydrogen gas produced will only intensify the fire. Magnesium also reacts with carbon dioxide to form magnesium oxide and carbon: 2 Mg (s) + CO2 → 2 MgO (s) + C (s) Hence, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers cannot be used for extinguishing magnesium fires either.[22] Burning magnesium is usually quenched by using a Class D dry chemical fire extinguisher, or by covering the fire with sand or magnesium foundry flux to remove its air source.

The magnesium-bodied Honda RA302 of Jo Schlesser crashes and burns during the 1968 French Grand Prix. Schlesser was killed.

Magnesium

10

External links
• WebElements.com – Magnesium [23] • Online Resource for industry professionals
[25] [24]

- Magnesium.com

• The Magnesium Website – Includes full text papers and textbook chapters by leading magnesium authorities Mildred Seelig, Jean Durlach, Burton M. Altura and Bella T. Altura. Links to over 300 articles discussing magnesium and magnesium deficiency. • Magnesium in Health [26] - Mg12.info

References
[1] Bernath, P. F., Black, J. H., & Brault, J. W. (1985). " The spectrum of magnesium hydride (http:/ / bernath. uwaterloo. ca/ media/ 24. pdf)". Astrophysical Journal 298: 375. . [2] Ash, Russell (2005), The Top 10 of Everything 2006: The Ultimate Book of Lists (http:/ / plymouthlibrary. org/ faqelements. htm), Dk Pub, ISBN 0756613213, . [3] (PDF) Abundance and form of the most abundant elements in Earth’s continental crust (http:/ / www. gly. uga. edu/ railsback/ Fundamentals/ ElementalAbundanceTableP. pdf). . Retrieved 2008-02-15. [4] http:/ / www. seafriends. org. nz/ oceano/ seawater. htm#composition. Retrieved Jan. 20, 2009 [5] , http:/ / www. mg12. info [6] DOE Handbook - Primer on Spontaneous Heating and Pyrophoricity (http:/ / www. hss. doe. gov/ nuclearsafety/ ns/ techstds/ standard/ hdbk1081/ hbk1081c. html). U.S. Department of Energy. December 1994. p. 20. DOE-HDBK-1081-94. . [7] Alan A. Luo and Bob R. Powell (2001) (PDF). Tensile and Compressive Creep of Magnesium-Aluminum-Calcium Based Alloys (http:/ / doc. tms. org/ ezmerchant/ prodtms. nsf/ productlookupitemid/ 01-481x-137/ $FILE/ 01-481X-137F. pdf). Materials & Processes Laboratory, General Motors Research & Development Center. . Retrieved 2007-08-21. [8] Vardi, Nathan (February 22 2007). " Man With Many Enemies (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ forbes/ 2002/ 0722/ 044_print. html)". Forbes.com. . Retrieved 2006-06-26. [9] " Lack Energy? Maybe It's Your Magnesium Level (http:/ / www. ars. usda. gov/ is/ AR/ archive/ may04/ energy0504. htm?pf=1)". United States Department of Agriculture. . Retrieved 2008-09-18. Last paragraph [10] University of Maryland Medical Center. Magnesium (http:/ / www. umm. edu/ altmed/ articles/ magnesium-000313. htm) [11] Wester PO (May 1987). " Magnesium (http:/ / www. ajcn. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long& pmid=3578120)". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45 (5 Suppl): 1305–12. PMID 3578120. . [12] Arnaud MJ (June 2008). "Update on the assessment of magnesium status". Br. J. Nutr. 99 Suppl 3: S24–36. doi: 10.1017/S000711450800682X (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1017/ S000711450800682X). PMID 18598586. [13] Rob PM, Dick K, Bley N, et al. (October 1999). " Can one really measure magnesium deficiency using the short-term magnesium loading test? (http:/ / www. blackwell-synergy. com/ openurl?genre=article& sid=nlm:pubmed& issn=0954-6820& date=1999& volume=246& issue=4& spage=373)". J. Intern. Med. 246 (4): 373–8. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2796.1999.00580.x (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1046/ j. 1365-2796. 1999. 00580. x). PMID 10583708. . [14] Franz KB (December 2004). " A functional biological marker is needed for diagnosing magnesium deficiency (http:/ / www. jacn. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long& pmid=15637224)". J Am Coll Nutr 23 (6): 738S–41S. PMID 15637224. . [15] Firoz M, Graber M (December 2001). "Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations". Magnes Res 14 (4): 257–62. PMID 11794633. [16] Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, Pak CY (February 1990). "Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide". J Am Coll Nutr 9 (1): 48–55. PMID 2407766. [17] Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M (September 2003). " Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study (http:/ / www. john-libbey-eurotext. fr/ medline. md?issn=0953-1424& vol=16& iss=3& page=183)". Magnes Res 16 (3): 183–91. PMID 14596323. . [18] Kontani M, Hara A, Ohta S, Ikeda T (2005). "Hypermagnesemia induced by massive cathartic ingestion in an elderly woman without pre-existing renal dysfunction". Intern. Med. 44 (5): 448–52. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.44.448 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 2169/ internalmedicine. 44. 448). PMID 15942092. [19] AJ Giannini. Drugs of Abuse--Second Edition. Los Angeles, Physicians Management Information Co., 1997. [20] " Science Safety: Chapter 8 (http:/ / www. edu. gov. mb. ca/ k12/ docs/ support/ scisafe/ chapter8. html)". Government of Manitoba. . Retrieved 2007-08-21.

Magnesium
[21] " Chemistry : Periodic Table : magnesium : chemical reaction data (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ Mg/ chem. html)". webelements.com. . Retrieved 2006-06-26. [22] " Demo Lab: Reaction Of Magnesium Metal With Carbon Dioxide (http:/ / www. ilpi. com/ genchem/ demo/ co2mg/ )". . Retrieved 2006-06-26. [23] [24] [25] [26] http:/ / www. webelements. com/ magnesium/ http:/ / www. magnesium. com http:/ / www. mgwater. com/ index. shtml http:/ / www. mg12. info

11

Article Sources and Contributors

12

Article Sources and Contributors
Magnesium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307135069  Contributors: 130.94.122.xxx, 17Drew, 19.168, 4-409r-0, 65.68.87.xxx, 7, 8472, A. di M., ADM003, Aaeamdar, Abeg92, Abrutt, Ace11423, Adashiel, Addshore, Aditya, Aff123a, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Ajaxkroon, Aksi great, Alansohn, Ale jrb, Alexburke, Alexf, AlexiusHoratius, Alphachimp, Amalthea, Amwyll Rwden, Andre Engels, Andres, Andrewpmk, AndyVolykhov, Antandrus, Apparition11, Arakunem, Archimerged, Arcyqwerty, Arjun01, Arundhati bakshi, Ascidian, Astrowob, Atchius, Atlant, Austoria43, Avi saig, AzaToth, Badgernet, Bbatsell, BeautifulMachine, Beetstra, Bennybp, Bently34, Bhadani, Bhound89, Bigtop, BillFlis, Biochemnick, Bjweeks, BlueEarth, Bluebec, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Bogey97, Bold Clone, Bomac, BoomerAB, Bork, Brian0918, Brinerustle, Bryan Derksen, Bsimmons666, Bubbha, CYD, Cadmium, Caltas, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Cardil, CardinalDan, Carinemily, Carnildo, Catbar, Caulde, Ceyockey, Cflm001, Chadlupkes, Charles Gaudette, Chickyfuzz123, Chris 73, Chrislk02, Chriswiki, Chromaticity, Church of emacs, Cireshoe, Citicat, ClanCC, Cometstyles, Conversion script, Coolbeans101, Coolio213, Coppertwig, Corpx, Costelld, Craftyminion, Cremepuff222, Cssiitcic, Cureden, DVD R W, Dacar92, Dale Arnett, Damicatz, Dan100, Darrien, Davewho2, David Latapie, Db099221, Deglr6328, Dekisugi, Delirium, Delta G, Dillin268, Dirkbb, Discospinster, Dmoskva, DonSiano, DoubleBlue, Dr. Morbius, DrBob, Dreadstar, DuO, Duk, Dwmyers, Dysepsion, EL Willy, Eaolson, Early account, Eastlaw, EddEdmondson, Edgar181, Edsanville, El C, Element16, Ellsworth, Emc2, Enok Walker, Enviroboy, Enzofroilan, Epbr123, Epo, Eric-Wester, Eric119, Ericd, Everyking, Evil saltine, Excirial, Faeflora, Femto, Fenrir, Fieldday-sunday, Figureskatingfan, Finalbastion, Flosseveryday, FocalPoint, Fonzy, Frankenpuppy, FreplySpang, Fuzbaby, GT5162, Gajakk, Galvotec, Gamera2, Gargaj, Gaurav1146, Gene Nygaard, Geniac, Ggonnell, Giftlite, Gigs, Gilliam, Gman124, Gorbb, GrahamColm, Grant M, Grantus4504, Grendelkhan, Gunnar Hendrich, Gwernol, Gymmery, Gzkn, Gökhan, Hadal, Hak-kâ-ngìn, HalJor, Hantzen, Harlequence, Hellbus, HenryLi, Herbee, HereToHelp, Heron, HexaChord, HonztheBusDriver, Hotcrocodile, Hottstuff111, Huntthetroll, Hut 8.5, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, IRP, Ian Spackman, Icairns, Ich, Igoldste, Ikiroid, Im not maaad, ImperfectlyInformed, Ioeth, Iridescence, Iridescent, Irishguy, Island, IsmAvatar, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, JForget, Jaraalbe, Jaredroberts, Jasz, Jaybo007, Jeff G., Jennavecia, Jeronimo, JesseW, Jessepmullan, Jeversol, Jj137, John, Johner, Jonathan Hall, Jose77, Joyous!, Jqt, Justforasecond, Kaare, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Karn, Keenanpepper, Keilana, Kelly Martin, Kf4bdy, Kilo-Lima, King Lopez, Kingpin13, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kpjas, Kris Schnee, Kuru, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, LeaveSleaves, Lec CRP1, Lee J Haywood, Leila3, Lifung, LittleOldMe, Loren.wilton, LorenzoB, Lradrama, LuigiManiac, Luigifan07, Luna Santin, Luxdormiens, MER-C, MZMcBride, Ma8thew, Makemi, Malcolm Farmer, Mani1, Marc Kupper, Marlith, Martinman11, Materialscientist, Mattcain, Mav, Maximus Rex, May0208, Mdf, Melchoir, Mentifisto, Merope, Mgimpel, Michaelas10, Mike Gale, Mikiemike, Minesweeper, Miss Madeline, Mixwell, Mmm, Modulatum, Moe Epsilon, Monkeyman, Moonasha, Mormor1, Mr0t1633, Mxn, NCurse, NEIL4737, NHRHS2010, NSK Nikolaos S. Karastathis, Nakon, Nathan J. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:hexagonal.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hexagonal.svg  License: BSD  Contributors: Original uploader was Danieljamesscott at en.wikipedia file:Electron shell 012 Magnesium.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_012_Magnesium.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:Magnesium crystals.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnesium_crystals.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Warut Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12062, Wasserreiter mit Magnesiumfackeln.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-12062,_Wasserreiter_mit_Magnesiumfackeln.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Gamsbart, Mattes, NSK Nikolaos S. Karastathis, Raven1977 Image:Magnesium-products.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnesium-products.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Firetwister, Warut, 3 anonymous edits Image:Magnesium Sparks.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnesium_Sparks.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hiroaki Nakamura Image:FoodSourcesOfMagnesium.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FoodSourcesOfMagnesium.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Peggy Greb Image:Schlesser.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schlesser.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Lec CRP1

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Aluminium

1

Aluminium
magnesium ← aluminium → siliconB ↑ Al ↓ Ga

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

13Al
Periodic table

Appearance grey

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 1482 10 1632 100 1817 1k 2054 10 k 2364 100 k 2790

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 1816.7 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 2744.8 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal

Aluminium conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusPoisson ratioMohs hardnessVickers hardnessBrinell hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of aluminium
iso
26

2

N.A. syn

half-life 7.17×105y β+ ε γ

DM 1.17 1.8086

DE (MeV)
26

DP Mg Mg

Al

26

-

27

Al

100%

27

Al is stable with 14 neutron

aluminium, Al, 13 poor metal13, 3, p26.9815386(13) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s2 3p1 2, 8, 3 (Image) solid 2.70 g·cm−3 2.375 g·cm−3 933.47 K,660.32 °C,1220.58 °F 2792 K,2519 °C,4566 °F 10.71 kJ·mol−1 294.0 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 24.200 J·mol−1·K−13, 2[1] , 1[2] (amphoteric oxide) 1.61 (Pauling scale) 1st: 577.5 kJ·mol−1143 pm121±4 pm face-centered cubic paramagnetic[3] (20 °C) 28.2 nΩ·m (300 K) 237 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 23.1 µm·m−1·K−1 (r.t.) (rolled) 5,000 m·s−1 70 GPa 26 GPa 76 GPa 0.35 2.75 167 MPa 245 MPa 7429-90-5 Aluminium ( ˌæljʊˈmɪniəm Wikipedia:Media helpFile:En-uk-aluminium1.ogg) or aluminum ( /əˈluːmɪnəm/ Wikipedia:Media helpFile:En-uk-aluminum.ogg, see spelling below) is a silvery white and ductile member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al; its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, and the third most abundant element therein, after oxygen and silicon. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur in nature as a free metal. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[4] The chief source of aluminium is bauxite ore. Aluminium is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation and for the metal's low density. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building. Its reactive nature makes it useful as a catalyst or additive in chemical mixtures, including being used in ammonium nitrate explosives to enhance blast power.

Characteristics
Aluminium is a soft, durable, lightweight, malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull grey, depending on the surface roughness. Aluminium is nonmagnetic and nonsparking. It is also insoluble in alcohol, though it can be soluble in water in certain forms. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa.[5] Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel. It is ductile, and easily machined, cast, and extruded. Corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the metal is exposed to air, effectively preventing further oxidation. The strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper.[5] This corrosion resistance is also often greatly reduced when many aqueous salts are present however, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals.

Aluminium Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of approximately 200 mJ/m².[6] Aluminium is one of the few metals that retain full silvery reflectance in finely powdered form, making it an important component of silver paints. Aluminium mirror finish has the highest reflectance of any metal in the 200–400 nm (UV) and the 3000–10000 nm (far IR) regions, while in the 400–700 nm visible range it is slightly outdone by tin and silver and in the 700–3000 (near IR) by silver, gold, and copper.[7] Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, by weight better than copper. Aluminium is capable of being a superconductor, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.[8]

3

Isotopes
Aluminium has nine isotopes, whose mass numbers range from 23 to 30. Only 27Al (stable isotope) and 26Al (radioactive isotope, t1/2 = 7.2 × 105 y) occur naturally; however, 27Al has a natural abundance of 99.9+ %. 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic-ray protons. Aluminium isotopes have found practical application in dating marine sediments, manganese nodules, glacial ice, quartz in rock exposures, and meteorites. The ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used to study the role of transport, deposition, sediment storage, burial times, and erosion on 105 to 106 year time scales.[9] Cosmogenic 26Al was first applied in studies of the Moon and meteorites. Meteoroid fragments, after departure from their parent bodies, are exposed to intense cosmic-ray bombardment during their travel through space, causing substantial 26Al production. After falling to Earth, atmospheric shielding protects the meteorite fragments from further 26Al production, and its decay can then be used to determine the meteorite's terrestrial age. Meteorite research has also shown that 26Al was relatively abundant at the time of formation of our planetary system. Most meteoriticists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.[10]

Natural occurrence
In the Earth's crust, aluminium is the most abundant (8.3% by weight) metallic element and the third most abundant of all elements (after oxygen and silicon).[11] Because of its strong affinity to oxygen, however, it is almost never found in the elemental state; instead it is found in oxides or silicates. Feldspars, the most common group of minerals in the Earth's crust, are aluminosilicates. Native aluminium metal can be found as a minor phase in low oxygen fugacity environments, such as the interiors of certain volcanoes.[12] It also occurs in the minerals beryl, cryolite, garnet, spinel and turquoise.[11] Impurities in Al2O3, such as chromium or cobalt yield the gemstones ruby and sapphire, respectively. Pure Al2O3, known as Corundum, is one of the hardest materials known.[11] Although aluminium is an extremely common and widespread element, the common aluminium minerals are not economic sources of the metal. Almost all metallic aluminium is produced from the ore bauxite (AlOx(OH)3-2x). Bauxite occurs as a weathering product of low iron and silica bedrock in tropical climatic conditions.[13] Large deposits of bauxite occur in Australia, Brazil, Guinea and Jamaica but the primary mining areas for the ore are in Ghana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Russia and Surinam.[14] Smelting of the ore mainly occurs in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Norway, Russia and the United States. Because smelting is an

Aluminium energy-intensive process, regions with excess natural gas supplies (such as the United Arab Emirates) are becoming aluminium refiners.

4

Production and refinement
Although aluminium is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust (believed to be 7.5 to 8.1 percent), it is rare in its free form, occurring in oxygen-deficient environments such as volcanic mud, and it was once considered a precious metal more valuable than gold. Napoleon III, emperor of France, is reputed to have given a banquet where the most honoured guests were given aluminium utensils, while the other guests had to make do with gold.[15] [16] The Washington Monument was completed, with the 100 ounce (2.8 kg) aluminium capstone being put in place on December 6, 1884, in an elaborate dedication ceremony. It was the largest single piece of aluminium cast at the time. At that time, aluminium was as expensive as silver.[17] Aluminium has been produced in commercial quantities for just over 100 years. Aluminium is a strongly reactive metal that forms a high-energy chemical bond with oxygen. Compared to most other metals, it is difficult to extract from ore, such as bauxite, due to the energy required to reduce aluminium oxide (Al2O3). For example, direct reduction with carbon, as is used to produce iron, is not chemically possible, since aluminium is a stronger reducing agent than carbon. Aluminium oxide has a melting point of about 2,000 °C. Therefore, it must be Bauxite extracted by electrolysis. In this process, the aluminium oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite and then reduced to the pure metal. The operational temperature of the reduction cells is around 950 to 980 °C. Cryolite is found as a mineral in Greenland, but in industrial use it has been replaced by a synthetic substance. Cryolite is a chemical compound of aluminium, sodium, and calcium fluorides: (Na3AlF6). The aluminium oxide (a white powder) is obtained by refining bauxite in the Bayer process of Karl Bayer. (Previously, the Deville process was the predominant refining technology.) The electrolytic process replaced the Wöhler process, which involved the reduction of anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium. Both of the electrodes used in the electrolysis of aluminium oxide are carbon. Once the refined alumina is dissolved in the electrolyte, its ions are free to move around. The reaction at the cathode (negative electrode) is Al3+ + 3 e− → Al Here the aluminium ion is being reduced (electrons are added). The aluminium metal then sinks to the bottom and is tapped off, usually cast into large blocks called aluminium billets for further processing. At the anode (positive electrode), oxygen is formed: 2 O2− → O2 + 4 e− This carbon anode is then oxidized by the oxygen, releasing carbon dioxide. O2 + C → CO2

Aluminium The anodes in a reduction cell must therefore be replaced regularly, since they are consumed in the process. Unlike the anodes, the cathodes are not oxidized because there is no oxygen present, as the carbon cathodes are protected by the liquid aluminium inside the cells. Nevertheless, cathodes do erode, mainly due to electrochemical processes and metal movement. After five to ten years, depending on the current used in the electrolysis, a cell has to be rebuilt because of cathode wear. Aluminium electrolysis with the Hall-Héroult process consumes a lot of energy, but alternative processes were always found to be less viable economically and/or ecologically. The worldwide average specific energy consumption is approximately 15±0.5 kilowatt-hours per kilogram of aluminium produced (52 to 56 MJ/kg). The most modern smelters achieve approximately 12.8 kW·h/kg (46.1 MJ/kg). (Compare this to the heat of World production trend of aluminium reaction, 31 MJ/kg, and the Gibbs free energy of reaction, 29 MJ/kg.) Reduction line currents for older technologies are typically 100 to 200 kA; state-of-the-art smelters[18] operate at about 350 kA. Trials have been reported with 500 kA cells. Electric power represents about 20% to 40% of the cost of producing aluminium, depending on the location of the smelter. Smelters tend to be situated where electric power is both plentiful and inexpensive, such as South Africa, Ghana, the South Island of New Zealand, Australia, the People's Republic of China, the Middle East, Russia, Quebec and British Columbia in Canada, and Iceland.[19] In 2005, the People's Republic of China was the top producer of aluminium with almost a one-fifth world share, followed by Russia, Canada, and the USA, reports the British Geological Survey. Over the last 50 years, Australia has become a major producer of bauxite ore and a major producer and Aluminium output in 2005 [20] exporter of alumina. Australia produced 62 million tonnes of bauxite in 2005. The Australian deposits have some refining problems, some being high in silica but have the advantage of being shallow and relatively easy to mine.[21]

5

Aluminium

6

Recycling
Aluminium is 100% recyclable without any loss of its natural qualities. Recovery of the metal via recycling has become an important facet of the aluminium industry. Recycling involves melting the scrap, a process that requires only five percent of the energy used to produce aluminium from ore. However, a significant part (up to 15% of the input material) is lost as dross (ash-like oxide).[22] Recycling was a low-profile activity until the late 1960s, when the growing use of aluminium beverage cans brought it to the public awareness.

Aluminium Recycling Code

In Europe aluminium experiences high rates of recycling, ranging from 42% of beverage cans, 85% of construction materials and 95% of transport vehicles.[23] Recycled aluminium is known as secondary aluminium, but maintains the same physical properties as primary aluminium. Secondary aluminium is produced in a wide range of formats and is employed in 80% of the alloy injections. Another important use is for extrusion. White dross from primary aluminium production and from secondary recycling operations still contains useful quantities of aluminium which can be extracted industrially.[24] The process produces aluminium billets, together with a highly complex waste material. This waste is difficult to manage. It reacts with water, releasing a mixture of gases (including, among others, hydrogen, acetylene, and ammonia) which spontaneously ignites on contact with air;[25] contact with damp air results in the release of copious quantities of ammonia gas. Despite these difficulties, however, the waste has found use as a filler in asphalt and concrete.[26]

Chemistry
Oxidation state one
AlH is produced when aluminium is heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Al2O is made by heating the normal oxide, Al2O3, with silicon at 1800 °C in a vacuum.[27] Al2S can be made by heating Al2S3 with aluminium shavings at 1300 °C in a vacuum.[27] It quickly disproportionates to the starting materials. The selenide is made in a parallel manner. AlF, AlCl and AlBr exist in the gaseous phase when the tri-halide is heated with aluminium. Aluminium halides usually exist in the form AlX3. e.g. AlF3, AlCl3, AlBr3, AlI3 etc.[27]

Aluminium

7

Oxidation state two
Aluminium monoxide, AlO, has been detected in the gas phase after explosion[28] and in stellar absorption spectra.[29]

Oxidation state three
Fajans' rules show that the simple trivalent cation Al3+ is not expected to be found in anhydrous salts or binary compounds such as Al2O3. The hydroxide is a weak base and aluminium salts of weak acids, such as carbonate, can't be prepared. The salts of strong acids, such as nitrate, are stable and soluble in water, forming hydrates with at least six molecules of water of crystallization. Aluminium hydride, (AlH3)n, can be produced from trimethylaluminium and an excess of hydrogen. It burns explosively in air. It can also be prepared by the action of aluminium chloride on lithium hydride in ether solution, but cannot be isolated free from the solvent. Alumino-hydrides of the most electropositive elements are known, the most useful being lithium aluminium hydride, Li[AlH4]. It decomposes into lithium hydride, aluminium and hydrogen when heated, and is hydrolysed by water. It has many uses in organic chemistry, particularly as a reducing agent. The aluminohalides have a similar structure. Aluminium hydroxide may be prepared as a gelatinous precipitate by adding ammonia to an aqueous solution of an aluminium salt. It is amphoteric, being both a very weak acid, and forming aluminates with alkalis. It exists in various crystalline forms. Aluminium carbide, Al4C3 is made by heating a mixture of the elements above 1000 °C. The pale yellow crystals have a complex lattice structure, and react with water or dilute acids to give methane. The acetylide, Al2(C2)3, is made by passing acetylene over heated aluminium. Aluminium nitride, AlN, can be made from the elements at 800 °C. It is hydrolysed by water to form ammonia and aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium phosphide, AlP, is made similarly, and hydrolyses to give phosphine. Aluminium oxide, Al2O3, occurs naturally as corundum, and can be made by burning aluminium in oxygen or by heating the hydroxide, nitrate or sulfate. As a gemstone, its hardness is only exceeded by diamond, boron nitride, and carborundum. It is almost insoluble in water. Aluminium sulfide, Al2S3, may be prepared by passing hydrogen sulfide over aluminium powder. It is polymorphic. Aluminium iodide, AlI3, is a dimer with applications in organic synthesis. Aluminium fluoride, AlF3, is made by treating the hydroxide with HF, or can be made from the elements. It consists of a giant molecule which sublimes without melting at 1291 °C. It is very inert. The other trihalides are dimeric, having a bridge-like structure. Aluminium fluoride/water complexes: When aluminium and fluoride are together in aqueous solution, they readily form complex ions such as AlF(H2O)5+2, AlF3(H2O)30, AlF6−3. Of these, AlF6−3 is the most stable. This is explained by the fact that aluminium and fluoride, which are both very compact ions, fit together just right to form the octahedral aluminium hexafluoride complex. When aluminium and fluoride are together in water in a 1:6 molar ratio, AlF6−3 is the most common form, even in rather low concentrations. Organo-metallic compounds of empirical formula AlR3 exist and, if not also giant molecules, are at least dimers or trimers. They have some uses in organic synthesis, for instance trimethylaluminium. Analysis

Aluminium The presence of aluminium can be detected in qualitative analysis using aluminon.

8

Applications
General use
Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal.[30] Global production of aluminium in 2005 was 31.9 million tonnes. It exceeded that of any other metal except iron (837.5 million tonnes).[31] Relatively pure aluminium is encountered only when corrosion resistance and/or workability is more important than strength or hardness. A thin layer of aluminium can be deposited onto a flat surface by physical vapor deposition or (very infrequently) chemical vapor deposition or other chemical means to form optical coatings and mirrors. When so deposited, a fresh, pure aluminium film serves as a good reflector (approximately 92%) of visible light and an excellent reflector (as much as 98%) of medium and far infrared radiation. Pure aluminium has a low tensile strength, but when combined with thermo-mechanical processing, aluminium alloys display a marked improvement in mechanical properties, especially when tempered. Aluminium alloys form vital components of aircraft and rockets as a result of their high strength-to-weight ratio. Aluminium readily forms alloys with many elements such as copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese and silicon (e.g., duralumin). Today, almost all bulk metal materials that are referred to loosely as "aluminium," are actually alloys. For example, the common aluminium foils are alloys of 92% to 99% aluminium.[32] Some of the many uses for aluminium metal are in: • Transportation (automobiles, aircraft, trucks, railway cars, marine vessels, bicycles etc.) as sheet, tube, castings etc. • Packaging (cans, foil, etc.) • Construction (windows, doors, siding, building wire, etc.) • A wide range of household items, from cooking utensils to baseball bats, watches[33] and notebook computers (Apple) • Street lighting poles, sailing ship masts, walking poles etc. • Outer shells of consumer electronics, also cases for equipment e.g. photographic equipment. • Electrical transmission lines for power distribution • MKM steel and Alnico magnets • Super purity aluminium (SPA, 99.980% to 99.999% Al), used in electronics and CDs. • Heat sinks for electronic appliances such as transistors and CPUs. • Substrate material of metal-core copper clad laminates used in high brightness LED lighting.
Aluminium-bodied Austin "A40 Sports"(circa 1951) Household aluminium foil

• Powdered aluminium is used in paint, and in pyrotechnics such as solid rocket fuels and thermite.

Aluminium

9

Aluminium compounds
• Aluminium ammonium sulfate ([Al(NH4)](SO4)2), ammonium alum is used as a mordant, in water purification and sewage treatment, in paper production, as a food additive, and in leather tanning. • Aluminium acetate is a salt used in solution as an astringent. • Aluminium borate (Al2O3 B2O3) is used in the production of glass and ceramic. • Aluminium borohydride (Al(BH4)3) is used as an additive to jet fuel. • Aluminium bronze (CuAl5) • Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is used: in paint manufacturing, in antiperspirants, in petroleum refining and in the production of synthetic rubber. • Aluminium chlorohydrate is used as an antiperspirant and in the treatment of hyperhidrosis. • Aluminium fluorosilicate (Al2(SiF6)3) is used in the production of synthetic gemstones, glass and ceramic. • Aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) is used: as an antacid, as a mordant, in water purification, in the manufacture of glass and ceramic and in the waterproofing of fabrics. • Aluminium oxide (Al2O3), alumina, is found naturally as corundum (rubies and sapphires), emery, and is used in glass making. Synthetic ruby and sapphire are used in lasers for the production of coherent light. Used as a refractory, essential for the production of high pressure sodium lamps. • Aluminium phosphate (AlPO4) is used in the manufacture: of glass and ceramic, pulp and paper products, cosmetics, paints and varnishes and in making dental cement. • Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) is used: in the manufacture of paper, as a mordant, in a fire extinguisher, in water purification and sewage treatment, as a food additive, in fireproofing, and in leather tanning. • Aqueous Aluminium ions (such as found in aqueous Aluminium Sulfate) are use to treat against fish parasites such as Gyrodactylus salaris. • In many vaccines, certain aluminium salts serve as an immune adjuvant (immune response booster) to allow the protein in the vaccine to achieve sufficient potency as an immune stimulant.
Aluminium slab being transported from the smelters

Aluminium

10

Aluminium alloys in structural applications
Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures. Alloy systems are classified by a number system (ANSI) or by names indicating their main alloying constituents (DIN and ISO). The strength and durability of aluminium alloys vary widely, not only as a result of the components of the specific alloy, but also as a result of heat treatments and manufacturing processes. A lack of knowledge of these aspects has from time to time led to improperly designed structures and gained aluminium a bad reputation. (See main article) One important structural limitation of aluminium alloys is their fatigue strength. Unlike steels, aluminium alloys have no well-defined fatigue limit, meaning that fatigue failure will eventually occur under even very small cyclic loadings. This implies that engineers must assess these loads and design for a fixed life rather than an infinite life.

Aluminium foam

Another important property of aluminium alloys is their sensitivity to heat. Workshop procedures involving heating are complicated by the fact that aluminium, unlike steel, will melt without first glowing red. Forming operations where a blow torch is used therefore requires some expertise, since no visual signs reveal how close the material is to melting. Aluminium alloys, like all structural alloys, also are subject to internal stresses following heating operations such as welding and casting. The problem with aluminium alloys in this regard is their low melting point, which make them more susceptible to distortions from thermally induced stress relief. Controlled stress relief can be done during manufacturing by heat-treating the parts in an oven, followed by gradual cooling—in effect annealing the stresses. The low melting point of aluminium alloys has not precluded their use in rocketry; even for use in constructing combustion chambers where gases can reach 3500 K. The Agena upper stage engine used a regeneratively cooled aluminium design for some parts of the nozzle, including the thermally critical throat region.

Household wiring
Compared to copper, aluminium has about 65% of the electrical conductivity by volume, although 200% by weight. Traditionally copper is used as household wiring material. In the 1960s aluminium was considerably cheaper than copper, and so was introduced for household electrical wiring in the United States, even though many fixtures had not been designed to accept aluminium wire. In some cases the greater coefficient of thermal expansion of aluminium causes the wire to expand and contract relative to the dissimilar metal screw connection, eventually loosening the connection. Also, pure aluminium has a tendency to creep under steady sustained pressure (to a greater degree as the temperature rises), again loosening the connection. Finally, Galvanic corrosion from the dissimilar metals increased the electrical resistance of the connection.

Aluminium All of this resulted in overheated and loose connections, and this in turn resulted in fires. Builders then became wary of using the wire, and many jurisdictions outlawed its use in very small sizes in new construction. Eventually, newer fixtures were introduced with connections designed to avoid loosening and overheating. The first generation fixtures were marked "Al/Cu" and were ultimately found suitable only for copper-clad aluminium wire, but the second generation fixtures, which bear a "CO/ALR" coding, are rated for unclad aluminium wire. To adapt older assemblies, workers forestall the heating problem using a properly-done crimp of the aluminium wire to a short "pigtail" of copper wire. Today, new alloys, designs, and methods are used for aluminium wiring in combination with aluminium termination.

