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ASSOCIATION FRANAISE DES TUNNELS

ET DE LESPACE SOUTERRAIN
Organization member of the AFTES
www.aftes.asso.fr

AFTES
Recommendations
The design, sizing and
construction of precast
concrete segments
installed at the rear of a
tunnel boring machine (TBM)
GT18R1A1

AFTES
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR

THE DESIGN, SIZING AND CONSTRUCTION


OF PRECAST CONCRETE SEGMENTS
INSTALLED AT THE REAR OF A
TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM)
A.F.T.E.S. will be pleased to receive any suggestions concerning these recommendations

Version 1 - 1997 - approved by the Technical Committee on 13/11/1997

Translated in 1999

Text presented by
M. Pascal GUEDON, SIMECSOL
Working Group leader,
with the collaboration of :
Messrs. AUTUORI Philippe, BOUYGUES - BACHTANIK Bruno, MINISTERE DE L'EQUIPEMENT,
BARTHES Henri, A.F.T.E.S. - BERNARD Simon - BONNA - BILLANGEON Rmi, SPIE BATIGNOLLES
BOCHON Alain, SNCF - CHANTRON Laurent, CETu - CHARDIN Daniel, SOGEA - DARDARD Bruno, SNCF
HUEBER Jean, SETEC - LABONNE Hubert, INDUSTRIELLE DU BETON - LEOGANE Jean Paul, RATP
PETIT Franois, CAMPENON BERNARD SGE - SAMAMA Laurent, SCETAUROUTE - TAQUET Bernard, EDF - CNEH
VAN DUC Tri, CAMPENON BERNARD SGE
A.F.T.E.S. reading panel :
Messrs. GUILLAUME Jean, RAZEL - LAUNAY Jean, DUMEZ - GTM - LECA Eric, SCETAUROUTE
MAUROY Fabien, SYSTRA - NIQUET Jean-Jacques, SOCIETE DU CANAL DE PROVENCE
SCHWENZFEIER Andr, CETu

CONTENTS
Pages

1 - GENERAL
1.1 - Purpose of recommendations
1.2 - Scope of application of recommendations
2 - HISTORICAL REMINDER
3 - TUNNEL LINING DESIGN
3.1 - Introduction
3.2 - Basic data required to design a tunnel lining
3.3 - Lining functions
3.3.1 - Functions associated with operating constraints
3.3.2 - Functions associated with construction
constraints
3.4 - Description of the concept
3.4.1 - General
3.4.2 - General aspects of tunnel lining design
3.4.3 - Tapering of rings
3.4.4 - Length of rings
3.4.5 - Composition of a lining ring
3.4.6 - Segment geometry
3.4.7 - Nature of lining materials
3.5 - Lining installed within the area enclosing
the TBM
3.5.1 - Ring design principle
3.5.2 - Composition of rings
3.5.3 - Contact surfaces

Pages

3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5.6
3.5.7

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3.6

3.7

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3.8

3.9
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- Waterproofing gaskets
- Segment assembly systems
- Connector inserts, pockets
- Gaskets for distributing loads at segment
contact joints
3.5.8 - Back grouting behind ring extrados
- Lining installed outside the area occupied by
the TBM
3.6.1 - Ring design principle
3.6.2 - Advantages and drawbacks
- Specific aspects of water conveyance pressure
tunnels
3.7.1 - Hydrogeological reminders
3.7.2 - Tunnel lining structural behaviour
3.7.3 - Roughness of segment-lined tunnels
- Construction tolerances
3.8.1 - Specification
3.8.2 - Identification of main criteria contributing to
tolerance specification
3.8.3 - Accuracy
- Durability
3.9.1 - Segment concrete
3.9.2 - Steel reinforcing bars
3.9.3 - Waterproofing gaskets
3.9.4 - Connector inserts

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)

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Pages

3.10 - Economic considerations


4 - TUNNEL LINING DESIGN
4.1 - Main parameters influencing sizing
4.1.1 - Implementation conditions
4.1.2 - Parameters for analysing ring stresses
4.2 - Design assumptions
4.2.1 - Regulations and references
4.2.2 - Material properties
4.2.3 - Nature of actions and loadings
4.2.4 - Combined actions
4.2.5 - Sizing criteria
4.3 - Determination of stresses in the tunnel lining
4.3.1 - Introduction
4.3.2 - Hyperstatic reaction method
4.3.3 - Composite solid method
4.3.4 - Adaptation of analysis methods to a segments
lining and to TBM-based excavation
4.3.5 - Parameters which can be integrated in the
different methods of analysis
4.4 - Proof of concrete and reinforcement
4.4.1 - Choice of segment wall thickness
4.4.2 - Circumferential reinforcement (hoops)
4.4.3 - Longitudinal reinforcing bars (arranged parallel
to the tunnel axis)

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5 - DESIGN OF ASSEMBLY SYSTEMS


5.1 - Design assumptions for bolts and anchor bolts
5.1.1 - Regulations
5.1.2 - Nature of actions and loadings
5.1.3 - Combined actions - Design stresses
5.2 - Proof of assembly and pick-up components
using materials other than steel
5.2.1 - Introduction
5.2.2 - Actions to be considered
5.2.3 - Combined actions - Stresses
5.2.4 - Behaviour of materials and assemblies - Tests
5.2.5 - Conclusions
6 - TRANSITION AND ANCILLARY WORKS
6.1 - Design of ancillary works
6.2 - Construction of transition and ancillary works
7 - INSTRUMENTATION
7.1 - Aims
7.2 - Monitoring methods
REFERENCES
ANNEX :
TUNNEL LINING CONSTRUCTION PRECASTING AND INSTALLATION

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FOREWORD

he present text is aimed first and foremost at the different active parties (Owners, Owner's Representatives and Engineers, Consulting
Engineers, Contractors) working in the field of TBM-based mechanized tunnel driving.

The prime aim of the present document is not only to avoid certain past mistakes in the design, sizing and construction of precast concrete
segmental linings installed at the rear of a TBM, but also to contribute to extending know-how in these areas based on the experience gained
over the last decades by the various parties practising of this technique.
It is hoped that this text will stimulate the wish of all those concerned to make progress in relation to the technical aspect of this type of lining
and technology involved.

I - GENERAL

1.2 - Scope of application


of recommendations

1.1 - Purpose of recommendations


The aim of the present recommendations is
to provide guidelines for the design, sizing
and construction of precast concrete segments linings installed at the rear of a TBM.
In par ticular, they are intended to update
and complement past recommendations
presented by A.F.T.E.S. Working Group 7
(Tunnel Suppor t and Lining) entitled
"rcommandations sur les revtements prfabriqus des tunnels circulaires creuss au
tunnelier" (recommendations for prefabricated linings of TBM-driven circular tunnels)
(Tunnels et Ouvrages Souterrains (T.O.S.)
Special Issue 05-88).
They are also based on other past recommendations published by A.F.T.E.S.

concrete tunnel linings, these recommendations recall in a section covering design:


the functions which linings must fulfil,

The present recommendations deal exclusively with the case of precast concrete segments linings.
Thus, tunnel lining designs based on using
other materials, such as cast iron or steel, or
having recourse to a mix of these materials
do not fall within the scope of these recommendations and call for a specific recommendation drafting project.
On the other hand, the expression "installed
at the rear of a TBM" does not limit the
scope of application of this text to only
linings installed within the TBM shield tail; it
also includes linings installed outside the
area occupied by the shield tail, such as
linings formed from expanded segments.
Thus, following a brief historical reminder
describing the emergence of precast

the different elements forming tunnel


linings and their roles,
stressing, in particular, the important points
to be complied with to ensure satisfactory
behaviour of the structure during construction and throughout its life.
The document subsequently reports on the
sizing aspect of linings in relation to which it
is impor tant to recall immediately the
essential osmosis, in the general sense
(design, analysis, construction) of the word,
which must prevail between TBM and lining
designers. This process will result in the
avoidance of many sources of malfunction
liable to lead, in some cases, to cer tain
design inconsistencies at times detrimental
to the long-term performance of the structure.

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installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
Thus, the following aspects will be addressed in this section of the recommendations:
the main parameters influencing sizing;

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design assumptions (regulations and


recommendations, types of materials,
actions and combined actions, sizing criteria);
methods available to the design engineer
for analysing soil-str ucture interacting
stresses and where the refinement of the
calculations should be adapted to:
- the design levels implemented (preliminar y studies, design studies, construction
studies),
- the nature of the problems encountered
(sensitivity of the site to ground deformations, closeness of other structures, etc.);
cation of the different structural elements
forming the lining.
Moreover, the recommendations draw
attention to the essential control of certain
unusual design aspects, such as transition
between the lining and different types of
underground structures (stations, terminals,
addits, shafts, pipes, etc.), often causing problems which are awkward to deal with.
Finally, consideration is given to the particular aspects of monitoring and instrumentation of this type of structure.
An annex specific to tunnel lining construction provides a review of the recommendations advocated to ensure total conformity
between the structure engineered at design
stage and the implemented finished product
from segment casting stage to segment
erection within the tunnel.
This summary of the content of the recommendations reveals the full range of the
areas affecting the design and construction
of precast concrete segments linings installed at the rear of a TBM. It also highlights the
special care which must be applied to every
stage of the project when working towards
completion of a quality finished structure
whilst complying with production- and
automation/robotization-related demands
imposed by a concept of this type.

2 - HISTORICAL REMINDER
Up to 1930, TBM-driven tunnels were
mainly lined using cast iron segments.
Thereafter, precast concrete segments tunnel linings started to appear, mainly in Great
Britain, for small diameter tunnels (1.5 to 3
m) driven in London clay for use as sewers.

Since that period, several hundred kilometres of generally small diameter tunnels
driven in the London area have been lined
with concrete segments of various shapes
and types; they are often ribbed, in other
words their shape stems from that of cast
iron segments. It should be noted that, most
of the time, these underground structures
were built in very low permeability ground
in which the excavated periphery offered
short-term stability (London clay).

3.2 - Basic data required to


design a tunnel lining

In time, British manufacturers offered a


whole range of standard off-the-shelf tunnel
lining segments covering a wide range of
diameters (1.5 to 6 m internal diameters).
One of the significant features of these segments was their small size and reduced
weight (100 to 400 kg per segment), which
resulted in a large number of ring elements
for the largest diameter tunnels (12 segments per ring for a diameter of the order
of 6 m).

its operating life;

Prior to designing any tunnel lining, it is


essential that Owner s, Owner's
Representatives and Engineers specify the
aims and constraints which the planned tunnel structure must satisfy:
its function(s): rail or road transpor t,
water or air conveyance, power or data
conveyance, storage, etc.;

3.1 - Introduction

the operating constraints:


- geometrical criteria (clearance, route,
construction tolerances, etc.),
- type and location of all permanent facilities (benches, inver t slab, wall recesses,
branches, hangers, connector inser ts, wall
pockets, suppor t systems for intermediate
floors and ventilation ducts, etc.),
- roughness criteria for the permanent
works compatible with projected water or
air flows (precast lining possibly combined
with and internal cast-in-place lining),
- water tightness criteria (acceptable seepage flows both from outside to inside and
conversely for water conveyance tunnels),
- fire resistance criteria,
- possible requirements in relation to steel
reinforcement equipotential;
environmental constraints:
- geology, hydrogeology,
- aggressivity of surrounding ground,
- site urbanization (limitation of ground
settlements, etc.),
- presence of nearby underground structures (existing or future, if known),
- seismicity;

It is essential to state that there is no unique


design for a segmental lining.

structural sizing criteria resulting especially from the above-mentioned


constraints:

Since 1965, major development in the use


of concrete segments linings in Europe
(Germany, Belgium, Austria, France) and
Japan is notewor thy, in parallel with the
development of TBMs for excavating large
diameter tunnels (approximately 5 to 10 m)
in soft and water-bearing ground.
Specifically, mechanized erectors, larger size
segments with ver y low precasting tolerances and elastomeric gaskets capable of
guaranteeing lining water tightness even in
heavily water-bearing ground, have appeared.

3 - TUNNEL LINING DESIGN

Very often, its design is based on the experience and skill acquired by Consulting
Engineers and Contractors on past projects.
Consequently, the purpose of this section is
to review the main factors entering into the
design of this type of lining and to draw
attention to cer tain vital engineering
aspects, of which a perfect command is
required. It cannot recommend a single type
of lining design to reader because too many
interdependent factors come into play.
On the contrary, over-precise recommendations, which do not integrate all the parameters, could prejudice construction of a
quality structure.

- regulations, standards and recommendations to be applied,


- actions and combined actions to be considered.

