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Kamonwan Emong

Nutnicha Phokai
Samatchaya Jiracharoenwong
Kritanat tantiwikrom
Sept. 25th, 2015
Section 11-02
Experiment 1: Thin Layer Chromatography
Abstract:
To find out 2 unknown samples and 4 known samples were
used using the Thin Chromatography to separate the
substance. Using 4 known sample to identified 2 unknown
samples by using TCP paper. The result show that unknown
1 and 2 are more likely to the sample 1 and 2.
Introduction:

Mikhail Tswet first established chromatography in 1903, a


Russian botanist who used a column packed with calcium
1

carbonate to separate plant pigments . However


chromatography have developed over the time. Thin Layer
Chromatography (TLC) is a method that is used to determine
the number of substances in the mixture and its similarities
(Professor A. Tiselius, 1972). Using a solvent does the
method. Chromatography involves using the flow of liquid and
diffusion of gases. Another special technique is applying
distribution law, which is done by adding one solvent to make
the components more soluble. There are many more methods
that can be used to separate the substance. It also depends
on what kind of substances that are going to be separated.
For example, an Electrical and Magnetic separation, which is
a method that is used to separate solid things by using
magnetic field or electrical field.
Purpose:

Trying to find out what is the unknown substance or type of


substance by using chromatography method.

Result:
Part A. Drawings of Tested Pens Chromatography Paper

Part B. Calculated Rf Value for Tested Pens Pigment(s)


Data table:

Sample

Distance each
Color Traveled
(cm)

Distance
Solvent
Traveled (cm)

Ratio Traveled
(Rf)

0.6

5.45

0.11

1.0

5.45

0.18

1.21

5.45

0.22

2.0

5.45

0.37

u1

0.7

5.45

0.13

u2

1.64

5.45

0.30

Calculations:
Rf = distance component traveled from the start line/distance
solvent traveled from the start
S.1 Rf = 0.6/5.45 = 0.11
S.2 Rf = 1.0/5.45 = 0.18
S.3 Rf = 1.21/5.45 = 0.22
S.4 Rf = 2.0/5.45 = 0.37
U.1 Rf =

0.7/5.45 = 0.13

U.2 Rf = 1.64/5.45 = 0.30

line

Discussion:
The Chromatography is the process to separate the
component in order to identity the substance. Its separate the
substance by sending the substances to stationary phase and
separated by the attraction of the substance in stationary
phase. To be concern when doing the experiment, if the spot
is to concentrate, the result that comes out will be a smear.
And the result will not accurate. And if spot dip in solvent it
will mix with solvent and disappear. Rf value is the distance
move by given component divided by the distance from the
solvent front. For example, if the solvent point move 8 cm
and the component move from the baseline 3.2, the Rf value
=0.4 Rf. In this experiment, the Rf value from unknown
sample 1 is 0.13, which close to the Rf of sample 1 which is
0.11. Thus, it may be possible to have the same component
with the sample 1. And for the unknown sample 2, its color
and shape are similar to the sample 2 even the Rf is not

quite the same. So, it has a chance to have the component


with the sample 2.

Conclusion:
According to the result, from the sample which has very
short distant to the highest distance, sample 1, u1, 2, 3, 4
and u2 respectively. For the unknown 1, its shape and color
seem to be closely like to the sample 1. But for the
unknown 2, its shape is similar to sample 2. And also for the
color, it is dark blue at the top and then fades to white at
the bottom.

Reference:
1. History of Chromatography. (n.d.). Retrieved September
25, 2015, from
http://www.umich.edu/~orgolab/Chroma/chromahis.html

2. Separating Mixtures. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2015,


from http://chemistry.tutorvista.com/analyticalchemistry/separating-mixtures.html