11

History
Ancient Greeks and Romans used aluminium salts as dyeing mordants and as astringents for dressing wounds; alum is still used as a styptic. In 1761 Guyton de Morveau suggested calling the base alum alumine. In 1808, Humphry Davy identified the existence of a metal base of alum, which he at first termed alumium and later aluminum (see Etymology section, below). The metal was first produced in 1825 (in an impure form) by Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted. He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam and yielded a lump of metal looking similar to tin.[34] Friedrich Wöhler was aware of these experiments and cited them, but after redoing the experiments of Ørsted he concluded that this metal was pure potassium. He conducted a similar experiment in 1827 by mixing anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium and yielded aluminium.[34] Wöhler is The statue of the Anteros (commonly mistaken for either The Angel of generally credited with isolating aluminium (Latin Christian Charity or Eros) in Piccadilly alumen, alum), but also Ørsted can be listed as its Circus London, was made in 1893 and discoverer.[35] Further, Pierre Berthier discovered is one of the first statues to be cast in aluminium in bauxite ore and successfully extracted aluminium. it.[36] Frenchman Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville improved Wöhler's method in 1846, and described his improvements in a book in 1859, chief among these being the substitution of sodium for the considerably more expensive potassium. (Note: The title of Deville's book is De l'aluminium, ses propriétés, sa fabrication [37] (Paris, 1859). Deville likely also conceived the idea of the electrolysis of aluminium oxide dissolved in cryolite; however, Charles Martin Hall and Paul Héroult might have developed the more practical process after Deville.) Before the Hall-Héroult process was developed, aluminium was exceedingly difficult to extract from its various ores. This made pure aluminium more valuable than gold. Bars of aluminium were exhibited alongside the French crown jewels at the Exposition Universelle of 1855, and Napoleon III was said to have reserved a set of aluminium dinner plates for his

Aluminium most honoured guests. Aluminium was selected as the material to be used for the apex of the Washington Monument in 1884, a time when one ounce (30 grams) cost the daily wage of a common worker on the project;[38] aluminium was about the same value as silver. The Cowles companies supplied aluminium alloy in quantity in the United States and England using smelters like the furnace of Carl Wilhelm Siemens by 1886.[39] Charles Martin Hall of Ohio in the U.S. and Paul Héroult of France independently developed the Hall-Héroult electrolytic process that made extracting aluminium from minerals cheaper and is now the principal method used worldwide. The Hall-Heroult process cannot produce Super Purity Aluminium directly. Hall's process,[40] in 1888 with the financial backing of Alfred E. Hunt, started the Pittsburgh Reduction Company today known as Alcoa. Héroult's process was in production by 1889 in Switzerland at Aluminium Industrie, now Alcan, and [41] at British Aluminium, now Luxfer Group and Alcoa, by 1896 in Scotland. By 1895 the metal was being used as a building material as far away as Sydney, Australia in the dome of the Chief Secretary's Building. Many navies use an aluminium superstructure for their vessels, however, the 1975 fire aboard USS Belknap that gutted her aluminium superstructure, as well as observation of battle damage to British ships during the Falklands War, led to many navies switching to all steel superstructures. The Arleigh Burke class was the first such U.S. ship, being constructed entirely of steel. In 2008 the price of aluminium peaked at $1.45/lb in July but dropped to $0.7/lb by December.[42]

12

Etymology
Nomenclature history
The earliest citation given in the Oxford English Dictionary for any word used as a name for this element is alumium, which British chemist and inventor Humphry Davy employed in 1808 for the metal he was trying to isolate electrolytically from the mineral alumina. The citation is from his journal Philosophical Transactions: "Had I been so fortunate as..to have procured the metallic substances I was in search of, I should have proposed for them the names of silicium, alumium, zirconium, and glucium."[43] By 1812, Davy had settled on aluminum. He wrote in the journal Chemical Philosophy: "As yet Aluminum has not been obtained in a perfectly free state."[44] But the same year, an anonymous contributor to the Quarterly Review, a British political-literary journal, objected to aluminum and proposed the name aluminium, "for so we shall take the liberty of writing the word, in preference to aluminum, which has a less classical sound."[45] The -ium suffix had the advantage of conforming to the precedent set in other newly discovered elements of the time: potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium (all of which Davy had isolated himself). Nevertheless, -um spellings for elements were not unknown at the time, as for example platinum, known to Europeans since the sixteenth century, molybdenum, discovered in 1778, and tantalum, discovered in 1802. The -um suffix on the other hand, has the advantage of being more consistent with the universal spelling alumina for the oxide, as lanthana is the oxide of lanthanum, and magnesia, ceria, and thoria are the oxides of magnesium, cerium, and thorium respectively.

Aluminium The spelling used throughout the 19th century by most U.S. chemists ended in -ium, but common usage is less clear.[46] The -um spelling is used in the Webster's Dictionary of 1828, as it was in 1892 when Charles Martin Hall published an advertising handbill for his new electrolytic method of producing the metal, despite his constant use of the -ium spelling in all the patents[40] he filed between 1886 and 1903.[47] It has consequently been suggested that the spelling reflects an easier to pronounce word with one fewer syllable, or that the spelling on the flier was a mistake. Hall's domination of production of the metal ensured that the spelling aluminum became the standard in North America; the Webster Unabridged Dictionary of 1913, though, continued to use the -ium version. In 1926, the American Chemical Society officially decided to use aluminum in its publications; American dictionaries typically label the spelling aluminium as a British variant.

13

Present-day spelling
Most countries spell aluminium with an i before -um. In the United States, the spelling aluminium is largely unknown, and the spelling aluminum predominates.[48] [49] The Canadian Oxford Dictionary prefers aluminum, whereas the Australian Macquarie Dictionary prefers aluminium. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted aluminium as the standard international name for the element in 1990, but three years later recognized aluminum as an acceptable variant. Hence their periodic table includes both.[50] IUPAC officially prefers the use of aluminium in its internal publications, although several IUPAC publications use the spelling aluminum.[51]

Health concerns
Despite its natural abundance, aluminium has no known function in living cells and presents some toxic effects in elevated concentrations. Its toxicity can be traced to deposition in bone and the central nervous system, which is particularly increased in patients with reduced renal function. Because aluminium competes with calcium for absorption, increased amounts of dietary aluminium may contribute to the reduced skeletal mineralization (osteopenia) observed in preterm infants and infants with growth retardation. In very high doses, aluminium can cause neurotoxicity, and is associated with altered function of the blood-brain barrier.[52] A small percentage of people are allergic to aluminium and experience contact dermatitis, digestive disorders, vomiting or other symptoms upon contact or ingestion of products containing aluminium, such as deodorants or antacids. In those without allergies, aluminium is not as toxic as heavy metals, but there is evidence of some toxicity if it is consumed in excessive amounts.[53] Although the use of aluminium cookware has not been shown to lead to aluminium toxicity in general, excessive consumption of antacids containing aluminium compounds and excessive use of aluminium-containing antiperspirants provide more significant exposure levels. Studies have shown that consumption of acidic foods or liquids with aluminium significantly increases aluminium absorption,[54] and maltol has been shown to increase the accumulation of aluminium in nervous and osseus tissue.[55] Furthermore, aluminium increases estrogen-related gene expression in human breast cancer cells cultured in the laboratory.[56] These salts' estrogen-like effects have led to their classification as a metalloestrogen.

Aluminium Because of its potentially toxic effects, aluminium's use in some antiperspirants, dyes (such as aluminum lake), and food additives is controversial. Although there is little evidence that normal exposure to aluminium presents a risk to healthy adults,[57] several studies point to risks associated with increased exposure to the metal. Aluminium in food may be absorbed [58] more than aluminium from water. Some researchers have expressed concerns that the aluminium in antiperspirants may increase the risk of breast cancer,[59] and aluminium has controversially been implicated as a factor in Alzheimer's disease.[60] According to The Alzheimer's Society, the overwhelming medical and scientific opinion is that studies have not convincingly demonstrated a causal relationship between aluminium and Alzheimer's disease.[61] Nevertheless, some studies cite aluminium exposure as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, as some brain plaques have been found to contain increased levels of the metal. Research in this area has been inconclusive; aluminium accumulation may be a consequence of the disease rather than a causal agent. In any event, if there is any toxicity of aluminium, it must be via a very specific mechanism, since total human exposure to the element in the form of naturally occurring clay in soil and dust is enormously large over a lifetime.[62] [63] Scientific consensus does not yet exist about whether aluminium exposure could directly increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease.[61]

14

Effect on plants
Aluminium is primary among the factors that reduce plant growth on acid soils. Although it is generally harmless to plant growth in pH-neutral soils, the concentration in acid soils of toxic Al3+ cations increases and disturbs root growth and function.[64] [65] [66] Most acid soils are saturated with aluminium rather than hydrogen ions. The acidity of the soil is therefore a result of hydrolysis of aluminium compounds.[67] This concept of "corrected lime potential"[68] to define the degree of base saturation in soils became the basis for procedures now used in soil testing laboratories to determine the "lime requirement" of soils.[69] Wheat's adaptation to allow aluminium tolerance is such that the aluminium induces a release of organic compounds that bind to the harmful aluminium cations. Sorghum is believed to have the same tolerance mechanism. The first gene for aluminium tolerance has been identified in wheat. It was shown that sorghum's aluminium tolerance is controlled by a single gene, as for wheat.[70] This is not the case in all plants.

See also
• • • • • • • Aluminium alloy Aluminium battery Aluminium foil Beverage can Institute for the History of Aluminium (IHA) List of countries by aluminium production Aluminium industry in Russia

Aluminium

15

External links
• • • • • • WebElements.com – Aluminium [71] Electrolytic production [72] World production of primary aluminium, by country [73] Price history of aluminum, according to the IMF [74] History of Aluminium (from the website of the International Aluminium Institute) Emedicine - Aluminium [76]

[75]

pnb:‫مینمولا‬

References
[1] Aluminium monoxide [2] Aluminium iodide [3] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition, CRC press. [4] Bassam Z. Shakhashiri. " Chemical of the Week: Aluminum (http:/ / scifun. chem. wisc. edu/ chemweek/ Aluminum/ ALUMINUM. html)". Science is Fun. . Retrieved 2007-08-28. [5] [6] [7] [8] Polmear, I. J. (1995). Light Alloys: Metallurgy of the Light Metals. Arnold. ISBN 9780340632079. Dieter G. E. (1988). Mechanical Metallurgy. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070168938. H. A. Macleod (2001). Thin-film optical filters. CRC Press. pp. 158-159. ISBN 0750306882. John F. Cochran and D. E. Mapother (July 1958). "Superconducting Transition in Aluminum". Physical Review 111 (1): 132–142. doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.111.132 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1103/ PhysRev. 111. 132).

[9] " Cosmogenic Isotopes and Aluminum (http:/ / www. onafarawayday. com/ Radiogenic/ Ch14/ Ch14-6. htm)". . [10] Robert T. Dodd. Thunderstones and Shooting Stars. pp. 89-90. ISBN 0-674-89137-6. [11] Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997), Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-3365-4 [12] " Aluminum Mineral Data (http:/ / webmineral. com/ data/ Aluminum. shtml)". . Retrieved 2008-07-09. [13] Guilbert, John M. and Carles F. Park (1986). The Geology of Ore Deposits. Freeman. pp. 774-795. ISBN 0-7167-1456-6. [14] Emsley, John (2001). " Aluminium (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=j-Xu07p3cKwC& pg=PA24)". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0198503407. . [15] S Venetski (July 1969). ""Silver" from clay". Metallurgist 13: 451. doi: 10.1007/BF00741130 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ BF00741130). [16] ChemMatters October 1990 p. 14. [17] G. J. Binczewski (1995). " The Point of a Monument: A History of the Aluminum Cap of the Washington Monument (http:/ / www. tms. org/ pubs/ journals/ JOM/ 9511/ Binczewski-9511. html)". JOM 47: 20. . [18] " Aluminium Smelters (http:/ / www. ame. com. au/ smelters/ al/ smelters. htm)". AME Mineral Economics. . Retrieved 2008-04-17. [19] Christoph Schmitz, Josef Domagala, Petra Haag (2006). Handbook of aluminium recycling: fundamentals, mechanical preparation, metallurgical processing, plant design. Vulkan-Verlag GmbH. p. 27. ISBN 3802729366. [20] " The Australian Industry (http:/ / www. aluminium. org. au/ Page. php?s=1005)". Australian Aluminium Council. . Retrieved 2007-08-11. [21] " Australian Bauxite (http:/ / www. aluminium. org. au/ Page. php?s=1007)". Australian Aluminium Council. . Retrieved 2007-08-11. [22] " Benefits of Recycling (http:/ / www. dnr. state. oh. us/ recycling/ awareness/ facts/ benefits. htm)". Ohio Department of Natural Resources. . [23] " Reciclado del aluminio. Confemetal.es ASERAL (http:/ / www. confemetal. es/ aseral/ recuperacion. htm)". . [24] Hwang, J.Y., Huang, X., Xu, Z. (2006). "Recovery of Metals from Aluminium Dross and Salt cake". Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering 5: 47. [25] " Why are dross & saltcake a concern? (http:/ / www. ohiolandfills. org/ faq/ aluminium-dross-saltcake/ )". . [26] Dunster, A.M., Moulinier, F., Abbott, B., Conroy, A., Adams, K., Widyatmoko, D.(2005). Added value of using new industrial waste streams as secondary aggregates in both concrete and asphalt. DTI/WRAP Aggregates Research Programme STBF 13/15C. The Waste and Resources Action Programme. [27] Dohmeier, C.; Loos, D.; Schnöckel, H. (1996). "Aluminum(I) and Gallium(I) Compounds: Syntheses, Structures, and Reactions". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 35: 129. doi: 10.1002/anie.199601291

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
Aluminium  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308237302  Contributors: (jarbarf), 050555, 111112, 56, 842U, A Brave New World, A More Perfect Onion, A.C. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

20

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:cubic-face-centered.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cubic-face-centered.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Stannered file:Electron shell 013 Aluminium.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_013_Aluminium.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:Aluminum Metal coinless.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aluminum_Metal_coinless.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:CapitalSasha File:Loudspeaker.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, 5 anonymous edits Image:Bauxite hérault.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bauxite_hérault.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: saphon Image:Aluminium - world production trend.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aluminium_-_world_production_trend.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Leyo Image:Aluminium output2.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aluminium_output2.PNG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Anwar_saadat/bubble_maps_(FAQ) File:41 ALU Recycling Code.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:41_ALU_Recycling_Code.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Karl A Randall / User: k4rlR Image:aluminumfoil.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aluminumfoil.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Kerkyra, 1 anonymous edits Image:Austin A40 Roadster ca 1951.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Austin_A40_Roadster_ca_1951.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Charles01 Image:AluminumSlab.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AluminumSlab.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:ALIquotob Image:Aluminium foam.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aluminium_foam.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Stehfun Image:Eros-piccadilly-circus.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eros-piccadilly-circus.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Bhoeble, Doruk Salancı, G.dallorto, Hanzo86, Jastrow, Joanjoc, Justinc, Korrigan, Montrealais, Pseudomoi, Saperaud, Wst, 3 anonymous edits

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Silicon

1

Silicon
aluminium ← silicon → phosphorusC ↑ Si ↓ Ge

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

14Si
Periodic table

Appearance crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces

Broken

silicon

ingot

General

Name,

symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1k 10 k 100 k

Silicon

2
at T/K 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusPoisson ratioMohs hardnessCAS registry numberBand gap energy at 300 K Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of silicon
iso
28

N.A. 92.23% 4.67% 3.1% syn
28

half-life Si is stable with 14 neutron Si is stable with 15 neutron Si is stable with 16 neutron β−

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

Si Si Si Si

29

29

30

30

32

170 y

13.020

32

P

silicon, Si, 14 metalloid14, 3, p28.0855(3) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s2 3p2 2, 8, 4 (Image) solid 2.3290 g·cm−3 2.57 g·cm−3 1687 K,1414 °C,2577 °F 3538 K,3265 °C,5909 °F 50.21 kJ·mol−1 359 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 19.789 J·mol−1·K−14, 3 , 2 , 1[1] -1, -2, -3, -4 (amphoteric oxide) 1.90 (Pauling scale) 1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1111 pm111 pm 210 pm diamond cubic diamagnetic[2] (20 °C) 103 [3] Ω·m (300 K) 149 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 8433 m/s 185[3] GPa 52[3] GPa 100 GPa 0.28[3] 7 7440-21-3 1.12 eV Silicon (pronounced /ˈsɪlɨkən/ or English pronunciation: /ˈsɪlɨkɒn/, Latin: silicium) is the most common metalloid. It is a chemical element, which has the symbol Si and atomic number 14. The atomic mass is 28.0855. A tetravalent metalloid, silicon is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon. As the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, silicon very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature, but is more widely distributed in dusts, planetoids and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. On Earth, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) in the crust,[4] making up 25.7% of the crust by mass. Silicon has many industrial uses. It is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. Silicon is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a better semiconductor/dielectric interface than any other material. In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also a constituent of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself. Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals.[5] It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid (a type of silica) forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms.

Silicon

3

Notable characteristics
The outer electron orbitals (half filled subshell holding up to eight electrons) have the same structure as in carbon and the two elements are sometimes similar chemically. Even though it is a relatively inert element, silicon still reacts with halogens and dilute alkalis, but most acids (except for some hyper-reactive combinations of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid) do not affect it. Having four bonding electrons however gives it, like carbon, many opportunities to combine with other elements or compounds under the right circumstances. Both silicon and (in certain aspects) carbon are semiconductors, readily either donating or sharing their four outer electrons allowing many different forms of chemical bonding. Pure silicon has a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, since the number of free charge carriers increases with temperature. The electrical resistance of single crystal silicon significantly changes under the application of mechanical stress due to the piezoresistive effect. In its crystalline form, pure silicon has a gray color and a metallic luster. It is similar to glass in that it is rather strong, very brittle, and prone to chipping.

History
Silicon was first identified by Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 (as a component of the Latin silex, silicis for flint, flints), and was later mistaken by Humphry Davy in 1800 for a compound. In 1811 Gay-Lussac and Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon through the heating of potassium with silicon tetrafluoride. In 1824, Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon using approximately the same method as Lussac. Berzelius also purified the product by repeatedly washing it.[6]

Occurrence
Measured by mass, silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element in the crust, after oxygen. Pure silicon crystals are very rarely found in nature; they can be found as inclusions with gold and in volcanic exhalations. Silicon is usually found in the form of silicon dioxide (also known as quartz), and other more complex silicate minerals. Silica occurs in minerals consisting of (practically) pure silicon dioxide in different crystalline forms. Amethyst, agate, quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, jasper, and opal are some of the forms in which silicon dioxide appears. Biogenic silica occurs in the form of diatoms, radiolaria and siliceous sponges. Silicon also occurs as silicate minerals (various minerals containing silicon, oxygen and one or another metal), for example the feldspar group. These minerals occur in clay, sand and various types of rock such as granite and sandstone. Feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, and mica are a few of the many common silicate mineral groups. Silicon is a principal component of many meteorites, and also is a component of obsidian and tektites, which are natural forms of glass. See also Category:Silicate minerals

Silicon

4

Isotopes
Silicon has numerous known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44. 28Si (the most abundant isotope, at 92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.1%) are stable; 32Si is a radioactive isotope produced by cosmic ray spallation of argon. Its half-life has been determined to be approximately 170 years (0.21 MeV), and it decays by beta - emission to 32 P (which has a 14.28 day half-life )[7] and then to 32S.

Production
Silicon is commercially prepared by the reaction of high-purity silica with wood, charcoal, and coal, in an electric arc furnace using carbon electrodes. At temperatures over 1900 °C (3450 °F), the carbon reduces the silica to silicon according to the chemical equations: SiO2 + C → Si + CO2 SiO2 + 2 C → Si + 2 CO Liquid silicon collects in the bottom of the furnace, and is then drained and cooled. The silicon produced via this process is called metallurgical grade silicon and is at least 98% pure. Using this method, silicon carbide (SiC) may form. However, provided the concentration of SiO2 is kept high, the silicon carbide can be eliminated: 2 SiC + SiO2 → 3 Si + 2 CO In September 2008, metallurgical grade silicon cost about USD 1.45 per pound ($3.20/kg),[8] up from $0.77 per pound ($1.70/kg) in 2005.[9] Recently, it has been reported that pure silicon can be extracted directly from solid silica by molten salt electrolysis. This new method, known as the FFC Cambridge Process, has the potential to directly produce solar grade silicon without any CO2 emission and at much lower energy consumption.[10] [11] [12]

Crystallization
Silicon, like carbon and other group IV elements form face-centered diamond cubic crystal structure. Silicon, in particular, forms a face-centered cubic structure with a lattice spacing of 5.430710 Å (0.5430710 nm).[13] The majority of silicon crystals grown for device production are produced by the Czochralski process, (CZ-Si) since it is the cheapest method available and it is capable of producing large size crystals. However, silicon single-crystals grown by the Czochralski method contain impurities since the crucible which contains the melt dissolves. For certain electronic devices, Diamond Cubic Crystal Structure, particularly those required for high power applications, Silicon unit cell silicon grown by the Czochralski method is not pure enough. For these applications, float-zone silicon (FZ-Si) can be used instead. It is worth mentioning though, in contrast with CZ-Si method in which the seed is dipped into the silicon melt and the growing crystal is pulled upward, the thin seed crystal in the FZ-Si method sustains the growing crystal as well as the polysilicon

Silicon rod from the bottom. As a result, it is difficult to grow large size crystals using the float-zone method. Today, all the dislocation-free silicon crystals used in semiconductor industry with diameter 300 mm or larger are grown by the Czochralski method with purity level significantly improved.

5

Purification
The use of silicon in semiconductor devices demands a much greater purity than afforded by metallurgical grade silicon. Historically, a number of methods have been used to produce high-purity silicon.

Physical methods
Early silicon purification techniques were based on the fact that if silicon is melted and re-solidified, the last parts of the mass to solidify contain most of the impurities. The earliest method of silicon purification, first described in 1919 and used on a limited basis to make radar components during World War II, involved crushing metallurgical grade silicon and then partially dissolving the silicon powder in an acid. When crushed, the silicon cracked so that the weaker impurity-rich regions were on the outside of the resulting grains of silicon. As a result, the impurity-rich silicon was the first to be dissolved when treated with acid, leaving behind a more pure product. In zone melting, also called zone refining, the first silicon purification method to be widely used industrially, rods of metallurgical grade silicon are heated to melt at one end. Then, the heater is slowly moved down the length of the rod, keeping Silicon ingot a small length of the rod molten as the silicon cools and re-solidifies behind it. Since most impurities tend to remain in the molten region rather than re-solidify, when the process is complete, most of the impurities in the rod will have been moved into the end that was the last to be melted. This end is then cut off and discarded, and the process repeated if a still higher purity is desired.

Chemical methods
Today, silicon is purified by converting it to a silicon compound that can be more easily purified by distillation than in its original state, and then converting that silicon compound back into pure silicon. Trichlorosilane is the silicon compound most commonly used as the intermediate, although silicon tetrachloride and silane are also used. When these gases are blown over silicon at high temperature, they decompose to high-purity silicon. At one time, DuPont produced ultra-pure silicon by reacting silicon tetrachloride with high-purity zinc vapors at 950 °C, producing silicon: SiCl4 + 2 Zn → Si + 2 ZnCl2

Silicon However, this technique was plagued with practical problems (such as the zinc chloride byproduct solidifying and clogging lines) and was eventually abandoned in favor of the Siemens process. In the Siemens process, high-purity silicon rods are exposed to trichlorosilane at 1150 °C. The trichlorosilane gas decomposes and deposits additional silicon onto the rods, enlarging them: 2 HSiCl3 → Si + 2 HCl + SiCl4 Silicon produced from this and similar processes is called polycrystalline silicon. Polycrystalline silicon typically has impurity levels of less than 10−9. In 2006 REC announced construction of a plant based on fluidized bed technology using silane:[14] 3 SiCl + Si + 2 H → 4 HSiCl
4 2 3 A polycrystalline silicon rod made by the Siemens process

6

4 HSiCl3 → 3 SiCl4 + SiH4 SiH4 → Si + 2 H2

Different forms of silicon

Nanocrystalline silicon powder Silicon powder

Silicon wafer with mirror finish (NASA)

One can notice the colour change in silicon nanopowder. This is caused by the quantum effects which occur in particles of nanometric dimensions. See also Potential well, Quantum dot, and Nanoparticle.

Silicon

7

Compounds
Silicon forms binary compounds called silicides with many metallic elements whose properties range from reactive compounds, e.g. magnesium silicide, Mg2Si through high melting refractory compounds such as molybdenum disilicide, MoSi2.[15] Silicon carbide, SiC (carborundum) is a hard, high melting solid and a well known PDMS – a silicone abrasive. Silane, SiH4, is a pyrophoric gas with a similar tetrahedral compound structure to methane, CH4. Additionally there is a range of catenated silicon hydrides that form a homologous series of compounds, SinH2n+2 where n = 2-8 (analogous to the alkanes).[16] These are all readily hydrolysed and are thermally unstable, particularly the heavier members.[16] Disilenes contain a silicon-silicon double bond (analogous to the alkenes) and are generally highly reactive requiring large substituent groups to stabilise them.[17] A disilyne with a silicon-silicon triple bond was first isolated in 2004; although as the compound is non-linear, the bonding is dissimilar to that in alkynes.[18] Tetrahalides, SiX4, are formed with all of the halogens.[15] Silicon tetrachloride, for example, readily reacts with water; unlike its carbon analogue, carbon tetrachloride.[16] Silicon dihalides are formed by the high temperature reaction of tetrahalides and silicon; with a structure analogous to a carbene they are reactive compounds.[16] Silicon difluoride condenses to form a polymeric compound, (SiF2)n.[16] Silicon dioxide is a high melting solid with a number of different crystal forms; the most familiar of which is the mineral quartz.[15] In quartz each silicon atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms that bridge to other silicon atoms to form a three dimensional lattice.[15] Silica is soluble in water at high temperatures forming monosilicic acid, (Si(OH)4)[16] and this property is used in the manufacture of quartz crystals used in electronics.[15] Under the right conditions monosilicic acid readily polymerises to form more complex silicic acids, ranging from the simplest condensate, disilicic acid (H6Si2O7) to linear, ribbon, layer and lattice structures which form the basis of the many different silicate minerals.[16] Silicates are also important constituents of concretes.[15] With oxides of other elements the high temperature reaction of silicon dioxide can give a wide range of glasses with various properties.[16] Examples include soda lime glass, borosilicate glass and lead crystal glass. Silicon sulfide, SiS2 is a polymeric solid (unlike its carbon analogue the liquid CS2).[15] Silicon forms a nitride, Si3N4 which is a ceramic.[15] Silatranes, a group of tricyclic compounds containing five-coordinate silicon, may have physiological properties.[19] Many transition metal complexes containing a metal-silicon bond are now known, which include complexes containing SiHnX3−n ligands, SiX3 ligands, and Si(OR)3 ligands.[19] Silicones are large group of polymeric compounds with an (Si-O-Si) backbone. An example is the silicone oil PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane).[15] These polymers can be crosslinked to produce resins and elastomers.[15] Many organosilicon compounds are known which contain a silicon-carbon single bond. Many of these are based on a central tetrahedral silicon atom, and some are optically active when central chirality exists. Long chain polymers containing a silicon backbone are known, such as polydimethysilylene (SiMe2)n.[20] Polycarbosilane, [(SiMe2)2CH2]n with a backbone containing a repeating -Si-Si-C unit, is a precursor in the production of silicon carbide fibres.[20]

Silicon

8

Applications
As the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, silicon is vital to the construction industry as a principal constituent of natural stone, glass, concrete and cement. Silicon's greatest impact on the modern world's economy and lifestyle has resulted from silicon wafers used as substrates in the manufacture of discrete electronic devices such as power transistors, and in the development of integrated circuits such as computer chips.

Alloys
The largest application of metallurgical grade silicon, representing about 55% of the world consumption, is in the manufacture of aluminium-silicon alloys to produce cast parts, mainly for the automotive industry. Silicon is an important constituent of electrical steel, modifying its resistivity and ferromagnetic properties. Silicon is added to molten cast iron as ferrosilicon or silicocalcium alloys to improve its performance in casting thin sections, and to prevent the formation of cementite at the surface.

In electronic applications
Pure silicon is used to produce ultra-pure silicon wafers used in the semiconductor industry, in electronics and in photovoltaic applications. Ultra-pure silicon can be doped with other elements to adjust its electrical response by controlling the number and charge (positive or negative) of current carriers. Such control is necessary for transistors, solar cells, integrated circuits, microprocessors, semiconductor detectors and other semiconductor devices which are used in electronics and other high-tech applications. In silicon photonics, it can be used as a continuous wave Raman laser medium to produce coherent light, though it is ineffective as a light source. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used in the production of low-cost, large-area electronics in applications such as LCDs, and of large-area, low-cost thin-film solar cells.

Silicones
The second largest application of silicon (about 40% of world consumption) is as a raw material in the production of silicones, compounds containing silicon-oxygen and silicon-carbon bonds that have the capability to act as bonding intermediates between glass and organic compounds, and to form polymers with useful properties such as impermeability to water, flexibility and resistance to chemical attack. Silicones are used in waterproofing treatments, molding compounds and mold-release agents, mechanical seals, high temperature greases and waxes, caulking compounds and even in applications as diverse as breast implants, contact lenses, explosives and pyrotechnics.[21] • Construction: Silicon dioxide or silica in the form of sand and clay is an important ingredient of concrete and brick and is also used to produce Portland cement. • Pottery/Enamel is a refractory material used in high-temperature material production and its silicates are used in making enamels and pottery. • Glass: Silica from sand is a principal component of glass. Glass can be made into a great variety of shapes and with many different physical properties. Silica is used as a base material to make window glass, containers, insulators, and many other useful objects. • Abrasives: Silicon carbide is one of the most important abrasives. • Silly Putty was originally made by adding boric acid to silicone oil.[22] See also Category:Silicon compounds

Silicon

9

In popular culture
Because silicon is an important element in semiconductors and high-tech devices, the high-tech region of Silicon Valley, California is named after this element. Other geographic locations with connections to the industry have since characterized themselves as Siliconia as well, for example Silicon Forest in Oregon, Silicon Saxony in Germany, and Silicon Border in Mexicali.

See also
• • • • • • • • Black silicon Covalent superconductors Crystalline silicon Electronics List of silicon producers Printed silicon electronics RCA clean Silicone

• Wafer (electronics)

External links
• Mineral.Galleries.com – Silicon [23] • WebElements.com – Silicon [24]

References
[1] R. S. Ram et al. "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" J. Mol. Spectr. 190, 341–352 (1998) (http:/ / bernath. uwaterloo. ca/ media/ 184. pdf) [2] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition, CRC press. [3] http:/ / www. ioffe. ru/ SVA/ NSM/ Semicond/ Si [4] " The periodic table (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ )". webelements.com. . Retrieved 2008-02-20. [5] Nielsen, Forrest H. (1984). "Ultratrace Elements in Nutrition". Annual Review of Nutrition 4: 21–41. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.000321 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1146/ annurev. nu. 04. 070184. 000321). [6] Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education: 1386–1412. [7] " Phosphorus - 32 (http:/ / sciencegateway. org/ isotope/ phosp32. html)". sciencegateway.org. . Retrieved 2008-02-20. [8] " Metallurgical silicon could become a rare commodity – just how quickly that happens depends to a certain extent on the current financial crisis (http:/ / www. photon-magazine. com/ news_archiv/ details. aspx?cat=News_PI& sub=worldwide& pub=4& parent=1555)". Photon International. . Retrieved 2009-03-04. [9] " Silicon (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ silicon/ silicmcs06. pdf)". usgs.gov. . Retrieved 2008-02-20. [10] " New silicon production method with no carbon reductant (http:/ / www. acr. net. au/ ~coastwatchers/ charcoalition/ noreductant. html)". . Referering to Chen, George Zheng; Fray, Derek J.; Farthing, Tom W. (2000). "Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride". Nature 407 (6802): 361–364. doi: 10.1038/35030069 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 35030069). [11] Xianbo Jin, Pei Gao, Dihua Wang, Xiaohong Hu, George Z. Chen (2004). "Electrochemical Preparation of Silicon and Its Alloys from Solid Oxides in Molten Calcium Chloride". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43: 733–736. doi: 10.1002/anie.200352786 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ anie. 200352786). [12] Nohira, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Kouji; Ito, Yasuhiko (2003). "Pinpoint and bulk electrochemical reduction of insulating silicon dioxide to silicon". Nature Materials 2: 397–401. doi: 10.1038/nmat900 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ nmat900).