3.3 - Lining functions


3.3.1 - Functions associated with
operating constraints
During tunnel operation, the segmental
lining may be required to fulfil the following
functions, which depend entirely on the
pre-established aims of the Owner, the
Owner's Representative and the Engineer :

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To act as permanent tunnel lining/support
compatible with the various environmental
constraints;

3.4 - Description of the


concept

To act as an envelope intended to ensure


permanent compliance with tunnel operating clearance(s);

3.4.1 - General

To ensure imperviousness with respect to:

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- water inflows from the enclosing ground,


- possible fluids flowing freely or under
pressure within the structure.
It should be recalled that structural imperviousness depends on the ability of the
lining elements to oppose the passage of a
fluid (water, etc.), both from outside to
inside and conversely, within the leakage
flow limits specified for its operation;
To ensure air or water conveyance depending on whether the structure is likely to
have to ensure the flow of air (piston relief)
or water respectively;
To provide support for permanent service
mobile and fixed equipment.

Segment

An impor tant criterion for tunnel lining


design lies in the requirement or not to
interface driving and lining installation functions for the purpose of ensuring throughout the tunnelling period:
Ri
ng

total continuity of tunnel support;


total control of water inflows.

Figure 1 : Lining comprising precast segment rings

Continuity is thus initially provided by the


TBM shell itself (the shield tail with its rear
seal) and thereafter by the lining, incorporating its water tight gaskets, installed inside
the shield tail.

either parallel plane surfaces, as in the


case of so-called straight rings;
or out-of-parallel plane surfaces, as in the
case of so-called tapered rings.

It goes without saying that these design


options depend entirely on the geological
and hydrogeological conditions of the surrounding hydrogeological environment
through which the tunnel passes.

Depending on the arrangement retained,


the latter ring geometry allows the lining to
best adapt itself to curvature in the horizontal and vertical alignments of the tunnel
or to correct accidental deviations caused
by the TBM.

3.4.2 - General aspects of tunnel


lining design

3.3.2 - Functions associated with


construction constraints
During the construction phase of the tunnel, the segmental lining may be required to
fulfil some of the following functions resulting from both construction and environmental requirements:
To provide to the tunnel:

3.4.3 - Tapering of rings

A precast concrete lining for a TBM-driven


tunnel generally comprises a sequence of
rings placed side-by-side.These rings are divided into sectors and each of these elementary units is called a segment (see figure 1).

Ring taper "p" is defined as the difference


between the maximum and the minimum
lengths of the ring and must be dimensioned to ensure that design curves are complied with and to allow TBM deviations to
be taken up. It can attain several centimetres (see figure 2).

The transverse faces of the rings (see figure


2) can be formed by:

- either immediate suppor t, mainly when


drawing in the TBM shield tail in soft ground,
- or deferred support, when the lining is installed outside the TBM shield tail; the peripher y of the excavation is stable in the
shor t-term within an enclosing soil-rock
mass of sufficiently low permeability to
allow work to be carried out in satisfactory
conditions, without having recour se to
immediate continuous support;
To provide protection against water
inflows, when tunnel driving is undertaken
in water-bearing ground;

Straight

Straight ring

To provide longitudinal support allowing


the TBM to:

Curved

Plan view

Left or right tapered


trapezoidal ring

Straight

Curved

- penetrate the ground,


- if necessary, exert confinement pressure at
the excavation face to ensure its stability
and that the hydrostatic pressure applied to
the TBM cutterhead is taken up;
To support the back-up equipment and
construction plant required for carrying out
the work;
To ensure evacuation of drainage water.

Universal tapered ring

Plan view

Figure 2 : Sequence of rings

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- tunnel diameter

Although often used in the past, today their


use is almost exclusively confined to structures such as shafts. They require an larger
excavation diameter than solid segments for
the same sectional area and inertia.The size
of the hollows allows implementation of an
assembly system based on straight bolts,
which requires greater rearward clearance
during erection than other assembly systems.

- alignment design (horizontal and vertical


radii of curvature),

3.4.7 - Nature of lining materials

Development of techniques (control of


supply to the workface) tends to favour the
use of the universal tapered ring.

Segment

3.4.4 - Length of rings


The ring length may depend on:

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operation-linked criteria:

- limitation of the length of gasket sealing


material and thus of the risk of a defect in
tunnel watertightness;

The main constituent materials of a tunnel


lining are:

construction-based criteria:

- cement,

- optimization of driving (mucking) and


lining installation cycles,
- size of rings (impact on design of TBM
thrust mechanisms: stroke of thrust cylinders, etc.),
- weight of ring segments (impact on yardand tunnel-based segment handling equipment).
Ring length is generally between 0.60 m and
2.00 m.
3.4.5 - Composition of a lining ring
The number of segments comprising a ring
varies widely from one tunnel project to
another and is subject to the following
constraints:
operating constraints:
- limitation of the number of segment
contact joints, therefore of the risk of a
defect in tunnel watertightness,
- limitation of head losses due to seepage of
internal fluids;

concrete, containing:
Figure 3 : Typical cross-section of a ring

- aggregates,
- admixtures
reinforcing steel.

3.4.6 - Segment geometry

3.4.7.1 - Cement

The geometr y of a segment is essentially


linked to the type of ring assembly system
retained.

Preference should be given to using additive-free rapid-hardening cements, whose


durability is unaffected or little affected by
steam curing.

The following shapes can be distinguished:


"Solid" segments:
These are the most frequently used today;
almost their full wall thickness contributes
to the strength of the ring.They incorporate
small size pockets allowing assembly of the
different parts of the ring (by anchor bolts,
cur ved bolts, plugs, etc.; see 3.5.5 Segment assembly systems);
"Hollow" or "ribbed" segments:

For this type of application, use of standard


CPA-CEM I-type cement is therefore preferred to the following cement types:
- CPJ - CEM II
- CLC - CEM V
- CLK - CEM III
- CHF - CEM III.
However, the latter types can be considered
for tunnel linings in aggressive ground

Figure 5 : "Hollow" and "ribbed" segments (Caracas


Underground - Lines 1 and 2)

construction constraints:
- weight of segments (impact on formwork
stripping operations, handling, yard storage,
ring erection using erector arm),
- size of ring elements (transport from precast yard, supply to the workface),
- impacts on concreting conditions (curvature),
- segment behaviour under TBM thr ust
(limitation of risk that cracks will appear
under temporar y stresses resulting from
bearing defects between rings),
- positioning of TBM thrust mechanisms.
- ring-to-ring assembly constraints (layout
of ring assembly devices).

Figure 4 : "Solid" segments


(Lille Underground - lines 1 bis - section B)

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3.5 - Lining installed within
the area enclosing the TBM

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Lining wall thickness (cm)

The various operating and environmental


constraints referred to above ver y often
impose erection of the lining rings under
cover of the TBM in the rear par t of its
shield tail.
Different points entering into the design of
this type of lining are enlarged upon in the
following sections.
3.5.1 - Ring design principle
As already referred to above in Section 3.4,
this lining design can require the adoption
of:

Lining internal diameter (m)


final
final
final
final

lining
lining
lining
lining

open face TBM


compressed air TBM
slurry pressure TBM
earth pressure TBM

temporary
temporary
temporary
temporary

lining
lining
lining
lining

open face TBM


compressed air TBM
slurry pressure TBM
earth pressure TBM

Figure 6 gives an idea of the increase in segmental lining wall thickness with respect to the tunnel internal diameter.

conditions based on special mix design and


production if necessary.
Use of CPA - PMES-type cement may be
recommended for certain applications.
3.4.7.2 - Aggregates

In general, the nature of fine and coarse


aggregates used depends on the available
quarries in the area where the tunnel is to
be built.
Aggregate sizes must suit perfectly the geometrical accuracy of the segments, formwork recesses, reinforcement arrangements
and possible connector inserts.
The proper ties of these materials will be
specified on the basis of physical and chemical analyses and examinations. In particular,
aggregates will be sought which are frostresistant, unreactive, sound, free of fines,
non-absorbent, non-brittle and hard. Sands
should preferably contain (mineral) filler.
Continuous aggregate grading should be
specified to ensure good workability when
placing the fresh concrete in the moulds.
3.4.7.3 - Admixtures

In cases in which aggregates lack fines, use of


additional fly-ash or fillers (e.g. limestonebased materials) are recommended. The
origin of such products should of course be
checked.

The use of standardized water-reducing


superplasticizers is recommended to obtain
increased workability to achieve higher
strength.
N.B. In France, studies are being conducted
on the fire resistance of silica fumes within
the framework of the BHP 2000 national
project.
3.4.7.4 - Reinforcement

Grades of steel used for segment reinforcing cages must comply with applicable
standards.
The most commonly used steels are weldable hot-rolled or cold-worked Fe E 500
and Fe E 235 grades.
Should hot-rolled steel, generally featuring a
large quantity of mill scale, be used, care
must be taken to remove this scale before
welding (during straightening of coiled steel
or by shot blasting steel bars).
3.4.7.5 - Reinforcing fibres

Use of metal fibres, exclusively or in addition to conventional reinforcement, has


been experimented in cer tain works. In
France, studies are in progress for the purpose drawing up relevant design r ules,
within the framework of the national metal
fibre reinforced concrete project (BEFIM).

either straight rings to be used for the


straight sections and tapered rings (or tapered wedges) to be used specially for curved
sections of the tunnel route and/or for correcting TBM deviations.
or universal tapered rings to be used on a
systematic basis, including for straight sections of the tunnel route; the tapers of one
ring compensate for those of another ring,
thereby cancelling out the overall tapering
effect.
It should be noted that this second type of
design, besides being the most frequently
used, implies fabricating specific moulds for
each segment (the amount of taper being
different from one segment to the another).
3.5.2 - Composition of rings
In general, division of a lining ring into segments depends on the ring erection technology retained.
3.5.2.1 - Rectangular and trapezoidal
segments

This design does not generally allow the


excavation cycle to be restar ted until the
ring has been completely erected.
The gap available between the extrados of
the ring being erected and the intrados of
the shield tail is usually small and ring closure is very often ensured by a longitudinal
key, which requires additional forward space
to allow insertion of this final segment.
To partially satisfy this constraint, use of a
key segment of "trapezoidal shape" in plan
(see figure 7) is very often resorted to.
Consequently, the geometr y of the segments adjacent to this ring part will have to
be special to suit that of the key: these adjacent elements are called counter segments.

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Key

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SECTION AA

Direction
of advance

Key

Figure 7 : Longitudinally inserted key segment


Figure 8 : Rectangular and trapezoidal segments - perspective view

Thus, in this type of design, a lining ring


generally comprises:
rectangular virtually identical (apart from
possible taper) standard segments, whose
number can vary from one project to another (see figure 8);

DIRECTION OF TBM ADVANCE

Key segment

two counter segments;


Standard segment

one key segment.

Counter segment

Assembly of these ring elements is often


under taken by means of bolts or anchor
bolts (see 3.5.5 - Segment assembly systems).
In general, contact faces between segments
are offset longitudinally both to prevent
defects in watertightness at the corners and
to maintain a certain pressure on the segments previously placed to prevent them
from loosening completely when the TBM
thrust cylinders are retracted (see figure 9).

Segments are numbered in accordance with their order of placement

In some cases, these contact faces can be


aligned (see figure 10); this configuration
can be adopted in particular :

DIRECTION OF TBM ADVANCE

at future openings (entrances to crosstunnels, etc.) to be provided in the lining;


in areas in which alignment corrections
are made essential (special care must then
be taken in relation to measures to be
adopted to guarantee water tightness at
segment corners);
if defects in water tightness at segment
corners are not a concern (systematic alignment of contact faces).

Figure 9 : Rectangular and trapezoidal segments longitudinal offsetting of contact faces between segments

Key segment
Standard segment

Counter segment

Segments are numbered in accordance with their order of placement


Figure 10 : Rectangular and trapezoidal segments longitudinal alignment of contact faces between segments

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
Two different ring designs can be considered with this type of rectangular or trapezoidal segment:

front of the existing pockets in the previously erected ring in order that they can
then be driven in hard.

Universal segment

The segment being erected is pushed longitudinally on the projecting section without
any real oppor tunity for crosswise movement. For this reason and for the purpose of
maintaining gradual transverse compression
of the radial gasket section (between segments) whilst sliding the segment longitudinally, standard segment geometr y is designed in the shape of a parallelogram.

As its name suggests, this design requires


only one set of rings.

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

The key segment can then be erected in any


angular position.

Thus, this type of lining ring usually comprises (see figure 13):
Key segment at
bottom of ring

parallelogrammic standard segments ,


whose number varies from one project to
another ;

Key segment at
top of ring

one reversed key segment;

Figure 11 : Sequence of universal rings

one key segment.


"Left" and "right" rings
This type of design necessitates resorting to
two sets of rings, to which the following
constraints apply:
- ring taper,
- key and counter segments with specific
geometry,
- key positions limited to the upper semicircumference of the ring.
If necessary, "left" and "right" rings can be
transformed into universal rings (correction
of tunnel alignment deviations, etc.).