Silicon
[13] O'Mara, William C. (1990). Handbook of Semiconductor Silicon Technology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=COcVgAtqeKkC& pg=PA351& dq=Czochralski+ Silicon+ Crystal+ Face+ Cubic& lr=& as_brr=3& sig=ht-dgSy1lzBMYC7IXPp9W5QBqYo). William Andrew Inc.. p. 349-352. ISBN 0815512376. . Retrieved 2008-02-24. [14] " Analyst_silicon_field_trip_March_28,_2007 (http:/ / hugin. info/ 136555/ R/ 1115224/ 203491. pdf)". hugin.info. . Retrieved 2008-02-20. [15] Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. [16] Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E.; Wiberg, N. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition. Academic Press. ISBN 0123526515. [17] (Multiply Bonded Main Group Metals and Metalloids: Multiple Bonded Main Group Metals and Metalloids, F. G. Stone, Robert West, Academic Press, 1996, ISBN 0120311399) [18] A Stable Compound Containing a Silicon-Silicon Triple Bond, Akira Sekiguchi, Rei Kinjo, Masaaki Ichinohe, Science 17 September 2004:Vol. 305. no. 5691, pp. 1755 - 1757 doi: 10.1126/science.1102209 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1126/ science. 1102209) [19] Lickiss, Paul D. (1994). Inorganic Compounds of Silicon, in Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3770 - 3805. ISBN 0471936200. [20] Mark, James. E (2005). Inorganic polymers. Oxford University Press. pp. 200-245. ISBN 0195131193. [21] Koch, E.C.; Clement, D.. Special Materials in Pyrotechnics: VI. Silicon - An Old Fuel with New Perspectives (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ cgi-bin/ abstract/ 114279686/ ABSTRACT). . [22] Walsh, Tim (2005). " Silly Putty (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=jftapGDTmYUC& pg=PA90)". Timeless toys: classic toys and the playmakers who created them. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 9780740755712. . [23] http:/ / mineral. galleries. com/ minerals/ elements/ silicon/ silicon. htm [24] http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ Si/ key. html

10

Article Sources and Contributors

11

Article Sources and Contributors
Silicon  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308114415  Contributors: 03272, 12dstring, 2D, 45Factoid44, AB, ABF, Abby, Abrech, Addshore, Adrian.benko, Ahoerstemeier, Alansohn, Aldaron, AlexOvShaolin, AlexiusHoratius, AlistairMcMillan, Allison Connors, Allstarecho, Anclation, Andfarm, AndonicO, Andres, Andrew Nutter, Andrewmc123, Animum, Ann Stouter, Antandrus, Arakunem, Archimerged, Arthena, Astrochemist, Atlant, Aubriexoxo, AuburnPilot, AxelBoldt, Axiosaurus, Bantman, Bartholomeyczik, Barticus88, Bcasterline, Beetstra, Benbest, Bender235, Biskuvi, Bjweeks, Blanchardb, Bloodofjing, BlueEarth, Bobo192, Bomac, Brian0918, Brockert, Buster79, Bwiki, CMBJ, CSWarren, CWii, CYD, Caiaffa, Call me Bubba, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanisRufus, Canterbury Tail, Capricorn42, Captain panda, Card, CardinalDan, Carnildo, Cbaker9552, Cflm001, Chairboy, Chaos syndrome, CharlotteWebb, Ciaccona, Ck lostsword, Coemgenus, Colboi, Cometstyles, Communisthamster, Condem, Conversion script, Coppertwig, CrazyChemGuy, Cremepuff222, Crystal whacker, Ctjf83, Cyhatch, Cyp, DA3N, DJ Clayworth, Daano15, Dali, Daniel 1992, Daniel5127, Danski14, Dar-Ape, Darrien, Darth Panda, Davewild, David Latapie, David0811, Deglr6328, Deli nk, Delldot, Delphonic, Delta G, Denelson83, DerHexer, Dgrant, Dgwohu, Dichrra, Discospinster, Dismas, Djtrimz, DmitTrix, Donarreiskoffer, Doodle77, Double Vigie, Doulos Christos, Download, Dr bab, DrBob, Draeco, Droidus, Dspark76, Dspradau, Dwmyers, Dysepsion, Dzukman2000, E dog95, ESkog, Edgar181, El C, Eldin raigmore, Elliskev, Emperorbma, Enricoros, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Eric119, Erik Zachte, Erik9, Eskimospy, Eudialytos, EvocativeIntrigue, FSIM, FT2, Fabartus, FastLizard4, Fbriere, Femto, Fieldday-sunday, Flewis, Fonzy, Frankenpuppy, Galoubet, Gene Nygaard, Giftlite, Gimme danger, Glacier Wolf, Glengarry, Gman124, Golbez, Goron1130, Gracefool, GregorB, Grendelkhan, Gurch, Gwernol, Gökhan, Haasl, Hadal, Hak-kâ-ngìn, Hankwang, Hastings007, Hayabusa future, Hdt83, Heimstern, Helikophis, HenryLi, HereToHelp, Heroismic, Heron, HexaChord, Hobartimus, Hunt ice, Hut 8.5, Hyperdeath, Icairns, Igoldste, Imaginateca, Instinct, Inter, Iridescent, Isfisk, It.franciscus, ItaniuMatrix, Iustinus, J.delanoy, JForget, Jabam, JackSchmidt, Jamix, Jaraalbe, Jaxl, JayZ, Jclemens, Jeff G., Jeronimo, Jh51681, Jobarts, John, John254, JorisvS, Jose77, Josh Grosse, Jotomicron, Juliancolton, JustinWick, Kajerm, Kariboo, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Kchishol1970, Keith Lehwald, Kirsten07734, Knutux, Kojiki1976, Kotra, Kr5t, Kraxler, Kristen Eriksen, KristianMolhave, Ktsquare, Kuru, Kwamikagami, LA2, Lando5, LeaveSleaves, Lethalgeek, Linnell, Little Mountain 5, Logical2u, Looxix, LuigiManiac, Lupin, Luzheng, Lvl, MBisanz, MC Steel, MZMcBride, Mac, Makemi, Malinaccier, Mandarax, Marauder40, Marek69, Master of Pies, Materialscientist, Matt Britt, Mav, Mcorazao, MedievalFreak, Megan1967, Melah Hashamaim, Merope, Michael.j.sykora, Miciah, Miquonranger03, Miranda, Miss Madeline, Modulatum, Moriori, Mr. Qwert, Ms2ger, Murphyjd, Musser, Mxn, Myleslong, NJPharris, Naaa127, Nakon, NawlinWiki, Ndittert, Nergaal, Neverquick, NewEnglandYankee, Nielmo, NightFalcon90909, Nihiltres, Nlu, No Guru, Nuttycoconut, Oda Mari, Oldboltonian, Olorin28, Omegatron, Omicronpersei8, Onevalefan, Opelio, Ortolan88, Ossmann, Oxymoron83, P.B. Pilhet, Park70, Patrick Bernier, Paul August, Paul Koning, PaulHanson, Pejman47, PeterJeremy, Peterheis, Petri Krohn, Phil Holmes, Philip Trueman, PierreAbbat, Pilotguy, Pizza1512, Pkenriquez, Planetary, Plantsurfer, Plasmic Physics, Plugwash, PokeTIJeremy, Polonium, Polyparadigm, Pooeater69, Poolkris, Poor Yorick, Porqin, Psyche825, PsychoCola, Pursey, Quadell, Quaeler, R9tgokunks, RTC, RainbowOfLight, RandomP, Ratherhaveaheart, Ravikiran r, Rd232, Redfarmer, Redyoshi49q, Reid A., Remember, Res2216firestar, RexNL, Reywas92, Richnotts, Rifleman 82, Rje, Rjstott, Robertan, Romanm, RooZ, Rossheth, Rror, SEIBasaurus, Saperaud, Sarregouset, Savidan, Sbharris, Sceptre, Schneelocke, Schzmo, SeanMack, Sengkang, Seraphim, Sevela.p, Sfgagnon, Shaddack, Shafei, Shalom Yechiel, Shawn in Montreal, Shimmin, Shoeofdeath, Sidonuke, Siliconov, Sillybilly, Sionus, Skarebo, Sl, Slakr, Smalljim, Smallweed, Smartdude122, Snowolf, Snurks, Solipsist, Souseiseki42, SparhawkWiki, SpeedyGonsales, Spundun, Squids and Chips, Squirmymcphee, StaticGull, Steffen Kaufmann, Stephen Gilbert, Stephenb, Steve Crossin, Stifynsemons, Stone, Storm Rider, Suisui, Sunborn, Supermansbutt, Synchronism, Tantalate, TenOfAllTrades, Terence, Tetracube, Thatsjustnotcricket, Thaurisil, The Anome, The Librarian, The Original Wildbear, The Red, TheBendster, TheDJ, TheFearow, TheLeopard, Theilert, Thermochap, Thricecube, TigerShark, TimSE, Time3000, Tmangray, Touch Of Light, Trevor MacInnis, Twaz, Twisp, Ubcule, Ultratomio, VASANTH S.N., Vancouverguy, Vanka5, Vaubin, Versus22, VincentValentine29, Vsmith, Vssun, Warut, Watch37264, WereSpielChequers, West Brom 4ever, Whiner01, Wikieditor06, WilliamRoper, Willking1979, Wmahan, Wyllium, XJamRastafire, Yim00, Yintan, Yyy, Zach4636, Zargulon, Zomgadonggs, 1166 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:Unknown.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Unknown.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mav file:Electron shell 014 Silicon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_014_Silicon.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:SiliconCroda.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SiliconCroda.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Enricoros Image:Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Benjah-bmm27 Image:Monokristalines Silizium für die Waferherstellung.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Monokristalines_Silizium_für_die_Waferherstellung.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Kluka, Saperaud, 1 anonymous edits Image:Polycrystalline silicon rod.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Polycrystalline_silicon_rod.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Warut Image:Silicon wafer with mirror finish.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Silicon_wafer_with_mirror_finish.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA Glenn Research Center Image:Silizium pulver.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Silizium_pulver.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Saperaud, Wst Image:Nano Si 640x480.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nano_Si_640x480.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Glenn, Twisp, 4 anonymous edits Image:Pdms.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pdms.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Jesse

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Phosphorus

1

Phosphorus
silicon ← phosphorus → sulfurN ↑ P ↓ As

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HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

15P
Periodic table

Appearance colorless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black

waxy white (yellow cut), red, violet and black phoshorus General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties Density (near r.t.) Melting pointSublimation pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure (white)
P/Pa at T/K 1 279 10 307 100 342 1k 388 10 k 453 100 k 549

Vapor pressure (red, bp. 431 °C)
P/Pa at T/K 1 455 10 489 100 529 1k 576 10 k 635 100 k 704

Phosphorus Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 1907 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 2914.1 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Magnetic orderingThermal conductivityBulk modulusCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of phosphorus
iso
31

2

N.A. 100% syn syn
31

half-life P is stable with 16 neutron β− β−

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

P P P

32

14.28 d 25.3 d

1.709 0.249

32

S S

33

33

phosphorus, P, 15 nonmetal15, 3, p30.973762(2) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s2 3p3 2, 8, 5 (Image) (white) 1.823, (red) ≈ 2.2 – 2.34, (violet) 2.36, (black) 2.69 g·cm−3 (white) 44.2 °C, (black) 610 °C (red) ≈ 416 – 590  °C, (violet) 620 °C (white) 280.5 °C (white) 0.66 kJ·mol−1 (white) 12.4 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) (white) 23.824 J·mol−1·K−15, 4, 3, 2[1] , 1 [2] , -1, -2, -3 (mildly acidic oxide) 2.19 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1011.8 kJ·mol−1107±3 pm 180 pm (white,red,violet,black) diamagnetic[3] (300 K) (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W·m−1·K−1 (white) 5, (red) 11 GPa 7723-14-0 Phosphorus (pronounced /ˈfɒsfərəs/) is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus is commonly found in inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus. Although the term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, derives from phosphorus, glow of phosphorus originates from oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus and should be called chemiluminescence. Due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature on Earth. The first form of phosphorus to be discovered (white phosphorus, discovered in 1669) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen — hence its name given from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. Phosphorus is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids which form all cell membranes. It is thus an essential element for all living cells. The most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers. Phosphorus compounds are also widely used in explosives, nerve agents, friction matches, fireworks, pesticides, toothpaste and detergents.

Physical properties
Glow from white phosphorus
Phosphorus was discovered by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1674 or 1675. Working in Hamburg, Brand attempted to distil some kind of "life essence" from his urine, and in the process produced a white material that glowed in the dark.[4] The phosphorus had in fact been produced from inorganic phosphate, which is a significant component of dissolved urine solids. White phosphorus is highly reactive and gives off a faint greenish glow upon uniting with oxygen. The glow observed by Brand was actually caused by the very slow burning of the phosphorus, but as he neither saw flame nor felt any heat he did not

Phosphorus recognize it as burning. It was known from early times that the glow would persist for a time in a stoppered jar but then cease. Robert Boyle in the 1680s ascribed it to "debilitation" of the air; in fact, it is oxygen being consumed. By the 18th century, it was known that in pure oxygen, phosphorus does not glow at all;[5] there is only a range of partial pressure at which it does. Heat can be applied to drive the reaction at higher pressures.[6] In 1974, the glow was explained by R. J. van Zee and A. U. Khan.[7] A reaction with oxygen takes place at the surface of the solid (or liquid) phosphorus, forming the short-lived molecules HPO and P2O2 that both emit visible light. The reaction is slow and only very little of the intermediates are required to produce the luminescence, hence the extended time the glow continues in a stoppered jar. Although the term phosphorescence is derived from phosphorus, the reaction which gives phosphorus its glow is properly called chemiluminescence (glowing due to a cold chemical reaction), not phosphorescence (re-emitting light that previously fell onto a substance and excited it). Phosphorescence is the slow decay of a metastable electronic state to a lower energy state through emission of light. The decay is slow because the transition from the excited to the lower state requires a spin flip, making it classically forbidden. Often it involves a transition from an excited triplet state to a singlet ground state. The metastable excited state may have been populated by thermal excitations or some light source. Since phosphorescence is slow, it persists for some time after the exciting source is removed. In contrast, chemiluminescence occurs when the product molecules of a chemical reaction (HPO and P2O2 in this case) leave the reaction in an electronically excited state. These excited molecules then release their excess energy in the form of light. The frequency (colour) of the light emitted is proportional to the energy difference of the two electronic states involved.[8]

3

Allotropes
Phosphorus has several forms (allotropes) which have strikingly different properties.[9] The two most common allotropes are white phosphorus and red phosphorus. Red phosphorus is an intermediate phase between white and violet phosphorus. Another form, scarlet phosphorus, is obtained by allowing a solution of white phosphorus in carbon disulfide to evaporate in sunlight. Black phosphorus is obtained by heating white phosphorus under high pressures (about P4 molecule 12,000 atmospheres). In appearance, properties, and structure, it resembles graphite, being black and flaky, a conductor of electricity, and has puckered sheets of linked atoms. Another allotrope is diphosphorus; it contains a phosphorus dimer as a structural unit and is highly reactive.[]

Phosphorus

4

White phosphorus has two forms, low-temperature β form and high-temperature α form. They both contain a phosphorus P4 tetrahedron as a structural unit, in which each atom is bound to the other three atoms by a single bond. This P4 tetrahedron is also present in liquid and gaseous phosphorus up to the temperature of 800 °C when it starts decomposing to P2 molecules.[10] White phosphorus is the least stable, the most reactive, more volatile, less P4O10 molecule dense, and more toxic than the other allotropes. The toxicity of white phosphorus led to its discontinued use in matches. White phosphorus is thermodynamically unstable at normal condition and will gradually change to red phosphorus. This transformation, which is accelerated by light and heat, makes white phosphorus almost always contain some red phosphorus and therefore appear yellow. For this reason, it is also called yellow phosphorus. It glows greenish in the dark (when exposed to oxygen), is highly flammable and pyrophoric (self-igniting) upon contact with air as well as toxic (causing severe liver damage on ingestion). Because of pyrophoricity, white phosphorus is used as an additive in napalm. The odour of combustion of this form has a characteristic garlic smell, and samples are commonly coated with white "(di)phosphorus pentoxide", which consists of P4O10 tetrahedra with oxygen inserted between the phosphorus atoms and at their vertices. White phosphorus is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide.[11] The white allotrope can be produced using several different methods. In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica.[12] Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid. This process is similar to the first synthesis of phosphorus from calcium phosphate in urine. In the red phosphorus, one of the P bonds is broken,
4

and one additional bond is formed with a neighbouring tetrahedron resulting in a more chain-like structure. Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250 °C (482 °F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight.[13] Phosphorus after this Crystal structure of red phosphorus treatment exists as an amorphous network of atoms which reduces strain and gives greater stability; further heating results in the red phosphorus becoming crystalline. Therefore red phosphorus is not a certain allotrope, but rather an intermediate phase between the white and violet phosphorus, and most of its properties have a range of values. Red phosphorus does not catch fire in air at temperatures below 260 °C, whereas white phosphorus ignites at about 30 °C.[14] Violet phosphorus is a thermodynamic stable form of phosphorus which can be produced by day-long temper of red phosphorus above 550 °C. In 1865, Hittorf discovered that when phosphorus was recrystallized from molten lead, a red/purple form is obtained. Therefore this form is sometimes known as "Hittorf's phosphorus" (or violet or α-metallic phosphorus).[]

Phosphorus

5

Black phosphorus is the least reactive allotrope and the thermodynamic stable form below 550 °C. It is also known as β-metallic phosphorus and has a structure somewhat resembling that of graphite.[15] [16] High pressures are usually required to produce black phosphorus, but it can also be produced at ambient conditions using metal salts as catalysts.[17] The diphosphorus allotrope, P2, is stable only at high Crystal structure of black temperatures. The dimeric unit contains a triple bond and is phosphorus analogous to N2. The diphosphorus allotrope (P2) can be obtained normally only under extreme conditions (for example, from P4 at 1100 kelvin). Nevertheless, some advancements were obtained in generating the diatomic molecule in homogeneous solution, under normal conditions with the use by some transitional metal complexes (based on, for example, tungsten and niobium).[18]

Properties of some allotropes of phosphorus
Form Symmetry Pearson symbol Space group Density (g/cm3) Bandgap (eV) Refractive index I-43m 1.828 2.1 1.8244 white(α) Body-centred cubic white(β) Triclinic aP24 P-1 No.2 1.88 violet Monoclinic mP84 P2/c No.13 2.36 1.5 2.6 black Orthorhombic oS8 Cmca No.64 2.69 0.34 2.4

Isotopes
Although twenty-three isotopes of phosphorus are known[19] (all possibilities from 24P up to 46 P), only 31P, with spin 1/2, is stable and is therefore present at 100% abundance. The half-integer spin and high abundance of 31P make it useful for nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biomolecules, particularly DNA. Two radioactive isotopes of phosphorus have half-lives which make them useful for scientific experiments. 32P has a half-life of 14.262 days and 33P has a half-life of 25.34 days. Biomolecules can be "tagged" with a radioisotope to allow for the study of very dilute samples. Radioactive isotopes of phosphorus include •
32

P; a beta-emitter (1.71 MeV) with a half-life of 14.3 days which is used routinely in life-science laboratories, primarily to produce radiolabeled DNA and RNA probes, e.g. for use in Northern blots or Southern blots. Because the high energy beta particles produced penetrate skin and corneas, and because any 32P ingested, inhaled, or absorbed is readily incorporated into bone and nucleic acids, Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States, and similar institutions in other developed countries require that a lab coat, disposable gloves, and safety glasses or goggles be worn when working with 32 P, and that working directly over an open container be avoided in order to protect the eyes. Monitoring personal, clothing, and surface contamination is also required. In

Phosphorus addition, due to the high energy of the beta particles, shielding this radiation with the normally used dense materials (e.g. lead), gives rise to secondary emission of X-rays via a process known as Bremsstrahlung, meaning braking radiation. Therefore shielding must be accomplished with low density materials, e.g. Plexiglas, Lucite, plastic, wood, or [20] water. • 33P; a beta-emitter (0.25 MeV) with a half-life of 25.4 days. It is used in life-science laboratories in applications in which lower energy beta emissions are advantageous such as DNA sequencing.

6

Chemical properties
See also Phosphorus compounds • • • • • • Hydrides: PH3,P2H4 Halides: PBr5, PBr3, PCl3, PI3 Oxides:P4O6, P4O10 Sulfides: P4S6, P4S10 Acids: H3PO2, H3PO4 Phosphates: (NH4)3PO4, Ca3(PO4)2, FePO4, Fe3(PO4)2, Na3PO4, Ca(H2PO4)2, KH2PO4

• Phosphides: Ca3P2, GaP, Zn3P2 Cu3P • Organophosphorus and organophosphates: Lawesson's reagent, Parathion, Sarin, Soman, Tabun, Triphenyl phosphine, VX nerve gas

Chemical bonding
Because phosphorus is just below nitrogen in the periodic table, the two elements share many of their bonding characteristics. For instance, phosphine, PH3, is an analogue of ammonia, NH3. Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is trivalent in this molecule. The "trivalent" or simple 3-bond view is the pre-quantum mechanical Lewis structure, which although somewhat of a simplification from a quantum chemical point of view, illustrates some of the distinguishing chemistry of the element. In quantum chemical valence bond theory, the valence electrons are seen to be in mixtures of four s and p atomic orbitals, so-called hybrids. In this view, the three unpaired electrons in the three 3p orbitals combine with the two electrons in the 3s orbital to form three electron pairs of opposite spin, available for the formation of three bonds. The remaining hybrid orbital contains two paired non-bonding electrons, which show as a lone pair in the Lewis structure. The phosphorus cation is very similar to the nitrogen cation. In the same way that nitrogen forms the tetravalent ammonium ion, phosphorus can form the tetravalent phosphonium ion, and form salts such as phosphonium iodide [PH4]+[I−]. Like other elements in the third or lower rows of the periodic table, phosphorus atoms can expand their valence to make penta- and hexavalent compounds. The phosphorus chloride molecule is an example. When the phosphorus ligands are not identical, the more electronegative ligands are located in the apical positions and the least electronegative ligands are located in the axial positions. With strongly electronegative ions, in particular fluorine, hexavalency as in PF6− occurs as well. This octahedral ion is isoelectronic with SF6. In the bonding the six octahedral sp3d2 hybrid atomic orbitals play an important role.

Phosphorus Before extensive computer calculations were feasible, it was generally assumed that the nearby d orbitals in the n = 3 shell were the obvious cause of the difference in binding between nitrogen and phosphorus (i.e., phosphorus had 3d orbitals available for 3s and 3p shell bonding electron hybridisation, but nitrogen did not). However, in the early eighties the German theoretical chemist Werner Kutzelnigg[21] found from an analysis of computer calculations that the difference in binding is more likely due to differences in character between the valence 2p and valence 3p orbitals of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. The 2s and 2p orbitals of first row atoms are localized in roughly the same region of space, while the 3p orbitals of phosphorus are much more extended in space. The violation of the octet rule observed in compounds of phosphorus is then due to the size of the phosphorus atom, and the corresponding reduction of steric hindrance between its ligands. In modern theoretical chemistry, Kutzelnigg's analysis is generally accepted. The simple Lewis structure for the trigonal bipyramidal PCl5 molecule contains five covalent bonds, implying a hypervalent molecule with ten valence electrons contrary to the octet rule. An alternate description of the bonding, however, respects the octet rule by using 3-centre-4-electron (3c-4e) bonds. In this model the octet on the P atom corresponds to six electrons which form three Lewis (2c-2e) bonds to the three equatorial Cl atoms, plus the two electrons in the 3-centre Cl-P-Cl bonding molecular orbital for the two axial Cl electrons. The two electrons in the corresponding nonbonding molecular orbital are not included because this orbital is localized on the two Cl atoms and does not contribute to the electron density on the phosphorus atom. (However, it should always be remembered that the octet rule is not some universal rule of chemical bonding, and while many compounds obey it, there are many elements to which it does not apply).

7

Phosphine, diphosphine and phosphonium salts
Phosphine (PH3) and arsine (AsH3) are structural analogs with ammonia (NH3) and form pyramidal structures with the phosphorus or arsenic atom in the center bound to three hydrogen atoms and one lone electron pair. Both are colourless, ill-smelling, toxic compounds. Phosphine is produced in a manner similar to the production of ammonia. Hydrolysis of calcium phosphide, Ca3P2, or calcium nitride, Ca3N2 produces phosphine or ammonia, respectively. Unlike ammonia, phosphine is unstable and it reacts instantly with air giving off phosphoric acid clouds. Arsine is even less stable. Although phosphine is less basic than ammonia, it can form some phosphonium salts (like PH4I), analogs of ammonium salts, but these salts immediately decompose in water and do not yield phosphonium (PH4+) ions. Diphosphine (P2H4 or H2P-PH2) is an analog of hydrazine (N2H4) that is a colourless liquid which spontaneously ignites in air and can disproportionate into phosphine and complex hydrides.

Halides
The trihalides PF3, PCl3, PBr3 and PI3 and the pentahalides, PCl5 and PBr5 are all known and mixed halides can also be formed. The trihalides can be formed simply by mixing the appropriate stoichiometric amounts of phosphorus and a halide. For safety reasons, however, PF3 is typically made by reacting PCl3 with AsF5 and fractional distillation because the direct reaction of phosphorus with fluorine can be explosive. The pentahalides, PX5, are synthesized by reacting excess halide with either elemental phosphorus or with the

Phosphorus corresponding trihalide. Mixed phosphorus halides are unstable and decompose to form simple halides. Thus 5PF3Br2 decomposes into 3PF5 and 2PBr5.

8

Oxides and oxyacids
Phosphorus(III) oxide, P4O6 (also called tetraphosphorus hexoxide) and phosphorus(IV) oxide, P4O10 (or tetraphosphorus decoxide) are acid anhydrides of phosphorus oxyacids and hence readily react with water. P4O10 is a particularly good dehydrating agent that can even remove water from nitric acid, HNO3. The structure of P4O6 is like that of P4 with an oxygen atom inserted between each of the P-P bonds. The structure of P4O10 is like that of P4O6 with the addition of one oxygen bond to each phosphorus atom via a double bond and protruding away from the tetrahedral structure. Phosphorous oxyacids can have acidic protons bound to oxygen atoms and nonacidic protons which are bonded directly to the phosphorus atom. Although many oxyacids of phosphorus are formed, only six are important (see table), and three of them, hypophosphorous acid, phosphorous acid and phosphoric acid are particularly important ones.
Oxidation State +1 +3 +5 +5 +5 +5 Formula H3PO2 H3PO3 (HPO3)n H5P3O10 H4P2O7 H3PO4 Name hypophosphorous acid (ortho)phosphorous acid metaphosphoric acids triphosphoric acid pyrophosphoric acid (ortho)phosphoric acid 1 2 n 3 4 3 Acidic Protons Compounds acid, salts acid, salts salts (n=3,4) salts acid, salts acid, salts

History and discovery
The name Phosphorus in Ancient Greece was the name for the planet Venus and is derived from the Greek words (φως = light, φορέω = carry) which roughly translates as light-bringer or light carrier.[13] (In Greek mythology, Hesperus (evening star) and Eosphorus (dawnbearer) are close homologues, and also associated with Phosphorus-the-planet). The first recorded production of elemental phosphorus was in 1674 or 1675 by the German alchemist Hennig Brand through a preparation of urine, which contains considerable quantities of dissolved phosphates from normal metabolism.[13] Working in Hamburg, Brand attempted to create the fabled Philosopher's stone through the distillation of some salts by evaporating urine, and in the process produced a white material that glowed in the dark and burned brilliantly. His process originally involved letting urine stand for days until it gave off a terrible smell. Then he boiled it down to a paste, heated this paste to a high temperature, and led the vapours through water where he hoped they would condense to gold. Instead, he obtained a white, waxy substance that glowed in the dark. Brand had discovered phosphorus, the first element discovered since antiquity. We now know that Brand produced ammonium sodium hydrogen phosphate, (NH4)NaHPO4. While the quantities were essentially correct (it took about 1,100 L of urine to make about 60 g of phosphorus), it was unnecessary to allow the urine to rot. Later scientists would discover that fresh urine yielded the same amount of phosphorus.

Phosphorus Since that time, phosphors and phosphorescence were used loosely to describe substances that shine in the dark without burning. However, as mentioned above, even though the term phosphorescence was originally coined as a term by analogy with the glow from oxidation of elemental phosphorus, is now reserved for another fundamentally different process—re-emission of light after illumination. Phosphorus was gradually recognized as a chemical element in its own right at the emergence of the atomic theory that gradually occurred in the late part of the 18th century and the early 19th century (see John Dalton for more history). Brand at first tried to keep the method secret,[22] but later sold the recipe for 200 thaler to D Krafft from Dresden,[13] who could now make it as well, and toured much of Europe with it, including England, where he met with Robert Boyle. The secret that it was made from urine leaked out and first Johann Kunckel (1630-1703) in Sweden (1678) and later Boyle in London (1680) also managed to make phosphorus. Boyle states that Krafft gave him no information as to the preparation of phosphorus other than that it was derived from "somewhat that belonged to the body of man". This gave Boyle a valuable clue, however, so that he, too, managed to make phosphorus and published the method of its manufacture.[13] Later he improved Brand's process by using sand in the reaction (still using urine as base material), 4 NaPO3 + 2 SiO2 + 10 C → 2 Na2SiO3 + 10 CO + P4 Robert Boyle was the first to use phosphorus to ignite sulfur-tipped wooden splints, forerunners of our modern matches, in 1680. In 1769 Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is found in bones and they obtained phosphorus from bone ash. Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777. Bone ash was the major source of phosphorus until the 1840s. Phosphate rock, a mineral containing calcium phosphate, was first used in 1850 and following the introduction of the electric arc furnace in 1890 this became the only source of phosphorus. Phosphorus, phosphates and phosphoric acid are still obtained from phosphate rock. Phosphate rock is a major feedstock in the fertilizer industry. Early matches used white phosphorus in their composition, which was dangerous due to its toxicity. Murders, suicides and accidental poisonings resulted from its use. (An apocryphal tale tells of a woman attempting to murder her husband with white phosphorus in his food, which was detected by the stew giving off luminous steam).[7] In addition, exposure to the vapours gave match workers a necrosis of the bones of the jaw, the infamous "phossy jaw." When a safe process for manufacturing red phosphorus was discovered, with its far lower flammability and toxicity, laws were enacted, under the Berne Convention (1906), requiring its adoption as a safer alternative for match manufacture. [11]

9

Spelling and etymology
According to the Oxford English Dictionary the correct spelling of the element is phosphorus. The word phosphorous is the adjectival form of the P3+ valence: so, just as sulfur forms sulfurous and sulfuric compounds, phosphorus forms phosphorous compounds (see, e.g., phosphorous acid) and P5+ valency phosphoric compounds (see, e.g., phosphoric acids and phosphates).

Phosphorus

10

Occurrence
Due to its reactivity with air and many other oxygen-containing substances, phosphorus is not found free in nature but it is widely distributed in many different minerals. Phosphate rock, which is partially made of apatite (an impure tri-calcium phosphate mineral), is an important commercial source of this element. About 50 percent of the global phosphorus reserves are in the Arab nations.[23] Large deposits of apatite are located in China, Russia, Morocco, Florida, Idaho, Tennessee, Utah, and elsewhere. Albright and Wilson in the United Kingdom and their Niagara Falls plant, for instance, were using phosphate rock in the 1890s and 1900s from Connetable, Tennessee and Florida; by 1950 they were using phosphate rock mainly from Tennessee and North Africa.[12] In the early 1990s Albright and Wilson's purified wet phosphoric acid business was being adversely affected by phosphate rock sales by China and the entry of their long-standing Moroccan phosphate suppliers into the purified wet phosphoric acid business.[24] In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years.[25] However, scientists are now claiming that a "Peak Phosphorus" will occur in 30 years and that "At current rates, reserves will be depleted in the next 50 to 100 years."[26]

Production
White phosphorus was first made commercially, for the match industry in the 19th century, by distilling off phosphorus vapour from precipitated phosphates, mixed with ground coal or charcoal, which was heated in an iron pot, in retort.[27] The precipitated phosphates were made from ground-up bones that had been de-greased and treated with strong acids. Carbon monoxide and other flammable gases produced during the reduction process were burnt off in a flare stack. This process became obsolete in the late 1890s when the electric arc furnace was adapted to reduce phosphate rock.[28] [4] Calcium phosphate (phosphate rock), mostly mined in Florida and North Africa, can be heated to 1,200-1,500 °C with sand, which is mostly SiO2, and coke (impure carbon) to produce vaporized tetraphosphorus, P4, (mp. 44.2 C) which is subsequently condensed into a white powder under water to prevent oxidation. Even under water, white phosphorus is slowly converted to the more stable red phosphorus allotrope (mp. 597 C). Both the white and red allotropes of phosphorus are insoluble in water. The electric furnace method allowed production to increase to the point where phosphorus could be used in weapons of war.[7] [12] In World War I it was used in incendiaries, smoke screens and tracer bullets.[12] A special incendiary bullet was developed to shoot at hydrogen-filled Zeppelins over Britain (hydrogen being highly inflammable if it can be ignited).[12] During World War II, Molotov cocktails of benzene and phosphorus were distributed in Britain to specially selected civilians within the British resistance operation, for defence; and phosphorus incendiary bombs were used in war on a large scale. Burning phosphorus is difficult to extinguish and if it splashes onto human skin it has horrific effects (see precautions below).[11] Today phosphorus production is larger than ever. It is used as a precursor for various chemicals,[29] in particular the herbicide glyphosate sold under the brand name Roundup. Production of white phosphorus takes place at large facilities and it is transported heated in liquid form. Some major accidents have occurred during transportation, train derailments

Phosphorus at Brownston, Nebraska and Miamisburg, Ohio led to large fires. The worst accident in recent times was an environmental one in 1968 when phosphorus spilled into the sea from a plant at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland.[30]

11

Applications

Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. (The glass is used to increase the friction.) Widely used compounds Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O CaHPO4•2H2O H3PO4 PCl3 POCl3 P4S10 Na5P3O10 Baking powder & fertilizers Animal food additive, toothpowder Manufacture of phosphate fertilizers Manufacture of POCl3 and pesticides Manufacturing plasticizer Manufacturing of additives and pesticides Detergents Use

Phosphorus, being an essential plant nutrient, finds its major use as a constituent of fertilizers for agriculture and farm production in the form of concentrated phosphoric acids, which can consist of 70% to 75% P2O5. Global demand for fertilizers led to large increase in phosphate (PO43-) production in the second half of the 20th century. Due to the essential nature of phosphorus to living organisms, the low solubility of natural phosphorus-containing compounds, and the slow natural cycle of phosphorus, the agricultural industry is heavily reliant on fertilizers which contain phosphate, mostly in the form of superphosphate of lime. Superphosphate of lime is a mixture of two phosphate salts, calcium dihydrogen phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2 and calcium sulfate dihydrate CaSO4•2H2O produced by the reaction of sulfuric acid and water with calcium phosphate. • Phosphorus is widely used to make organophosphorus compounds, through the intermediates phosphorus chlorides and two phosphorus sulfides: phosphorus pentasulfide, and phosphorus sesquisulfide.[12] Organophosphorus compounds have many applications, including in plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides, extraction agents, and water treatment. [11] • Phosphorus is also an important component in steel production, in the making of phosphor bronze, and in many other related products.

Phosphorus • Phosphates are utilized in the making of special glasses that are used for sodium lamps.[31] • Bone-ash, calcium phosphate, is used in the production of fine china. [31] • Sodium tripolyphosphate made from phosphoric acid is used in laundry detergents in [31] some countries, but banned for this use in others. • Phosphoric acid made from elemental phosphorus is used in food applications such as some soda beverages. The acid is also a starting point to make food grade phosphates.[12] These include mono-calcium phosphate which is employed in baking powder and sodium tripolyphosphate and other sodium phosphates[12] . Among other uses these are used to improve the characteristics of processed meat and cheese. Others are used in toothpaste.[12] Trisodium phosphate is used in cleaning agents to soften water and for preventing pipe/boiler tube corrosion. • White phosphorus, called "WP" (slang term "Willie Peter") is used in military applications as incendiary bombs, for smoke-screening as smoke pots and smoke bombs, and in tracer ammunition. It is also a part of an obsolete M34 White Phosphorus US hand grenade. This multipurpose grenade was mostly used for signaling, smoke screens and inflammation; it could also cause severe burns and had a psychological impact on the enemy.[32] [33] • Red phosphorus is essential for manufacturing matchbook strikers, flares,[12] safety matches, pharmaceutical grade and street methamphetamine, and is used in cap gun caps. • Phosphorus sesquisulfide is used in heads of strike-anywhere matches.[12] • In trace amounts, phosphorus is used as a dopant for n-type semiconductors. • 32P and 33P are used as radioactive tracers in biochemical laboratories (see Isotopes).