Configuration 1, shown in figure 14, requires


segments to be erected in the same order
of placement from one ring to another.
Under the pressure exerted by the longitudinally oriented waterproofing gaskets (between segments of the same ring), the rings
can be gradually subjected to disruptive
rotation in the absence of transverse bolts.
In time, this rotation can lead to a discrepancy of several centimetres between the
position of the rings and that of the TBM
thrust cylinder ram pads.
To overcome this gradual rotation, a solution based on alternate segment erection
with respect to the first ring part placed is
recommended (see figure 15).
3.5.2.3 - Trapezoidal segments

This ring design may allow tunnel excavation and lining erection operations to be

carried out simultaneously (stroke of thrust


cylinders adapted to two ring lengths).
In general, a ring is broken down into an
even number of trapezoidal segments. Half
the segments are "counter" type, i.e. wider
on the side of the previously placed ring.
The other half are "key" type, i.e. narrower
on the side of the previously placed ring
(see figure 16).
Once in place, the counter segments provide suppor t for the thrust cylinders, thereby allowing the TBM to advance again.
During this time, ring erection can continue
with the key segments, as long as the shield
tail seal is not crossed. Subsequently, rear
support for the thrust cylinders is transferred to the key segments without halting
TBM penetration.
This continuous penetration method
requires the following problems to be overcome:
placement of "key" segments between the
"counter" segments;
total thrust can be mobilized using only
some of the thrust cylinders or continuous
penetration is limited to certain favourable
ground conditions requiring reduced thrust;
more difficult guidance.
3.5.3 - Contact surfaces
3.5.3.1 - Circumferential or transverse contact joints
Contact joints between adjacent rings can
be required to bear :
compressive (possibly eccentric) loads
resulting from the longitudinal thrust of the
TBM;

Figure 12 : Sequence of "left" and "right" rings - key systematically positioned above the horizontal diameter

Contractors' final choice of one or the


other type of rings is very often based on
practices tested at length on different projects.
3.5.2.2 - Parallelogrammic and trapezoidal segments

This ring design is associated with the use of


plugs incorporated in the lining wall at the
contact face between successive rings
(transverse contact face) (see 3.5.5 Segment assembly systems).
When erected, segments are fitted with
these projecting plugs, which are lined up in

Figure 13 : Parallelogrammic and trapezoidal segments - Perspective view

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
shear forces due to differential deformations between adjacent rings associated
with:

DIRECTION OF TBM ADVANCE

- offsetting of contact faces between rings


(see figure 9), shear being transmitted by
permanent ring assembly systems (bolts,
anchor bolts, plugs, tenons, etc.),

Reverse key type segment

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

- non-uniform load distributions resulting


from the ground or from neighbouring
structures.

Key type segment

Segments are numbered in accordance with their order of placement

Obviously, assembly systems offer different


capacities for opposing potential displacement of the ring parts with respect to each
other (out-of-flushness).

Figure 14 : Parallelogrammic and trapezoidal segments - Configuration 1

DIRECTION OF TBM ADVANCE

The final geometry of these contact joints


and their possible additional equipment
must be selected in relation to the purpose
of the tunnel (wastewater collector, water
conveyance, rail or road tunnel, etc.) and
must be compatible with the out-of-flushness tolerance.

Reverse key type segment

Key type segment

forces resulting from segments overhanging (accidentally or otherwise) during ring


assembly.

Segments are numbered in accordance with their order of placement

These contact joints usually fall under one


of the following types:

Figure 15 : Parallelogrammic and trapezoidal segments - Configuration 2

DIRECTION OF TBM ADVANCE

a) plane contact joints


This contact principle is shown diagrammatically in figure 17.
Key type segment

Depending on the relative intensity of the


forces described above, radial slippage can
occur leading to out-of-flushness of one
segment with respect to an adjacent one.
Addition of mechanical systems (see
3.5.5.) can help to limit the extent of this
phenomenon.

Reverse key type segment

Segments are numbered in accordance with their order of placement

Out-of-flushness can be acceptable or


unacceptable depending on the purpose of
the tunnel (temporary or permanent, air or
water conveyance function to be fulfilled).
When it is unacceptable, it may be possible
to turn to combined geometr y contact
joints of a form allowing transfer of shear
forces.

Figure 16 : Trapezoidal segments

b) combined geometry contact


joints

excavation

This type of contact joint, shown


in figure 18, is less common than

back grouting
extrados

waterproofing
gasket

excavation
back grouting
boss

extrados
waterproofing gasket

intrados

plane contact joint

intrados

boss
Figure 17 : Plane contact joint

Figure 18 : Example of combined geometry contact joint

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
excavation

excavation
back grouting

extrados

back grouting

waterproofing gasket

extrados

waterproofing gasket

convex face

concave face

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

plane contact joint


intrados

intrados
Figure 19 : Example of plane contact joint

Figure 20 : Example of concave-convex cylindrical contact joint

the one above because it is difficult to


reconcile erection tolerances with the load
transfer efficiency which could be assumed
from such a system.
Moreover, there is a danger that very high
local stresses will develop in the load transfer zones (boss, tenon and mor tise, etc.)
and reinforcement of these zones, by means
of reinforcing bars, is often delicate simply
because of the contact joint geometry. In
this type of design, it is thus essential to
study carefully the geometr y of such
contact joints.
Finally, normal loads are necessarily concentrated on reduced surfaces which must be
capable of sustaining such loads.

The final geometry of these contact joints


must therefore be guided by the following
aims:
to allow correct centring of stresses;
to limit the danger of segment out-of-flushness, which both generates disruptive
loads and can be detrimental to the purpose of the tunnel (e.g. air or water
conveyance).

concave-convex cylindrical contact joints


(see figure 20):

These contact joints are usually one of the


following types:

convex-convex cylindrical contact surfaces (see figure 21).

a) Plane contact joints

c) Other contact joints (see figure 22).

3.5.3.2 - Radial or longitudinal contact


joints

A mechanical assembly system is generally


incorporated; it contributes to maintaining
erection accuracy by preventing, in particular, gradual drift in both segment alignment
and intersegment contact.

This type of contact joint, shown in figure


19, is the most commonly used because, in
general, it is sufficient for transferring the
forces applied to the rings.

The effects of both the surrounding ground


conditions and back grouting cause these
contact joints between segments of the
same ring to be subjected to:
compressive loads;
bending forces:
It should be noted that bending forces are
reduced in the immediate vicinity of the
radial contact joint. The inertia of this zone
is effectively lowered with respect to that of
the standard section;
transverse shear forces.

b) Cylindrical contact joints


When ring stresses are too high to consider
plane contact surfaces, joints are often designed with cylindrical surfaces.
Through plasticizing the concrete, the
contact surface widens gradually in relation
to the load and centres it.
These contact joints can be of different
types:

The radius of curvature of the concave surface may be greater than that of the convex
surface in cases when rotation of ring parts
in contact is expected or, conversely, these
radii of cur vature can be essentially the
same (the system is then intended to provide shear strength only);

Incorporation of a guide rod can be adopted in some cases.


3.5.3.3 - Flanks

Given the intensity of compressive stresses


often applied to the contact surfaces, whether they be transverse or longitudinal,
experience gained from past projects leads
to the recommendation that ver y special
care should be taken in designing segment
flanks in order to limit breakage at their
edges to a minimum.
It should be borne in mind that these fractures, which are often observed in the segment intrados and repaired by simply restoring, can also affect the extrados of lining
ring par ts and can lead to local damage
which is difficult to repair and is prejudicial
excavation

excavation

back grouting
back grouting
extrados

extrados
convex face

guide rod

convex face

intrados

waterproofing gasket

intrados

Figure 21 : Example of convex-convex cylindrical contact joint

Figure 22 : Example of contact joint incorporating a guide rod

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
- risk of accident to personnel in charge of
segment mould-based operations (sharp
projecting edges for forming chamfers).
To avoid these risks, it is preferable to provide either sharp edges or, if this chamfer is
retained, to incorporate a foam rubber (or
similar) seal over its full length; this
construction-based provision will thereby
solve the first problem but not the second.
All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

3.5.4 - Waterproofing gaskets


Figure 23 : Spalling and cracking of concrete cover

to the durability of the wor ks (water


ingress, corrosion of reinforcement, etc.).
Whilst it is advantageous to provide relative
large flanks in the contact zones in order to
overcome the above problems, it should be
ensured that the stresses acting on the
contact surfaces remain acceptable, including under unfavourable construction configurations (eccentricity of load from thrust
cylinders especially in cur ved alignments,
erection tolerances, etc.).
Detailed geometrical design of these flanks
should be undertaken in parallel with that
of the reinforcement in order to guarantee
the highest possible strength at these particularly highly stressed segment sections.
Similarly, in cases in which lining waterproofing is to be provided by means of compressible gasket sections, it should be ensured
that the groove receiving the gasket is positioned sufficiently far away from the extrados to avoid the segment edges breaking off
when the system is compressed under load.
Moreover, whilst it has been the practice to
provide a chamfer around the extrados
edges of both transverse and longitudinal
contact joints, this may give rise to certain
drawbacks such as:
- risk of defective imper viousness of the
TBM tail seal with respect to the back grouting product, water in the surrounding
ground or slurry from the forward chamber
(in cases involving hydraulic confinement);

It should be recalled that, when an waterproofing function is sought from a segmental lining, this can be fulfilled by:
the segments themselves, for which it is
important to limit in particular :
- the mass porosity,
- cracking associated with temporar y or
permanent stresses,
- defects involving formation of the groove
receiving the waterproofing gasket;
waterproofing gasket positioned between
the segments.
Properties of the latter are described in the
"recommandations pour les profils d'tanchit entre voussoirs" (recommendations
for intersegment waterproofing gasket)
presented by A.F.T.E.S. Working Group 9
(see T.O.S. Issue 116, March-April 1993).
The remainder of this description applies to
so-called "conventional" waterproofing gaskets retained for the design of standard tunnel projects involving low to medium overburden.
N.B. These imper vious systems are not
transposable to other tunnel projects involving very high overburden (e.g. major Alpine
crossings). Research work (International
Eureka Contun) is in fact being conducted
concerning the design of TBMs and tunnel
linings suited to the special constraints
imposed by such projects. On account of
the very high pressures liable to be exerted
on these linings (loads induced by both
ground and water), thoughts are very naturally tending towards seeking a reduction in
their rigidity by incorporating a degree of
deformability in par ticular at their waterproofing gaskets.

3.5.4.1 - Compressible gasket sections

a) Properties
It should be recalled that these are elastomeric gaskets, which have been designed
and manufactured for fitting to precast
concrete lining segments (see figure 24).
Watertigntness is ensured by compressing
them during erection and maintaining this
compression throughout the life of the
structure.
During construction, the compressive load
is applied by the TBM thrust cylinders or
segment erector and is temporarily maintained by the ring building system.
Watertigntness of gasket sections is guaranteed for a permanent hydrostatic pressure
laid down in the project specifications.
b) Construction configurations
In general, the gasket is fitted into a groove
formed in the segment faces; it is positioned
several centimetres from the segment
extrados and fitted around the full perimeter of the segment.
Gasket section dimensions must be compatible with erection tolerances and take into
account ring out-of-roundness.
In the specific case of water conveyance
pressure tunnels, combined behaviour of
the ground / lining must be analysed before
possibly modifying the position of the
imper vious gasket within the lining wall
(conventional well tested approach).
3.5.4.2 - Water-expansive gasket
a) Properties
It is recalled that these are elastomeric
waterproofing gasket with water-expansive
properties, i.e. they swell in the presence of
water.These cycles can alternate during the
life of the works.
If necessar y, initial water tigntness can be
achieved by compression. The presence of
water then triggers swelling of the waterexpansive material, which allows the applied
hydrostatic pressure to be resisted.
Watertightness of gasket is guaranteed for a
permanent hydrostatic pressure laid down
in the project specifications.

Water-expansive parts

Neutral parts
Figure 24 : Examples of compressible waterproofing gaskets

Figure 25 : Examples of water-expansive waterproofing gasket

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
In some cases, these gasket can be reinforced by "neutral" (non water-expansive)
parts (see figure 25).

Double thickness gasket system

Single thickness gasket system

b) Construction configurations
The gasket is positioned on the segment
sides several centimetres from its extrados.

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

There are two types of construction configuration (see figure 26).


In the double thickness system, gasket are
fitted around the full perimeter of each segment.
In the single thickness system, gasket are fitted around half the segment perimeter with
a return of several centimetres at diagonally
opposing corners.
As in the case of compressible sections,
waterproofing gasket dimensions must be
compatible with erection tolerances and
take into account ring out-of-roundness.