12

Biological role
Phosphorus is a key element in all known forms of life. Inorganic phosphorus in the form of the phosphate PO43- plays a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural framework of these molecules. Living cells also use phosphate to transport cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nearly every cellular process that uses energy obtains it in the form of ATP. ATP is also important for phosphorylation, a key regulatory event in cells. Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. Calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones.
[11]

Every cell has a membrane that separates it from its surrounding environment. Biological membranes are made from a phospholipid matrix and proteins, typically in the form of a bilayer. Phospholipids are derived from glycerol, such that two of the glycerol hydroxyl (OH) protons have been replaced with fatty acids as an ester, and the third hydroxyl proton has been replaced with phosphate bonded to another alcohol. [11] An average adult human contains a little less than 1 kg of phosphorus, about 85% of which is present in bones and teeth in the form of apatite, and the remainder inside cells in soft tissues. A well-fed adult in the industrialized world consumes and excretes about 1-3 g of phosphorus per day, with consumption in the form of inorganic phosphate and phosphorus-containing biomolecules such as nucleic acids and phospholipids; and excretion almost exclusively in the form of urine phosphate ion. Only about 0.1% of body phosphate circulates in the blood, but this amount reflects the amount of phosphate available to soft

Phosphorus tissue cells.
[11]

13

In medicine, low phosphate syndromes are caused by malnutrition, by failure to absorb phosphate, and by metabolic syndromes which draw phosphate from the blood (such as re-feeding after malnutrition) or pass too much of it into the urine. All are characterized by hypophosphatemia (see article for medical details), which is a condition of low levels of soluble phosphate levels in the blood serum, and therefore inside cells. Symptoms of hypophosphatemia include muscle and neurological dysfunction, and disruption of muscle and blood cells due to lack of ATP. Too much phosphate can lead to diarrhea and calcification (hardening) of organs and soft tissue, and can interfere with the body's ability to use iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc.[34] Phosphorus edaphology phosphorus phosphorus phosphorus blooms. is an essential macromineral for plants, which is studied extensively in in order to understand plant uptake from soil systems. In ecological terms, is often a limiting factor in many environments; i.e. the availability of governs the rate of growth of many organisms. In ecosystems an excess of can be problematic, especially in aquatic systems, see eutrophication and algal

Precautions
Organic compounds of phosphorus form a wide class of materials, some of which are extremely toxic. Fluorophosphate esters are among the most potent neurotoxins known. A wide range of organophosphorus compounds are used for their toxicity to certain organisms as pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.) and weaponised as nerve agents. Most inorganic phosphates are relatively nontoxic and essential nutrients. For environmentally adverse effects of phosphates see eutrophication and algal blooms. [11] The white phosphorus allotrope should be kept under water at all times as it presents a significant fire hazard due to its extreme reactivity with atmospheric oxygen, and it should only be manipulated with forceps since contact with skin can cause severe burns. Chronic white phosphorus poisoning leads to necrosis of the jaw called "phossy jaw". Ingestion of white phosphorus may cause a medical condition known as "Smoking Stool Syndrome". [35] When the white form is exposed to sunlight or when it is heated in its own vapour to 250 °C, it is transmuted to the red form, which does not chemoluminesce in air. The red allotrope does not spontaneously ignite in air and is not as dangerous as the white form. Nevertheless, it should be handled with care because it reverts to white phosphorus in some temperature ranges and it also emits highly toxic fumes that consist of phosphorus oxides when it is heated. [11]

Phosphorus

14

Upon exposure to elemental phosphorus, in the past it was suggested to wash the affected area with 2% copper sulfate solution to form harmless compounds that can be washed away. According to the recent US Navy's Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries: FM8-285: Part 2 Conventional Military Chemical Injuries, "Cupric (copper(II)) sulfate has been used by U.S. personnel in the past and is still being used by some nations. However, copper sulfate is toxic and its use will be discontinued. Copper sulfate may produce kidney and cerebral toxicity as well as intravascular hemolysis."[36]

Phosphorus explosion

The manual suggests instead "a bicarbonate solution to neutralize phosphoric acid, which will then allow removal of visible white phosphorus. Particles often can be located by their emission of smoke when air strikes them, or by their phosphorescence in the dark. In dark surroundings, fragments are seen as luminescent spots." Then, "Promptly debride the burn if the patient's condition will permit removal of bits of WP which might be absorbed later and possibly produce systemic poisoning. DO NOT apply oily-based ointments until it is certain that all WP has been removed. Following complete removal of the particles, treat the lesions as thermal burns."[37] As white phosphorus readily mixes with oils, any oily substances or ointments are not recommended until the area is thoroughly cleaned and all white phosphorus removed.

US DEA List I status
Phosphorus can reduce elemental iodine to hydroiodic acid, which is a reagent effective for reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine.[38] For this reason, two allotropes of elemental phosphorus—red phosphorus and white phosphorus—were designated by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as List I precursor chemicals under 21 CFR 1310.02 effective on November 17, 2001.[39] As a result, in the United States, handlers of red phosphorus or white phosphorus are subject to stringent regulatory controls pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act in order to reduce diversion of these substances for use in clandestine production of controlled substances.[39] [40] [41]

See also
• White phosphorus (weapon)

References
Notes
[1] webelements (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ compounds/ text/ P/ H4P2-13445506. html) [2] B. D. Ellis and C. L. B. Macdonald* "Phosphorus(I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds" Inorg. Chem., 2006, 45 (17), pp 6864 (http:/ / pubs. acs. org/ doi/ abs/ 10. 1021/ ic060186o) [3] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition, CRC press. [4] Parkes and Mellor, pp. 718-720.

Phosphorus
[5] " Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956 - Presentation Speech by Professor A. Ölander (committee member) (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ chemistry/ laureates/ 1956/ press. html)". . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [6] " Phosphorus Topics page, at Lateral Science (http:/ / www. lateralscience. co. uk/ phos/ index. html)". . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [7] Emsley, John (2000). The Shocking History of Phosphorus. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-39005-8. [8] Ana M. García-Campaña, Willy R. G. Baeyens (2001). Chemiluminescence in analytical chemistry (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=-EPSISOfCxYC). CRC Press. pp. 2–12. ISBN 0824704649. . [9] A. Holleman, N. Wiberg (1985). "XV 2.1.3". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie. de Gruyter. [10] Simon, Arndt (1997). "On the Polymorphism of White Phosphorus". Chemische Berichte 130: 1235. doi: 10.1002/cber.19971300911 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ cber. 19971300911). [11] Lewis R. Goldfrank, Neal Flomenbaum, Mary Ann Howland, Robert S. Hoffman, Neal A. Lewin, Lewis S. Nelson (2006). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=cvJuLqBxGUcC& pg=PA1487). McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 1486–1489. ISBN 0071437630. . [12] Threlfall, R.E. (1951). 100 years of Phosphorus Making: 1851 - 1951. Oldbury: Albright and Wilson Ltd. [13] Parkes and Mellor, p. 717. [14] Parkes and Mellor, pp. 721-722. [15] A. Brown, S. Runquist (1965). "Refinement of the crystal structure of black phosphorus". Acta Crystallogr. 19: 684. doi: 10.1107/S0365110X65004140 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1107/ S0365110X65004140). [16] Cartz, L.;Srinivasa, S.R.;Riedner, R.J.;Jorgensen, J.D.;Worlton, T.G. (1979). "Effect of pressure on bonding in black phosphorus". Journal of Chemical Physics 71: 1718–1721. doi: 10.1063/1.438523 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 438523). [17] Stefan Lange, Peer Schmidt, and Tom Nilges (2007). "Au3SnP7@Black Phosphorus: An Easy Access to Black Phosphorus". Inorg. Chem. 46: 4028. doi: 10.1021/ic062192q (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ic062192q). [18] Piro, N. A. (2006). "Triple-Bond Reactivity of Diphosphorus Molecules". Science 313 (5791): 1276. doi: 10.1126/science.1129630 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1126/ science. 1129630). PMID 16946068. [19] " The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project (http:/ / ie. lbl. gov/ education/ parent/ P_iso. htm)". . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [20] " Occupational Safety & Environmental Health: Phsophorus-21 (http:/ / www. oseh. umich. edu/ TrainP32. pdf)". . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [21] W. Kutzelnigg (1984). " Chemical Bonding in Higher Main Group Elements (http:/ / web. uvic. ca/ ~chem421/ ACIE_1984_Kutzelnigg_review. pdf)". Angewandte Chemie Int. (English) Ed. 23: 272–295. doi: 10.1002/anie.198402721 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ anie. 198402721). . [22] J. M. Stillman (1960). The Story of Alchemy and Early Chemistry. New York: Dover. pp. 418–419. [23] " Phosphate Rock: Statistics and Information (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ phosphate_rock/ )". USGS. . Retrieved 2009-06-06. [24] Podger (2002), pages 297–298. [25] "How Long Will it Last?". New Scientist 194 (2605): 38–39. May 26, 2007. ISSN 4079 0262 4079 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0262). [26] Leo Lewis (2008-06-23). " Scientists warn of lack of vital phosphorus as biofuels raise demand (http:/ / business. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ business/ industry_sectors/ natural_resources/ article4193017. ece)". The Times. . [27] Threlfall (1951), Chapter V: The foundations:1844–56: The phosphorus retort. [28] Threlfall (1951), Chapter VII: The second generation:1880–1915: Part 1: The electric furnace. [29] Aall C. H. (1952). "The American Phosphorus Industry". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 44 (7): 1520–1525. doi: 10.1021/ie50511a018 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ie50511a018). [30] " ERCO and Long Harbour (http:/ / www. heritage. nf. ca/ law/ erco. html)". Memorial University of Newfoundland and the C.R.B. Foundation. . Retrieved 2009-06-06. [31] C. R. Hammond (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. [32] " Obsolete hand grenades (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ library/ policy/ army/ fm/ 3-23-30/ appe. htm)". GlobalSecurity.Org. . Retrieved 2009-08-03. [33] Dockery, Kevin (1997). Special Warfare Special Weapons. Chicago: Emperor's Press. ISBN 1-883-47600-3. [34] Anderson, John J. B. (01 Apr 1996). " Calcium, Phosphorus and Human Bone Development (http:/ / jn. nutrition. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 126/ 4_Suppl/ 1153S)". Journal of Nutrition 126 (4 Suppl.): 1153S–1158S. PMID 8642449. . [35] " CBRNE - Incendiary Agents, White Phosphorus (Smoking Stool Syndrome) (http:/ / www. emedicine. com/ EMERG/ topic918. htm)". . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [36] " US Navy's Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries: FM8-285: Part 2 Conventional Military Chemical Injuries (http:/ / www. vnh. org/ FM8285/ Chapter/ chapter9. html)". .

15

Phosphorus
Retrieved 2009-05-05. [37] This quote uses the word "phosphorescence", which is actually incorrect, WP, (White Phosphorous), exhibits chemoluminescence upon exposure to air and if there is any WP in the wound, covered by tissue or fluids such as blood serum, it will not chemoluminescence until it is moved to a position where the air can get at it and activate the chemoluminescent glow which requires a very dark room and dark adapted eyes to see clearly. [38] Skinner, H.F. (1990). "Methamphetamine synthesis via hydriodic acid/red phosphorus reduction of ephedrine". Forensic Science International 48 (2): 123–134. doi: 10.1016/0379-0738(90)90104-7 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ 0379-0738(90)90104-7). [39] " 66 FR 52670—52675 (http:/ / frwebgate. access. gpo. gov/ cgi-bin/ getdoc. cgi?dbname=2001_register& docid=01-26013-filed)". 17 October 2001. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [40] " 21 CFR 1309 (http:/ / www. access. gpo. gov/ nara/ cfr/ waisidx_06/ 21cfr1309_06. html)". . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [41] " 21 USC, Chapter 13 (Controlled Substances Act) (http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ dea/ pubs/ csa. html)". . Retrieved 2009-05-05.

16

Sources
• Emsley, John (2000). The Shocking history of Phosphorus. A biography of the Devil's Element. London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-76638-5. • Parkes, G.D. and Mellor, J.W. (1939). Mellor's Modern Inorganic Chemistry. London: Longman's Green and Co. • Podger, Hugh (2002). Albright & Wilson. The Last 50 years. Studley: Brewin Books. ISBN 1-85858-223-7. • Threlfall, Richard E. (1951). The Story of 100 years of Phosphorus Making: 1851–1951. Oldbury: Albright & Wilson ltd.

External links
• Further warnings of toxic effects and recommendations for treatment can be found in " Emergency War Surgery NATO Handbook: Part I: Types of Wounds and Injuries: Chapter III: Burn Injury: Chemical Burns And White Phosphorus injury (http:/ / www. brooksidepress. org/ Products/ OperationalMedicine/ DATA/ operationalmed/ Manuals/ NATOEWS/ ch03/ 03ChemicalBurns. html)". http:/ / www. brooksidepress. org/ Products/ OperationalMedicine/ DATA/ operationalmed/ Manuals/ NATOEWS/ ch03/ 03ChemicalBurns. html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. • WebElements.com: Phosphorus (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ P/ index. html) • Simon, Fa; Pickering, Lk (Mar 1976). " Acute yellow phosphorus poisoning. "Smoking stool syndrome". (http:/ / toxnet. nlm. nih. gov/ cgi-bin/ sis/ search/ r?dbs+ hsdb:@term+ @rn+ 7723-14-0)" (Free full text). JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 235 (13): 1343–4. ISSN 0098-7484 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0098-7484). PMID 946251. http:/ / toxnet. nlm. nih. gov/ cgi-bin/ sis/ search/ r?dbs+ hsdb:@term+ @rn+ 7723-14-0. • eMedicine.com: Article on White Phophorus as used as weapon (http:/ / www. emedicine. com/ EMERG/ topic918. htm) • Website of the Technische Universität Darmstadt and the CEEP about Phosphorus Recovery (http:/ / www. phosphorus-recovery. tu-darmstadt. de)

Article Sources and Contributors

17

Article Sources and Contributors
Phosphorus  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307828753  Contributors: 131.111.8.xxx, 207.251.220.xxx, 21655, 2D, 88shrey, ABF, Achandrasekaran99, Achim1999, Adashiel, Addshore, Aeons, Ahkmemn, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Ajaxkroon, Alai, Alansohn, Albmont, Albo23, Anlace, Antandrus, Anwar saadat, AquaStreak, Arakunem, Archanamiya, Archimerged, Ardric47, Arnon Chaffin, Asmodeus Samael, Astrochemist, AuburnPilot, Axiosaurus, Axl, Axlenz, Ayla, BD2412, Bagel7, Bassbonerocks, Bbatsell, Bcorr, Beardo, Beetstra, BenM, Benbest, Bender235, Bensaccount, Benscripps, BillFlis, Biorga, Bkell, Black Walnut, Blastwizard, BlueEarth, Boboman828, Bongwarrior, Brian Crawford, Brian0918, BrianGV, Brianga, Bryan Derksen, Bunchofgrapes, Bushellman, Bushytails, CBDunkerson, CYD, Cadmium, Caltas, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Carnildo, Carom, Catbar, Catgut, Ceranthor, Ched Davis, Chekaz, Chemist1, Chemistryforlife, Chickydan, ChongDae, Chris Dybala, ChrisGriswold, Chvsanchez, Citanuleht, Closenplay, Cometstyles, Computer boy, Conversion script, Coppertwig, Cremepuff222, Cutler, DStoykov, DVD R W, DariusMazeika, Darrien, Darry2385, Darth Krayt, Darth Panda, David Latapie, Dbachmann, Dbtfz, Delta G, Demonator94, Deon, DerHexer, Dferg, Dfrg.msc, Dirac66, Dlae, Doczilla, Doovie, Doulos Christos, Download, DragonflySixtyseven, Dreish, Dumbo1, Durin, Ed42 311, Edgar181, Edsanville, Egomaniac, El C, Eldin raigmore, Element16, Emperorbma, Emre D., Enigmasoldier, Epbr123, Equendil, Eric119, Erik Zachte, Excirial, Felix Wan, Femto, Fett0001, Fieldday-sunday, FlavrSavr, Fluzwup, FlyingToaster, Fonzy, FreplySpang, Gaius Cornelius, Gegnome, Gene Nygaard, Geoseh, Giftlite, Glenn, Globe Collector, Gman124, Gracenotes, GraemeL, Grendelkhan, Gritchka, Gzuckier, Hak-kâ-ngìn, HappyCamper, Hdt83, Head, Helge Skjeveland, Hellbus, Hello Control, Heron, HiDrNick, Hieronymus Illinensis, Hu, IRD31416, Ian Pitchford, Ianweller, Icairns, Icseaturtles, Idamlaj, Imaninjapirate, ImperatorExercitus, InvictaHOG, Iridescent, Itub, J.delanoy, JForget, JFreeman, JSpung, Jaraalbe, Jazzman831, Jeffrey Mall, JimPAX, JimVC3, Jj137, Joebobway, John, John254, JohnyDog, Jons63, Jose77, JuniperBoy, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Keenan Pepper, Kevin Ryde, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kristen Eriksen, Kukini, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, Kx142, LarryMorseDCOhio, Leyo, LilHelpa, Looper5920, Lost Boy, LuigiManiac, Luna Santin, M1ss1ontomars2k4, M4gnum0n, MER-C, MPerel, MZMcBride, Mackeriv, Magus732, Mani1, Marek69, Materialscientist, Matnkat, Matticus78, Mausy5043, Mav, McBrainz, McNuggetsarecool, McSly, Mcpusc, Mentifisto, Michaeljay, Mifter, Mikaey, Mikeblas, Mikenorton, Mindspillage, Minesweeper, MissMJ, Montchav, Mooinglemur, Moomoomoo, Moonriddengirl, Moreschi, Mr Stephen, MrFish, Mrholybrain, Msps75, Mygerardromance, Nakon, Nathan, NawlinWiki, NeOak, Nergaal, Newone, Nickfield, Nickgetspwned, Night Gyr, Nihiltres, Nivix, Nonagonal Spider, Notchcode, Novangelis, NuclearWarfare, Nysin, Olin, Oneirist, Onevalefan, Optakeover, Oxymoron83, Ozzykhan, P. B. Mann, P.B. Pilhet, PRiis, Paleorthid, Patdoy3, Peachypoh, Persian Poet Gal, Petercorless, Peterlewis, Pgk, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Philip Trueman, Piano non troppo, Plasmic Physics, Ploober33, Plop, Pmish11, Poccil, Ponder, Poolkris, Poor Yorick, Psyche825, Pyrotec, Quadell, QueenCiti, Quintote, Qxz, RG2, RTC, RandomP, Realfoxxx, Redfarmer, Reguiieee, Remember, Res2216firestar, RexNL, Reyk, Riana, Richard L. Peterson, Richnotts, Rifleman 82, Rlove, RobertG, Rockstar915, Rogermw, Romanm, Rose Garden, Rror, Rumping, Rursus, RyanCross, Ryanaxp, SJP, Sanfranman59, Saperaud, Sbharris, Sceptre, Schneelocke, Sefog, Seinfreak37, Sengkang, Sfgagnon, Shaddack, Shadowin, Sikkema, Sintaku, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Skatebiker, Sl, Smjg, Smokefoot, Smokizzy, SoWhy, Solipsist, Spellmaster, Spooser222, Squids and Chips, Ssri1983, StephP, Steven J. Anderson, Stifynsemons, Stone, Suisui, Sukrucetiner, Sunborn, SuperHamster, SweetNeo85, Synchronism, TempestSA, Tetracube, The Deviant, The Etceterist, The High Fin Sperm Whale, The Rambling Man, The Sanctuary Sparrow, Thehelpfulone, Thingg, Thricecube, Tim Starling, ToXiC, TomasBat, TreasuryTag, Trevor25, Treyd500, Trovatore, TwoOneTwo, Ufim, Uthbrian, V8rik, VASANTH S.N., Vampirehalfling, Vancouverguy, VasilievVV, Virek, Vladsinger, Vsmith, Vssun, WODUP, Waggers, Warut, Wereon, Wernher, Wikid77, Wimt, Windstreak7, Wtmitchell, Wyllium, XXI MR XRY IXx, Xaosflux, Xiankai, Xpyrda, Yachtsman1, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yyy, Zach4636, Zidane tribal, Zigger, Zomgadonggs, Ô, Александър, 1011 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:Unknown.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Unknown.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mav file:Electron shell 015 Phosphorus.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_015_Phosphorus.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:PhosphComby.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PhosphComby.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Maksim, User:Materialscientist Image:White phosphrous molecule.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:White_phosphrous_molecule.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Cadmium, Dzordzm, 1 anonymous edits File:Phosphorus-pentoxide-3D-balls.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phosphorus-pentoxide-3D-balls.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Benjah-bmm27 File:redPhosphorus.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RedPhosphorus.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Materialscientist File:BlackPhosphorus.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BlackPhosphorus.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Materialscientist Image:Match striking surface.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Match_striking_surface.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Startaq Image:Hazard F.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hazard_F.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: BLueFiSH.as, MarianSigler, Matthias M., NielsF, Phrood, Pixeltoo, W!B:, 5 anonymous edits Image:Skull and crossbones.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Skull_and_crossbones.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Andux, Bayo, Coyau, D0ktorz, Derbeth, Franzenshof, Ies, J.delanoy, Karelj, MarianSigler, Silsor, Stepshep, The Evil IP address, W!B:, 6 anonymous edits Image:Phosphorus explosion.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phosphorus_explosion.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: US Gov.

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Sulfur

1

Sulfur
phosphorus ← sulfur → chlorineO ↑ S ↓ Se

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HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

16S
Periodic table

Appearance Lemon yellow crystals.

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Density (near r.t.) Density (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 375 10 408 100 449 1k 508 10 k 591 100 k 717

Sulfur

2

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 2252 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3357 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivityBulk modulusMohs hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of sulfur
iso
32

N.A. 95.02% 0.75% 4.21% syn 0.02%
32

half-life S is stable with 16 neutron S is stable with 17 neutron S is stable with 18 neutron β−

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

S S S S S

33

33

34

34

35

87.32 d
36

0.167

35

Cl

36

S is stable with 20 neutron

sulfur, S, 16 nonmetal16, 3, p32.065(5) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s2 3p4 2, 8, 6 (Image) solid (alpha) 2.07 g·cm−3 (beta) 1.96 g·cm−3 (gamma) 1.92 g·cm−3 1.819 g·cm−3 388.36 K,115.21 °C,239.38 °F 717.8 K,444.6 °C,832.3 °F 1314 K, 20.7 MPa (mono) 1.727 kJ·mol−1 (mono) 45 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 22.75 J·mol−1·K−16, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 (strongly acidic oxide) 2.58 (Pauling scale) 1st: 999.6 kJ·mol−1105±3 pm 180 pm orthorhombic diamagnetic[1] (20 °C) (amorphous) 2×1015Ω·m (300 K) (amorphous) 0.205 W·m−1·K−1 7.7 GPa 2.0 7704-34-9 Sulfur or sulphur (pronounced /ˈsʌlfər/, see spelling below) is the chemical element that has the atomic number 16. It is denoted with the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Sulfur in its native form is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used in black gunpowder, matches, insecticides and fungicides. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. In nonscientific contexts, it can also be referred to as brimstone.

History
Sulfur (Sanskrit, sulvari; Latin sulfur or sulpur) was known in ancient times and is referred to in the Torah (Genesis). English translations of the Bible commonly referred to burning sulfur as "brimstone", giving rise to the name of 'fire-and-brimstone' sermons, in which listeners are reminded of the fate of eternal damnation that await the unbelieving and unrepentant. It is from this part of the Bible that Hell is implied to "smell of sulfur", although sulfur, in itself, is in fact odorless. The "smell

Rough sulfur crystal

Sulfur

3 of sulfur" usually refers to either the odor of hydrogen sulfide, e.g. from rotten egg, or of burning sulfur, which produces sulfur dioxide, the smell associated with burnt matches. The smell emanating from raw sulfur originates from a slow oxidation in the presence of air. Hydrogen sulfide is the principal odor of untreated sewage and is one of several unpleasant smelling sulfur-containing components of flatulence (along with sulfur-containing mercaptans).

Sulfur crystal from Agrigento, Sicily.

A natural form of sulfur known as shiliuhuang was known in China since the 6th century BC and found in Hanzhong.[2] By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite.[2] Chinese Daoists were interested in sulfur's flammability and its reactivity with certain metals, yet its earliest practical uses were found in traditional Chinese medicine.[2] A Song Dynasty military treatise of 1044 AD described different formulas for Chinese black powder, which is a mixture of potassium nitrate (KNO3), charcoal, and sulfur. Early alchemists gave sulfur its own alchemical symbol which was a triangle at the top of a cross. In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element and not a compound. In 1867, sulfur was discovered in underground deposits in Louisiana and Texas. The overlying layer of earth was quicksand, prohibiting ordinary mining operations; therefore, the Frasch process was developed.

Spelling and etymology
The element has traditionally been spelled sulphur in the United Kingdom (since the 14th Century),[3] most of the Commonwealth including India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Hong Kong, along with the rest of the Caribbean and Ireland, but sulfur in the United States, while both spellings are used in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the Philippines. IUPAC adopted the spelling “sulfur” in 1990, as did the Royal Society of Chemistry Nomenclature Committee in 1992[4] and the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority for England and Wales recommended its use in 2000.[5] In Latin, the word is variously written sulpur, sulphur, and sulfur (the Oxford Latin Dictionary lists the spellings in this order). It is an original Latin name and not a Classical Greek loan, so the ph variant does not denote the Greek letter φ. Sulfur in Greek is thion (θείον), whence comes the prefix thio-. The simplification of the Latin words p or ph to an f appears to have taken place towards the end of the classical period, with the f spelling becoming dominant in the medieval period.[6] [7]

Sulfur

4

Characteristics
At room temperature, sulfur is a soft, bright-yellow solid. Elemental sulfur has only a faint odor, similar to that of matches. The odor associated with rotten eggs is due to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and organic sulfur compounds rather than elemental sulfur. Sulfur burns with a blue flame that emits sulfur dioxide, notable for its peculiar suffocating odor due to dissolving in the mucosa to form dilute sulfurous acid. Sulfur itself is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide — and to a lesser extent in other non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and toluene. Common oxidation states of sulfur include −2, +2, +4 and +6. Sulfur forms stable compounds with all elements except the noble gases. Sulfur in the solid state ordinarily exists as cyclic crown-shaped S8 molecules.

Sulfur melts to a blood-red liquid. When burned, it emits a blue flame.

The crystallography of sulfur is complex. Depending on the specific conditions, the sulfur allotropes form several distinct crystal structures, with rhombic and monoclinic S8 best known. A noteworthy property of sulfur is that its viscosity in its molten state, unlike most other liquids, increases above temperatures of 200 °C due to the formation of polymers. The molten sulfur assumes a dark red color above this temperature. At higher temperatures, however, the viscosity is decreased as depolymerization occurs. Amorphous or "plastic" sulfur can be produced through the rapid cooling of molten sulfur. X-ray crystallography studies show that the amorphous form may have a helical structure with eight atoms per turn. This form is metastable at room temperature and gradually reverts back to crystalline form. This process happens within a matter of hours to days but can be rapidly catalyzed.

Allotropes
Sulfur forms more than 30 solid allotropes, more than any other element.[8] Besides S8, several other rings are known.[9] Removing one atom from the crown gives S7, which is more deeply yellow than S8. HPLC analysis of "elemental sulfur" reveals an equilibrium mixture of mainly S8, but also S7 and small amounts of S6.[10] Larger rings have been prepared, including S12 and S18.[11] [12] By contrast, sulfur's lighter neighbor oxygen only exists in two states of allotropic significance: O2 and O3. Selenium, the heavier analogue of sulfur, can form rings but is more often found as a polymer chain.

The structure of the cyclooctasulfur molecule, S8.

Sulfur

5

Isotopes
Sulfur has 25 known isotopes, four of which are stable: 32S (95.02%), 33S (0.75%), 34S (4.21%), and 36S (0.02%). Other than 35S, the radioactive isotopes of sulfur are all short lived. 35S is formed from cosmic ray spallation of 40argon in the atmosphere. It has a half-life of 87 days. When sulfide minerals are precipitated, isotopic equilibration among solids and liquid may cause small differences in the δS-34 values of co-genetic minerals. The differences between minerals can be used to estimate the temperature of equilibration. The δC-13 and δS-34 of coexisting carbonates and sulfides can be used to determine the pH and oxygen fugacity of the ore-bearing fluid during ore formation. In most forest ecosystems, sulfate is derived mostly from the atmosphere; weathering of ore minerals and evaporites also contribute some sulfur. Sulfur with a distinctive isotopic composition has been used to identify pollution sources, and enriched sulfur has been added as a tracer in hydrologic studies. Differences in the natural abundances can also be used in systems where there is sufficient variation in the 34S of ecosystem components. Rocky Mountain lakes thought to be dominated by atmospheric sources of sulfate have been found to have different δS-34 values from lakes believed to be dominated by watershed sources of sulfate.

Occurrence
Elemental sulfur can be found near hot springs and volcanic regions in many parts of the world, especially along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Such volcanic deposits are currently mined in Indonesia, Chile, and Japan. Sicily is also famous for its sulfur mines. Sulfur deposits are polycrystalline, and the largest documented single crystal measured 22x16x11 cm3.[13] [14] Significant deposits of elemental sulfur also exist in salt domes along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and in evaporites in eastern Europe and western Asia. The sulfur in these deposits is believed to come from the action of anaerobic bacteria on sulfate minerals, especially gypsum, although apparently native sulfur may be produced by geological processes alone, without the aid of living organisms (see below). However, fossil-based sulfur deposits from salt domes are the basis for commercial production in the United States, Poland, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine.
Sulfur crystallites at Waiotapu hot springs, New Zealand

Sulfur

6

Sulfur production through hydrodesulfurization of oil, gas, and the Athabasca Oil Sands has produced a surplus — huge stockpiles of sulfur now exist throughout Alberta, Canada. Common naturally occurring sulfur compounds include the sulfide minerals, such as pyrite (iron sulfide), cinnabar (mercury sulfide), galena (lead sulfide), Sulfur recovered from hydrocarbons in sphalerite (zinc sulfide) and stibnite (antimony sulfide); Alberta, stockpiled for shipment at Vancouver, B.C. and the sulfates, such as gypsum (calcium sulfate), alunite (potassium aluminium sulfate), and barite (barium sulfate). It occurs naturally in volcanic emissions, such as from hydrothermal vents, and from bacterial action on decaying sulfur-containing organic matter. The distinctive colors of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, are from various forms of molten, solid and gaseous sulfur. There is also a dark area near the Lunar crater Aristarchus that may be a sulfur deposit. Sulfur is present in many types of meteorites. Ordinary chondrites contain on average 2.1% sulfur, and carbonaceous chondrites may contain as much as 6.6%. Sulfur in meteorites is normally present entirely as troilite (FeS), but other sulfides are found in some meteorites, and carbonaceous chondrites contain free sulfur, sulfates, and possibly other sulfur compounds.[15]

Extraction and production
Extraction from natural resources
Sulfur is extracted by mainly two processes: the Sicilian process and the Frasch process. The Sicilian process, which was first used in Sicily, was used in ancient times to get sulfur from rocks present in volcanic regions. In this process, the sulfur deposits are piled and stacked in brick kilns built on sloping hillsides, and with airspaces between them. Then powdered sulfur is put on top of the sulfur deposit and ignited. As the sulfur burns, the heat melts the sulfur deposits, causing the molten sulfur to flow down the sloping hillside. The molten sulfur can then be collected in wooden buckets. The second process used to obtain sulfur is the Frasch process. In this method, three concentric pipes are used: the outermost pipe contains superheated water, which melts the sulfur, and the innermost pipe is filled with hot compressed air, which serves to create foam and pressure. The resulting sulfur foam is then expelled through the middle pipe.[16] The Frasch process produces sulfur with a 99.5% purity content, and which needs no further purification. The sulfur produced by the Sicilian process must be purified by distillation.

Sulfur

7

Production from hydrogen sulfide
Chemically The Claus process is used to extract elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide produced in hydrodesulfurization of petroleum or from natural gas. Biologically In the biological route, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from natural gas or refinery gas is absorbed with a slight alkaline solution in a wet scrubber. Or the sulfide is produced by biological sulfate reduction. In the subsequent process step, the dissolved sulfide is biologically converted to elemental sulfur. This solid sulfur is removed from the reactor. This process has been built on commercial scale. The main advantages of this process are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. no use of expensive chemicals, the process is safe as the H2S is directly absorbed in an alkaline solution, no production of a polluted waste stream, re-usable sulfur is produced, and the process occurs under ambient conditions.

The biosulfur product is different from other processes in which sulfur is produced because the sulfur is hydrophillic. Next to straightforward reuses as source for sulfuric acid production, it can also be applied as sulfur fertilizer.[17]

Chemistry
Inorganic compounds
When dissolved in water, hydrogen sulfide is acidic and will react with metals to form a series of metal sulfides. Natural metal sulfides are common, especially those of iron. Iron sulfide is called pyrite, the so-called fool's gold. Pyrite can show semiconductor properties.[18] Galena, a naturally occurring lead sulfide, was the first semiconductor discovered, and found a use as a signal rectifier in the "cat's whiskers" of early crystal radios. Polymeric sulfur nitride has metallic properties even Sulfur powder. though it does not contain any metal atoms. This compound also has unusual electrical and optical properties. This polymer can be made from tetrasulfur tetranitride S4N4. Phosphorus sulfides are useful in synthesis. For example, P4S10 and its derivatives Lawesson's reagent and naphthalen-1,8-diyl 1,3,2,4-dithiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfide are used to replace oxygen from some organic molecules with sulfur.

Sulfur • Sulfides (S2−), a complex family of compounds usually derived from S2−. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is an example. • Sulfites (SO32−), the salts of sulfurous acid (H2SO3) which is generated by dissolving SO2 in water. Sulfurous acid and the corresponding sulfites are fairly strong reducing agents. Other compounds derived from SO2 include the pyrosulfite or metabisulfite ion (S2O52−).

8

• Sulfates (SO42−), the salts of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid also reacts with SO3 in equimolar ratios to form pyrosulfuric acid (H2S2O7). • Thiosulfates (S O
2 2− 3

The sulfate anion, SO42−

). Sometimes referred as

thiosulfites or "hyposulfites", Thiosulfates are used in photographic fixing (HYPO) as reducing agents. Ammonium thiosulfate is being investigated as a cyanide replacement in leaching gold.[19] • Sodium dithionite, Na2S2O4, is the highly reducing dianion derived from hyposulfurous/dithionous acid. • Sodium dithionate (Na2S2O6). • Polythionic acids (H2SnO6), where n can range from 3 to 80. • Peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5) and peroxydisulfuric acids (H2S2O8), made from the action of SO3 on concentrated H2O2, and H2SO4 on concentrated H2O2 respectively. • Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sx) • Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, a dense gas at ambient conditions, is used as nonreactive and nontoxic propellant • Sulfur nitrides are chain and cyclic compounds containing only S and N. Tetrasulfur tetranitride S4N4 is an example. • Thiocyanates contain the SCN− group. Oxidation of thiocyanoate gives thiocyanogen, (SCN)2 with the connectivity NCS-SCN.

Organic compounds
Many of the unpleasant odors of organic matter are based on sulfur-containing compounds such as methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide. Thiols and sulfides are used in the odoriation of natural gas, notably, 2-methyl-2-propanethiol (t-butyl mercaptan). The odor of garlic and "skunk stink" are also caused by sulfur-containing organic compounds. Not all organic sulfur compounds smell unpleasant; for example, grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing monoterpenoid is responsible for the characteristic scent of grapefruit. It should be noted that this thiol is present in very low concentrations. In larger concentrations, the odor of this compound is that typical of all thiols, unpleasant. Sulfur-containing organic compounds include the following (R, R', and R are organic groups such as CH3):

Sulfur

9

• Thioethers have the form R-S-R′. These compounds are the sulfur equivalents of ethers. • Sulfonium ions have the formula RR'S-'R'", i.e. where three groups are attached to the cationic sulfur center. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP; (CH3)2S+CH2CH2COO−) is a sulfonium ion, which is important in the marine organic sulfur cycle. • Thiols (also known as mercaptans) have the form R-SH. These are the sulfur equivalents of alcohols. • Thiolates ions have the form R-S-. Such anions arise upon treatment of thiols with base. • Sulfoxides have the form R-S(=O)-R′. The simplest sulfoxide, DMSO, is a common solvent.
An organic sulfur compound, dithiane.

• Sulfones have the form R-S(=O)2-R′. A common sulfone is sulfolane C4H8SO2. See also Category: sulfur compounds and organosulfur chemistry

Applications
One of the direct uses of sulfur is in vulcanization of rubber, where polysulfides crosslink organic polymers. Sulfur is a component of gunpowder. It reacts directly with methane to give carbon disulfide, which is used to manufacture cellophane and rayon.[20] Elemental sulfur is mainly used as a precursor to other chemicals. Approximately 85% (1989) is converted to sulfuric acid (H2SO4), which is of such prime importance to the world's economies that the production and consumption of sulfuric acid is an indicator of a nation's industrial development.[21] For example, more sulfuric acid is produced in the United States every year than any other industrial chemical. The principal use for the acid is the extraction of phosphate ores for the production of fertilizer manufacturing. Other applications of sulfuric acid include oil refining, wastewater processing, and mineral extraction.[20] Sulfur compounds are also used in detergents, fungicides, dyestuffs, and agrichemicals. In silver-based photography sodium and ammonium thiosulfate are used as "fixing agents." Sulfur is an ingredient in some acne treatments. An increasing application is as fertilizer. Standard sulfur is hydrophobic and therefore has to be covered with a surfactant by bacteria in the ground before it can be oxidized to sulfate. This makes it a slow release fertilizer, which cannot be taken up by the plants instantly, but has to be oxidized to sulfate over the growth season. Sulfur also improves the use efficiency of other essential plant nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus.[22] Biologically produced sulfur particles are naturally hydrophilic due to a biopolymer coating. This sulfur is therefore easier to disperse over the land (via spraying as a diluted slurry), and results in a faster release. Sulfites, derived from burning sulfur, are heavily used to bleach paper. They are also used as preservatives in dried fruit. Magnesium sulfate, better known as Epsom salts, can be used as a laxative, a bath additive, an exfoliant, a magnesium supplement for plants, or a desiccant.

Sulfur

10

Specialized applications
Sulfur is used as a light-generating medium in the rare lighting fixtures known as sulfur lamps.

Historical applications
In the late 18th century, furniture makers used molten sulfur to produce decorative inlays in their craft. Because of the sulfur dioxide produced during the process of melting sulfur, the craft of sulfur inlays was soon abandoned. Molten sulfur is sometimes still used for setting steel bolts into drilled concrete holes where high shock resistance is desired for floor-mounted equipment attachment points. Pure powdered sulfur was also used as a medicinal tonic and laxative. Sulfur was also used in baths for people who had fits.

Fungicide and pesticide
Sulfur is one of the oldest fungicides and pesticides. Dusting sulfur, elemental sulfur in powdered form, is a common fungicide for grapes, strawberry, many vegetables and several other crops. It has a good efficacy against a wide range of powdery mildew diseases as well as black spot. In organic production, sulfur is the most important fungicide. It is the only fungicide used in organically farmed apple production against the main disease apple scab under colder conditions. Biosulfur (biologically produced elemental sulfur with hydrophillic characteristics) can be used well for these applications. Standard-formulation dusting sulfur is applied to crops with a sulfur duster or from a dusting plane. Wettable sulfur is the commercial name for dusting sulfur formulated with additional ingredients to make it water soluble. It has similar applications, and is used as a fungicide against mildew and other mold-related problems with plants and soil. Sulfur is also used as an "organic" (i.e. "green") insecticide (actually an acaricide) against ticks and mites. A common method of use is to dust clothing or limbs with sulfur powder. Some livestock owners set out a sulfur salt block as a salt lick.

Biological role
See sulfur cycle for more on the inorganic and organic natural transformations of sulfur. Sulfur is an essential component of all living cells. Inorganic sulfur forms a part of iron-sulfur clusters, and sulfur is the bridging ligand in the CuA site of cytochrome c oxidase, a basic substance involved in utilization of oxygen by all aerobic life. Sulfur may also serve as chemical food source for some primitive organisms: some forms of bacteria use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the place of water as the electron donor in a primitive photosynthesis-like process in which oxygen is the electron receptor. The photosynthetic green and purple sulfur bacteria and some chemolithotrophs use elemental oxygen to carry out such oxidization of hydrogen sulfide to produce elemental sulfur (So), oxidation state = 0. Primitive bacteria which live around deep ocean volcanic vents oxidize hydrogen sulfide in this way with oxygen: see giant tube worm for an example of large organisms (via bacteria) making metabolic use of hydrogen sulfide as food to be oxidized. The so-called sulfur bacteria, by contrast, "breathe sulfate" instead of oxygen. They use sulfur as the electron acceptor, and reduce various oxidized sulfur compounds back into sulfide, often into hydrogen sulfide. They also can grow on a number of other partially

Sulfur oxidized sulfur compounds (e. g. thiosulfates, thionates, polysulfides, sulfites). The hydrogen sulfide produced by these bacteria is responsible for the smell of some intestinal gases and decomposition products. Sulfur is a part of many bacterial defense molecules. For example, though sulfur is not a part of the lactam ring, it is a part of most beta lactam antibiotics, including the penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. Sulfur is absorbed by plants via the roots from soil as the sulfate ion and reduced to sulfide before it is incorporated into cysteine and other organic sulfur compounds (see sulfur assimilation for details of this process). Sulfur is regarded as secondary nutrient although plant requirements for sulfur are equal to and sometimes exceed those for phosphorus. However sulfur is recognized as one of the major nutrients essential for plant growth, root nodule formation of legumes and plants protection mechanisms. Sulfur deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe. Because atmospheric inputs of sulfur will continue to decrease, the deficit in the sulfur input/output is likely to increase, unless sulfur fertilizers are used. In plants and animals the amino acids cysteine and methionine contain sulfur, as do all polypeptides, proteins, and enzymes which contain these amino acids. Homocysteine and taurine are other sulfur-containing acids which are similar in structure, but which are not coded for by DNA, and are not part of the primary structure of proteins. Glutathione is an important sulfur-containing tripeptide which plays a role in cells as a source of chemical reduction potential in the cell, through its sulfhydryl (-SH) moiety. Many important cellular enzymes use prosthetic groups ending with -SH moieties to handle reactions involving acyl-containing biochemicals: two common examples from basic metabolism are coenzyme A and alpha-lipoic acid. Disulfide bonds (S-S bonds) formed between cysteine residues in peptide chains are very important in protein assembly and structure. These strong covalent bonds between peptide chains give proteins a great deal of extra toughness and resiliency. For example, the high strength of feathers and hair is in part due to their high content of S-S bonds and their high content of cysteine and sulfur (eggs are high in sulfur because large amounts of the element are necessary for feather formation). The high disulfide content of hair and feathers contributes to their indigestibility, and also their odor when burned.

11

Traditional medical role for elemental sulfur
In traditional medical skin treatment which predates modern era of scientific medicine, elemental sulfur has been used mainly as part of creams to alleviate various conditions such as psoriasis, eczema and acne. The mechanism of action is not known, although elemental sulfur does oxidize slowly to sulfurous acid, which in turn (though the action of sulfite) acts as a mild reducing and antibacterial agent.

Sulfur

12

Precautions
Carbon disulfide, carbon oxysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide should all be handled with care. Although sulfur dioxide is sufficiently safe to be used as a food additive in small amounts, at high concentrations it reacts with moisture to form sulfurous acid which in sufficient quantities may harm the lungs, eyes or other tissues. In organisms without lungs such as insects or plants, it otherwise prevents respiration. Hydrogen sulfide is toxic. Although very pungent at first, it quickly deadens the sense of smell, so potential victims may be unaware of its presence until death or other symptoms occur.

Environmental impact
The burning of coal and/or petroleum by industry and power plants generates sulfur dioxide (SO2), which reacts with atmospheric water and oxygen to produce sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This sulfuric acid is a component of acid rain, which lowers the pH of soil and freshwater bodies, sometimes resulting in substantial damage to the environment and chemical weathering of statues and structures. Fuel standards increasingly require sulfur to be extracted from fossil fuels to prevent the formation of acid rain. This extracted sulfur is then refined and represents a large portion of sulfur production. In coal fired power plants, the flue gases are sometimes purified. In more modern power plants that use syngas the sulfur is extracted before the gas is burned.

See also
• • • • • • • Sulfur cycle Stratospheric sulfur aerosols Disulfide bond Sulfonium S+, S+R3 Ultra-low sulfur diesel Claus process Shell-Paques sulfide removal/sulfur recovery process

References
[1] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf). CRC press. 2000. ISBN 0849304814. . [2] Zhang Yunming (1986). "The History of Science Society: Ancient Chinese Sulfur Manufacturing Processes". Isis 77: 487. doi: 10.1086/354207 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1086/ 354207). [3] http:/ / www. rod. beavon. clara. net/ sulphur. htm, retrieved 2nd April 2009 18:29 GMT. [4] Spelling of Sulfur (PDF) (http:/ / www. rsc. org/ delivery/ _ArticleLinking/ DisplayArticleForFree. cfm?doi=JM99101FP055& JournalCode=JM) [5] [6] [7] [8] Worldwidewords (http:/ / www. worldwidewords. org/ topicalwords/ tw-sul1. htm), 9 December 2000. Vanderkrogt.net (http:/ / elements. vanderkrogt. net/ elem/ s. html). Kelly DP (1995) Sulfur and its Doppelgänger. Arch. Microbiol. 163: 157-158. Ralf Steudel, Bodo Eckert (2003). "Solid Sulfur Allotropes Sulfur Allotropes". Topics in Current Chemistry 230: 1–80. doi: 10.1007/b12110 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1007/ b12110).

[9] Steudel, R. (1982). "Homocyclic Sulfur Molecules". Topics Curr. Chem. 102: 149. [10] Tebbe, F. N.; Wasserman, E.; Peet, W. G.; Vatvars, A. and Hayman, A. C. (1982). "Composition of Elemental Sulfur in Solution: Equilibrium of S6, S7, and S8 at Ambient Temperatures". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104: 4971. doi:

Sulfur
10.1021/ja00382a050 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ ja00382a050). [11] Beat Meyer (1964). "Solid Allotropes of Sulfur". Chem. Rev. 64 (4): 429–451. doi: 10.1021/cr60230a004 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ cr60230a004). [12] Beat Meyer (1976). "Elemental sulfur". Chem. Rev. 76: 367–388. doi: 10.1021/cr60301a003 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ cr60301a003). [13] P. C. Rickwood (1981). " The largest crystals (http:/ / www. minsocam. org/ ammin/ AM66/ AM66_885. pdf)". American Mineralogist 66: 885-907. . [14] " The giant crystal project site (http:/ / giantcrystals. strahlen. org/ europe/ perticara. htm)". . Retrieved 2009-06-06. [15] B. Mason, Meteorites, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1962), p. 160. [16] Botsch, Walter (2001). "Chemiker, Techniker, Unternehmer: Zum 150. Geburtstag von Hermann Frasch" (in German). Chemie in unserer Zeit 35 (5): 324–331. doi: 10.1002/1521-3781(200110)35:5<324::AID-CIUZ324>3.0.CO;2-9 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ 1521-3781(200110)35:5<324::AID-CIUZ324>3. 0. CO;2-9). [17] Zessen, E. van, et al. (2004). "Application of THIOPAQ(TM) biosulphur in agriculture". Proceedings of Sulphur 2004, Barcelona (Spain), 24 - 27 Oct. 57 - 68. [18] Nyle Steiner (22 February 1). " Iron Pyrites Negative Resistance Oscillator (http:/ / home. earthlink. net/ ~lenyr/ iposc. htm)". . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [19] http:/ / doccopper. tripod. com/ gold/ AltLixiv. html [20] Nehb, Wolfgang; Vydra, Karel (2006). "Sulfur". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag. doi: 10.1002/14356007.a25_507.pub2 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ 14356007. a25_507. pub2). [21] Sulfuric Acid Growth (http:/ / www. pafko. com/ history/ h_s_acid. html) [22] Sulfur as a fertilizer (http:/ / www. sulphurinstitute. org/ learnmore/ faq. cfm#plants)

13

Leslie KS, Millington GWM, Levell NJ. (2004) Sulphur and skin: from Satan to Saddam! J Cosm Dermatol 3: 94-98.

External links
• Sulfur phase diagram (http:/ / library. tedankara. k12. tr/ chemistry/ vol2/ allotropy/ z129. htm) • WebElements.com – Sulfur (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ S/ index. html) • chemicalelements.com/sulfur (http:/ / www. chemicalelements. com/ elements/ s. html) • Crystalline, liquid and polymerization of sulphur on Vulcano Island, Italy (http:/ / www. stromboli. net/ perm/ vulcano/ sulphur-vulcano-en. html) • Sulfur and its use as a pesticide (http:/ / extoxnet. orst. edu/ pips/ sulfur. htm) • The Sulphur Institute (http:/ / www. sulphurinstitute. org/ )

Article Sources and Contributors

14

Article Sources and Contributors
Sulfur  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307795402  Contributors: 203.109.250.xxx, 2D, A suyash, ABF, AWP1012933, Acroterion, Adamankin, Adamowen1, Adashiel, Adrian.benko, Ads85, Advanet, Afroman rmb, Ahoerstemeier, Aillema, Aitias, Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Alchie1, Ale jrb, Aleenf1, Alex.muller, AlexiusHoratius, AliaGemma, Allstarecho, AmiDaniel, Amzi, AncientToaster, Andre Engels, Andrew Maiman, Andrewjlockley, Andrij Kursetsky, Andycjp, AngelOfSadness, Angelic Wraith, Animum, Antonio Lopez, Archimerged, ArchonMagnus, Arsenal 14 8888, At the speed of light, Atlant, Aussie.mac95, AxelBoldt, Axlenz, BD2412, Backslash Forwardslash, Bassbonerocks, Bdesham, Bean159, Beetstra, Ben Arnold, Bender235, Benjah-bmm27, Benjiboi, Bergsten, Berkut, Bevanhouston, Bezking, Bhound89, Bit Lordy, BjKa, Blackfen, Bleedingshoes, Bloggeret, Bluap, BlueDevil, BlueEarth, Bluelip, Bobclay, Bobo192, Boccobrock, Bomac, Bongwarrior, Bonnocloudwolf, Bornhj, Boron1111, Branddobbe, Brandrewmiller, Briantw, Brockert, BrokenSphere, Brufydsy, Brutulf, Bryan Derksen, Buchanan-Hermit, Bwil, CWii, CYD, Cacycle, Calabraxthis, Caltas, Calvin 1998, CambridgeBayWeather, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, CanisRufus, Capricorn42, CarbonCopy, Carnildo, Causesobad, Cazza619, Cbdorsett, Ccroberts, Cfailde, Chameleon, CharlotteWebb, Chasw0405, ChemNerd, Cherubfish, Chris 73, Chris Dybala, Cjh57, Clan Lord, Clondon, Closedmouth, Cometstyles, Confiteordeo, Conversion script, Coppertwig, Courtss, Crazy Boris with a red beard, CrazyChemGuy, Creamy Beaver99, Cremepuff222, Crosbiesmith, Crystal whacker, Cssiitcic, Cst17, Cureden, Curps, Cyrius, D13G054NCH3Z, DB, DINGGGGG!, DVD R W, DaBler, Daily Juice2, Damicatz, Dan D. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:orthorhombic.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orthorhombic.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Stannered file:Electron shell 016 Sulfur.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_016_Sulfur.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 file:sulfur.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sulfur.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: w:User:Deglr6328Deglr6328 at the w:Main PageEnglish Wikipedia. File:SulphurCrystal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SulphurCrystal.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Oscar File:Large Sulfur Crystal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Large_Sulfur_Crystal.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Eric Hunt File:Burning-sulfur.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Burning-sulfur.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Johannes Hemmerlein File:Cyclooctasulfur-above-3D-balls.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cyclooctasulfur-above-3D-balls.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Benjah-bmm27 File:NZ sulfur NI.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NZ_sulfur_NI.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Dschwen File:AlbertaSulfurAtVancouverBC.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AlbertaSulfurAtVancouverBC.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Leonard G. File:Sulfur powder.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sulfur_powder.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Denniss, Saperaud, Serpens, Wst

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File:Sulfate-3D-vdW.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sulfate-3D-vdW.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Benjah-bmm27 File:Dithiane33d.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dithiane33d.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Ccroberts

15

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Chlorine

1

Chlorine
sulfur ← chlorine → argonF ↑ Cl ↓ Br

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

17Cl
Periodic table

Appearance pale green gas

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 128 10 139 100 153 1k 170 10 k 197 100 k 239

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 2298 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3822 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius

Chlorine Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivitySpeed of soundCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of chlorine
iso
35

2

N.A. 75.77% syn
35

half-life Cl is stable with 18 neutron β− ε

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

Cl Cl

36

3.01×105 y

0.709 -

36

Ar S

36

37

Cl

24.23%

37

Cl is stable with 20 neutron

chlorine, Cl, 17 Halogen17, 3, p35.453(2) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s2 3p5 2, 8, 7 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 3.2 g/L 171.6 K,-101.5 °C,-150.7 °F 239.11 K,-34.4 °C,-29.27 °F 416.9 K, 7.991 MPa (Cl2) 6.406 kJ·mol−1 (Cl2) 20.41 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) (Cl2) 33.949 J·mol−1·K−17, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1 (strongly acidic oxide) 3.16 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1251.2 kJ·mol−1102±4 pm 175 pm orthorhombic diamagnetic[1] (20 °C) > 10 Ω·m (300 K) 8.9x10-3  W·m−1·K−1 (gas, 0 °C) 206 m/s 7782-50-5 Chlorine (pronounced /ˈklɔərin/, from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' (khlôros, meaning 'pale green'), is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17 (formerly VII, VIIa, or VIIb). As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, including humans. In its elemental form (Cl2 or "dichlorine") under standard conditions, chlorine is a powerful oxidant and is used in bleaching and disinfectants. As a common disinfectant, chlorine compounds are used in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in the destruction of the ozone layer.

Characteristics
At standard temperature and pressure, two chlorine atoms form the diatomic molecule Cl2. This is a pale yellow-green gas that has its distinctive strong smell, the smell of bleach. The bonding between the two atoms is relatively weak (only of 242.580 ±0.004 kJ/mol) which makes the Cl2 molecule highly reactive. Along with fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine, chlorine is a member of the halogen series that forms the group 17 of the periodic table—the most reactive group of elements. It combines readily with nearly all elements. Compounds with oxygen, nitrogen, xenon, and krypton are known, but do not form by direct reaction of the elements.[2] Chlorine, though very reactive, is not as extremely reactive as fluorine. Pure chlorine gas does, however, support combustion of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, although the carbon component tends to burn incompletely, with much of it remaining as soot.[3] At 10 °C and atmospheric pressure, one liter of water dissolves 3.10 L of gaseous chlorine, and at 30 °C, 1 L of water dissolves only 1.77 liters of chlorine.[4] Chlorine is a member of the salt-forming halogen series and is extracted from chlorides through oxidation often by electrolysis. With metals, it forms salts called chlorides. As the

Chlorine chloride ion, Cl−, it is also the most abundant dissolved ion in ocean water.

3

Isotopes
Chlorine has isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 32 to 40. There are two principal stable isotopes, 35Cl (75.77%) and 37Cl (24.23%), giving chlorine atoms in bulk an apparent atomic weight of 35.4527 g/mol. Trace amounts of radioactive 36Cl exist in the environment, in a ratio of about 7x10−13 to 1 with stable isotopes. 36Cl is produced in the atmosphere by spallation of 36Ar by interactions with cosmic ray protons. In the subsurface environment, 36Cl is generated primarily as a result of neutron capture by 35Cl or muon capture by 40Ca. 36Cl decays to 36S and to 36Ar, with a combined half-life of 308,000 years. The half-life of this hydrophilic nonreactive isotope makes it suitable for geologic dating in the range of 60,000 to 1 million years. Additionally, large amounts of 36Cl were produced by irradiation of seawater during atmospheric detonations of nuclear weapons between 1952 and 1958. The residence time of 36Cl in the atmosphere is about 1 week. Thus, as an event marker of 1950s water in soil and ground water, 36Cl is also useful for dating waters less than 50 years before the present. 36Cl has seen use in other areas of the geological sciences, including dating ice and sediments.

Occurrence
In nature, chlorine is found primarily as the chloride ion, a component of the salt that is deposited in the earth or dissolved in the oceans — about 1.9% of the mass of seawater is chloride ions. Even higher concentrations of chloride are found in the Dead Sea and in underground brine deposits. Most chloride salts are soluble in water, thus, chloride-containing minerals are usually only found in abundance in dry climates or deep underground. Common chloride minerals include halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and carnallite (potassium magnesium chloride hexahydrate). Over 2000 naturally-occurring organic chlorine compounds are known.[5] Industrially, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water. Along with chlorine, this chloralkali process yields hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide, according to the following chemical equation: 2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH

Chlorine

4

History
The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was used as early as 3000 BC and brine as early as 6000 BC.[6] The first compound of chlorine synthesized was probably hydrochloric acid (as a solution), which was prepared by the Persian alchemist Rhazes around 900 AD. Around 1200 AD, aqua regia (a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid) began to be used to dissolve gold, and today this is still one of the few reagents that will dissolve gold. Upon dissolving gold in aqua regia, chlorine gas is released along with other nauseating and irritating gases, but this wasn't known until much more recently. Chlorine was first prepared and studied in 1774 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and therefore he is credited for its discovery.[7] He called it "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air" since it was a gas (then called "airs") and it came from hydrochloric acid (then known as "muriatic acid").[7] However, he failed to establish chlorine as an element, mistakenly thinking Liquid chlorine that it was the oxide obtained from the hydrochloric [7] acid (see phlogiston theory). He named the new element within this oxide as [7] muriaticum. Regardless of what he thought, Scheele did isolate chlorine by reacting MnO2 with HCl: 4 HCl + MnO2 → MnCl2 + 2 H2O + Cl2 Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus, the deadly effect on insects, the yellow green color, and the smell similar to aqua regia. Claude Berthollet suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muratic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and an undiscovered element, muriaticum. In 1809 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard tried to decompose dephlogisticated muratic acid air by reacting it with charcoal to release the free element muriaticum (and carbon dioxide).[7] They did not succeed and published a report in which they considered the possibility that dephlogisticated muratic acid air is an element, but were not convinced.[8] In 1810, Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, and concluded that it was an element, and not a compound.[7] He named this new element as chlorine, from the Greek word χλωρος (chlōros), meaning green-yellow.[9] The name halogen, meaning salt producer, was originally defined for chlorine (in 1811 by Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger), and it was later applied to the rest of the elements in this family. In 1822, Michael Faraday liquefied chlorine for the first time.[10] Chlorine was first used to bleach textiles in 1785.[11] In 1826, silver chloride was used to produce photographic images for the first time.[12] Chloroform was first used as an anesthetic in 1847.[12] Chlorine was first used as a germicide to prevent the spread of

Chlorine puerperal fever in the maternity wards of Vienna General Hospital in Austria in 1847,[13] and in 1850 by John Snow to disinfect the water supply in London after an outbreak of cholera. The US Department of Treasury called for all water to be disinfected with chlorine by 1918.[12] Polyvinylchloride (PVC) was invented in 1912, initially without a purpose.[12] Chlorine gas was first introduced as a weapon on April 22, 1915 at Ypres by the German Army,[14] [15] and the results of this weapon were disastrous because gas masks had not yet been invented.

5

Production
Gas extraction
Chlorine can be manufactured by electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine). The production of chlorine results in the co-products caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). These two products, as well as chlorine itself, are highly reactive. Chlorine can also be produced by the electrolysis of a solution of potassium chloride, in which case the co-products are hydrogen and caustic potash (potassium hydroxide). There are three industrial methods for the extraction of chlorine by electrolysis of chloride solutions, all proceeding according to the following equations: Cathode: 2 H+ (aq) + 2 e− → H (g)
2

Anode: 2 Cl− (aq) → Cl (g) + 2 e−
2

Overall process: 2 NaCl (or KCl) + 2 H O → Cl + H
2 2

2

+ 2 NaOH (or KOH) Mercury cell electrolysis Mercury cell electrolysis, also known as the Castner-Kellner process, was the first method used at the end of the nineteenth century to produce chlorine on an industrial scale.[16] [17] The "rocking" Chlorine gas cells used have been improved over the years.[18] Today, in the "primary cell", titanium anodes (formerly graphite ones) are placed in a sodium (or potassium) chloride solution flowing over a liquid mercury cathode. When a potential difference is applied and current flows, chlorine is released at the titanium anode and sodium (or potassium) dissolves in the mercury cathode forming an amalgam. This flows continuously into a separate reactor ("denuder" or "secondary cell"), where it is usually converted back to mercury by reaction with water, producing hydrogen and sodium (or potassium) hydroxide at a commercially useful concentration (50% by weight). The mercury is then recycled to the primary cell. The mercury process is the least energy-efficient of the three main technologies (mercury, diaphragm and membrane) and there are also concerns about mercury emissions. It is estimated that there are still around 100 mercury-cell plants operating worldwide. In Japan, mercury-based chloralkali production was virtually phased out by 1987 (except for

Chlorine the last two potassium chloride units shut down in 2003). In the United States, there will be only five mercury plants remaining in operation by the end of 2008. In Europe, mercury cells accounted for 43% of capacity in 2006 and Western European producers have committed to closing or converting all remaining chloralkali mercury plants by 2020.[19] Diaphragm cell electrolysis In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos (or polymer-fiber) diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode, preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode.[20] This technology was also developed at the end of the nineteenth century. There are several variants of this process: the Le Sueur cell (1893), the Hargreaves-Bird cell (1901), the Gibbs cell (1908), and the Townsend cell (1904).[21] [22] The cells vary in construction and placement of the diaphragm, with some having the diaphragm in direct contact with the cathode. The salt solution (brine) is continuously fed to the anode compartment and flows through the diaphragm to the cathode compartment, where the caustic alkali is produced and the brine is partially depleted. As a result, diaphragm methods produce alkali that is quite dilute (about 12%) and of lower purity than do mercury cell methods. But diaphragm cells are not burdened with the problem of preventing mercury discharge into the environment. They also operate at a lower voltage, resulting in an energy savings over the mercury cell method,[22] but large amounts of steam are required if the caustic has to be evaporated to the commercial concentration of 50%. Membrane cell electrolysis Development of this technology began in the 1970s. The electrolysis cell is divided into two "rooms" by a cation permeable membrane acting as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium (or potassium) chloride solution is passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration.[23] Sodium (or potassium) hydroxide solution is circulated through the cathode compartment, exiting at a higher concentration. A portion of the concentrated sodium hydroxide solution leaving the cell is diverted as product, while the remainder is diluted with deionized water and passed through the electrolysis apparatus again. This method is more efficient than the diaphragm cell and produces very pure sodium (or potassium) hydroxide at about 32% concentration, but requires very pure brine. Other electrolytic processes Although a much lower production scale is involved, electrolytic diaphragm and membrane technologies are also used industrially to recover chlorine from hydrochloric acid solutions, producing hydrogen (but no caustic alkali) as a co-product. Furthermore, electrolysis of fused chloride salts (Downs process) also enables chlorine to be produced, in this case as a by-product of the manufacture of metallic sodium or magnesium.

6

Chlorine

7

Other methods
Before electrolytic methods were used for chlorine production, the direct oxidation of hydrogen chloride with oxygen or air was exercised in the Deacon process: 4 HCl + O2 → 2 Cl2 + 2 H2O This reaction is accomplished with the use of copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) as a catalyst and is performed at high temperature (about 400 °C). The amount of extracted chlorine is approximately 80%. Due to the extremely corrosive reaction mixture, industrial use of this method is difficult and several pilot trials failed in the past. Nevertheless, recent developments are promising. Recently Sumitomo patented a catalyst for the Deacon process using ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO2).[24] Another earlier process to produce chlorine was to heat brine with acid and manganese dioxide. 2 NaCl + 2 H2SO4 + MnO2 → Na2SO4 + MnSO4 + 2 H2O + Cl2 Using this process, chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was the first to isolate chlorine in a laboratory. The manganese can be recovered by the Weldon process.[25] In the latter half of the 19th century, prior to the adoption of electrolytic methods of chlorine production, there was substantial production of chlorine by these reactions to meet demand for bleach and bleaching powder for use by textile industries; by the 1880s the UK, as well as supporting its own (then not inconsiderable) domestic textile production was exporting 70,000 tons per year of bleaching powder.[26] This demand was met by capturing hydrochloric acid driven off as a gas during the production of alkali by the Leblanc process, oxidizing this to chlorine (originally by reaction with manganese dioxide), later by direct oxidation by air using the Deacon process (in which case impurities capable of poisoning the catalyst had first to be removed), and subsequently absorbing the chlorine onto lime. Small amounts of chlorine gas can be made in the laboratory by putting concentrated hydrochloric acid in a flask with a side arm and rubber tubing attached. Manganese dioxide is then added and the flask stoppered. The reaction is not greatly exothermic. As chlorine is denser than air, it can be collected by placing the tube inside a flask where it will displace the air. Once full, the collecting flask can be stoppered. Another method for producing small amounts of chlorine gas in a lab is by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid (typically about 5M) to sodium hypochlorite or sodium chlorate solution.

Chlorine

8

Industrial production
Large-scale production of chlorine involves several steps and many pieces of equipment. The description below is typical of a membrane plant. The plant also simultaneously produces sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and hydrogen gas. A typical plant consists of brine production/treatment, cell operations, chlorine cooling & drying, chlorine compression & liquefaction, liquid chlorine storage & loading, caustic handling, evaporation, storage & loading and hydrogen handling. Brine Key to the production of chlorine is the operation of the brine saturation/treatment system. Maintaining a properly saturated solution with the correct purity is vital, especially for membrane cells. Many plants have a salt pile which is sprayed with recycled brine. Others have slurry tanks that are fed raw salt.

Liquid Chlorine Analysis

The raw brine is partially or totally treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and a flocculant to reduce calcium, magnesium and other impurities. The brine proceeds to a large clarifier or a filter where the impurities are removed. The total brine is additionally filtered before entering ion exchangers to further remove impurities. At several points in this process, the brine is tested for hardness and strength. After the ion exchangers, the brine is considered pure, and is transferred to storage tanks to be pumped into the cell room. Brine, fed to the cell line, is heated to the correct temperature to control exit brine temperatures according to the electrical load. Brine exiting the cell room must be treated to remove residual chlorine and control pH levels before being returned to the saturation stage. This can be accomplished via dechlorination towers with acid and sodium bisulfite addition. Failure to remove chlorine can result in damage to the cells. Brine should be monitored for accumulation of both chlorate anions and sulfate anions, and either have a treatment system in place, or purging of the brine loop to maintain safe levels, since chlorate anions can diffuse through the membranes and contaminate the caustic, while sulfate anions can damage the anode surface coating. Cell room The building that houses many electrolytic cells is usually called a cell room or cell house, although some plants are built outdoors. This building contains support structures for the cells, connections for supplying electrical power to the cells and piping for the fluids. Monitoring and control of the temperatures of the feed caustic and brine is done to control exit temperatures. Also monitored are the voltages of each cell which vary with the electrical load on the cell room that is used to control the rate of production. Monitoring and control of the pressures in the chlorine and hydrogen headers is also done via pressure control valves. Direct current is supplied via a rectified power source. Plant load is controlled by varying the current to the cells. As the current is increased, flow rates for brine and caustic and deionized water are increased, while lowering the feed temperatures. Cooling and drying Chlorine gas exiting the cell line must be cooled and dried since the exit gas can be over 80°C and contains moisture that allows chlorine gas to be corrosive to iron piping. Cooling

Chlorine the gas allows for a large amount of moisture from the brine to condense out of the gas stream. This reduces both the cooling requirements and feed flow of sulfuric acid required in the drying towers. Cooling also improves the efficiency of both the compression and the liquefaction stage that follows. Chlorine exiting is ideally between 18°C and 25°C. After cooling the gas stream passes through a series of towers with counter flowing sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid is fed into the final tower at 98% and the first tower typically has a strength between 66% and 76% depending on materials of construction. These towers progressively remove any remaining moisture from the chlorine gas. After exiting the drying towers the chlorine is filtered to remove any remaining sulfuric acid. Compression and liquefaction Several methods of compression may be used: liquid ring, reciprocating, or centrifugal. The chlorine gas is compressed at this stage and may be further cooled by inter- and after-coolers. After compression it flows to the liquefiers, where it is cooled enough to liquefy. Non condensable gases and remaining chlorine gas are vented off as part of the pressure control of the liquefaction systems. These gases are routed to a gas scrubber, producing sodium hypochlorite, or used in the production of hydrochloric acid (by combustion with hydrogen) or ethylene dichloride (by reaction with ethylene). Storage and loading Liquid chlorine is typically gravity-fed to storage tanks. It can be loaded into rail or road tankers via pumps or padded with compressed dry gas. Caustic handling, evaporation, storage and loading Caustic, fed to the cell room flows in a loop that is simultaneously bled off to storage with a part diluted with deionized water and returned to the cell line for strengthening within the cells. The caustic exiting the cell line must be monitored for strength, to maintain safe concentrations. Too strong or too weak a solution may damage the membranes. Membrane cells typically produce caustic in the range of 30% to 33% by weight. The feed caustic flow is heated at low electrical loads to control its exit temperature. Higher loads require the caustic to be cooled, to maintain correct exit temperatures. The caustic exiting to storage is pulled from a storage tank and may be diluted for sale to customers who require weak caustic or for use on site. Another stream may be pumped into a multiple effect evaporator set to produce commercial 50% caustic. Rail cars and tanker trucks are loaded at loading stations via pumps. Hydrogen handling Hydrogen produced may be vented unprocessed directly to the atmosphere or cooled, compressed and dried for use in other processes on site or sold to a customer via pipeline, cylinders or trucks. Some possible uses include the manufacture of hydrochloric acid or hydrogen peroxide, as well as desulfurization of petroleum oils, or use as a fuel in boilers or fuel cells. In Porsgrunn the byproduct is used for the hydrogen fueling station at Hynor. Energy consumption Production of chlorine is extremely energy intensive.[27] Energy consumption per unit weight of product is not far below that for iron and steel manufacture[28] and greater than for the production of glass[29] or cement.[30] Since electricity is an indispensable raw material for the production of chlorine, the energy consumption corresponding to the electrochemical reaction cannot be reduced. Energy savings arise primarily through applying more efficient technologies and reducing ancillary

9

Chlorine energy use.