Direction of advance
Figure 26 : Layout principle for waterproofing gaskets

the combined section is fitted around the


full perimeter of each segment and positioned several centimetres from its extrados.
3.5.5 - Segment assembly systems
3.5.5.1 - Purpose of assembly systems

3.5.4.3 - Combined gaskets

a) Principle
These are products which combine both
types of gaskets described above.
The compressible gasket represents the
basic component and the water-expansive
gasket is usually fitted into the groove formed in the former (see figure 27).
This composite product allows the waterproofing system offered by either the compressible or the water-expansive gasket to
be complemented.
b) Construction configurations
As in the case of the compressible gasket,
Removal of strip forming
the groove

Assembly mechanisms implemented at circumferential (transverse) and radial (longitudinal) contact joints are aimed at:
maintaining sufficient erection accuracy by
preventing gradual cumulative out-of-flushness between segments and gaps at contact
joints;
keeping waterproofing gasket compressed
in the short-term, during construction, and
even in the long-term, during tunnel operation, especially in the vicinity of stations;
ensuring segment stability at ring building
stage, even when there no load is exerted
by the TBM thrust cylinders. However, measures might be adopted to ensure this stability without necessarily resorting to the use
of assembly systems (e.g. a thrust cylinder
anti-retract system);
ensuring segments are kept in their relative positions (guidance role) in the specific
case of water conveyance tunnels, for which
linings are required to "breathe" during tunnel filling and emptying cycles.

State of compressible section


whilst "stripping" the groove

"Dovetailed" water-expansive section

Final state with "dovetailed"


water-expansive section

Figure 27 : Example of combined waterproofing gaskets

In general, longitudinal assembly systems are


regular ly spaced along each transver se
contact joint (between consecutive rings).

When they exist, assembly systems between segments in the same ring generally
comprise between one and three units.
In standard rings, longitudinal and transverse assembly systems are usually only
essential during construction (except when
wanting to take advantage of the contribution to rigidity of adjacent rings whose
radial contact joints are then combined).
As a general rule therefore, these assembly
systems can be removed when the TBM is
more than 200 metres away and all additional grouting operations have been completed.
In the vicinity of stations, longitudinal assembly systems are usually necessar y during
tunnel operation to keep the waterproofing
gaskets compressed. They are therefore
kept in place over a minimum tunnel length
of two or three diameters.
The durability of all permanent assembly
systems must be the same as that of the
structure itself.
3.5.5.2 - Bolted assemblies

Bolts or threaded rods are fixed from pockets provided on the intrados side of the
lining.
These bolts are generally of two types:
straight bolts fixed from hollows formed
in the intrados of segments:
- bearing directly on the concrete (see
figures 28 and 29),

Their number varies from one project to


another depending on:

- bearing on steel plates inserted in the segments (see figure 30);

the forces to be balanced;

curved bolts allowing the volume of the


hollows to be significantly reduced (see
figure 31).

the desired possibilities for relative rotation of a ring with respect to the last one
installed (considering the constraints imposed by the design, such as offsetting of longitudinal contact joints, small deviations in alignment, etc.).

3.5.5.3 - Inclined socket bolted assemblies

This assembly system allows a reduction in


the number of pockets in the intrados of

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
Washer

Extrados

Extrados

Intrados
Bolt
Washer

Nut
Washer

Pocket
Nut

Pocket

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

Intrados
Washer
Threaded Nut
rod

Pocket

Figure 28 : Example of removable assembly using straight bolts

Pocket

Steel plate

Extrados

Figure 29 : Example of permanent assembly (straight bolts previously inserted into one
of the segments before placing the adjacent segment)

3.5.5.4 - Assemblies using plugs, studs


or other derivatives

Compared with the assemblies described


above, such systems (see figures 33 and 34)
can offer a number of advantages such as:

Intrados
Nut
Washer

Connector insert
Bolt

Figure 30 : Example of steel plate assembly using short bolts

Plug
Back grouting

Plug

no pockets in the intrados of segments,


thereby providing the lining with improved
air or water conveyance properties;
reinforcement of ring par ts is often
easier ;

Intrados
Pockets
Segment being placed Ring erected

simplified ring erection operations;


Curved bolt
Extrados

good centring of rings with respect to


each other (reduced out-of-flushness);
high shear strength (with some types of
plug);

Plug
Back grouting

greater safety of personnel (no human


intervention inside the ring).
Intrados Nut
Washer

Pocket

Segment being placed

Bolt head

Ring erected

Figure 31 : Example of assembly using curved bolts


Socket
Extrados

Excavation

Extrados

Apar t from the fact that most of these


devices cannot be removed, they can furthermore inhibit cer tain degrees of freedom, which may result in excessive lining
stresses.
When designing and sizing these assemblies, it is therefore essential to evaluate as
closely as possible all the loads to which
such connections are likely to be subjected
(e.g. dissymmetry of thrust cylinder loads,
overhanging of segments, differential ring

Excavation

Extrados

Intrados

Segment being placed

Pockets
Ring erected

Figure 33 : Examples of assembly using plugs

Back grouting
Intrados

Segment being
placed

Pocket
Socket
Anchor
bolt
bolt
Washer
head
Ring erected

Excavation
Extrados

Figure 32 : Example of assembly using inclined socket bolts

the segments.This design also allows tightening up operations to be carried out under
cover of a fully erected ring and no longer
under segments only held in place by the
erector arm and the TBM thrust cylinders;
this system thereby ensures increased safety
of personnel (see figure 32).

Intrados

Segment
being placed

Ring erected

Figure 34 : Examples of assembly using pins

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
out-of-roundness, waterproofing gasket
crushing and distortion loads, local stresses
capable of reducing the assembly capacity
of the system, tendency for key ejection,
etc.) in order to prevent the appearance of
disturbances concentrated at these connections, which could adverse affect the durability of the structure.
3.5.6 - Connector inserts, pockets

temporary functions:
- handling, erection (e.g. for picking up units
using "grippers" or "pins"),
- assembly (holes and boxes for inserting or
fixing assembly mechanisms, etc.),
- grouting (holes through the segment wall),
- precutting (e.g. to facilitate later formation
of openings at in-line structures).

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

permanent functions
Pockets, as well as most connector inserts
fitted to lining segments, represent sources
of reduced strength of the reinforced
concrete ring elements. Their potential
impact on segment structural behaviour
(including during construction stages preceding ring erection) as well as on the purpose of the tunnel must, therefore, be closely examined.
3.5.6.1 - Connector inserts

In general, connector inserts can fulfil two


sets of functions:
temporary functions :
- handling, erection (socket for segment
pick-up bolts, etc.),
- adjustment,
- assembly (sockets for bolts, etc.),
- mating (pre-grouted sockets, etc.)

- traceability (recess for identification of


characteristic zones),
- building in of specific equipment,
- instrumentation (concrete control blocks,
etc.).
These pockets can sometimes lead to structural weakening of the segments concerned
and very often complicated detailing of ring
par t reinforcement (local discontinuity of
reinforcing bars, etc.). It is thus important to
limit their number and size to a minimum.
Moreover, in the case of designs involving
high air- and water conveyance-based
constraints, their presence on the segment
intrados requires the adoption of often
costly special measures (sealing of "boxes",
internal second lining, etc.).
3.5.7 - Stuffings for distributing
loads at segment contact joints

- grouting;
permanent functions:

- inspection.

Incorporation of stuffings may be called for


to distribute TBM thrust loads over ring
interfaces (circumferential or transverse
contact joints), whilst "smoothing out" as
much as possible inaccuracies resulting from
both segment precasting tolerances (often
ver y low) and erection tolerances during
ring building, or to "channel" these loads
towards specially reinforced sections of the
segments.

It should be stressed that their positioning


within the segments sometimes calls for
alterations in segment reinforcement detailing in order to:

These millimetre thick stuffings must provide sufficient surface area to fulfil their
function and, on the contrary, must not be a
source of "load concentration" through

- traceability (identification of characteristic


zones, etc.),
- fixing (pre-grouted sockets for supporting
service equipment or floors, etc.),
- mating, connection,
- instrumentation (vibrating wire extensometers, total pressure measuring cells, etc.),

comply with concrete coverage requirements;


avoid zones occupied by the connector
inserts;

dimensional underestimation (see figure 35)


or an unsuitable layout.
Materials used can be very different depending on design philosophies retained. They
can be of low stiffness and even behave like
"flowing" (e.g. bitumen-based) materials or,
on the other hand, they can be relatively
stiff (e.g. hard Isorel).
3.5.8 - Back grouting behind ring
extrados
3.5.8.1 - Purpose of back grouting

The purpose of these grouting operations is


to fill the annular gap between the lining
extrados and the TBM-excavated ground
profile.
The grouting material therefore fulfils several functions:
in the short term:
- it ensures efficient blocking of the lining
against the enclosing ground to reduce the
danger of ring displacement especially
during TBM thrusting and passage of the
back-up equipment, when support is essential,
- it minimizes surrounding ground deformations likely to cause disorders both above
and below ground (especially in urban
and/or sensitive environments),
- in the case of pressurized face TBMs, it
provides good control of confinement pressure (especially when using compressed air)
by ensuring imperviousness at the back of
the machine;
in the long term:
- it ensures the most uniform bond between the lining and the ground and therefore offers effective distribution of confinement loads at this interface; an essential
condition for guaranteeing the durability of
the structure, especially when it is a pressure tunnel at operating stage,
- in cer tain ver y special cases, it fulfils a
"drainage" function (granular matrix).

Stuffings for distributing loads


in contact with segments

reinforce the concrete immediately in


contact with these connector inserts (local
stresses, pulling out, etc.).
3.5.6.2 - Pockets

In general, pockets can fulfil two sets of


functions:
Figure 35 : Example of distribution of stuffings for spreading TBM thrust loads over a segment flank

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
3.5.8.2 - Nature of infilling material

Except for materials with a granular matrix,


the composition of an infilling material will
determine:

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

its rheology:
the infilling material must, on the one hand,
be sufficiently fluid to facilitate its placement
and to fill completely the annular gap and,
on the other hand, be sufficiently firm to
avoid leakage through the shield tail seals
and segment waterproofing gaskets, as well
as to avoid seepage flows along the shield
tail towards the front of the TBM.
Moreover, its setting time must suit the
construction conditions;
its short- and long-term structural properties:
the infilling material must suit the ground
and construction conditions (convergence
of ground, rate of penetration, etc.); its
modulus of deformation and compressive
strength must be sufficient to prevent lining
out-of-roundness.
There are currently two main types of grouting material:
active material:
cement-based grout to which fly-ash, sand,
filler, bentonite, lime and admixtures such as
water-reducing plasticizer, retarder or accelerator may be added;
inert material:
cement-free material comprising a mixture
of bentonite, polymers, filler and sand with
the possible addition of a plasticizer. The
material will be termed "semi-inert" if lime
or fly-ash is added.
In the case of sufficiently stable enclosing
ground, infilling can be carried out in two
stages:
primary infilling with a fine gravel "matrix"
to ensure blocking of the lining in step with
TBM penetration;
secondary grouting to improve bond between the lining and the ground, which is
often deferred and independent from TBM
penetration.
3.5.8.3 - Back grouting implementation

As detailed in Section 3.5.8.1, back grouting


is carried out in step with TBM advance for
reasons of efficiency.
Two implementation processes are commonly used:

grouting through the lining by means of


holes incorporated in the segment structure (grouting operation generally not
controlled by the TBM);
continuous grouting at the rear end of the
shield tail through integrated grout pipes
arranged longitudinally within the tail (grouting operation controlled by TBM).
In general, the latter process provides greater control of ground deformations.
Grouting pressures to be implemented are
determined in relation to the type of infilling
material, geological and hydrogeological
conditions (ground loads and stiffnesses,
hydrostatic pressure), lining strength and
construction aims sought (formation of
ground-based suppor t, control of ground
deformations, etc.).
During constr uction, it is impor tant to
monitor continuously the grouting pressures as well as the volume of material back
grouted.
3.5.8.4 - Additional grouting

Should the primar y back grouting prove


insufficient for the purpose of the structure,
resorting to additional grouting through the
lining may be contemplated.
3.5.8.5 - Grouting quality control

In general, grouting quality control is preferable to damaging the lining by taking core
samples. However, the latter do allow the
quality of annular gap infilling to be ascertained, although they should obviously be limited to a minimum.