10

Compounds
See also Chlorine compounds For general references to the chloride ion (Cl−), including references to specific chlorides, see chloride. For other chlorine compounds see chlorate (ClO−3), chlorite (ClO−2), hypochlorite (ClO−), and perchlorate (ClO−4), and chloramine (NH2Cl).[31] Other chlorine-containing compounds include: • Fluorides: chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5) • Oxides: chlorine dioxide (ClO2), dichlorine monoxide (Cl2O), dichlorine heptoxide (Cl2O7) • Acids: hydrochloric acid (HCl), chloric acid (HClO3), and perchloric acid (HClO4)

Oxidation states
Oxidation state −1 0 +1 +3 +5 +7 Name Formula Example compounds

chlorides chlorine hypochlorites chlorites chlorates perchlorates

Cl− Cl2 ClO− ClO−2 ClO−3 ClO−4

ionic chlorides, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid elemental chlorine sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite sodium chlorite sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, chloric acid potassium perchlorate, perchloric acid, magnesium perchlorate organic perchlorates, ammonium perchlorate

Chlorine exists in all odd numbered oxidation states from −1 to +7, as well as the elemental state of zero. Progressing through the states, hydrochloric acid can be oxidized using manganese dioxide, or hydrogen chloride gas oxidized catalytically by air to form elemental chlorine gas. The solubility of chlorine in water is increased if the water contains dissolved alkali hydroxide. This is due to disproportionation: Cl2 + 2 OH− → Cl− + ClO− + H2O In hot concentrated alkali solution disproportionation continues: 2 ClO− → Cl− + ClO−2 ClO− + ClO−2 → Cl− + ClO−3 Sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate can be crystallized from solutions formed by the above reactions. If their crystals are heated, they undergo the final disproportionation step. 4 ClO−3 → Cl− + 3 ClO−4 This same progression from chloride to perchlorate can be accomplished by electrolysis. The anode reaction progression is:[32]
Reaction Electrode potential

Chlorine

11
+0.89 volts +0.67 volts +0.33 volts +0.35 volts

Cl− + 2 OH− → ClO− + H2O + 2 e− ClO− + 2 OH− → ClO−2 + H2O + 2 e− ClO−2 + 2 OH− → ClO−3 + H2O + 2 e− ClO−3 + 2 OH− → ClO−4 + H2O + 2 e−

Each step is accompanied at the cathode by 2 H2O + 2 e− → 2 OH− + H2 (−0.83 volts)

Applications and uses
Production of industrial and consumer products
Chlorine's principal applications are in the production of a wide range of industrial and consumer products.[33] [34] For example, it is used in making plastics, solvents for dry cleaning and metal degreasing, textiles, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, insecticides, dyestuffs, household cleaning products, etc.

Purification and disinfection
Chlorine is an important chemical for water purification (such as water treatment plants), in disinfectants, and in bleach. Chlorine in water is more than three times more effective as a disinfectant against Escherichia coli than an equivalent concentration of bromine, and is more than six times more effective than an equivalent concentration of iodine.[35] Chlorine is usually used (in the form of hypochlorous acid) to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools. In most private swimming pools chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite, formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide, or solid tablets of chlorinated isocyanurates. Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated.[3] (See also chlorination) It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of adding chlorine are used. These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (dihydrate or anhydrous), sometimes referred to as "dichlor", and trichloro-s-triazinetrione, sometimes referred to as "trichlor". These compounds are stable while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form. When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which acts as a general biocide killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.

Chlorine

12

Chemistry
Elemental chlorine is an oxidizer. It undergoes halogen substitution reactions with lower halide salts. For example, chlorine gas bubbled through a solution of bromide or iodide anions oxidizes them to bromine and iodine respectively. Like the other halogens, chlorine participates in free-radical substitution reactions with hydrogen-containing organic compounds. This reaction is often—but not invariably—non-regioselective, and hence, may result in a mixture of isomeric products. It is often difficult to control the degree of substitution as well, so multiple substitutions are common. If the different reaction products are easily separated, e.g. by distillation, substitutive free-radical chlorination (in some cases accompanied by concurrent thermal dehydrochlorination) may be a useful synthetic route. Industrial examples of this are the production of methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride from methane, allyl chloride from propylene, and trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from 1,2-dichloroethane. Like the other halides, chlorine undergoes electrophilic additions reactions, most notably, the chlorination of alkenes and aromatic compounds with a Lewis acid catalyst. Organic chlorine compounds tend to be less reactive in nucleophilic substitution reactions than the corresponding bromine or iodine derivatives, but they tend to be cheaper. They may be activated for reaction by substituting with a tosylate group, or by the use of a catalytic amount of sodium iodide. Chlorine is used extensively in organic and inorganic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution reactions because chlorine often imparts many desired properties to an organic compound, due to its electronegativity. Chlorine compounds are used as intermediates in the production of a number of important commercial products that do not contain chlorine. Examples are: polycarbonates, polyurethanes, silicones, polytetrafluoroethylene, carboxymethyl cellulose and propylene oxide.

Use as a weapon
• World War I Chlorine gas, also known as bertholite, was first used as a weapon in World War I by Germany on April 22, 1915 in the Second Battle of Ypres. As described by the soldiers it had a distinctive smell of a mixture between pepper and pineapple. It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. Chlorine can react with water in the mucosa of the lungs to form hydrochloric acid, an irritant which can be lethal. The damage done by chlorine gas can be prevented by a gas mask, or other filtration method, which makes the overall chance of death by chlorine gas much lower than those of other chemical weapons. It was pioneered by a German scientist later to be a Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, in collaboration with the German chemical conglomerate IG Farben, who developed methods for discharging chlorine gas against an entrenched enemy. It is alleged that Haber's role in the use of chlorine as a deadly weapon drove his wife, Clara Immerwahr, to suicide. After its first use, chlorine was utilized by both sides as a chemical weapon, but it was soon replaced by the more deadly gases phosgene and mustard gas.[36] • Iraq War

Chlorine Chlorine gas has also been used by insurgents against the local population and coalition forces in the Iraq War in the form of Chlorine bombs. On March 17, 2007, for example, three chlorine filled trucks were detonated in the Anbar province killing two and sickening over 350.[37] Other chlorine bomb attacks resulted in higher death tolls, with more than 30 deaths on two separate occasions.[38] Most of the deaths were caused by the force of the explosions rather than the effects of chlorine, since the toxic gas is readily dispersed and diluted in the atmosphere by the blast. The Iraqi authorities have tightened up security for chlorine, which is essential for providing safe drinking water for the population.

13

Chlorine cracking
The element is widely used for purifying water owing to its powerful oxidizing properties, especially potable water supplies and water used in swimming pools. Several catastrophic collapses of swimming pool ceilings have occurred owing to stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel rods used to suspend them. Some polymers are also sensitive to attack, including acetal resin and polybutene. Both materials were used in hot and cold water domestic supplies, and stress Chlorine "attack" of an acetal resin plumbing joint. corrosion cracking caused widespread failures in the USA in the 1980s and '90s. One example shows an acetal joint in a water supply system, which when it fractured, caused substantial physical damage to computers in the labs below the supply. The cracks started at injection molding defects in the joint and grew slowly until finally triggered. The fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts which were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure.

Other uses
Chlorine is used in the manufacture of numerous organic chlorine compounds, the most significant of which in terms of production volume are 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride, intermediates in the production of PVC. Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, allyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes. Chlorine is also used in the production of chlorates and in bromine extraction.

Chlorine

14

Health effects

NFPA 704

0 3 0
OX Chlorine is a toxic gas that irritates the respiratory system. Because it is heavier than air, it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Chlorine gas is a strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials.[39] Chlorine is detectable in concentrations of as low as 1 ppm. Coughing and vomiting may occur at 30 ppm and lung damage at 60 ppm. About 1000 ppm can be fatal after a few deep breaths of the gas.[4] Breathing lower concentrations can aggravate the respiratory system, and exposure to the gas can irritate the eyes.[40] Chlorine's toxicity comes from its oxidizing power. When chlorine is inhaled at concentrations above 30ppm it begins to react with water and cells which change it into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HClO). When used at specified levels for water disinfection, although chlorine reaction with water itself usually doesn't represent a major concern for human health, other materials present in the water can generate disinfection by-products that can damage human health.[41] [42]

See also
• Chloride • Polymer degradation

External links
• Chlorine Institute [43] - Trade association and lobby group representing the interests of the chlorine industry • Chlorine Online [44] - Chlorine Online is an information resource produced by Eurochlor the business association of the European chlor-alkali industry • Electrolytic production [45] • Computational Chemistry Wiki [46] • Chlorine Production Using Mercury, Environmental Considerations and Alternatives [47] • National Pollutant Inventory - Chlorine [48] • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Chlorine Page [49] • WebElements.com — Chlorine
[50]

Chlorine

15

References
[1] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition, CRC press. [2] Martha Windholz, editor ; Susan Budavari, associate editor ; Lorraine Y. Stroumtsos, assistant editor ; Margaret Noether Fertig, assistant editor. (1976). Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Co.. ISBN 0911910263. [3] C. R. Hammond (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. [4] " WebElements.com – Chlorine (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ Cl/ index. html)". Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. . Retrieved 2007-03-17. [5] " Risk assessment and the cycling of natural organochlorines (http:/ / www. eurochlor. org/ upload/ documents/ document236. pdf)". Euro Chlor. . Retrieved 2007-08-12. [6] " The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania (http:/ / antiquity. ac. uk/ ProjGall/ weller/ )". . Retrieved 2008-07-10. [7] " 17 Chlorine (http:/ / elements. vanderkrogt. net/ elem/ cl. html)". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. . Retrieved 2008-09-12. [8] Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac, Louis-Jacques Thénard (1809). " On the nature and the properties of muriatic acid and of oxygenated muriatic acid (http:/ / web. lemoyne. edu/ ~giunta/ thenard. html)". Mémoires de Physique et de Chimie de la Société d'Arcueil 2: 339–358. . [9] Sir Humphry Davy (1811). " On a Combination of Oxymuriatic Gas and Oxygene Gas (http:/ / www. chemteam. info/ Chem-History/ Davy-Chlorine-1811. html)". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 101: 155–162. doi: 10.1098/rstl.1811.0008 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rstl. 1811. 0008). . [10] " Discovery of Chlorine (http:/ / badley. info/ history/ Discovery-of-Chlorine-Great-Britain. event. html)". . Retrieved 2008-07-10. [11] " History of Chlorine (http:/ / members. aol. com/ manbio999/ chlorine. htm)". . Retrieved 2008-07-10. [12] Jacqueline Brazin. " Chlorine & its Consequences (http:/ / ocw. mit. edu/ NR/ rdonlyres/ Earth--Atmospheric--and-Planetary-Sciences/ 12-091January--IAP--2006/ 0EF9264B-3205-44A3-8306-8E8364917DF0/ 0/ brazin. pdf)". . Retrieved 2008-07-10. [13] " Chlorine Story (http:/ / www. americanchemistry. com/ s_chlorine/ sec_content. asp?CID=1166& DID=4476& CTYPEID=109)". americanchemistry. . Retrieved 2008-07-10. [14] " Chlorine - History (http:/ / www. drcordas. com/ education/ weaponsmassd/ Chlorine. pdf)". . Retrieved 2008-07-10. [15] " Weaponry: Use of Chlorine Gas Cylinders in World War I (http:/ / www. historynet. com/ weaponry-use-of-chlorine-gas-cylinders-in-world-war-i. htm)". historynet.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-10. [16] Pauling, Linus (1970). General Chemistry. Dover publications. ISBN 0-486-65622-5. [17] " Electrolytic Processes for Chlorine and Caustic Soda (http:/ / www. lenntech. com/ Chemistry/ electolytic-chlorine-caustic. htm)". Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V., Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands. . Retrieved 2007-03-17. [18] " Mercury cell (http:/ / www. eurochlor. org/ animations/ mercury-cell. asp)". Euro Chlor. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [19] " Regional Awareness-raising Workshop on Mercury Pollution (http:/ / www. chem. unep. ch/ Mercury/ Pretoria-proceedings-finalPDFwriter. pdf)". UNEP. . Retrieved 2007-10-28. [20] " Diaphragm cell (http:/ / www. eurochlor. org/ animations/ diaphragm-cell. asp)". Euro Chlor. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [21] " The Electrolysis of Brine (http:/ / www. saltsense. co. uk/ hist-chem12. htm)". Salt Manufacturers' Association. . Retrieved 2007-03-17. [22] Kiefer, David M.. " When the Industry Charged Ahead (http:/ / pubs. acs. org/ subscribe/ journals/ tcaw/ 11/ i04/ html/ 04chemistry. html)". Chemistry Chronicles. . Retrieved 2007-03-17. [23] " Membrane cell (http:/ / www. eurochlor. org/ animations/ membrane-cell. asp)". Euro Chlor. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [24] Lopez, N (2008). "Mechanism of HCl oxidation (Deacon process) over RuO2". Journal of Catalysis 255: 29. doi: 10.1016/j.jcat.2008.01.020 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. jcat. 2008. 01. 020). [25] " The Chlorine Industry (http:/ / www. lenntech. com/ Chemistry/ chlorine-industry. htm)". Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V., Rotterdamseweg 402 M, 2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands. . Retrieved 2007-03-17. [26] Reader W J (1970 SBN 19 215937 2). Imperial Chemical Industries; A History. Volume 1. The Forerunners 1870-1926. Oxford University Press. p. 102. citing Haber L F (1958). The Chemical Industry during the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Chlorine
[27] " Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Chlor-Alkali Manufacturing Industry (http:/ / www. jrc. es/ pub/ english. cgi/ d733217/ 05 Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Chlor-Alkali Manufacturing industry (adopted Dec 2001) - 5. 2 Mb)". European Commission. . Retrieved 2007-09-02. [28] " Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production of Iron and Steel (http:/ / www. jrc. es/ pub/ english. cgi/ d733208/ 02 Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production of Iron and Steel (adopted Dec 2001) - 9. 4Mb)". European Commission. . Retrieved 2007-09-02. [29] " Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Glass Manufacturing Industry (http:/ / www. jrc. es/ pub/ english. cgi/ d733226/ 08 Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Glass Manufacturing Industry (adopted Dec 2001) - 2. 7 Mb)". European Commission. . Retrieved 2007-09-02. [30] " Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries (http:/ / www. jrc. es/ pub/ english. cgi/ d733211/ 03 Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries (adopted Dec 2001) - 1. 3 Mb)". European Commission. . Retrieved 2007-09-02. [31] " Chlorine compounds of the month (http:/ / www. eurochlor. org/ index. asp?page=678)". Euro Chlor. . Retrieved 2007-08-29. [32] Cotton, F. Albert and Wilkinson, Geoffrey (1966). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed.. John Wiley & sons. p. 568. [33] " Uses (http:/ / www. eurochlor. org/ uses)". Euro Chlor. . Retrieved 2007-08-20. [34] " Chlorine Tree (http:/ / www. chlorinetree. org)". Chlorine Tree. . Retrieved 2007-08-20. [35] Koski TA, Stuart LS, Ortenzio LF (1966). " Comparison of chlorine, bromine, iodine as disinfectants for swimming pool water (http:/ / www. pubmedcentral. nih. gov/ articlerender. fcgi?tool=pubmed& pubmedid=4959984)". Applied Microbiology 14 (2): 276–279. PMID 4959984. . [36] " Weapons of War: Poison Gas (http:/ / www. firstworldwar. com/ weaponry/ gas. htm)". First World War.com. . Retrieved 2007-08-12. [37] Mahdi, Basim (2007-03-17). " Iraq gas attack makes hundreds ill (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2007/ WORLD/ meast/ 03/ 17/ iraq. main/ index. html)". CNN. . Retrieved 2007-03-17. [38] " 'Chlorine bomb' hits Iraq village (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 6660585. stm)". BBC News. 2007-05-17. . Retrieved 2007-05-17. [39] " Chlorine MSDS (http:/ / www. westlake. com/ datasheets/ MSDS_Chlorine. pdf)". October 23, 1997 (Revised November 1999. . [40] Chris Winder (2001). "The Toxicology of Chlorine". Environmental Research 85 (2): 105–114. doi: 10.1006/enrs.2000.4110 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1006/ enrs. 2000. 4110). [41] " What's in your Water?: Disinfectants Create Toxic By-products (http:/ / www. aces. uiuc. edu/ news/ stories/ news4724. html)". ACES News. College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2009-03-31. . Retrieved 2009-03-31. [42] Richardson, Sd; Plewa, Mj; Wagner, Ed; Schoeny, R; Demarini, Dm (Nov 2007). "Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research". Mutation research 636 (1-3): 178–242. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2007.09.001 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. mrrev. 2007. 09. 001). PMID 17980649.  edit (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template:cite_pmid/ 17980649) [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] http:/ / www. chlorineinstitute. org/ http:/ / www. eurochlor. org/ http:/ / electrochem. cwru. edu/ encycl/ art-b01-brine. htm http:/ / www. compchemwiki. org/ index. php?title=Cl2 http:/ / www. oceana. org/ chlorine http:/ / www. npi. gov. au/ database/ substance-info/ profiles/ 20. html http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ chlorine/ http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ Cl/ index. html

16

Article Sources and Contributors

17

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Argon

1

Argon
chlorine ← argon → potassiumNe ↑ Ar ↓ Kr

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

18Ar
Periodic table

Appearance tasteless, odorless, colorless gas General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensityMelting pointBoiling pointTriple pointCritical pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 10 47 100 53 1k 61 10 k 71 100 k 87

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 2665.8 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3931 kJ·mol−1Covalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivitySpeed of soundCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of argon
iso
36

N.A. 0.337% syn 0.063% syn
36

half-life Ar is stable with 18 neutron ε

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

Ar Ar Ar Ar

37

35 d
38

0.813

37

Cl

38

Ar is stable with 20 neutron β− 0.565
39

39

269 y

K

Argon

2
99.600% syn syn

40

Ar Ar Ar

40

Ar is stable with 22 neutron β− β− 2.49 0.600
41

41

109.34 min 32.9 y

K K

42

42

argon, Ar, 18 noble gases 18, 3, p39.948(1) g·mol−1 [Ne] 3s2 3p6 2, 8, 8 (Image) gas (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 1.784 g/L 83.80 K,−189.35 °C,−308.83 °F 87.30 K,−185.85 °C,−302.53 °F 83.8058 K (-189°C), 69 kPa 150.87 K, 4.898 MPa 1.18 kJ·mol−1 6.43 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1 0 no data (Pauling scale) 1st: 1520.6 kJ·mol−1106±10 pm 188 pm face-centered cubic diamagnetic[1] (300 K) 17.72x10-3  W·m−1·K−1 (gas, 27 °C) 323 m/s 7440–37–1 Argon (pronounced /ˈɑrɡɒn/) is a chemical element designated by the symbol Ar. Argon has atomic number 18 and is the third element in group 18 of the periodic table (noble gases). Argon is present in the Earth's atmosphere at 0.94%. Terrestrially, it is the most abundant and most frequently used of the noble gases. Argon's full outer shell makes it stable and resistant to bonding with other elements. Its triple point temperature of 83.8058 K is a defining fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990.

Cavendish's method for the isolation of argon. The gases are contained in a test-tube (A) standing over a large quantity of weak alkali (B), and the current is conveyed in wires insulated by U-shaped glass tubes (CC) passing through the liquid and round the mouth of the test-tube. The inner platinum ends (DD) of the wire receive a current from a battery of five Grove cells and a Ruhmkorff coil of medium size.

Argon

3

Characteristics
Argon has approximately the same solubility in water as oxygen gas and is 2.5 times more soluble in water than nitrogen gas. Argon is colorless, odorless, tasteless and nontoxic in both its liquid and gaseous forms. Argon is inert under most conditions and forms no confirmed stable compounds at room temperature. Although argon is a noble gas, it has been found to have the capability of forming some compounds. For example, the creation of argon fluorohydride (HArF), a marginally stable compound of argon with A small piece of rapidly melting argon ice. fluorine and hydrogen, was reported by researchers at the University of Helsinki in 2000.[2] Although the neutral ground-state chemical compounds of argon are presently limited to HArF, argon can form clathrates with water when atoms of it are trapped in a lattice of the water molecules.[3] Also argon-containing ions and excited state complexes, such as ArH+ and ArF, respectively, are known to exist. Theoretical calculations have shown several argon compounds that should be stable but for which no synthesis routes are currently known.

History
Argon (αργος, Greek meaning "inactive", in reference to its chemical inactivity)[4] [5] [6] was suspected to be present in air by Henry Cavendish in 1785 but was not isolated until 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay in Scotland in an experiment in which they removed all of the oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen from a sample of clean air.[7] [8] They had determined that nitrogen produced from chemical compounds was one-half percent lighter than nitrogen from the atmosphere. The difference seemed insignificant, but it was important enough to attract their attention for many months. They concluded that there was another gas in the air mixed in with the nitrogen.[9] Argon was also encountered in 1882 through independent research of H. F. Newall and W.N. Hartley. Each observed new lines in the color spectrum of air but were unable to identify the element responsible for the lines. Argon became the first member of the noble gases to be discovered. The symbol for argon is now Ar, but up until 1957 it was A.[10]

Occurrence
Argon constitutes 0.934% by volume and 1.29% by mass of the Earth's atmosphere, and air is the primary raw material used by industry to produce purified argon products. Argon is isolated from air by fractionation, most commonly by cryogenic fractional distillation, a process that also produces purified nitrogen, oxygen, neon, krypton and xenon.[11] The Martian atmosphere in contrast contains 1.6% of argon-40 and 5 ppm of argon-36. The Mariner space probe fly-by of the planet Mercury in 1973 found that Mercury has a very thin atmosphere with 70% argon, believed to result from releases of the gas as a decay product from radioactive materials on the planet. In 2005, the Huygens probe also discovered the presence of argon-40 on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.[12]

Argon

4

Isotopes
The main isotopes of argon found on Earth are 40Ar (99.6%), 36Ar (0.34%), and 38Ar (0.06%). Naturally occurring 40K with a half-life of 1.25 × 109 years, decays to stable 40Ar (11.2%) by electron capture and positron emission, and also to stable 40Ca (88.8%) via beta decay. These properties and ratios are used to determine the age of rocks.[13] In the Earth's atmosphere, 39Ar is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily with 40Ar. In the subsurface environment, it is also produced through neutron capture by 39K or alpha emission by calcium. 37Ar is created from the decay of 40Ca as a result of subsurface nuclear explosions. It has a half-life of 35 days.[13]

Compounds
Argon’s complete octet of electrons indicates full s and p subshells. This full outer energy level makes argon very stable and extremely resistant to bonding with other elements. Before 1962, argon and the other noble gases were considered to be chemically inert and unable to form compounds; however, compounds of the heavier noble gases have since been synthesized. In August 2000, the first argon compounds were formed by researchers at the University of Helsinki. By shining ultraviolet light onto frozen argon containing a small amount of hydrogen fluoride, argon fluorohydride (HArF) was formed.[2] [14] It is stable up to 40 kelvins (−233 °C).

Production
Industrial Argon is produced industrially by the fractional distillation of liquid air, a process that separates liquid nitrogen, which boils at 77.3 K, from argon, which boils at 87.3 K and oxygen, which boils at 90.2 K. About 700,000 tons of argon are produced worldwide every year. [15] In radioactive decays
40

Ar, the most abundant isotope of argon, is produced by the decay of 40K with a half-life of 1.25 × 109 years by electron capture or positron emission. Because of this, it is used in potassium-argon dating to determine the age of rocks.

Argon

5

Applications
There are several different reasons why argon is used in particular applications: • An inert gas is needed. In particular, argon is the cheapest alternative when diatomic nitrogen is not sufficiently inert. • Low thermal conductivity is required. • The electronic properties (ionization and/or the emission spectrum) are necessary. Other noble gases would probably work as well in most of these applications, but argon is by far the cheapest. Argon is inexpensive since it is a byproduct of the production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen, both of which are used on a large industrial scale. The other noble gases (except helium) are produced this way as well, but argon is the most plentiful since it has the highest concentration in the atmosphere. The bulk of argon applications arise simply because it is inert and relatively cheap.

Cylinders containing argon gas for use in extinguishing fire without damaging server equipment

Industrial processes
Argon is used in some high-temperature industrial processes, where ordinarily non-reactive substances become reactive. For example, an argon atmosphere is used in graphite electric furnaces to prevent the graphite from burning. For some of these processes, the presence of nitrogen or oxygen gases might cause defects within the material. Argon is used in various types of metal inert gas welding such as tungsten inert gas welding, as well as in the processing of titanium and other reactive elements. An argon atmosphere is also used for growing crystals of silicon and germanium. Argon is an asphyxiant in the poultry industry, either for mass culling following disease outbreaks, or as a means of slaughter more humane than the electric bath. Argon's relatively high density causes it to remain close to the ground during gassing. Its non-reactive nature makes it suitable in a food product, and since it replaces oxygen within the dead bird, argon also enhances shelf life.[16] Argon is sometimes used for extinguishing fires where damage to equipment is to be avoided (see photo).

Argon

6

Preservative
Argon is used to displace oxygenand moisture-containing air in packaging material to extend the shelf-lives of the contents. Aerial oxidation, hydrolysis, and other chemical reactions which degrade the products are retarded or prevented entirely. Bottles of high-purity chemicals and certain pharmaceutical products are available in sealed bottles or ampoules packed in argon. In wine making, argon is used to top-off barrels to avoid the aerial oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during the aging process.

A sample of caesium is packed under argon to avoid reactions with air

Argon is also available in aerosol-type cans, which may be used to preserve compounds such as varnish, polyurethane, paint, etc. for storage after opening.[17] Since 2001 the American National Archives stores important national documents such as the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution within argon-filled cases to retard their degradation. Using argon reduces gas leakage, compared with the helium used in the preceding five decades. [18]

Laboratory equipment
Argon may be used as the inert gas within Schlenk lines and gloveboxes. The use of argon over comparatively less expensive dinitrogen is preferred where nitrogen may react. Argon may be used as the carrier gas in gas chromatography and in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; it is the gas of choice for the plasma used in ICP spectroscopy. Argon is preferred for the sputter coating of specimens for scanning electron microscopy. Argon ions are also used for sputtering in microelectronics.

Gloveboxes are typically filled with argon, which recirculate over scrubbers to maintain an oxygen- and moisture-free atmosphere

Medical use
Cryosurgery procedures such as cryoablation use liquefied argon to destroy cancer cells. In surgery it is used in a procedure called "argon enhanced coagulation" which is a form of argon plasma beam electrosurgery. The procedure carries a risk of producing gas embolism in the patient and has resulted in the death of one person via this type of accident.[19] Blue argon lasers are used in surgery to weld arteries, destroy tumors, and to correct eye defects.[20] It has also used experimentally to replace nitrogen in the breathing or decompression mix, to speed the elimination of dissolved nitrogen from the blood.[21] See Argox (scuba).

Argon

7

Lighting
Incandescent lights are filled with argon, to preserve the filaments at high temperature. It is used for the specific way it ionizes and emits light, such as in plasma globes and calorimetry in experimental particle physics. Gas-discharge lamps filled with argon provide blue light. Argon is also used for the creation of blue laser light.

Miscellaneous uses

It is used for thermal insulation in energy efficient windows.[22] Argon is also used in technical scuba diving to inflate a dry suit, because it is inert and has low thermal conductivity.[23]

An argon & mercury vapor discharge tube.

Compressed argon is allowed to expand, to cool the seeker heads of the AIM-9 Sidewinder missile, and other missiles that use cooled thermal seeker heads. The gas is stored at high pressure.[24] Argon-39, with a half-life of 269 years, has been used for a number of applications, primarily ice core and ground water dating. Also, potassium-argon dating is used in dating igneous rocks.

Safety
Although argon is non-toxic, it does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen and is thus an asphyxiant. Argon is 25% more dense than air and is considered highly dangerous in closed areas. It is also difficult to detect because it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. In confined spaces, it is known to result in death due to asphyxiation. A 1994 incident in Alaska that resulted in one fatality highlights the dangers of argon tank leakage in confined spaces, and emphasizes the need for proper use, storage and handling.[25]

Further reading
• USGS Periodic Table - Argon
[26]

• Emsley, J., Nature’s Building Blocks; Oxford University Press: Oxford, NY, 2001; pp. 35–39. • Brown, T. L.; Bursten, B. E.; LeMay, H. E., In Chemistry: The Central Science, 10th ed.; Challice, J.; Draper, P.; Folchetti, N. et al.; Eds.; Pearson Education, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2006; pp. 276 and 289. • Triple point temperature: 83.8058 K - Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) [27]". Metrologia 27: 3–10. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/27/1/002 [28]. http:/ / www. bipm. org/ en/ publications/ its-90. html. • Triple point pressure: 69 kPa - "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2005.

Argon

8

External links
• • • • • WebElements.com – Argon [29] Diving applications: Why Argon? [30] Argon Ar Properties, Uses, Applications [31] Leftover Finish Preserver – Bloxygen [32] Periodic Table of the Elements: Argon [33]

pnb:‫نوگرآ‬

References
[1] Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. fnal. gov/ hardware/ cal/ lvps_info/ engineering/ elementmagn. pdf), in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81th edition, CRC press. [2] " HArF! Argon's not so noble after all - researchers make argon fluorohydride (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m1200/ is_9_158/ ai_65368548)". . [3] Belosludov, V. R.; O. S. Subbotin, D. S. Krupskii, O. V. Prokuda, and Y. Kawazoe (2006). "Microscopic model of clathrate compounds". J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 29: 1. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/29/1/001 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1088/ 1742-6596/ 29/ 1/ 001). [4] Hiebert, E. N. (1963). "In Noble-Gas Compounds". in Hyman, H. H.. Historical Remarks on the Discovery of Argon: The First Noble Gas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp. 3–20. [5] Travers, M. W. (1928). The Discovery of the Rare Gases. London: Edward Arnold & Co.. pp. 1–7. [6] Rayleigh, Lord; Ramsay, W. (1895). "Argon: A New Constituent of the Atmosphere". Chemical News 71,: 51–58. [7] Lord Rayleigh;William Ramsay (1894 - 1895). " Argon, a New Constituent of the Atmosphere (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 115394)". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 57 (1): 265–287. doi: 10.1098/rspl.1894.0149 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rspl. 1894. 0149). . [8] William Ramsay. " Nobel Lecture in Chemistry, 1904 (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ chemistry/ laureates/ 1904/ ramsay-lecture. html)". . [9] " About Argon, the Inert; The New Element Supposedly Found in the Atmosphere (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=9B04E3D61139E033A25750C0A9659C94649ED7CF)". The New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [10] Holden, Norman E. (12). " History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers (http:/ / www. nndc. bnl. gov/ content/ elements. html)". National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). . [11] " Argon, Ar (http:/ / elements. etacude. com/ Ar. php)". . Retrieved 2007-03-08. [12] " Seeing, touching and smelling the extraordinarily Earth-like world of Titan (http:/ / www. esa. int/ esaCP/ SEMHB881Y3E_index_0. html)". European Space Agency. 21. . [13] " 40Ar/39Ar dating and errors (http:/ / www. geoberg. de/ text/ geology/ 07011601. php)". . Retrieved 2007-03-07. [14] Bartlett, Neil. " The Noble Gases (http:/ / pubs. acs. org/ cen/ 80th/ noblegases. html)". Chemical & Engineering News. . [15] " Periodic Table of Elements: Argon – Ar (http:/ / environmentalchemistry. com/ yogi/ periodic/ Ar. html)". Environmentalchemistry.com. . Retrieved 2008-09-12. [16] D. L. Fletcher. "[Downbound.com Symposium: Recent Advances in Poultry Slaughter Technology Slaughter Technology]". Downbound.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01. [17] US Patent 6629402 [18] " Schedule for Renovation of the National Archives Building (http:/ / www. archives. gov/ press/ press-kits/ charters. html#pressrelaese1)". . Retrieved 2009-07-07. [19] " Fatal Gas Embolism Caused by Overpressurization during Laparoscopic Use of Argon Enhanced Coagulation (http:/ / www. mdsr. ecri. org/ summary/ detail. aspx?doc_id=8248)". MDSR. 24. . [20] Fujimoto, James; Rox Anderson, R. (2006). " Tissue Optics, Laser-Tissue Interaction, and Tissue Engineering (http:/ / www. spie. org/ Conferences/ Programs/ 06/ pw/ BiOSAbstracts. pdf)" (pdf). Biomedical Optics. pp. 77-88. . Retrieved 2007-03-08. [21] Pilmanis Andrew A, Balldin UI, Webb James T, Krause KM (December 2003). "Staged decompression to 3.5 psi using argon-oxygen and 100% oxygen breathing mixtures". Aviation, Space, Environmental Medicine 74 (12): 1243–50. PMID 14692466. [22] " Energy-Efficient Windows (http:/ / www. finehomebuilding. com/ how-to/ articles/ understanding-energy-efficient-windows. aspx)". FineHomebuilding.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-01.

Argon
[23] Nuckols ML, Giblo J, Wood-Putnam JL. (September 15-18, 2008). " Thermal Characteristics of Diving Garments When Using Argon as a Suit Inflation Gas. (http:/ / archive. rubicon-foundation. org/ 7962)". Proceedings of the Oceans 08 MTS/IEEE Quebec, Canada Meeting (MTS/IEEE). . Retrieved 2009-03-02. [24] " Description of Aim-9 Operation (http:/ / home. wanadoo. nl/ tcc/ rnlaf/ aim9. html)". planken.org. . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [25] Middaugh, John (1994-06-23). " Welder's Helper Asphyxiated in Argon-Inerted Pipe (FACE AK-94-012) (http:/ / www. hss. state. ak. us/ dph/ ipems/ occupation_injury/ reports/ docs/ 94ak012. htm)". State of Alaska Department of Public Health. . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] http:/ / wwwrcamnl. wr. usgs. gov/ isoig/ period/ ar_iig. html http:/ / www. bipm. org/ en/ publications/ its-90. html http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1088%2F0026-1394%2F27%2F1%2F002 http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ Ar/ index. html http:/ / www. decompression. org/ maiken/ Why_Argon. htm http:/ / www. uigi. com/ argon. html http:/ / www. bloxygen. com http:/ / www. lenntech. com/ Periodic-chart-elements/ Ar-en. htm

9

Article Sources and Contributors

10

Article Sources and Contributors
Argon  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=308216912  Contributors: 2D, ABF, Abce2, Abrech, Adashiel, Addshore, Ahoerstemeier, AirdishStraus, Aitias, Alansohn, Ale jrb, Alexius08, Ali@gwc.org.uk, All Is One, Alvis, Andre Engels, AndreasJS, Andres, Anonymous editor, Anoop.m, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, Antidisestablishmentarinism, Any Moose, Anárion, Apostrophe, Aranherunar, Archfiendweazal, Archimerged, Ari639, Arjun01, Art LaPella, Atlant, Auximines, Awolf002, Azn king28, B.d.mills, BRG, BW, Bachrach44, Badocter, Beardo, Beetstra, Bergsten, Bettia, Bjweeks, Bkonrad, BlueEarth, Bobblewik, Bobbo, Bobet, Bobo192, Bomac, Brian0918, Brockert, Brooknet, Bryan Derksen, BunsenH, CTZMSC3, CYD, Caltas, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CaptainVindaloo, Carnildo, Casper2k3, Catgut, Ceranthor, ChicXulub, Chris Dybala, Christian List, Chuto, Closedmouth, Computermix, ConradPino, Conversion script, Corpx, Crazy Boris with a red beard, Cremepuff222, Cryptic C62, Cureden, Curps, Cyclist 1977, Dabomb87, Daemon Reborn, Dannyc77, Darrien, Dave McKee, David Latapie, Ddcampayo, DeadShort, Deglr6328, Delirium, DerHexer, Derek.cashman, Dgrant, Dhall12345, Dillona, Dirac66, Discospinster, Donald Albury, Donarreiskoffer, Doulos Christos, DragonflySixtyseven, Drini, Dschor, Dsmouse, Dspradau, E Wing, EL Willy, Ec5618, Edgar181, Edsanville, Eeekster, El C, Elaragirl, Elemesh, Elkman, Emmy.rocks, Emperorbma, Eng02019, Enok Walker, Epbr123, Erebus Morgaine, Eric Shalov, Eric119, Erik Zachte, Evil saltine, Extraordinary, FaerieInGrey, Farosdaughter, Femto, Flauto Dolce, Flewis, Fonzy, Foobar, Frankenpuppy, Freestyle-69, FreplySpang, Fresheneesz, Funky Monkey, GT5162, Garden, Gcsuchemistry, Gene Hobbs, Gene Nygaard, Geoffr, Giftlite, Gilliam, Gman124, Gorm, Goudzovski, Graydonflatt, Grendelkhan, Grin, Gtdp, Gtstricky, Gubbubu, Gurch, Gwernol, Hadal, Haham hanuka, Hak-kâ-ngìn, Hawaii fiveoh, Hda3ku, Heron, Humormekil, Hut 8.5, Hvn0413, Hydrogen Iodide, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, IRP, Iago4096, Icairns, Iluvcapra, Indon, Indosauros, Insanity Incarnate, Itub, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, JaGa, Jacek Kendysz, Jagun, Jake Nelson, Jaknouse, Janke, Jaraalbe, Jayden54, Jehan UK, Jespinos, JetLover, Jimp, Jj137, Joanjoc, JoanneB, JoeSmack, John, John Holmes II, Jokah49, Jonadab, Jose77, Jossi, Juliancolton, Junglecat, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Kaszeta, King of Hearts, Kingpin13, Klingoncowboy4, Kmweber, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kostisl, Kowey, Kozuch, Krich, Ksbrown, Kuithei, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, Lamanatasa, LeaveSleaves, Leonard^Bloom, Lexor, Lightmouse, Ling.Nut, Livajo, Llywelyn, LouScheffer, Lradrama, LuigiManiac, Lyoko is Cool, M100, M412k, MBisanz, MZMcBride, Magu2k, Mandarax, Marek69, MarkS, Markhurd, Marnanel, Materialscientist, Matt Deres, Mav, MayaSimFan, Merlincooper, Merovingian, Messs17, Mgimpel, Mike Rosoft, Minesweeper, Minnesota1, Mistyfrog, Misza13, Mitsuhama, Mossman93, Mr.Z-man, Mr45acp, Mulad, Mygerardromance, N328KF, Nakon, Nancy, Naraht, Natalie Erin, NawlinWiki, Neonfrank, Nergaal, Neverquick, NewEnglandYankee, Nick C, Night Gyr, Nihiltres, No1lakersfan, Novangelis, Nsaa, Number 57, Opabinia regalis, Ossmann, Oxymoron83, PP Jewel, Pascal.Tesson, Passw0rd, Patrick Berry, Paul August, Peripitus, PeterJeremy, Pewwer42, Pfunk42, PhilKnight, Philip Trueman, PhilipO, Piano non troppo, Pierre.laloë, Plantsurfer, Plasmic Physics, Plasticup, Plinkit, Poltair, Poolkris, Possum, PrimaryDragon, Psyche825, Ptdecker, Quadell, Quintote, Quistnix, RAM, RTC, Rdsmith4, RedWolf, Redux, Remember, Res2216firestar, RexNL, Richnotts, Rifleman 82, Riflewhipu, Rodhullandemu, Romanm, RyanB88, RyanCross, Ryanh1994, S lijin, S0me l0ser, SEWilco, SJP, Sam Korn, Saperaud, Sbharris, SchfiftyThree, Schneelocke, Seddon, Sengkang, Sepharious, Sfgagnon, Shadowdude77, Shaun F, Shellreef, Shenme, SimonP, Sinblox, Sionus, Sjö, Sl, Solipsist, SouthernSunShine, Squids and Chips, Staphylococcus, StaticVision, SteinbDJ, Stephenb, Steve Crossin, Stifynsemons, Stone, Suisui, Sultanofsurreal, Sunborn, Tapir Terrific, Tarret, Techman224, Tham153, TheCatalyst31, TheDJ, TheKMan, TheNewPhobia, Thefirstgolfoffer, Thej42, Thief111362, Thricecube, Tide rolls, TigerShark, Tiptoety, Titoxd, Tlim7882, Tombomp, Tomwzhang95, TonyW, Treelo, Trevor MacInnis, Trigger820, Tsogo3, TutterMouse, Until It Sleeps, Urhixidur, Vancouverguy, Versus22, Video game fan11, Vmatikov, Voyagerfan5761, Vsmith, Vssun, Vuong Ngan Ha, WLU, Wang lvan, Watch37264, Weeliljimmy, Whitepaw, Whosasking, Wikidougg, Wilbern Cobb, Willking1979, Wimt, WinterSpw, Wolfkeeper, Woodster93, X201, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yath, Youandme, Yyy, Zach4636, Zm786, 1017 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:cubic-face-centered.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cubic-face-centered.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Stannered file:Electron shell 018 Argon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electron_shell_018_Argon.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:GregRobson, User:Pumbaa80 Image:Isolation of Argon.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Isolation_of_Argon.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Encyclopædia Britannica Image:Argon ice 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argon_ice_1.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Brian0918, Er Komandante, 2 anonymous edits Image:Argon.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argon.jpg  License: Attribution  Contributors: William Viker File:CsCrystals.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CsCrystals.JPG  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Dnn87 Image:Glovebox.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Glovebox.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Polimerek Image:ArTube.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArTube.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Pslawinski

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

Potassium

1

Potassium
argon ← potassium → calciumNa ↑ K ↓ Rb

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

19K
Periodic table

Appearance silvery white

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointTriple pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacity Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 3052 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 4420 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radiusVan der Waals radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingThermal conductivityThermal

Potassium expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusMohs hardnessBrinell hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of potassium
iso
39

2

N.A. 93.26% 0.012%
39

half-life K is stable with 20 neutron β− ε β+

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

K K

40

1.248(3)×109 y

1.311 1.505 1.505

40

Ca Ar Ar

40

40

41

K

6.73%

41

K is stable with 22 neutron

potassium, K, 19 alkali metal1, 4, s39.0983(1) g·mol−1 [Ar] 4s1 2, 8, 8, 1 (Image) solid 0.89 g·cm−3 0.828 g·cm−3 336.53 K,63.38 °C,146.08 °F 1032 K,759 °C,1398 °F −1 −1 −1 −1 336.35 K (63°C),  kPa 2.33 kJ·mol 76.9 kJ·mol (25 °C) 29.6 J·mol ·K 1 (strongly basic oxide) 0.82 (Pauling scale) 1st: 418.8 kJ·mol−1227 pm203±12 pm 275 pm body-centered cubic paramagnetic (300 K) 102.5 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 83.3 µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 2000 m/s 3.53 GPa 1.3 GPa 3.1 GPa 0.4 0.363 MPa 7440-09-7 Potassium (pronounced /pɵˈtæsiəm/) is the chemical element with the symbol K (Latin: kalium, from Arabic: ‫هَيْلَقلا‬‎ al-qalyah “plant ashes”, cf. Alkali from the same root), atomic number 19, and atomic mass 39.0983. Potassium was first isolated from potash. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white metallic alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the evolved hydrogen. Potassium in nature occurs only as ionic salt. As such, it is found dissolved in seawater, and as part of many minerals. Potassium ion is necessary for the function of all living cells, and is thus present in all plant and animal tissues. It is found in especially high concentrations in plant cells, and in a mixed diet, it is most highly concentrated in fruits. In many respects, potassium and sodium are chemically similar, although they have very different functions in organisms in general, and in animal cells in particular.

Occurrence
Elemental potassium does not occur in nature because it reacts violently with water.[1] As various compounds, potassium makes up about 1.5% of the weight of the Earth's crust and is the seventh most abundant element.[1] As it is very electropositive, potassium metal is difficult to obtain from its minerals.

History of the free element
Potassium in feldspar

Elemental potassium was not known in Roman times, and its names are not Classical Latin but rather neo-Latin. The name kalium was taken from the word

"alkali", which came from Arabic al qalīy = "the calcined ashes". The name potassium was made from the word "potash", which is English, and originally meant an alkali extracted in

Potassium a pot from the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves. The structure of potash was not then known, but is now understood to be mostly potassium carbonate. By heating, the carbonate could be freed of carbon dioxide, leaving "caustic potash", so called because it caused chemical burns in contact with human tissue. Potassium metal was discovered in 1807 in England by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash (KOH), by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt with the newly discovered voltaic pile. Before the 18th century, no distinction was made between potassium and sodium. Potassium was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis.[2] Davy extracted sodium by a similar technique, demonstrating the elements to be different.[3]

3

Production
Pure potassium metal may be isolated by electrolysis of its hydroxide in a process that has changed little since Davy.[1] Thermal methods also are employed in potassium production, using potassium chloride Potassium salts such as carnallite, langbeinite, polyhalite, and sylvite form extensive deposits in ancient lake and seabeds, making extraction of potassium salts in these environments commercially viable. The principal source of potassium, potash, is mined in Saskatchewan, California, Germany, New Mexico, Utah, and in other places around the world. It is also found abundantly in the Dead Sea. Three thousand feet below the surface of Saskatchewan are large deposits of potash which are important sources of this element and its salts, with several large mines in operation since the 1960s. Saskatchewan pioneered the use of freezing of wet sands (the Blairmore formation) in order to drive mine shafts through them. The main mining company is the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan. The oceans are another source of potassium, but the quantity present in a given volume of seawater is relatively low compared with sodium.[4] [5]

Isotopes
There are 24 known isotopes of potassium. Three isotopes occur naturally: K (93.3%), K (0.0117%) and 41K (6.7%). Naturally occurring 40K decays to stable 40Ar (11.2%) by electron capture and by positron emission, and decays to stable 40Ca (88.8%) by beta decay; 40K has a half-life of 1.250×109 years. The decay of 40K to 40Ar enables a commonly used method for dating rocks. The conventional K-Ar dating method depends on the assumption that the rocks contained no argon at the time of formation and that all the subsequent radiogenic argon (i.e., 40Ar) was quantitatively retained. Minerals are dated by measurement of the concentration of potassium and the amount of radiogenic 40Ar that has accumulated. The minerals that are best suited for dating include biotite, muscovite, plutonic/high grade metamorphic hornblende, and volcanic feldspar; whole rock samples from volcanic flows and shallow instrusives can also be dated if they are unaltered. Outside of dating, potassium isotopes have been used extensively as tracers in studies of weathering. They have also been used for nutrient cycling studies because potassium is a macronutrient required for life.
40 39 40

K occurs in natural potassium (and thus in some commercial salt substitutes) in sufficient quantity that large bags of those substitutes can be used as a radioactive source for classroom demonstrations. In healthy animals and people, 40K represents the largest source

Potassium of radioactivity, greater even than of 40K decay per second.[6]
14

4 C. In a human body of 70 kg mass, about 4,400 nuclei

The activity of natural potassium is 31 Bq/g.

Properties
Physical
Potassium is the second least dense metal; only lithium is less dense. It is a soft, low-melting solid that can easily be cut with a knife. Freshly cut potassium is silvery in appearance, but in air it begins to tarnish toward grey immediately.[1] In a flame test, potassium and its compounds emit a pale violet color, which may be masked by the strong yellow emission of sodium if it is also present. Cobalt glass can be used to filter out the yellow sodium color.[7] Potassium concentration in solution is commonly determined by flame photometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma, or ion selective electrodes.

Chemical
Potassium must be protected from air for storage to prevent disintegration of the metal from oxide and hydroxide corrosion. Often samples are maintained under a hydrocarbon medium which does not react with alkali metals, such as mineral oil or kerosene. Like the other alkali metals, potassium reacts violently with water, producing hydrogen. The reaction is notably more violent than that of lithium or sodium with water, and is sufficiently exothermic that the evolved hydrogen gas ignites. 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) → H2(g) + 2KOH(aq) Because potassium reacts quickly with even traces of water, and its reaction products are nonvolatile, it is sometimes used alone, or as NaK (an alloy with sodium which is liquid at room temperature) to dry solvents prior to distillation. In this role, it serves as a potent desiccant. Potassium hydroxide reacts strongly with carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate, and is used to remove traces of CO2 from air. Potassium compounds generally have excellent water solubility, due to the high hydration energy of the K+ ion. The potassium ion is colorless in water. Methods of separating potassium by precipitation, sometimes used for gravimetric analysis, include the use of sodium tetraphenylborate, hexachloroplatinic acid, and sodium cobaltinitrite
The flame-test color for potassium

Potassium

5

Potassium cations in the body
Biochemical function
Potassium cations are important in neuron (brain and nerve) function, and in influencing osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid, with their distribution mediated in all animals (but not in all plants) by the so-called Na+/K+-ATPase pump.[8] Potassium may be detected by taste because it triggers three of the five types of taste sensations, according to concentration. Dilute solutions of potassium ion taste sweet (allowing moderate concentrations in milk and juices), while higher concentrations become increasingly bitter/alkaline, and finally also salty to the taste. The combined bitterness and saltiness of high potassium content solutions makes high-dose potassium supplementation by liquid drinks a palatability challenge.[9]

Membrane polarization
Potassium is also important in allowing muscle contraction and the sending of all nerve impulses in animals through action potentials. By nature of their electrostatic and chemical properties, K+ ions are larger than Na+ ions, and ion channels and pumps in cell membranes can distinguish between the two types of ions, actively pumping or passively allowing one of the two ions to pass, while blocking the other. [10] A shortage of potassium in body fluids may cause a potentially fatal condition known as hypokalemia, typically resulting from diarrhea, increased diuresis and vomiting. Deficiency symptoms include muscle weakness, paralytic ileus, ECG abnormalities, decreased reflex response and in severe cases respiratory paralysis, alkalosis and cardiac arrhythmia.

Filtration and excretion
Potassium is an essential mineral micronutrient in human nutrition; it is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, and it is thus important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Sodium makes up most of the cations of blood plasma at a reference range of about 145 milliequivalents per liter (3345 milligrams) and potassium makes up most of the cell fluid cations at about 150 milliequivalents per liter (4800 milligrams). Plasma is filtered through the glomerulus of the kidneys in enormous amounts, about 180 liters per day.[11] Thus 602,000 milligrams of sodium and 33,000 milligrams of potassium are filtered each day. All but the 1000-10,000 milligrams of sodium and the 1000-4000 milligrams of potassium likely to be in the diet must be reabsorbed. Sodium must be reabsorbed in such a way as to keep the blood volume exactly right and the osmotic pressure correct; potassium must be reabsorbed in such a way as to keep serum concentration as close as possible to 4.8 milliequivalents (about 190 milligrams) per liter.[12] Sodium pumps in the kidneys must always operate to conserve sodium. Potassium must sometimes be conserved also, but since the amount of potassium in the blood plasma is very small and the pool of potassium in the cells is about thirty times as large, the situation is not so critical for potassium. Since potassium is moved passively[13] [14] in counter flow to sodium in response to an apparent (but not actual) Donnan equilibrium,[15] the urine can never sink below the concentration of potassium in serum except sometimes by actively excreting water at the end of the processing. Potassium is secreted twice and reabsorbed three times before the urine reaches the collecting tubules.[16] At that point, it usually has about the same potassium concentration as plasma. If potassium were removed

Potassium from the diet, there would remain a minimum obligatory kidney excretion of about 200 mg per day when the serum declines to 3.0-3.5 milliequivalents per liter in about one week,[17] and can never be cut off completely. Because it cannot be cut off completely, death will result when the whole body potassium declines to the vicinity of one-half full capacity. At the end of the processing, potassium is secreted one more time if the serum levels are too high.

6

Reference ranges for blood tests, showing blood content of potassium (3.6 to 5.2 mmol/l) in blue in right part of the spectrum.

The potassium moves passively through pores in the cell wall. When ions move through pumps there is a gate in the pumps on either side of the cell wall and only one gate can be open at once. As a result, 100 ions are forced through per second. Pores have only one gate, and there only one kind of ion can stream through, at 10 million to 100 million ions per second.[18] The pores require calcium in order to open[19] although it is thought that the calcium works in reverse by blocking at least one of the pores.[20] Carbonyl groups inside the pore on the amino acids mimics the water hydration that takes place in water solution[21] by the nature of the electrostatic charges on four carbonyl groups inside the pore.[22]

Potassium in the diet and by supplement
Adequate intake A potassium intake sufficient to support life can generally be guaranteed by eating a variety of foods, especially plant foods. Clear cases of potassium deficiency (as defined by symptoms, signs and a below-normal blood level of the element) are rare in healthy individuals eating a balanced diet. Foods with high sources of potassium include orange juice, potatoes, bananas, avocados, tomatoes, broccoli, soybeans, brown rice, garlic and apricots, although it is also common in most fruits, vegetables and meats.[23] Optimal intake Epidemiological studies and studies in animals subject to hypertension indicate that diets high in potassium can reduce the risk of hypertension and possibly stroke (by a mechanism independent of blood pressure), and a potassium deficiency combined with an inadequate thiamine intake has produced heart disease in rats.[24] With these findings, the question of what is the intake of potassium consistent with optimal health, is debated. For example, the 2004 guidelines of the Institute of Medicine specify a DRI of 4,000 mg of potassium (100 mEq), though most Americans consume only half that amount per day, which would make them formally deficient as regards this particular recommendation.[25] Similarly, in the European Union, particularly in Germany and Italy, insufficient potassium intake is somewhat common.[26]

Potassium Medical supplementation and disease Supplements of potassium in medicine are most widely used in conjunction with loop diuretics and thiazides, classes of diuretics which rid the body of sodium and water, but have the side effect of also causing potassium loss in urine. A variety of medical and non-medical supplements are available. Potassium salts such as potassium chloride may be dissolved in water, but the salty/bitter taste of high concentrations of potassium ion make palatable high concentration liquid supplements difficult to formulate.[9] Typical medical supplemental doses range from 10 milliequivalents (400 mg, about equal to a cup of milk or 6 oz. of orange juice) to 20 milliequivalents (800 mg) per dose. Potassium salts are also available in tablets or capsules, which for therapeutic purposes are formulated to allow potassium to leach slowly out of a matrix, since very high concentrations of potassium ion (which might occur next to a solid tablet of potassium chloride) can kill tissue, and cause injury to the gastric or intestinal mucosa. For this reason, non prescription supplement potassium pills are limited by law in the U.S. to only 99 mg of potassium. Individuals suffering from kidney diseases may suffer adverse health effects from consuming large quantities of dietary potassium. End stage renal failure patients undergoing therapy by renal dialysis must observe strict dietary limits on potassium intake, since the kidneys control potassium excretion, and buildup of blood concentrations of potassium (hyperkalemia) may trigger fatal cardiac arrhythmia.

7

Applications
About 93% of the world potassium production was consumed by the fertilizer industry.[5]

Biological applications
Potassium ions are an essential component of plant nutrition and are found in most soil types. Its primary use in agriculture, horticulture and hydroponic culture is as a fertilizer as the chloride (KCl), sulfate (K2SO4) or nitrate (KNO3). In animal cells, potassium ions are vital to keeping cells alive (see Na-K pump). In the form of potassium chloride, it is used to stop the heart, e.g. in cardiac surgery and in a solution used in executions by lethal injection.

Food applications

Potassium ion is a nutrient necessary for human life and health. Potassium chloride is used as a substitute for table salt by those seeking to reduce sodium intake so as to control hypertension. The USDA lists tomato paste, orange juice, beet greens, white beans, potatoes, bananas and many other good dietary sources of potassium, ranked according to potassium content per measure shown.[27] Potassium sodium tartrate, or Rochelle salt (KNaC4H4O6) is the main constituent of baking powder. Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a strong oxidiser, used as a flour improver (E924) to

Potassium and Magnesium sulfate fertilizer

Potassium improve dough strength and rise height. The sulfite compound, potassium bisulfite (KHSO3) is used as a food preservative, for example in wine and beer-making (but not in meats). It is also used to bleach textiles and straw, and in the tanning of leathers.

8

Industrial applications
Potassium vapor is used in several types of magnetometers. An alloy of sodium and potassium, NaK (usually pronounced "nack"), that is liquid at room temperature, is used as a heat-transfer medium. It can also be used as a desiccant for producing dry and air-free solvents. Potassium metal reacts vigorously with all of the halogens to form the corresponding potassium halides, which are white, water-soluble salts with cubic crystal morphology. Potassium bromide (KBr), potassium iodide (KI) and potassium chloride (KCl) are used in photographic emulsion to make the corresponding photosensitive silver halides. Potassium hydroxide KOH is a strong base, used in industry to neutralize strong and weak acids and thereby finding uses in pH control and in the manufacture of potassium salts. Potassium hydroxide is also used to saponify fats and oils and in hydrolysis reactions, for example of esters and in industrial cleaners. Potassium nitrate KNO3 or saltpeter is obtained from natural sources such as guano and evaporites or manufactured by the Haber process and is the oxidant in gunpowder (black powder) and an important agricultural fertilizer. Potassium cyanide KCN is used industrially to dissolve copper and precious metals particularly silver and gold by forming complexes; applications include gold mining, electroplating and electroforming of these metals. It is also used in organic synthesis to make nitriles. Potassium carbonate K2CO3, also known as potash, is used in the manufacture of glass and soap and as a mild desiccant. Potassium chromate (K2CrO4) is used in inks, dyes, and stains (bright yellowish-red colour), in explosives and fireworks, in safety matches, in the tanning of leather and in fly paper. Potassium fluorosilicate (K2SiF6) is used in specialized glasses, ceramics, and enamels. Potassium sodium tartrate, or Rochelle salt (KNaC4H4O6) is used in the silvering of mirrors. The superoxide KO2 is an orange-colored solid used as a portable source of oxygen and as a carbon dioxide absorber. It is useful in portable respiration systems. It is widely used in submarines and spacecraft as it takes less volume than O2 (g). 4KO2 + 2CO2 --> 2K2CO3 + 3O2 Potassium chlorate KClO3 is a strong oxidant, used in percussion caps and safety matches and in agriculture as a weedkiller. Glass may be treated with molten potassium nitrate KNO3 to make toughened glass, which is much stronger than regular glass.

Precautions
Potassium reacts very violently with water producing hydrogen gas which then usually catches fire. Potassium is usually kept under a hydrocarbon oil such as mineral oil or kerosene to stop the metal from reacting with water vapour present in the air. Unlike lithium and sodium, however, potassium should not be stored under oil indefinitely. If stored longer than 6 months to a year, dangerous shock-sensitive peroxides can form on the metal and under the lid of the container, which can detonate upon opening. It is recommended that potassium, rubidium or caesium not be stored for longer than three

Potassium months unless stored in an inert (oxygen free) atmosphere, or under vacuum.[28] As potassium reacts with water to produce highly flammable hydrogen gas, a potassium fire is only exacerbated by the addition of water, and only a few dry chemicals are effective for putting out such a fire (see the precaution section in sodium). Potassium also produces potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the reaction with water. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali and so is a caustic hazard, causing burns. Due to the highly reactive nature of potassium metal, it must be handled with great care, with full skin and eye protection being used and preferably an explosive resistant barrier between the user and the potassium.

9

See also
• Potassium compounds • Potassium in biology

External links
• WebElements.com – Potassium
[29]

References
[1] Mark Winter. " Potassium: Key Information (http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ K/ key. html)". Webelements. . [2] Enghag, P. (2004). "11. Sodium and Potassium". Encyclopedia of the elements. Wiley-VCH Weinheim. ISBN 3527306668. [3] Davy, Humphry (1808). " On some new Phenomena of Chemical Changes produced by Electricity, particularly the Decomposition of the fixed Alkalies, and the Exhibition of the new Substances, which constitute their Bases (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Kg9GAAAAMAAJ)". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 98: 1–45. doi: 10.1098/rstl.1808.0001 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rstl. 1808. 0001). . [4] Ober, Joyce A.. " Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008:Potash (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ potash/ mcs-2008-potas. pdf)". United States Geological Survey. . Retrieved 2008-11-20. [5] Ober, Joyce A.. " Mineral Yearbook 2006:Potash (http:/ / minerals. usgs. gov/ minerals/ pubs/ commodity/ potash/ myb1-2006-potas. pdf)". United States Geological Survey. . Retrieved 2008-11-20. [6] " background radiation - potassium-40 - γ radiation (http:/ / www. fas. harvard. edu/ ~scdiroff/ lds/ QuantumRelativity/ RadioactiveHumanBody/ RadioactiveHumanBody. html)". . [7] Anne Marie Helmenstine. " Qualitative Analysis - Flame Tests (http:/ / chemistry. about. com/ library/ weekly/ aa110401a. htm)". About.com. . [8] Campbell, Neil (1987). Biology. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co.. pp. 795. ISBN 0-8053-1840-2. [9] " Potassium Without the Taste (http:/ / www. foodnavigator. com/ Science-Nutrition/ Potassium-without-the-taste)". . Retrieved Feb 14, 2009. [10] Lockless SW, Zhou M, MacKinnon R.. " Structural and thermodynamic properties of selective ion binding in a K+ channel (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ pubmed/ 17472437)". Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University. . Retrieved 2008-03-08. [11] Potts, W.T.W.; Parry, G. (1964). Osmotic and ionic regulation in animals. Pergamon Press. [12] Lans HS, Stein IF, Meyer KA (1952). "The relation of serum potassium to erythrocyte potassium in normal subjects and patients with potassium deficiency". Am. J. Med. Sci. 223 (1): 65–74. doi: 10.1097/00000441-195201000-00011 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1097/ 00000441-195201000-00011). PMID 14902792. [13] Bennett CM, Brenner BM, Berliner RW (1968). "Micropuncture study of nephron function in the rhesus monkey". J Clin Invest 47 (1): 203–216. PMID 16695942. [14] Solomon AK (1962). "Pumps in the living cell". Sci. Am. 207: 100–8. PMID 13914986. [15] Kernan, Roderick P. (1980). Cell potassium (Transport in the life sciences). New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471048062.; p. 40 & 48.

Potassium
[16] Wright FS (1977). "Sites and mechanisms of potassium transport along the renal tubule". Kidney Int. 11 (6): 415–32. doi: 10.1038/ki.1977.60 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ ki. 1977. 60). PMID 875263. [17] Squires RD, Huth EJ (1959). "Experimental potassium depletion in normal human subjects. I. Relation of ionic intakes to the renal conservation of potassium". J. Clin. Invest. 38 (7): 1134–48. doi: 10.1172/JCI103890 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1172/ JCI103890). PMID 13664789. [18] Gadsby DC (2004). "Ion transport: spot the difference". Nature 427 (6977): 795–7. doi: 10.1038/427795a (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 427795a). PMID 14985745.; for a diagram of the potassium pores are viewed, see Miller C (2001). "See potassium run". Nature 414 (6859): 23–4. doi: 10.1038/35102126 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 35102126). PMID 11689922. [19] Jiang Y, Lee A, Chen J, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (2002). "Crystal structure and mechanism of a calcium-gated potassium channel". Nature 417 (6888): 515–22. doi: 10.1038/417515a (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 417515a). PMID 12037559. [20] Shi N, Ye S, Alam A, Chen L, Jiang Y (2006). "Atomic structure of a Na+- and K+-conducting channel". Nature 440 (7083): 570–4. doi: 10.1038/nature04508 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ nature04508). PMID 16467789.; includes a detailed picture of atoms in the pump. [21] Zhou Y, Morais-Cabral JH, Kaufman A, MacKinnon R (2001). "Chemistry of ion coordination and hydration revealed by a K+ channel-Fab complex at 2.0 A resolution". Nature 414 (6859): 43–8. doi: 10.1038/35102009 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ 35102009). PMID 11689936. [22] Noskov SY, Bernèche S, Roux B (2004). "Control of ion selectivity in potassium channels by electrostatic and dynamic properties of carbonyl ligands". Nature 431 (7010): 830–4. doi: 10.1038/nature02943 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1038/ nature02943). PMID 15483608. [23] " Potassium Content of Food and Drink (http:/ / www. pamf. org/ patients/ pdf/ potassium_count. pdf)". . Retrieved 2008-09-18. [24] Folis, R.H. (1942). "Myocardial Necrosis in Rats on a Potassium Low Diet Prevented by Thiamine Deficiency". Bull. Johns-Hopkins Hospital 71: 235. [25] Grim CE, Luft FC, Miller JZ, et al. (1980). "Racial differences in blood pressure in Evans County, Georgia: relationship to sodium and potassium intake and plasma renin activity". J Chronic Dis 33 (2): 87–94. doi: 10.1016/0021-9681(80)90032-6 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ 0021-9681(80)90032-6). PMID 6986391. [26] Karger, S. (2004). " Energy and nutrient intake in the European Union (http:/ / content. karger. com/ ProdukteDB/ produkte. asp?Aktion=ShowPDF& ProduktNr=223977& Ausgabe=230671& ArtikelNr=83312& filename=83312. pdf)" (pdf). Ann Nutr Metab 48 (2 (suppl)): 1–16. . [27] )Potassium / K (mg.) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content | USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20 http:/ / www. nal. usda. gov/ fnic/ foodcomp/ Data/ SR20/ nutrlist/ sr20w306. pdf [28] Thomas K. Wray. " DANGER: PEROXIDIZABLE CHEMICALS (http:/ / www. ncsu. edu/ ehs/ www99/ right/ handsMan/ lab/ Peroxide. pdf)". Environmental Health & Public Safety (North Carolina State University). . [29] http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ K/ index. html

10

Article Sources and Contributors

11

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Calcium

1

Calcium
potassium ← calcium → scandiumMg ↑ Ca ↓ Sr

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

20Ca
Periodic table

Appearance Dull grey, silver

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 864 10 956 100 1071 1k 1227 10 k 1443 100 k 1755

Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 1145.4 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 4912.4 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal

Calcium conductivityThermal expansionSpeed of sound (thin rod) Young's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusPoisson ratioMohs hardnessBrinell hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of calcium
iso
40

2

N.A. 96.941% syn 0.647% 0.135% 2.086% syn 0.004% syn
40

half-life Ca is stable with 20 neutron ε

DM

DE (MeV)

DP

Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca

41

1.03×105 y
42

-

41

K

42

Ca is stable with 22 neutron Ca is stable with 23 neutron Ca is stable with 24 neutron β− β−β− β− γ 0.258 ? 0.694, 1.99 1.297 ?
45

43

43

44

44

45

162.7 d >2.8×1015 y 4.536 d

Sc Ti Sc

46

46

47

47

48

48

Ca

0.187%

>4×1019 y

β−β−

Ti

calcium, Ca, 20 alkaline earth metal2, 4, s40.078(4) g·mol−1 [Ar] 4s2 2, 8, 8, 2 (Image) solid 1.55 g·cm−3 1.378 g·cm−3 1115 K,842 °C,1548 °F 1757 K,1484 °C,2703 °F 8.54 kJ·mol−1 154.7 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 25.929 J·mol−1·K−1 2 (strongly basic oxide) 1.00 (Pauling scale) 1st: 589.8 kJ·mol−1197 pm176±10 pm face-centered cubic diamagnetic (20 °C) 33.6 nΩ·m (300 K) 201 W·m−1·K−1 (25 °C) 22.3 µm·m−1·K−1 (20 °C) 3810 m/s 20 GPa 7.4 GPa 17 GPa 0.31 1.75 167 MPa 7440-70-2 Calcium (pronounced /ˈkælsiəm/) is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft grey alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth most abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.[1] Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, where movement of the calcium ion Ca2+ into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major material used in mineralization of bones and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals.

Calcium

3

Notable characteristics
Chemically calcium is reactive and soft for a metal (though harder than lead, it can be cut with a knife with difficulty). It is a silvery metallic element that must be extracted by electrolysis from a fused salt like calcium chloride.[2] Once produced, it rapidly forms a grey-white oxide and nitride coating when exposed to air. It is somewhat difficult to ignite, unlike magnesium, but when lit, the metal burns in air with a brilliant high-intensity red light. Calcium metal reacts with Calcium carbonate wetted with water, evolving hydrogen gas at a rate rapid enough to hydrochloric acid (thus forming CaCl2) be noticeable, but not fast enough at room temperature held at a flame and showing to generate much heat. In powdered form, however, the red-orange flame color of Ca. reaction with water is extremely rapid, as the increased surface area of the powder accelerates the reaction with the water. Part of the slowness of the calcium-water reaction results from the metal being partly protected by insoluble white calcium hydroxide. In water solutions of acids where the salt is water soluble, calcium reacts vigorously. Calcium, with a specific mass of 1.55 g/cm3, is the lightest of the alkali earth metals; magnesium is heavier (1.74) and beryllium even more heavy (1.84) despite these two elements being lighter in atomic mass. From strontium on the alkali earth metals get heavier along with the atomic mass. Calcium has a higher resistivity than copper or aluminium. Yet, weight for weight, allowing for its much lower density, it is a rather better conductor than either. However, its use in terrestrial applications is usually limited by its high reactivity with air. Calcium salts are colorless from any contribution of the calcium, and ionic solutions of calcium (Ca2+) are colorless as well. Many calcium salts are not soluble in water. When in solution, the calcium ion to the human taste varies remarkably, being reported as mildly salty, sour, "mineral like" or even "soothing." It is apparent that many animals can taste, or develop a taste, for calcium, and use this sense to detect the mineral in salt licks or other sources.[3] In human nutrition, soluble calcium salts may be added to tart juices without much effect to the average palate. Calcium is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the human body, where it is a common cellular ionic messenger with many functions, and serves also as a structural element in bone. It is the relatively high atomic-numbered calcium in the skeleton which causes bone to be radio-opaque. Of the human body's solid components after drying (as for example, after cremation), about a third of the total mass is the approximately one kilogram of calcium which composes the average skeleton (the remainder being mostly phosphorus and oxygen).