3.6 - Lining installed outside the area occupied by


the TBM
It may be advantageous to erect segments
outside the area enclosing the TBM when
ground stability permits and water inflows
are naturally low.
3.6.1 - Ring design principle
In this case, the ring is built outside the
shield tail after placing the invert segment;
ring stability is only ensured after longitudinal driving in of the key segment which, due
to its trapezoidal shape, expands the ring
thereby pushing the segments against the
surrounding ground.
The length of the key in the longitudinal
direction of the tunnel is less than the
length of the ring enabling it to be driven in
to a maximum between the two counter

Figure 36 : Example of expanded ring

segments; the longitudinal travel of this key


can vary slightly depending on the ground
and the erected configuration of the first
segments.
2 to 3 cm thick pads feature on the extrados of the segments allowing both a good
bond with the surrounding ground and the
possibility of light back grouting.
Other ring closure systems have also been
implemented on some projects: double key,
spring line jacking system.
3.6.2 - Advantages and drawbacks
The advantages of this expended ring solution are:
straightforwardness of implementation;
the simplicity of the structure (no waterproofing gaskets);
speed of progress in good ground, when
very regular excavation can be maintained;
segment erection is very regular and follows the excavated profile because segment
contact surfaces are cylindrical;
saving due to no intersegment bolting.
However, there are also quite a number of
drawbacks to this solution:
ring building and the TBM guiding system
are not interrelated (no rear cylinders);
ring geometry does not allow them to be
deviated one way or the other ; shims have
to be slipped between rings to follow correctly the excavation;
"Wingdings" contact faces between rings
are no impervious and it is impossible to
undertake pressure back grouting to fill in
properly the gap left around the extrados
pads;

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
nothing at all can be done to ensure any
degree of water tightness if water inflows
are incompatible with tunnel operation; in
this case, a waterproofing membrane and a
cast in-situ lining should be implemented if
possible;

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

segment erection becomes highly problematical when the ground becomes unstable
during excavation or under the action of
the grippers (overbreak and block falls);
a void at the crown must be mortar-filled
because the key segment is shorter than the
ring length in the longitudinal direction.
This solution can be advantageous as long
as, using the same TBM, it allows segment
erection inside the shield tail when difficult
ground is to be penetrated or water inflows
occur.

3.7 - Specific aspects of


water conveyance pressure
tunnels
3.7.1 - Hydrogeological reminders
Knowledge of groundwater pressures
within the soil-rock mass is important when
a tunnel is to be pressurized. This involves,
not only very conventional installation and
reading at regular intervals of piezometers,
but also monitoring the regime of surrounding springs. The reader is referred to the
text entitled "recommandations pour le choix
des paramtres et essais gotechniques utiles
la conception, au dimensionnement et
l'excution des ouvrages creuss en souterrain" (recommendations for the design, the
sizing and the construction of underground
excavated str uctures) presented by
A.F.T.E.S. Working Group 7 in T.O.S. Issue
123, June 1994.
Once the pre-excavation hydrogeological
conditions have been established, the
influence of tunnel excavation on behaviour
of the groundwater table(s) must be determined. Tunnel-driving in fact often causes a
collapse of piezometer levels and therefore
alter s significantly the hydrogeological
conditions in the vicinity of the works.
3.7.2 - Tunnel lining structural
behaviour
3.7.2.1 - Geotechnical aspects

Behaviour of a segment ring therefore


depends on the state of equilibrium of the
following forces, the first two tending to
close intersegment contact joints and the
third tending to open them:

confinement pressure;
external hydrostatic pressure;
internal fluid pressure (including hydraulic
transient pressures, in some cases).
It should be noted that the geotechnical
parameters (E, c, CARSPECIAUX 102 \f
"Symbol" ) of the surrounding ground play a
preponderant role in the relevant states of
equilibrium and, as a result, they must be
known for each geological formation crossed.
In general, cases of adverse loading with
respect to opening of intersegment contact
joints are obtained for moderate overburden associated with low geotechnical parameters.
Analysis of overall structural behaviour
must also take into account the presence of
back grouting which blocks the lining rings
within the surrounding ground.
3.7.2.2 - Functional aspects

When the zones which will tend to open


the lining rings have been localized, the
hydromechanical behaviour of the tunnel
lining structure will then depend on:
the presence of bolting and its sizing;
the degree of contact joint opening with
respect to compression of the incorporated
waterproofing gaskets.
In general, take-up of tensile loads by bolts
can only be justified in the shor t-term,
except if suitable anti-corrosive material or
protection is provided.

However, tests carried out have allowed the


following main results to be brought to
light:
application of the Colebrook formula is
possible with a segments lining;
loss of head can therefore be calculated
from an equivalent roughness Ks;
equivalent roughness can be related to
the absolute value (s) for the average outof-flushness between segment rings;
for 0.60 m long rings and for tunnels with
diameters less than 3.60 m, the following
formula has been established:
Ks (mm) = 0.3 + 60 X (lsl)2/1
where s (positive or negative "step") and l
(length of unit) are expressed in mm.
N.B.: it is advisable to use this formula with
care because it has been established from a
limited number of cases and for 0.60 m long
concrete segments of various types
(smooth or incorporating pockets);
Unlike the behaviour of cast-in-place tunnel linings, smoothing by deposits of the
many out-of-flush locations will tend to
reduce the equivalent roughness of a segment-lined tunnel. However, estimating not
only this reduction but also that of bore
sectional area associated with the presence
of these deposits (reduction in conveyance)
remains a delicate task for the engineer.

3.8 - Construction tolerances

Consequently, elimination of bolting in a


tunnel subject to a tendency for its lining
contact joints to open would appear desirable. Structural waterproofing is only then
ensured if the lining gaskets open only partially with respect to their compressive
strain. A factor of safety of 2 is desirable to
allow possible self-adjustment of the segment rings during loading / unloading (tunnel pressurizing / depressurizing) cycles.

3.8.1 - Specification

If such conditions cannot be ensured and


total watertightness is required, an additional waterproofing system is then necessary
(cast-in-place concrete ring, membrane or
any other suitable process).

Very often, these tunnel operation-related


tolerances are complemented by other
tolerances, in this case associated with lining
implementation to ensure correct structural behaviour, as well as the required quality
of finish and imperviousness.

3.7.3 - Roughness of segmentlined tunnels


Relatively few loss of head measurements
have been taken on segment-lined wastewater collectors due to the complex nature
of the means to be implemented.

Construction tolerances for segments forming the permanent lining of an underground structure must be specified on the
basis of general service criteria and must be
laid down in the project specifications.
Moreover, they can vary depending on the
lining design retained (expanded segments,
bolted segments, etc.).

3.8.2 - Identification of main criteria contributing to tolerance specification


3.8.2.1 - Criteria related to tunnel
function

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
Function-related criteria essentially comprise:

ring length (taking into account its possible taper);

tunnel internal sectional area

flatness of intersegment contact surfaces


within the same ring and between rings;

- aggressive chemical agents contained in


the ground, in the groundwater and in the
liquid conveyed,

roughness;

- micro-organisms,

layout and geometry of pockets provided


(waterproofing gasket grooves, recesses for
plugs or pins, etc.);

- sulphate,

The accuracy sought must satisfy the general profile of the tunnel bore over its whole
route;

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

operating clearances
For this and for the last point, these criteria
influence specification of tolerances concerning the tunnel construction axis with respect to the design theoretical axis;
water and air conveyance flows
It is important that project specifications lay
down geometrical criteria (surface roughness, out-of-flushness, etc.) allowing acceptable structural head losses;
layout of equipment fixings or pockets.
3.8.2.2 - Tolerances associated with
segment implementation

These tolerances can be broken down in


terms of the following two construction
stages:
casting:
- mould geometry,
- bending and fixing of reinforcing steel;
installation:
- ring building,
- lining deformation under the action of
back grouting and surrounding ground.

layout of connector inserts (pick-up sockets, bolts, connectors, etc.);

All criteria defined above must be considered in order to specify tolerances in the
construction axis with respect to the structural design axis.
The required means should then be implemented to ensure compliance with tolerances for the segments forming the relevant ring. Successive combinations of these
tolerances mean that dimensions must be
kept within small variations at mould stripping. Geometrical proper ties foreseen at
construction study stage should be reproduced to obtain contact faces between segments or rings which are capable of transferring loads between ring par ts and
ensuring proper watertightness.
It is therefore essential to identify clearly
the segments sections requiring par ticular
levels of geometrical accuracy and to quantify them.

- condensation,
- frost,
- salts,

clearances allowed for assembly devices;

- fire, etc.

dimensions of reinforcing cages and


layout of the different reinforcing bars to
ensure:

The use of admixtures influencing the


strength of concrete mixes must be checked to ensure satisfactory performance in
relation to the various forms of attack mentioned above.

- suitable corrosion protection,


- proper operation of parts with respect to
contact pressures,
- efficient edge reinforcement.
It is very difficult to recommend the exact
tolerance values to be complied with on a
finished product because they depend on
numerous parameters such as the overall
dimensions of the structure to be built, the
method of erecting segments and their
shape.
To achieve the levels of accuracy sought, it is
clear that concrete shrinkage and temperature are parameters which must be considered, especially during segment inspection
at the precast plant.

3.9 - Durability

3.8.3 - Accuracy

- hydrocarbons,

3.9.1 - Segment concrete


Segment concrete durability depends on
the purpose of the tunnel and may be associated with the following criteria:
compactness of concrete mixes;
concrete mix proportions:
- fine aggregate,
- coarse aggregate,
- cement,
- admixtures,
- water,
all require physical chemical analysis of their
constituent materials;
active alkaline balance;
permeability;

The main criteria to be examined are:

environment-related internal and external forms of attack:

general dimensions of the assembled ring;

- temperature,

Selection criteria referred above must take


into account the requirements of both the
contract specifications and current standards.
Specific impervious treatment (mineralization, impregnation, etc.) can be applied to
the extrados of segments to provide protection against particular forms of attack.
3.9.2 - Steel reinforcing bars
Durability of steel bars used for segment
reinforcement cages is related to the permeability of the encasing concrete and
depth of concrete cover, as well as to the
internal and external aggressive environments mentioned above.
The choice of cement types and their
contents influence passivation of steel reinforcing bars.
Chemical composition and surface condition of these steel bars must ensure good
weldability for reinforcing cage fabrication.
Depth of concrete cover to reinforcement
must be specified with respect to conditions
of structural exposure laid down in the project specifications. It may vary depending on
application zone for the stresses encountered and the level of protection sought in
relation to the relevant forms of attack
(intrados fire resistance, inter segment
contact, TBM thrust cylinder bearing surface, etc.).
In general, these depths of concrete cover
can vary from approximately 20 mm (ironbanded reinforced zones) to approximately
30 mm (standard intrados and extrados
zones).
In some cases, steel protection systems can
be applied:

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
painting;
metallization (galvanization, cataphoresis,
metal-coating);
epoxy-coating;
cathodic protection (electrical links).

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

3.9.3 - Waterproofing gaskets


In material terms, durability in gasket watertightness is associated with the same criteria as those listed above for short- or longterm concrete attack.
Once these criteria have been checked, the
rate of long-term relaxation of the waterproofing system should be ensured.

tions must allow standardization in favour of


one or two possible ring lengths. Creation
of several ring lengths on a project effectively multiplies the number of mould and
reinforcing cage types, leading to more
complicated and therefore more expensive
precasting, control and handling.
These considerations are also linked to the
type of TBM used (existing machine possibly
modified for the project, new TBM designed
and built for the project).
Reuse of TBMs and segment moulds
undoubtedly provides substantial savings on
similar projects, even if servicing, adaptation
and overhaul is always required.

Gluing of gaskets is only carried out to


ensure that they remain in their grooves
during segment handling, storage and erection. Adhesive used must be compatible
with the type of gasket.

Thus, on projects such as:

3.9.4 - Connector inserts

wastewater collectors, etc.,

Connector inser ts must be durable and


neutral with respect to their environment.
In all cases, they must comply with safety
standards in force.

it would appear desirable to retain geometrical and equipment standards on a project


basis at national level.This would allow production capacities to be increased and costs
to be reduced. These standards could be
based on the "rcommandations sur la standardisation des profils des tunnels circulaires" (Recommendations for the standardization of circular tunnel profiles)
presented by A.F.T.E.S. Working Group 11
(see T.O.S. Issue 88, July-August 1988): this
principle is already in hand in several
European Community countries and in
those under Anglo-saxon influence.

They must be positioned in accordance


with values of concrete cover to reinforcement.
They must cause neither structural weaknesses nor preferential water seepage or
electrical flux paths.