Calcium

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Occurrence
Calcium is not naturally found in its elemental state. Calcium occurs most commonly in sedimentary rocks in the minerals calcite, dolomite and gypsum. It also occurs in igneous and metamorphic rocks chiefly in the silicate minerals: plagioclase, amphiboles, pyroxenes and garnets. See also Calcium minerals.

Applications
Some uses are: • as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium. • as a deoxidizer, desulfurizer, or decarbonizer for various ferrous and nonferrous alloys. • as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminium, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys. • in the making of cements and mortars to be used in construction. • in the making of cheese, where calcium ions influence the activity of rennin in bringing about the coagulation of milk.

Calcium compounds
• Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime, limestone (usually used in the steel industry); aids in production in the glass industry, also has chemical and optical uses as mineral specimens in toothpastes, for example. • Calcium hydroxide solution (Ca(OH)2) (also known as limewater) is used to detect the presence of carbon dioxide by being bubbled through a solution. It turns cloudy where CO2 is present. • Calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2) is used in insecticides. • Calcium carbide (CaC2) is used: to make acetylene gas (for use in acetylene torches for welding) and in the manufacturing of plastics. • Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is used: in ice removal and dust control on dirt roads, in conditioner for concrete, as an additive in canned tomatoes, and to provide body for automobile tires. • Calcium cyclamate (Ca(C6H11NHSO3)2) was used as a sweetening agent but is no longer permitted for use because of suspected cancer-causing properties. • Calcium gluconate (Ca(C6H11O7)2) is used as a food additive and in vitamin pills. • Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) is used: as a swimming pool disinfectant, as a bleaching agent, as an ingredient in deodorant, and in algaecide and fungicide. • Calcium permanganate (Ca(MnO4)2) is used in liquid rocket propellant, textile production, as a water sterilizing agent and in dental procedures. • Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is used as a supplement for animal feed, fertilizer, in commercial production for dough and yeast products, in the manufacture of glass, and in dental products. • Calcium phosphide (Ca3P2) is used in fireworks, rodenticide, torpedoes and flares. • Calcium stearate (Ca(C18H35O2)2) is used in the manufacture of wax crayons, cements, certain kinds of plastics and cosmetics, as a food additive, in the production of water resistant materials and in the production of paints.

Calcium • Calcium sulfate (CaSO4·2H2O) is used as common blackboard chalk, as well as, in its hemihydrate form being more well known as Plaster of Paris. • Calcium tungstate (CaWO4) is used in luminous paints, fluorescent lights and in X-ray studies. • Hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) makes up seventy percent of bone. Also carbonated-calcium deficient hydroxylapatite is the main mineral of which dental enamel and dentin are comprised.

5

H and K lines
In the visible portion of the spectrum of many stars, including the Sun, strong absorption lines of singly-ionized calcium are shown. Prominent among these are the H-line at 3968.5 Å and the K line at 3933.7 Å of singly-ionized calcium, or Ca II. For the Sun and stars with low temperatures, the prominence of the H and K lines can be an indication of strong magnetic activity in the chromosphere. Measurement of periodic variations of these active regions can also be used to deduce the rotation periods of these stars.[4]

History
Calcium (Latin word calcis meaning "lime") was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide. Literature dating back to 975 AD notes that plaster of paris (calcium sulphate), is useful for setting broken bones. It was not isolated until 1808 in England when Sir Humphry Davy electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself. He worked with electrolysis throughout his life and also discovered/isolated sodium, potassium, magnesium, boron and barium. Calcium metal was not available in large scale until the beginning of the 20th century.

Compounds
Calcium, combined with phosphate to form hydroxylapatite, is the mineral portion of human and animal bones and teeth. The mineral portion of some corals can also be transformed into hydroxylapatite. Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) is used in many chemical refinery processes and is made by heating limestone at high temperature (above 825°C) and then carefully adding water to it. When lime is mixed with sand, it hardens into a mortar and is turned into plaster by carbon dioxide uptake. Mixed with other compounds, lime forms an important part of Portland cement. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is one of the common compounds of calcium. It is heated to form quicklime (CaO), which is then added to water (H2O). This forms another material known as slaked lime (Ca(OH)2), which is an inexpensive base material used throughout the chemical industry. Chalk, marble, and limestone are all forms of calcium carbonate. When water percolates through limestone or other soluble carbonate rocks, it partially dissolves the rock and causes cave formation and characteristic stalactites and stalagmites and also forms hard water. Other important calcium compounds are calcium nitrate, calcium sulfide, calcium chloride, calcium carbide, calcium cyanamide and calcium hypochlorite.

Calcium

6

Isotopes
Calcium has four stable isotopes (40Ca and 42Ca through 44Ca), plus two more isotopes (46Ca and 48Ca) that have such long half-lives that for all practical purposes they can be considered stable. It also has a cosmogenic isotope, radioactive 41Ca, which has a half-life of 103,000 years. Unlike cosmogenic isotopes that are produced in the atmosphere, 41Ca is produced by neutron activation of 40Ca. Most of its production is in the upper metre or so of the soil column, where the cosmogenic neutron flux is still sufficiently strong. 41Ca has received much attention in stellar studies because it decays to 41K, a critical indicator of solar-system anomalies. 97% of naturally occurring calcium is in the form of 40Ca. 40Ca is one of the daughter products of 40K decay, along with 40Ar. While K-Ar dating has been used extensively in the geological sciences, the prevalence of 40Ca in nature has impeded its use in dating. Techniques using mass spectrometry and a double spike isotope dilution have been used for K-Ca age dating. The most abundant isotope, 40Ca, has a nucleus of 20 protons and 20 neutrons. This is the heaviest stable isotope of any element which has equal numbers of protons and neutrons. In supernova explosions, calcium is formed from the reaction of carbon with various numbers of alpha particles (helium nuclei), until the most common calcium isotope (containing 10 helium nuclei) has been synthesized.

Nutrition
Recommended Adequate Intake by the IOM for Calcium:
Age 0–6 months 7–12 months 1–3 years 4–8 years 9–18 years 19–50 years 51+ years 210 270 500 800 1300 1000 1200 Calcium (mg/day)

Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet and a mineral necessary for life. The National Osteoporosis Foundation says, "Calcium plays an important role in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong and healthy later in life." Approximately ninety-nine percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.[5] The rest of the calcium in the body has other important uses, such as some exocytosis, especially neurotransmitter release, and muscle contraction. In the electrical conduction system of the heart, calcium replaces sodium as the mineral that depolarizes the cell, proliferating the action potential. In cardiac muscle, sodium influx commences an action potential, but during potassium efflux, the cardiac myocyte experiences calcium influx, prolonging the action potential and creating a plateau phase of dynamic equilibrium. Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to rickets and poor blood clotting and in case of a menopausal woman, it can lead to osteoporosis, in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased risk of fractures. While a lifelong deficit can affect bone and tooth formation,

Calcium over-retention can cause hypercalcemia (elevated levels of calcium in the blood), impaired kidney function and decreased absorption of other minerals.[6] High calcium intakes or high calcium absorption were previously thought to contribute to the development of kidney stones. However, a high calcium intake has been associated with a lower risk for kidney [7] [8] [9] stones in more recent research. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese, are a well-known source of calcium. However, some individuals are allergic to dairy products and even more people, particularly those of non Indo-European descent, are lactose-intolerant, leaving them unable to consume non-fermented dairy products in quantities larger than about half a liter per serving. Others, such as vegans, avoid dairy products for ethical and health reasons. Fortunately, many good sources of calcium exist. These include seaweeds such as kelp, wakame and hijiki; nuts and seeds (like almonds and sesame); blackstrap molasses; beans; oranges; figs; quinoa; amaranth; collard greens; okra; rutabaga; broccoli; dandelion leaves; kale; and fortified products such as orange juice and soy milk. (However, calcium fortified orange juice often contains vitamin D3 derived from lanolin, and is thus unacceptable for vegans.[10] ) An overlooked source of calcium is eggshell, which can be ground into a powder and mixed into food or a glass of water.[11] [12] [13] Cultivated vegetables generally have less calcium than wild plants.[14] The calcium content of most foods can be found in the USDA National Nutrient Database.[15]

7

Dietary calcium supplements
Calcium supplements are used to prevent and to treat calcium deficiencies. Most experts recommend that supplements be taken with food and that no more than 600 mg should be taken at a time because the percent of calcium absorbed decreases as the amount of calcium in the supplement increases.[] It is recommended to spread doses throughout the day. Recommended daily calcium intake for adults ranges from 1000 to 1500 mg. It is recommended to take supplements with food to aid in absorption.

500 milligram calcium supplements made from calcium carbonate

Vitamin D is added to some calcium supplements. Proper vitamin D status is important because vitamin D is converted to a hormone in the body which then induces the synthesis of intestinal proteins responsible for calcium absorption.[16] • The absorption of calcium from most food and commonly-used dietary supplements is very similar.[17] This is contrary to what many calcium supplement manufacturers claim in their promotional materials. • Milk is an excellent source of dietary calcium because it has a high concentration of calcium and the calcium in milk is excellently absorbed.[17] • Calcium carbonate is the most common and least expensive calcium supplement. It should be taken with food. It depends on low pH levels for proper absorption in the intestine.[18] Some studies suggests that the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate is similar to the absorption of calcium from milk.[19] [20] While most people digest calcium carbonate very well, some might develop gastrointestinal discomfort or gas. Taking magnesium with it can help to avoid constipation. Calcium carbonate is 40%

Calcium elemental calcium. 1000 mg will provide 400 mg of calcium. However, supplement labels will usually indicate how much calcium is present in each serving, not how much calcium carbonate is present. • Antacids, such as Tums, frequently contain calcium carbonate, and are a very commonly-used, inexpensive calcium supplement. • Coral Calcium is a salt of calcium derived from fossilized coral reefs. Coral calcium is composed of calcium carbonate and trace minerals. • Calcium citrate can be taken without food and is the supplement of choice for individuals with achlorhydria or who are taking histamine-2 blockers or proton-pump inhibitors.[21] It is more easily digested and absorbed than calcium carbonate if taken on empty stomach and less likely to cause constipation and gas than calcium carbonate. It also has a lower risk of contributing to the formation of kidney stones. Calcium citrate is about 21% elemental calcium. 1000 mg will provide 210 mg of calcium. It is more expensive than calcium carbonate and more of it must be taken to get the same amount of calcium. • Calcium phosphate costs more than calcium carbonate, but less than calcium citrate. It is easily absorbed and is less likely to cause constipation and gas than either. • Calcium lactate has similar absorption as calcium carbonate[22] , but is more expensive. Calcium lactate and calcium gluconate are less concentrated forms of calcium and are not practical oral supplements.[21] • Calcium chelates are synthetic calcium compounds, with calcium bound to an organic molecule, such as malate, aspartate, or fumarate. These forms of calcium may be better absorbed on an empty stomach. However, in general they are absorbed similarly to calcium carbonate and other common calcium supplements when taken with food.[23] The 'chelate' mimics the action that natural food performs by keeping the calcium soluble in the intestine. Thus, on an empty stomach, in some individuals, chelates might theoretically be absorbed better. • Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MH) is marketed as a calcium supplement, and has in some randomized trials been found to be more effective than calcium carbonate. • Orange juice with calcium added is a good dietary source for persons who have lactose intolerance. In July 2006, a report citing research from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington claimed that women in their 50s gained 5 pounds less in a period of 10 years by taking more than 500 mg of calcium supplements than those who did not. However, the doctor in charge of the study, Dr. Alejandro J. Gonzalez also noted it would be "going out on a limb" to suggest calcium supplements as a weight-limiting aid.[24]

8

Prevention of fractures due to osteoporosis
Such studies often do not test calcium alone, but rather combinations of calcium and vitamin D. Randomized controlled trials found both positive[25] [26] and negative[27] [28] [29] [30] effects. The different results may be explained by doses of calcium and underlying rates of calcium supplementation in the control groups.[31] However, it is clear that increasing the intake of calcium promotes deposition of calcium in the bones, where it is of more benefit in preventing the compression fractures resulting from the osteoporotic thinning of the dendritic web of the bodies of the vertebrae, than it is at preventing the more serious cortical bone fractures which happen at hip and wrist.

Calcium

9

Possible cancer prevention
A meta-analysis[26] by the international Cochrane Collaboration of two randomized controlled trials[32] [33] found that calcium "might contribute to a moderate degree to the prevention of adenomatous colonic polyps". More recent studies were conflicting, and one which was positive for effect (Lappe, et al.) did control for a possible anti-carcinogenic effect of vitamin D, which was found to be an independent positive influence from calcium-alone on cancer risk (see second study below) [34] . • A randomized controlled trial found that 1000 mg of elemental calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D3 had no effect on colorectal cancer[35] • A randomized controlled trial found that 1400–1500 mg supplemental calcium and 1100 IU vitamin D3 reduced aggregated cancers with a relative risk of 0.402.[36] • An observational cohort study found that high calcium and vitamin D intake was associated with "lower risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer."[37]

Overdose
Exceeding the recommended daily calcium intake for an extended period of time can result in hypercalcemia and calcium metabolism disorder.

See also
• • • • Calcium metabolism Calcium in biology Calcium compounds Disorders of calcium metabolism

References
• Rebecca J. Donatelle. Health, The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.

External links
• WebElements.com — Calcium [38] • USDA National Nutrient Database, Calcium content of selected foods • UK Food Standards Agency: Calcium [40]
[39]

Calcium

10

References
[1] A. G. Dickson, C. Goyet (1994). " 5 (http:/ / cdiac. esd. ornl. gov/ ftp/ cdiac74/ chapter5. pdf)". Handbook of method for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water, version 2. ORNL/CDIAC-74. . [2] Pauling, Linus (1970). General Chemistry. Dover Publications. p. 627. ISBN 0716701499. [3] M. G. Tordoff. " Calcium: Taste, Intake, and Appetite (http:/ / physrev. physiology. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 81/ 4/ 1567)". Physiological Reviews 81 (4): 1567. . [4] Staff (1995). " H-K Project (http:/ / www. mtwilson. edu/ hk/ )". Mount Wilson Observatory. . Retrieved 2006-08-10. [5] " Osteoporosis Prevention - Calcium Recommendations (http:/ / www. nof. org/ prevention/ calcium2. htm)". . [6] Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and fluoride. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. ISBN 0309064031. [7] Curhan, Gc; Willett, Wc; Rimm, Eb; Stampfer, Mj (Mar 1993). "A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones.". The New England journal of medicine 328 (12): 833–8. ISSN 0028-4793 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0028-4793). PMID 8441427. [8] Bihl G, Meyers A. (August 2001). "Recurrent renal stone disease-advances in pathogenesis and clinical management". Lancet 358 (9282): 651–656. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05782-8 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S0140-6736(01)05782-8). PMID 11530173. [9] Hall WD, Pettinger M, Oberman A, et al. (July 2001). "Risk factors for kidney stones in older women in the Southern United States". Am J Med Sci 322 (1): 12–18. doi: 10.1097/00000441-200107000-00003 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1097/ 00000441-200107000-00003). PMID 11465241. [10] " Sources of vitamin D in orange juice (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FDE/ is_3_23/ ai_n6138556)". . [11] Anne Schaafsma, Gerard M Beelen (1999). " Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: piglet studies (http:/ / www3. interscience. wiley. com/ cgi-bin/ abstract/ 63003036/ ABSTRACT)" (abstract). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79 (12): 1596–1600. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199909)79:12<1596::AID-JSFA406>3.0.CO;2-A (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ (SICI)1097-0010(199909)79:12<1596::AID-JSFA406>3. 0. CO;2-A). . [12] Schaafsma A, van Doormaal JJ, Muskiet FA, Hofstede GJ, Pakan I, van der Veer E (March 2002). "Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women". Br. J. Nutr. 87 (3): 267–75. doi: 10.1079/BJNBJN2001515 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1079/ BJNBJN2001515). PMID 12064336. [13] Rovenský J, Stancíková M, Masaryk P, Svík K, Istok R (2003). "Eggshell calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis". Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 23 (2-3): 83–92. PMID 15018022. [14] " Original Wild Foods vs. Available Foods Today for Instinctos (http:/ / www. beyondveg. com/ nieft-k/ instincto-guide/ instincto-guide1e. shtml)". . [15] " USDA National Nutrient Database (http:/ / www. nal. usda. gov/ fnic/ foodcomp/ search)". . [16] Combs, G (2008). The Vitamins. Academic Press. p. 161. [17] Weaver, CM (2006). "Calcium". Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 9th Ed.. I. ILSI Press. p. 377. [18] Remington, Joseph (2005). Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1338. ISBN 0781746736. [19] Zhao, Y. et al.. "Calcium bioavailability of calcium carbonate fortified soy milk is equivalent to cow's milk in young women". J. Nutr. 135 (10): 2379. [20] Ligia Martini and Richard J Wood (2002). " Relative bioavailability of calcium-rich dietary sources in the elderly (http:/ / www. ajcn. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 76/ 6/ 1345)". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76 (6): 1345–1350. . [21] Straub, D. A. (2007). "Calcium Supplementation in Clinical Practice: A Review of Forms, Doses, and Indications". Nutrition in Clinical Practice 22: 286. doi: 10.1177/0115426507022003286 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1177/ 0115426507022003286). [22] Martin, Berdine R. (2002). "Calcium Absorption from Three Salts and CaSO4-Fortified Bread in Premenopausal Women". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50: 3874. doi: 10.1021/jf020065g (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ jf020065g). [23] Weaver, Connie M. (2002). "Absorption of Calcium Fumarate Salts Is Equivalent to Other Calcium Salts When Measured in the Rat Model". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50: 4974. doi: 10.1021/jf0200422 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1021/ jf0200422). [24] Anne Harding. " Calcium May Help With Weight Loss (http:/ / www. rxalternativemedicine. com/ headlines_news. php#headline77)". . Retrieved 2007-07-10.

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[25] Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE (1997). "Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older". N. Engl. J. Med. 337 (10): 670–6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199709043371003 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1056/ NEJM199709043371003). PMID 9278463. [26] Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J (2005). "Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer, adenomatous polyps and calcium metabolisism disorder.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (3): CD003548. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003548.pub3 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ 14651858. CD003548. pub3). PMID 16034903. [27] Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al. (2006). "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (7): 669–83. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa055218 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1056/ NEJMoa055218). PMID 16481635. [28] Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al. (2005). "Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial". Lancet 365 (9471): 1621–8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)63013-9 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S0140-6736(05)63013-9). PMID 15885294. [29] Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, et al. (2005). "Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care". BMJ 330 (7498): 1003. doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7498.1003 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1136/ bmj. 330. 7498. 1003). PMID 15860827. [30] Prince RL, Devine A, Dhaliwal SS, Dick IM (2006). "Effects of calcium supplementation on clinical fracture and bone structure: results of a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in elderly women". Arch. Intern. Med. 166 (8): 869–75. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.8.869 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archinte. 166. 8. 869). PMID 16636212. [31] Fletcher RH (2006). " Calcium plus vitamin D did not prevent hip fracture or colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women (http:/ / www. acpjc. org/ Content/ 145/ 1/ issue/ ACPJC-2006-145-1-004. htm)" (subscription required). ACP J. Club 145 (1): 4–5. PMID 16813354. . [32] Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. (1999). "Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Calcium Polyp Prevention Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2): 101–7. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199901143400204 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1056/ NEJM199901143400204). PMID 9887161. [33] Bonithon-Kopp C, Kronborg O, Giacosa A, Räth U, Faivre J (2000). "Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group". Lancet 356 (9238): 1300–6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02813-0 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ S0140-6736(00)02813-0). PMID 11073017. [34] Lappe, Jm; Travers-Gustafson, D; Davies, Km; Recker, Rr; Heaney, Rp (Jun 2007). " Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. (http:/ / www. ajcn. org/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long& pmid=17556697)" (Free full text). The American journal of clinical nutrition 85 (6): 1586–91. ISSN 0002-9165 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ issn/ 0002-9165). PMID 17556697. . [35] Wactawski-Wende J, Kotchen JM, Anderson GL, et al. (2006). "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (7): 684–96. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa055222 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1056/ NEJMoa055222). PMID 16481636. [36] Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP (2007). "Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85 (6): 1586–91. PMID 17556697. [37] Lin J, Manson JE, Lee IM, Cook NR, Buring JE, Zhang SM (2007). "Intakes of calcium and vitamin d and breast cancer risk in women". Arch. Intern. Med. 167 (10): 1050–9. doi: 10.1001/archinte.167.10.1050 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1001/ archinte. 167. 10. 1050). PMID 17533208. [38] http:/ / www. webelements. com/ webelements/ elements/ text/ Ca/ index. html [39] http:/ / www. nal. usda. gov/ fnic/ foodcomp/ Data/ SR17/ wtrank/ sr17a301. pdf [40] http:/ / www. eatwell. gov. uk/ healthydiet/ nutritionessentials/ vitaminsandminerals/ calcium/

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
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Scandium

1

Scandium
calcium ← scandium → titanium ↑ Sc ↓ Y

WARNING: Table could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) table contains a cell with content that does not fit on a single page (b) nested tables (c) table is too wide

HydrogenHeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeonSodiumMagnesiumAlumini (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadonFranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumU

21Sc
Periodic table

Appearance silvery white

General Name, symbol, numberElement categoryGroup, period, blockStandard atomic weightElectron configurationElectrons per shell Physical properties PhaseDensity (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p.Melting pointBoiling pointHeat of fusionHeat of vaporizationSpecific heat capacityVapor pressure
P/Pa at T/K 1 1645 10 1804 100 (2006) 1k (2266) 10 k (2613) 100 k (3101)

Scandium Atomic properties Oxidation states ElectronegativityIonization energies (more) 2nd: 1235.0 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 2388.6 kJ·mol−1Atomic radiusCovalent radius Miscellaneous Crystal structureMagnetic orderingElectrical resistivityThermal conductivityThermal expansionYoung's modulusShear modulusBulk modulusPoisson ratioBrinell hardnessCAS registry number Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of scandium
iso
44m

2

N.A. syn

half-life 58.61 h IT γ ε

DM 0.2709

DE (MeV)
44

DP Sc Sc Ca

Sc

1.0, 1.1, 1.1 -

44

44

45

Sc Sc

100% syn

45

Sc is stable with 24 neutron β− γ 0.3569 0.889, 1.120 0.44, 0.60 0.159 0.661 0.9, 1.3, 1.0
46

46

83.79 d

Ti

47

47

Sc

syn

3.3492 d

β− γ

Ti

48

48

Sc

syn

43.67 h

β− γ

Ti

-

scandium, Sc, 21 transition metal3, 4, d44.955912(6) g·mol−1 [Ar] 3d1 4s2 2, 8, 9, 2 (Image) solid 2.985 g·cm−3 2.80 g·cm−3 1814 K,1541 °C,2806 °F 3109 K,2836 °C,5136 °F 14.1 kJ·mol−1 332.7 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 25.52 J·mol−1·K−13, 2[1] , 1 [2] (weakly basic oxide) 1.36 (Pauling scale) 1st: 633.1 kJ·mol−1162 pm170±7 pm hexagonal paramagnetic (r.t.) (α, poly) calc. 562 nΩ·m (300 K) 15.8 W·m−1·K−1 (r.t.) (α, poly) 10.2 µm/(m·K) 74.4 GPa 29.1 GPa 56.6 GPa 0.279 750 MPa 7440-20-2 Scandium (pronounced /ˈskændiəm/) is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic transition metal, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides. In 1879 Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team, found a new element with spectral analysis, in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia. Scandium is present in most of the rare earth element and uranium deposits, but it is extracted from these ores in only a few mines worldwide. Due to the low availability and the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, which was first done in 1937, it took until the 1970s before applications for scandium were developed. The positive effects of scandium on aluminium alloys were discovered in the 1970s, and its use in such alloys remains the only major application of scandium.

Scandium

3

History
Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of an element that he called ekaboron, with an atomic mass between 40 and 48 in 1869. Ten years later Lars Fredrik Nilson found a new element in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia. He was able to prepare 2 g of scandium oxide of high purity. [3] [4] He named it scandium, from the Latin Scandia meaning "Scandinavia". Nilson was apparently unaware of Mendeleev's prediction, but Per Teodor Cleve recognized the correspondence and notified Mendeleev.[5] Metallic scandium was produced for the first time in 1937 by electrolysis of a eutectic mixture, at 700–800 °C, of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides.[6] The first pound of 99% pure scandium metal was produced in 1960. The use for aluminium alloys began in 1971, following a US patent. Aluminium-scandium alloys were also developed in the USSR.[7]

Position in the periodic table
Groups 1 to 3 of the periodic table could be written as follows:
1 H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra B Al Sc Y La Ac 2 3

This grouping is consistent with Mendeleev's prediction for scandium as "eka-boron". It shows that the properties of Sc will be intermediate between the properties of Al and Y, in the same way that the properties of Ca are intermediate between those of Mg and Sr. It also shows that there will be a diagonal relationship between Mg and Sc, just as there is between Be and Al. However, in the standard periodic table boron and aluminium are placed in group 13, where the relationships above are less obvious. As to the rest of group 3, there has been controversy as to whether yttrium is in the same group as lanthanum or as lutetium.[8] In the chemical compounds of the elements shown as group 3, above, the predominant oxidation state is +3. The ions M3+ will all have the electronic configuration of a noble gas, so it is reasonable that they should be in the same group of the periodic table. Most modern text-books place Sc, Y, La and Ac in the same periodic group.

Occurrence
Scandium does not have a particularly low abundance in the earth's crust. Estimates vary from 18 to 25 ppm, which is comparable to the abundance of cobalt (20–30 ppm). However, scandium is distributed sparsely and occurs in trace amounts in many minerals.[9] Rare minerals from Scandinavia[10] and Madagascar[11] such as thortveitite, euxenite, and gadolinite are the only known concentrated sources of this element. Thortveitite can contain up to 45%, as scandium(III) oxide.[10]

Scandium Scandium is more common in the sun and certain stars than on Earth. Scandium is only the 50th most common element on earth (35th most abundant in the Earth's crust), but it is the 23rd most common element in the sun.[12]

4

Production
World production of scandium is in the order of 2,000 kg per year as scandium oxide. The primary production is 400 kg while the rest is from stockpiles of Russia created during the Cold War. In 2003 only three mines produced scandium: the uranium and iron mines in Zhovti Vody in Ukraine, the rare earth mines in Bayan Obo, China and the apatite mines in the Kola peninsula, Russia. In each case scandium is a byproduct from the extraction of other elements.[13] and is sold as scandium oxide. The production of metallic scandium is in the order of 10 kg per year.[13] [14] The oxide is converted to scandium fluoride and reduced with metallic calcium. Madagascar and Iveland-Evje Region in Norway have the only deposits of minerals with high scandium content, thortveitite (Y,Sc)2(Si2O7) and kolbeckite ScPO4·2H2O, but these are not being exploited.[14] Other scandium sources include the nickel and cobalt mines at Syerston and Lake Innes, New South Wales, Australia, iron, tin, and tungsten deposits in China and uranium deposits in Russia and Kazakhstan. As of 2003, scandium was not being extracted from the tailings at any of these mines, but some scandium extraction may be started if there is sufficient demand.[13] There is currently no primary production of scandium in the Americas, Europe, or Australia.

Isotopes
Naturally occurring scandium is composed of one stable isotope 45Sc with a nuclear spin of 7/2. 13 radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 46Sc with a half-life of 83.8 days, 47Sc with a half-life of 3.35 days, and 48Sc with a half-life of 43.7 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half lives that are less than 4 hours, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 2 minutes. This element also has 5 meta states with the most stable being 44mSc (t½ 58.6 h).[15] The isotopes of scandium range in atomic weight from 40 u (40Sc) to 54 u (54Sc). The primary decay mode at masses lower than the only stable isotope, 45Sc, is electron capture, and the primary mode at masses above it is beta emission. The primary decay products at atomic weights below 45Sc are calcium isotopes and the primary products from higher atomic weights are titanium isotopes.[15]

Compounds
Scandium metal is hard and has a silvery appearance. It develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast when exposed to air. It is not resistant to weathering and dissolves slowly in most dilute acids. It does not react with a 1:1 mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrofluoric acid, HF, presumably due to the formation of an impermeable passive layer on the surface of the metal. In the compounds ScB and ScC, boron and carbon are incorporated non-stoichiometrically into the lattice of the scandium.[16] The radii of M3+ ions in the following table

Scandium

5

Ionic radii (pm)
Al 53.5 Sc 74.5 Y 90.0 La 103.2 Lu 86.1

indicate why the chemistry of scandium is more closely related to that of yttrium than that of aluminium and explains why scandium has been classified as a lanthanide-like element. The oxide Sc2O3 is weakly acidic and the hydroxide Sc(OH)3 is amphoteric Sc3+ (aq.) ← H+ + Sc(OH)3 + OH− → Sc(OH) The α- and γ - forms of scandium oxide hydroxide (ScO(OH)), are isostructural with their aluminium oxide hydroxide counterparts.[17] Solutions of Sc3+ in water are acidic because of hydrolysis. The halides ScX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) are very soluble in water, but ScF3 is insoluble. In all four halides the scandium is 6-coordinate. The halides are Lewis acids; for example, ScF3 dissolves a solution containing excess fluoride to form [ScF6]3−. This is a typical example of a complex of Sc(III) in which the coordination number is 6. In the larger Y and La ions 8and 9- coordination are often found. There are a few compounds known in which the oxidation state is less than 3. The cluster [Sc6Cl12]3− has a similar structure to that of the Nb6Cl12 cluster in which chlorine atoms bridge the 12 edges of an octahedron of metal atoms.[18] Other sub-halides are known. The nature of the hydride ScH2 is not yet fully understood.[2] It appears not to be a saline hydride of Sc(II), but may be a compound of Sc(III) with two hydrides and an electron which is delocalized in a kind of metallic structure. ScH can be observed spectroscopically at high temperatures in the gas phase.[1] Scandium forms a series of organometallic compounds with cyclopentadienyl, based on the Sc(Cp)2 motif. The chlorine-bridged dimer, [Sc(Cp)2Cl]2 is the starting point for the preparation of many compounds by replacement of the chlorine.[19]

Applications
The addition of scandium to aluminium limits the excessive grain growth that occurs in the heat-affected zone of welded aluminium components. This has two beneficial effects: the precipitated Al3Sc forms smaller crystals than are formed in other aluminium alloys[20] and the volume of precipitate-free zones that normally exist at the grain boundaries of age-hardening aluminium alloys is reduced.[21] Both of these effects increase the usefulness of the alloy. However, titanium alloys, which are similar in lightness and strength, are cheaper and much more widely used.[22]

Parts of the Mig–29 are made from [20] Al-Sc alloy.

The main application of scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for minor aerospace industry components. These alloys contain between 0.1% and 0.5% of scandium. They were used in the Russian military aircraft Mig 21 and Mig 29.[21] Some items of sports equipment, which rely on high performance materials, have been made with scandium-aluminium alloys, including baseball bats[23] , lacrosse sticks, as well

Scandium as bicycle[24] frames and components. U.S. gunmaker Smith & Wesson produces revolvers with frames composed of scandium alloy and cylinders of titanium .[25] Approximately 20 kg (as Sc2O3) of scandium is used annually in the United States to make high-intensity discharge lamps.[26] Scandium iodide, along with Sodium Iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp, an artificial light source which produce a very white light with high colour rendering index that sufficiently resembles sunlight to allow good color-reproduction with TV cameras.[27] About 80 kg of scandium is used in metal halide lamps/light bulbs globally per year. The first scandium based metal halide lamps were patented by General Electric and initially made in North America, although they are now produced in all major industrialized countries. The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.[26] Scandium triflate is a catalytic Lewis acid used in organic chemistry.[28]

6

Health and safety
The pure metal is not considered to be toxic. Little animal testing of scandium compounds has been done.[29] The median lethal dose (LD50) levels for scandium(III) chloride for rats have been determined and were intraperitoneal 4 mg/kg and oral 755 mg/kg.[30] In the light of these results compounds of scandium should be handled as compounds of moderate toxicity.

See also
• • • • Scandium compounds Scandium minerals Yttrium Rare earth element

External links
• WebElements.com – Scandium
[31]

References
[1] McGuire, Joseph C.; Kempter, Charles P. (1960). "Preparation and Properties of Scandium Dihydride". Journal of Chemical Physics: 1584–1585. doi: 10.1063/1.1731452 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1063/ 1. 1731452). [2] Smith, R. E. (1973). "Diatomic Hydride and Deuteride Spectra of the Second Row Transition Metals". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences (1588): 113–127. doi: 10.1098/rspa.1973.0015 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rspa. 1973. 0015). [3] Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879). " Sur l'ytterbine, terre nouvelle de M. Marignac (http:/ / gallica. bnf. fr/ ark:/ 12148/ bpt6k30457/ f639. table)". Comptes Rendus 88: 642–647. . [4] F. L. Nilson (1879). "Ueber Scandium, ein neues Erdmetall". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 12 (1): 554–557. doi: 10.1002/cber.187901201157 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ cber. 187901201157). [5] Per Teodor Cleve (1879). " Sur le scandium (http:/ / gallica. bnf. fr/ ark:/ 12148/ bpt6k3046j/ f432. table)". Comptes Rendus 89: 419–422. . [6] Fischer, Werner; Brünger, Karl; Grieneisen, Hans (1937). "Über das metallische Scandium". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 231 (1-2): 54–62. doi: 10.1002/zaac.19372310107 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ zaac. 19372310107). [7] Zakharov, V. V. (2003). "Effect of Scandium on the Structure and Properties of Aluminum Alloys". Metal Science and Heat Treatment 45: 246. doi: 10.1023/A:1027368032062 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1023/ A:1027368032062). [8] Lavelle, L. (2008). "Lanthanum (La) and Actinium (Ac) Should Remain in the d-block". J. Chem. Ed. 85: 1482.

Scandium
[9] Bernhard, F. (2001). "Scandium mineralization associated with hydrothermal lazurite-quartz veins in the Lower Austroalpie Grobgneis complex, East Alps, Austria". Mineral Deposits in the Beginning of the 21st Century. Lisse: Balkema. ISBN 9026518463. [10] Kristiansen, Roy (2003). " Scandium - Mineraler I Norge (http:/ / www. nags. net/ Stein/ 2003