3.10 - Economic considerations


Right from the start of the project, tunnel
lining design must integrate construction
methods and take into account factor s
involving its adaptation to the tunnel
construction location (influence on materials, labour, management and supervision,
etc.) with both engineering optimization
and cost-saving in mind.
From the beginning, it is important to determine the type of ring best suited to the project (universal or "left"/"right" rings), the
most appropriate ring length, the taper and
the number of types of ring required for the
project.
In general, the universal ring is the most
economical from the segment fabrication
point of view (less moulds required, smaller
precast plant area, less types of segment
reinforcing cage).
Analysis of the tightest curves on a project
alignment compared with the straight sec-

mass transit railway tunnels, especially for


the Val system;
rail and high-speed rail tunnels;
road tunnels;

4 - TUNNEL LINING DESIGN


4.1 - Main parameters
influencing sizing
4.1.1 - Implementation conditions
4.1.1.1. - From segment precasting to
workface supply

Between casting in the precast plant and


supply to the tunnel workface in view of
erection at the TBM, segments are subjected
to a series of operations which can induce
appreciable stresses in some.
Whilst it is difficult to describe all these
operations, which depend on a process
varying from one project to another, a large
number of operations never theless recur
on a systematic basis. For example, this is
the case for the segment turning stages

after mould stripping (both when casting


horizontally - cf. conditions annexed to the
present recommendations - and vertically),
for the handling stages from precast plant to
preliminary storage then storage areas (e.g.
using a lifting beam fitted with grippers, suction pads or slings, etc.), for the storage
stages involving segment stacking and insertion of timber blocks between units, for the
stages of removal from storage and unloading on site, or for the stage involving segment supply to the workface (by trailer or
railcar).
The impact of each of these stages must be
subjected to a reinforced concrete design
check in terms of internal stresses induced
in the segments. These design calculations
must consider not only the possible dynamic effects of handling (e.g. placing a segment on a stack during lifting or storage
stages) and implementation tolerances (e.g.
accuracy of intersegment block positioning
at the storage area), but also the true age of
the concrete (and thus its characteristic
strength) when carr ying out the relevant
operation.
In most cases, the process only involves
design checking because the sectional areas
of reinforcement and concrete proper ties
for the segments are most often designed
for tunnel service or TBM-excavation stages
(thrust cylinder applied loads). However,
certain cases can become dimensionally critical and lead to either improving shor tterm concrete proper ties or increasing
reinforcement sectional areas, or to more
suitable redesigning of cer tain process
stages.
4.1.1.2 - Ring building (erection and
bolting)

Assembly of segments behind the TBM is


carried out using an erector. During erection, segments are subjected to a number of
loads such as:
the load applied by the segment pick-up
and lifting system (dead weight of the segments modified by a dynamic coefficient);
loads applied to compress waterproofing
gaskets;
possible bumping impact loads;
loads associated with accidental impacts
during approach;
loads applied by the assembly systems
retained (bolts, anchor bolts or plugs).
Although impact loads are very difficult to
estimate and thus to integrate in the lining
design, the segments must nevertheless be
designed to withstand other types of load.

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All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
Special care must be given to checking sections near connector inserts (unsupported
thrusts, local stresses, risks of bursting),
which often result in special construction
requirements or local additional reinforcement.

strength, rock mass characteristic parameters;

tive humidity and shrinkage;

deformation capacity parameters:


- Young's modulus E(x, t),

b) Intersegment contact joint structural


properties:

- Poisson's ratio .

sectional area, inertia

4.1.2 - Parameters for analysing


ring stresses

In surrounding rock, a reduced value of


Young's modulus, compared with laboratory-measured values, should be considered
to take into account the potential deformation capacity of discontinuities influencing
the rock matrix.

These properties allow the capacity for load


transfer between contact joint sectional
areas to be deduced;

Reference may usefully be made to the


summary table provided under 4.3.5.
4.1.2.1 - Parameters associated with
the surrounding ground

The main parameters concerning the surrounding ground, which can come into play
in terms of analysing the behaviour of a precast concrete segmental tunnel lining, are
recalled hereunder on the basis of the
A.F.T.E.S. recommendations entitled "le
choix des paramtres et essais gotechniques utiles la conception, au dimensionnement et l'excution des ouvrages creuss en souterrain" (the choice of
geotechnical parameters and tests of use in
the design and constr uction of underground excavated structures).
a) Parameter s associated with natural
constraints
The geological history of the soil-rock mass
must be known; it may have been influenced
by tectonics, consolidation or erosion.
The basic parameters are:
intensity of principal stresses (in particular, evaluation of the term
Ko = (

Ho
);
Vo

direction of stresses (effects of slope and


dipping of ground layers, etc.).
b) Physical parameters
It is essential to have good knowledge of
parameters such as:
the swelling potential;
the aggressivity of the surrounding environment;
the interfaces between ground layers,
anomalies such as discontinuities, non-uniformities (voids, blocks, faults, etc.).

Good command of this parameter is of


prime importance for the design of structures such as water conveyance internal
pressure tunnels (danger of intersegment
contact joints opening);
seismicity
Evaluation of the surrounding ground dynamic characteristics may be necessary in high
seismic risk areas.
d) Hydrogeological parameters
Knowledge of groundwater pressures
within the soil-rock mass is essential in
ever y underground structure project. In
particular, it is necessary to determine the
influence of tunnel driving on the behaviour
of the groundwater table(s) (drainage, barrier effect, danger of a collapse in groundwater pressures, etc.).
e) Ground characteristic curves
Ground behaviour can be represented by
shor t- and long-term convergence curves
based on the geological, hydrogeological
and geotechnical parameter s identified
above.
4.1.2.2 - Parameters associated with
TBM characteristics

The table below reveals the main functions


of each TBM structural parameter and its
potential impact on stress analysis.
4.1.2.3 - Lining structural properties

The tunnel lining is discontinuous and its


structural proper ties depend on those of
the segments and contact joints between
lining parts.
a) Segment structural properties:

Poisson's ratio.

ring composition
The discontinuous nature of a ring (an
assembly of elementary segments) leads to
a reduction in its stiffness in bending, whilst
its stiffness in compression is, in general,
only slightly affected by the presence of
intersegment contact joints.
On the other hand, installation of adjacent
rings incorporating combined radial contact
joints, associated with rigid assembly systems between rings, such as plugs, enables
this effect of reduced ring stiffness in bending to be limited.
4.1.2.4 - Soil - structure interaction

The main parameters influencing behaviour


of the tunnel lining in contact with the
ground are:
lining/back grouting material and ground/
back grouting material contact conditions.
These can vary between total slippage and
total adherence; however, they tend
towards total adherence with the use of
mortars grouted under good conditions.
Under cer tain ground and groundwater
pressure configurations, the idea of separation can complement these conditions (lack
of contact between lining and surrounding
ground).
environment
- nearness of existing or planned structures
underground or at the surface (buildings,
utilities, existing tunnels or shafts, deep
foundations, etc.),
- superimposed loads (traffic, buildings
foundations, etc.).

4.2 - Design assumptions

sectional area, inertia

4.2.1 - Regulations and references

Two types of engineering parameter are


usually characteristic of the soil-rock mass:

The inclusion of more or less large pockets


needs to be taken into consideration in the
evaluation of these parameters;

4.2.1.1 - Foreword

strength parameters:

modulus of deformation

c) Engineering parameters

- soil shear strength properties (Cu, ', C')


- direct compressive strength and tensile

This depends essentially on concrete


strength and parameters such as creep, rela-

It should be recalled that limit states analysis


allows checking of both the structure's factor of safety with respect to failure and its
satisfactory behaviour with respect to serviceability.

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
Main functions

Impact on stress analysis

- to ensure excavation face stability,


- to limit ground deformations.

- increase in ground deconfinement at lining installation,


decrease in ground loads on
lining.

- to reduce pressure on TBM


shield tail and lining, especially
when advancing in a curve,

- augmentation du dconfinement
du terrain la pose du revtement

- to allow a degree of ground


convergence over the length of
TBM shield tail to reduce friction (especially in expansive
ground)

- increase in ground deconfinement at lining installation


decrease in ground loads on
lining.

- to reserve space for fitting


different mechanical equipment
from head to thrust mechanisms.

- when ground is not in continuous contact with the TBM


shield tail extrados, ground loads
on the lining are increasingly
reduced as the shield tail length is
increased,
- conversely, ground convergence
is limited to the annular gap between excavation and shield tail
extrados.

Parameters

a) Confinement pressure

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

b) Overcut

c) Shield tail conicality

d) TBM length

e) TBM thrust

f) Back grouting

diminution des charges de terrain sur le revtement

- to ensure longitudinal advance,


- to ensure a reaction to the
confinement pressure,
- to guarantee temporary stability of lining segments,
- to ensure compression of
impervious gaskets between
rings prior to installing assembly system,
- to ensure key segment can be
driven in.

- depends on thrust loads implemented and thrust cylinder ram


pad/segment contact conditions
(eccentricities due to installation
tolerances, curved alignment,
buoyancy, localized loads) and
ring/ring contact conditions (geometrical defect in segments,
eccentricities due to installation
tolerances, localized loads).

- to ensure blocking between


lining and ground,
- to limit ground deformations.

- local pumping thrust, grouting


pressure, strength properties of
back grouting material (modulus,
Rc, etc.),
- reduction in ground deconfinement,
increase in ground loads on
lining.

Ultimate limit state

Serviceability limit state

Failure of a section due to crushing of concrete

Excessive opening of cracks (infiltration, corrosion)

Excessive deformation of steel


Instability of shape (buckling, bulging)

Excessive compression of concrete causing microcracking

Loss of static equilibrium at ring erection

Excessive ring deformations

The main characteristics of the two limit


states are recalled in the following table.
4.2.1.2 - Applicable regulations and
recommendations

The following regulations or recommendations apply to limit state analyses of reinforced concrete lining segments:
"Fascicule n 62 Titre I section 1 - Rgles
techniques de conception et de calcul des
ouvrages et constructions en bton arm
suivant la mthode des tats limites (Rgles
BAEL 91)" (Engineering rules for limit state
design and analysis of str uctural and
constructional reinforced concrete based)
(French reinforced concrete code of practice).
Eurocode 2, published and annotated by
AFNOR (French Standards Institute) in
December 1992;
"Instruction technique sur les Directives
Communes relatives au calcul des constructions" (Engineering guide to Common
Directives covering str uctural design)
(French Govt. Circular n 79-25 of 13th
March 1979);
CEB-FIP International Recommendations,
1990;
NCF (French national railway company)
"Livret 2.01" covering railway loadings and
reinforced concrete design rules;
CPC Fascicule n 61 Titre II covering road
imposed loadings (French code of practice);
AFTES Recommendations currently in
force;
and, in some cases:
"CCTG Fascicule n 62 Titre V - Rgles
techniques de conception et de calcul des
fondations des ouvrages de gnie civil"
(Engineering rules for design and analysis of
civil engineering structures) (French code of
practice);
"Rcommandations provisoires relatives
la modification des rgles de prise en
compte de la fissuration et l'emploi des
btons hautes performances" (Provisional
recommendations for the amendment of
rules for considering cracking and for the
use of high-strength concrete), edited and
circulated by SETRA (French national highway engineering agency) in June 1997;
"DTU n 14.1 - Travaux de cuvelage"
(French unified code of practice - Lining and
tanking work), October 1987.
The project specification must detail the
regulator y documents applicable to the
contract, as well as their priority of application.

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
These methods and their conditions of
application are described in detail in "texte
des rflexions sur les mthodes usuelles de
calcul du revtement des souterrains"
(recorded thoughts on the usual design
methods for tunnel linings) presented by
A.F.T.E.S.Working Group 7 in T.O.S. Issue 14,
March-April 1976.

they must be considered when sizing the


segments.

b) Loads applied to the ground surface

the characteristic tensile strength Ftj;

Actions thus determined are then used to


analyse lining stresses by the different
methods reviewed in Section 4.3 below.

longitudinal instantaneous and long-term


moduli of deformation;

c) Loads induced by neighbouring structures

stress-strain diagrams;

These loads are determined from drawings


of neighbouring structures (foundation drawings, etc.) passed on by the Owner.

4.2.2 - Material properties


4.2.2.1 - Lining concrete

Reinforced concrete properties to be introduced in design analyses are those specified


by the BAEL and Eurocode rules in force,
i.e.:

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

the characteristic compressive strength


Fcj;

Poisson's ration, which is usually taken as


0.20.
4.2.2.2 - Steel for passive reinforcement

Steel properties to be introduced in design


analyses are those specified by the BAEL
and Eurocode rules in force, i.e.:
the guaranteed elastic limit Fe;
the modulus of longitudinal elasticity,
which is taken as 200,000 MPa;
stress-strain diagrams.

d) Hydrostatic and hydraulic pressures


With regard to the external hydrostatic
pressure exer ted by the hydrogeological
environment, this will be determined on the
basis of maximum and minimum water
levels.
In this connection, the potential impact of
buoyancy on the lining and its assembly
mechanisms, especially during construction
at ring break-away from the TBM, should be
recalled.

4.2.3 - Nature of actions and loadings

In the special case of water conveyance tunnels, the contract must detail values representing internal fluid loads to be considered
and how they should be taken into account.

4.2.3.1 - Permanent actions (G)

e) Annular gap back grouting pressures

Permanent actions include the following


loads:

If back grouting pressures exer ted on the


lining extrados are higher than the ground
pressure, they should be considered when
sizing the segments.

a) Dead weight of the structure and weight


of fixed equipment,
b) Surrounding ground loads.

4.2.3.2 - Variable actions (Q)

The convergence-confinement method


evaluates ground actions on the lining. This
method has already been described in several publications. Recommendations on the
use of this method, presented by A.F.T.E.S.
Wor king Group 7 in T.O.S. Issue 59 of
September-October 1983, will be updated
in the near future.

Variable actions include


the following loads:

Moreover, in the case of shallow soils and


structures, various authors have proposed
semi-empirical formulae, derived from
theor y or experience, for calculating the
vertical load exerted by the ground on the
lining in terms of the density, cohesion and
angle of internal friction of the soils, the
excavation radius and the depth of overburden above the crown (notably the TERZAGHI, PROTODIAKONOV and LAUFFER
methods).

On the other hand, when


these loads are applied
to a road pavement or
rail trackbed suppor ted
by a slab bearing or built
into the tunnel lining,

Most frequently, these are pedestrian or


vehicle loads.
c) Loads applied during construction
Loads induced from precasting to ring
building
The sizing of each tunnel segment should be
checked in relation to the different
construction stages: segment handling, possible turning, storage, transpor t, loading
onto cars, unloading, pick-up by erector and
installation.
Loads induced by TBM penetration
TBM thrust cylinder loads represent longitudinal forces applied to the lining segments
through the load distribution pads.
Each thrust load distribution pad is acted
upon by one or more cylinder s, whose
resultant thrust is eccentrically exerted.This
eccentricity, which is measured with respect
to the centre of gravity of the ram pad bearing surface, comprises a known structural
component and an additional random component. It should be recalled that when the
TBM follows a curved alignment (horizontal
or ver tical), the structural eccentricity of
the resultant thrust from the cylinder(s)
with respect to the ram pad bearing surface
is often increased and must consequently
be integrated in the analysis.

EXAMPLE OF ECCENTRIC PLANE TRANSVERSE CONTACT JOINT


extrados

a) Operating loads inside


the tunnel
When these are wheelinduced rolling loads
applied directly to the
tunnel inver t slab, their
influence is usually ver y
modest and they can therefore be neglected in
the design of the lining
cross-section.

For example, in the case of water


conveyance tunnels, the contract should
specify, if necessary, the value representing
the variation in internal hydraulic pressure
to be considered and the manner in which
it is to be taken into account.

peripheral groove extrados side

half lining wall


thickness

width of transverse contact joint

Centre of gravity of thrust cylinder


ram pad bearing surface
half lining wall
thickness

eccentricity
of thrust

resultant load exerted by a


thrust cylinder group

peripheral groove intrados side


intrados

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS HORS-SERIE N 1 2005


229

The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
The load exerted by each group of thrust
cylinders and its eccentricity are two parameters for which rated working and exceptional values must be specified.

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

In a basic combination, the values of these


two parameters to be considered are the
rated working values.
In an accidental combination, only one of
these parameters reaches its exceptional
value, the other parameter maintains its
rated value. It is acknowledged that both
parameters cannot reach their exceptional
value at the same time.
Whilst it is rare for the rated thrust to be
reached simultaneously by all cylinders, it is
frequently so for each group of cylinders.
Those data are used to prove the strength
of the concrete and reinforcement, in particular under the localized loads exerted by
each group of thrust cylinders.
Fur thermore, segment sizing must also be
checked under the loads exer ted by the
passage of the TBM back-up equipment.
Loads induced by the grouting material
when filling the annular gap between the
lining and the surrounding ground
These transient-type loads result from a
localized increase in grouting pressure
("local pumping thrust") directly behind the
segment grouting holes.
In certain special cases, where total control
of this phenomenon is essential, the impact
of these actions on the lining should be
checked. Data is then required on the grouting system incorporated in the TBM (number of grouting points, grouting process,
etc.) and on the procedure for implementing these grouting operations retained by
the contractor.

Note:

4.2.3.3 - Accidental actions (FA)

dead weight loads), it is very important to


ensure the validity of both the ground engineering properties taken into account and
the stress analysis method. The non-uniformity, anisotropy, jointing and fissuration of
the soil-rock materials and the difficulty in
forecasting their long-term behaviour must
also be considered.

In the case of certain structures, for which


accidental actions (e.g. earthquakes, explosions, vehicle impacts or "waterhammer" in
water conveyance tunnels) must be considered, the contract shall detail values representative of the corresponding actions and
how they should be taken into account.

The 1979 Common Directives are ver y


clear on this subject: Section 4.1.3 states
that "the maximum and minimum characteristic values of actions corresponding to
ear th pressures shall be evaluated taking
into account the uncer tainties resulting
from their method of calculation".

4.2.4 - Combined actions

However, when detailed analysis is not


required or when a calculation process
does not allow the effects of the ground
and water to be separated, the following
combined actions shall be retained:

In the case of certain structures, for which


temperature gradient-based effects must be
considered, the contract shall detail values
representative of the corresponding actions
and how they should be taken into account.

4.2.4.1 - Design stresses with respect


to strength ultimate limit states

a) Foreword
In the case of models which introduce a
non-elastic law in terms of ground behaviour (occurrence of zones in a plastic
state), soil-structure analysis should be carried out, without uplifting the actions involved, and the ultimate limit state weighting
coefficients detailed below should be
applied to the resulting forces.
b) Basic combined action put forward by
BAEL 91 and Eurocode 2
1,35Gmax + Gmin + Q1 Q1 + Qi Oi Qi
Gmax : total unfavourable permanent
actions (e.g. lining dead weight, ground pressure);
Gmin : total favourable permanent actions; in
some cases, water pressure can be favourable and should then be weighted by 1 ; in
other cases, it should be weighted by 1.35;

Uniform temperature variations

Q I : basic variable action; in the present


case, such actions would be road, rail or
water conveyance operating loads or loads
applied during construction;

In general, uniform temperature variations


do not require consideration.

Q1 is equal to 1.5 in general, except for railway loads (1.45).

Note:

Qi OiQ i are the accompanying variable


actions.

d) Climatic temperature-induced actions


(t)

In the case of certain structures (very deep


tunnels, energy conveyance tunnels, etc.),
uniform temperature variations must be
considered; the contract shall detail values
representative of the corresponding actions
and how they should be taken into account.

The basic combined action can therefore be


expressed as:
1,35Gground + 1,35(ou l)Gwater + 1,50Q1

Temperature gradients ()

The largest contributor y factors in this


expression are obviously the actions on the
lining due to water and ground.

In general, temperature gradients do not


require consideration.

Because the action due to the ground is


only weighted by 1.35 (e.g. for permanent

1,35xS{Gground + Gwater + (1,50/1,35)xQ1}


obtained by multiplying the infrequent combined action by 1.35:
S{Gground + Gwater + (1,50/1,35)xQ1}
For checking the lining under construction,
the basic combined action is expressed as:
1.35Glining dead weight + 1.35QI
QI : TBM thrust cylinder load, back grouting
pressure or weight of back-up train.
c) Basic combined action derived from
1979 Common Directives
A combined action more directly derived
from 7.2.1 of the 1979 Common
Directives and featuring in BAEL 91
Fascicule n 62 - Titre V "Rgles techniques
de conception et de calcul des fondations"
(engineering rules for the design and analysis of foundations) can also be put forward.
Characteristic values of actions are increased by two coefficients F3 et F1 :
F3S{ F1GmaxGmax+ F1Gmini Gmini

+ F1Q1Q1 + F1Q1OiQi }

- the coefficient F3 must enable one to


take into account the uncer tainty of the
stress calculations and the simplifications
resulting from the models and diagrams; its
value usually lies between 1.125 and 1.15;
- the coefficient F1 must allow one to take
into account the risk of exceeding the characteristic value of the action; it can take a
value very close to 1 for the action due to
water if, for example, it represents a hydro-

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS HORS-SERIE N 1 2005


230

The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
static pressure corresponding to an accurately known water level and can never be
exceeded; but, for the action due to the
ground, it can attain values near to 1.2, and
even higher if the ground investigation is
limited and risky.
The resulting combined action can be
expressed as:

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

1,35*Gground + 1,15Gwater + 1,50Q1


* this coefficient can be higher if the action
due to the ground is difficult to estimate.
This type of combined action must be laid
down in the project specification.
d) Accidental combined action put forward
by BAEL 91 and Eurocode 2

accident-related situation corresponding to


loss of lining permeability; the check will
then be carried out using the following accidental combined action:

4.2.4.2 - Design stresses with respect


to serviceability limit state

This involves proving the strength of the


segment ring with respect to the ultimate
states without neglecting so-called second
order effects such as buckling, bulging, etc.
This proof is only to be considered for very
thin linings installed in ground with very low
moduli of deformation.

Gmax + Gmin +Q1 +oiQi

4.2.5.3 - Static equilibrium limit state

When the tunnel is in operation, this combined action is expressed as:

In some cases, non-buoyancy checking


should be anticipated.

Gwithout water ground + Gtotal water pressure


+ 0.6QI

Gground + Gwater + QI
or
Gground + Gwater

Gmax + Gmin +FA +11Q1 + 2iQi

4.2.5 - Sizing criteria

FA : nominal value of accidental action;

4.2.5.1 - Strength ultimate limit state

Qi : variable accompanying actions.

Design stresses derived from basic or accident-related combined actions must not
exceed the ultimate limit capacities for reinforced concrete sections specified by
A.4.3 of the BAEL 91 rules or Eurocode 2
and resulting from the following limiting
strains established for the relevant materials:

The maximum capacity of the TBM thrust


cylinders is to be considered as an accidental action.
In the case of an earthquake or explosion:
Gground + water + Earthquake (or explosion)
+ 0.6QI
Notes :
Another type of stress, comparable to an
accidental stress, can be provided in the
project specifications.
This is the total overburden load and is
usually considered for shallow tunnels
(overburden of 1 to 2 diameters) or deeper
tunnels likely to be subjected to long-term
effects which are difficult to predict in
ground surveys (creep, swelling, etc.).
This action is therefore considered with a
coefficient of 1:
Goverburden weight + 0.6QI
In this combined action, accompanying
actions are usually neglected and the action
due to the ground is often assumed to be
uniformly distributed over the lining.
This combined action has no geotechnical
significance but it has the merit of testing
the factor of safety associated with the
lining bearing capacity with respect to the
weight of overburden.
It does not apply to very deep tunnels in
ground with a high modulus of deformation
(e.g. Alpine tunnels).
Finally, in the case of impervious jointless
precast concrete lining installation, project
specifications can suggest considering an

4.2.5.2 - Shape stability ultimate limit


state

10 x 10-3 for the elongation of reinforcing


bars;
10-3

for the shortening of partially


3.5 x
compressed sections comprising concrete
with a strength fcj of less than 60 MPa; for
high-strength concrete (fcj 60 MPa), the
limit for shortening is given by the relation:
(4.5 - 0.025fcj) x 10-3 ;
10-3

for the shortening of concrete in


2x
a fully compressed section.
Material design stresses are obtained by
applying the following coefficients to their
characteristic strengths:
s = 1.15 for steel under basic combined
action;
s = 1 for steel under accidental combined
action;
b = 1.5 for concrete under basic combined
action;
b = 1.15 for concrete under accidental
combined action.
Because segments are concreted in a precast plant, coefficient b can be reduced
(only in strength ultimate limit state analysis) to 1.3 under basic combined action as
long as quality inspections comply with an
ISO system; these special provisions must
be laid down in the project specifications.

Nominal permanent downward ver tical


loads associated with permanent actions
must be at least 1.05 x the water-induced
upward loads resulting from exceptional
water level conditions. Possible time-dependent variations in structural overburden
(e.g. sinking of a riverbed, etc.) must also be
taken into account.
4.2.5.4 - Ser viceability limit states
with respect to structural durability

a) Crack opening limit state


Because concrete is highly alkaline (pH 12),
reinforcing steel is normally protected by
passivation (formation of Fe(OH) 2 at the
surface of the reinforcing bar).
However, care must be taken to ensure that:
cracks are not excessively open;
concrete cover is sufficient in relation to
the environment;
the concrete mix is satisfactory.
The r ules specify conditions governing
concrete cover and cracking.
In accordance with the new recommendations amending Section A.5.3. of BAEL 91,
reinforcement tensile stresses are limited as
follows:
for detrimental cracking (lining in the presence of moderately aggressive water):

s=sup[240MPa,110ftj]
: cracking coefficient equal to 1.6 for hightensile deformed bars ( > 6 mm), 1.3 for
high-tensile deformed (high bond) bars (
6 mm) and 1 for plain (hot-rolled) reinforcing bars;
for highly detrimental cracking (lining in
highly aggressive environment):

s=sup[200MPa,90ftj]
In addition to the above limiting tensile
stresses, Section A.4.5. of BAEL 91 specifies
the maximum diameters and spacings for
reinforcing bars.

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS HORS-SERIE N 1 2005


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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
b) Concrete compression limit state
In accordance with Section A.4.5.2. of BAEL
91, the concrete compressive stress at the
serviceability ultimate limit state is limited
to 0.6 fcj.

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

4.2.5.5 - Fire resistance

Project specification requirements in relation to fire resistance must state the level of
fire stability for the lining and this must be
justified by the organization and emergency
facilities in the event of fire in the tunnel(s).

4.3 - Determination of
stresses in the tunnel lining

Moreover, this method of analysis remains


equally applicable in the following situations:

to be determined. The normal force can be


directly derived from this.

tunnel located at shallow depth;

In this case, initial stresses are considered


uniform and isotropic, but the surrounding
ground can be considered as obeying a law
of elastic-plastic behaviour.

non-uniform surrounding ground (several


different formations);
dissymmetrical external loads (dissymmetrical existing structures, load transfers
due to excavation of nearby structures,
etc.);
dissymmetrical lining (dissymmetrical distribution of radial joints).
The main simplifying assumptions associated with this type of model are as follows:
ground behaves elastically;
"springs" modelling the surrounding
ground are mutually independent.

4.3.1 - Introduction
Given the circular shape of the tunnel lining,
several methods of analysis are possible for
determining the stresses due to interaction
of the soil and the structure.
The two main methods are:

Because this method is quick, it is used for


the selection of critical sections and for
impact studies of certain parameters, especially when the analytical resolution method
cannot be applied. It is used at preliminary
design, design or construction study stage.
Naturally, this method does not allow possible surface settlements to be tackled.

the hyperstatic reaction method


the composite solid method.

4.3.3 - Composite solid method

4.3.2 - Hyperstatic reaction


method

This method enables the behaviour of the


ground-structure system to be studied.

The hyperstatic reaction method studies


the behaviour of the lining alone by likening
the action of the ground to external loads. It
therefore favours the role of the lining. As a
result, it should preferably be applied to a
rigid lining located at shallow depth and in
enclosing ground comprising weak soils or
very closely fractured rocks.
The drawback of this method is that it does
not take into account:
the behaviour of the ground after failure
and with respect to time;
the deformation the surrounding ground
has already reached when the lining is installed;
the different excavation stages.
However, a number of specific assumptions
made for modelling the structure and the
external loads enable the principles of the
composite solid method to be approached
(e.g. maintaining of "springs" in tension)
when conditions of application are satisfied.
Stresses and strains are calculated using a
numerical resolution method usually based
on a 2-dimensional model made up of wireframe elements with straight or cur ved
members.

It considers the surrounding soil-rock mass


as a continuous medium (basic assumption
often made).
4.3.3.1 - Analytical solutions

Based on soil and rock mechanics theories


for continuous media, analytical solutions
allow the lining forces (normal forces, shear
forces, bending moments) and elastic line to
be determined.

Characteristic of soil-structure interaction


and contributing to the application of this
method, the impor tant parameter is the
deconfinement ratio CARSPECIAUX 108
\f "Symbol" . Among its current methods of
determination, we find those of:
Panet;
Corbetta;
Bernaud;
Minh-Guo.
The last two methods allow the stiffness of
the support to be considered.
Because of the simplifying assumptions
referred to above, analytical solutions are
not valid in the following situations:
tunnel located at shallow depth;
non-uniform surrounding ground (several
different formations);
dissymmetrical external loads (dissymmetrical existing structures, load transfers
due to excavation of nearby structures,
etc.);
dissymmetrical lining (dissymmetrical distribution of radial joints).
However, because these methods are very
quick, they are often applied for the selection of critical sections and for impact studies of certain parameters.
4.3.3.2 - Numerical resolution

loads are uniform isotropic or anisotropic


(Ko 1); they can be derived using the
convergence-confinement method or take
into account the total stress exer ted
(Erdmann formula);

Based on the use of finite element, or sometimes finite difference, numerical models,
this method allows 2- and 3-dimensional
problems to be tackled. It favours neither
the role of the lining nor that of the surrounding ground. As a result, it applies to a
lining of any stiffness located at any depth in
uniform or non-uniform surrounding
ground comprising several different formations and in the presence of symmetrical or
dissymmetrical existing structures.

the assumed single layer of ground


behaves elastically;

This method of analysis has the advantage


of taking into account:

contact between the lining and the


ground can either be considered as in total
adherence or as in total slippage.

the deformability of the ground and, in


par ticular, its behaviour after failure and
with respect to time;

Convergence-confinement method

the redistribution of loads resulting from


lining deformation;

Standard assumptions are as follows:


lining geometry is circular and uniform
(joints not directly considered);

The convergence-confinement method


allows, on the one hand, the loading and, on
the other hand, the ring radial displacement

the 3-dimensional nature of the excavation associated with the presence of a cut-

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS HORS-SERIE N 1 2005


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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
ting face, through the concept of a deconfinement ratio C ARSPECIAUX 108 \f
"Symbol" introduced either in the 2-dimensional model or directly in a 3-dimensional
model;

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

the excavation stages.


In standard cases analysis is limited to 2dimensional modelling in which the
influence of the cutting face is considered
by applying the convergence-confinement
method referred to in the above section.
This numerical resolution method of analysis is also valid for non-uniform and anisotropic initial stresses, i.e. even when a dissymmetrical feature is present in the
structure (dissymmetrical distribution of
radial intersegment contact joints), in the
surrounding ground (several different formations, etc.) or in the external loads
(nearby existing structures, etc.).
Several types of ground behaviour can be
modelled: elastic, fully elastic-plastic, elasticbrittle with softening (uncommon), anisotropic with respect to deformation and/or
strength, etc..
The simplifying assumptions remain as follows:
initial deformation after lining installation
is neglected;
every segment is not usually considered
individually;

estimation methods, which are easy to


implement but for which the area of application is limited to situations considered
through the feedback of experience on
which they depend (cf. Recommandations
relatives aux tassements lis au creusement
des
ouvrages
en
souterrain
Recommendations concerning settlements
associated with the excavation of underground str uctures - T.O.S. Issue 132,
November-December 1995), numerical
resolution is the only method of analysis
valid for approaching surface settlements.
4.3.4 - Adaptation of analysis
methods to a segments lining and
to TBM-based excavation
The specific nature of designing a tunnel
lining to be installed behind a TBM arises, on
the one hand, from the tunnelling method
and, on the other hand, from the nature of
the structure.
When it allows confinement of the excavation face, the tunnelling method can be
reflected in the analyses by:
either using a deconfinement cur ve,
based on a (0 - ps) stress condition, combined with the application of a pressure p s
representing the confinement pressure
applied at the workface;

concrete shrinkage is neglected.

or adopting an extension in space of the


deconfinement curve behind the excavation
face; thus, the deconfinement ratio taken
into account at a certain distance from the
workface (i.e. at the last ring installed) is
much lower than the value used in the
conventional method (or when tunnelling
using a TBM in open face conditions).

In general, this more elaborate method is


restricted to the final design of a few critical
sections. Apar t from empirical settlement

Moreover, confinement can result in additional excess porewater pressures in the


surrounding ground.

segment blocking tolerances are not


taken into account;
the lining is installed behind the cutting
face and becomes effective at a certain distance from it;

Impacts of specific structural characteristics


on design assumptions are as follows:
installation of lining at a certain distance
from the excavation face: lining sustains loading from par t of the ground deconfinement, from the back grouting pressure and
from delayed effects;
the lining is not monolithic: reduced inertia at the contact joints is reflected in reduced lining flexural stiffness. This phenomenon can be taken into account either by
modelling contact joints directly or by designing an equivalent ring with a smaller inertia (Muir-Wood formula); however, it should
be noted that this behavioural assumption is
no longer borne out in the case of adjacent
rings incorporating combined radial contact
joints in association with rigid assembly systems between rings (e.g. plugs or tenonand-mortises) nor in the presence of very
soft ground.
4.3.5 - Parameters which can be
integrated in the different methods
of analysis
Based on the design stage and the context
of the project, the following table shows the
possible status of taking into account parameter s for the different considered
approaches to analysis.
These modes of parametric consideration
are identified by the following coding:
0

not necessary

desirable

necessary

indirect consideration

direct consideration

not considered

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
Project stage / context
Parameters

Preliminary Design Construction


Studies
studies

Methods of analysis

Urban
Hyper- Composite Composite
/
static
solid
solid
Sensitive reaction method.
method.
method. Analytical Numerical
solutions resolution

Comments

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

- Definition of loading and/


or actions
* Initial constraints
- levels of ground layers
- groundwater level
minimum groundwater level
maximum groundwater level
- dry unit weight
- Ko

0
2
2
2

1
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

I
I
I
D

I
I
I
D

D
D
D
D

- superimposed load:
uniform superimposed load
linear superimposed load
(Bc truck, load-bearing wall),
surface superimposed load
- direction of principal stresses

- continuous medium assumption:


continuous medium
fissured medium

2
0

2
1

2
2

2
2

D
D

I
N

D
D

* Loading:
- segment installation distance

I in 2-d.
D in 3-D.

2
0

2
0

2
0

2
1

I
D

I
D

I
D

0
0

1
0

2
0

2
2

D
I

I
I

D
I

- ground deconfinement law:


convergence-confinement method

method of similarities (Corbettas law)

I in 2-d.
D in 3-d.
I in 2-d.
D in 3-d.

- ground convergence curve:


unsupported (elastic-plastic behaviour)

supported (Bernauds law)

- delayed effects (behaviour law):


E(x,t)

1
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

I
D

N
D

Iin 2-d.
D in 3-d.
D
D

- confinement pressure

considered as artificial support


considered by means of equivalents
stress condition
- back grouting pressure
- overcutting, shield tail conicality

long-term shear parameters


effective stress analysis (excluding
porewater pressures)
physical chemical swelling
- change of groundwater pressure
drainage

- Ko obeys Jaky's law for sands and


normally consolidated clays;
- Ko depends on tectonics, consolidation
and erosion for rocks and overconsolidated soils.

- slope effect
- dip effect (ground layers)

Shield tail effect only to be considered in


very soft ground and in an urban/sensitive context
- max. value for stress calculations;
- min. value for settlement calculations.

Effect only to be considered in very soft ground


and in an urban/sensitive context

I in 2-d.
D in 3-d.
I en bi-dim
D in 3-d.

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)

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Paramtres

Phase / Contexte

Mthodes de calcul

Commentaires

Etudes
Prlim

Projet

Excut

Urbain
/
Sensib

restoration of hydrostatic pressure

Application of pressure:
- to ground and to lining;
- to lining only;

II - Structure disign
- overall structural design (possible
consideration of contact joints, etc.)

Ring inertia is reduced by applying the Muir-Wood


formula, except in the case of combined contact
joints in very soft ground or rigid assembly systems
between rings

2
0

2
0

2
0

2
1

D
D

D
N

D
D

1
0

1
0

1
1

1
1

D
N

D
N

D
D

2
1
0
0

2
1
1
1

2
1
1
2

2
2
2
2

I
I
I
I

D
D
N
N

D
D
D
D

I in 2-d.
D in 3-d.

- section and inertia of segments


- properties of each contact joint
- moduli:
short-term modulus >< long-term
lmodulus
use of average modulus
- back grouting material (model)
III - Soil-structure contact conditions
- adhrence
- slipping
- friction (Coulombs law)
- separation
IV - Environnment
- nearness of other underground
structures
- existence of transition structures

Mthode Mthode
Mthode
des
du solide
du solide
ractions composite composite
hyperst. Solutions Rsolution
analytiques numrique

4.4 - Proof of concrete and


reinforcement

contact joints between units: bearing surface area, installation of waterproofing gasket, chamfers, etc.;

4.4.1 - Choice of segment wall


thickness

the minimum segment wall thickness


must be compatible with the bearing surface area of TBM longitudinal thrust cylinders.

Segment wall thickness must satisfy several


criteria:
the segment strength capacity with respect to combined circumferential bending
must be sufficient when the percentage of
longitudinal reinforcing bars contributing to
this strength is less than 1 % and is generally
close to the minimum percentage; if segment wall thickness is constant throughout
the tunnel alignment, an economic study
shall be conducted to examine whether it
would be preferable to vary the concrete
strength (new mix design, alteration of
mixing plant parameter s, feasibility of
increasing strength) or, on the other hand,
the percentage of steel in order to satisfy
the calculated stress variations along the
tunnel;
the minimum segment wall thickness
must satisfy the conditions imposed by the

4.4.2 - Circumferential reinforcement (hoops)


The sectional area of circumferential reinforcing bars arranged behind the internal
and external segment faces shall be derived
from:
analysis of combined bending (normal
load - bending moment interaction diagram) in relation to anticipated loadings in
ultimate limit state and serviceability limit
state combinations. If bending moments are
low compared with the normal force, the
sectional area can be justified in "simple
compression" (BAEL 91, Section B.8);
analysis of simple bending during handling
and storage of segments. It should also be
noted that the loading case involving thrust
of the TBM main cylinders on the lining seg-

ments can be dimensionally critical (bursting forces due to spreading of this thrust);
minimum percentage of reinforcing steel
considerations:
- for units in compression (BAEL 91, Section
A.8.1,21),
- for units in bending: especially under the
action of TBM main cylinder thrust (BAEL
91, Section A.4.2.).
Hoop diameter s and arrangement
(concrete cover and spacing) must be derived in accordance with Section A.8.1,22 for
units in compression, Section A.7.1. for
concrete cover protection of reinforcing
bars and Section A.4.5,3 for cracking. It
should be noted that the use of highstrength concrete mixes of very high compactness allows the concrete covers prescribed by Section A.7.1. to be reduced.
4.4.3 - Longitudinal reinforcing
bars (arranged parallel to the tunnel axis)
Outside segment end zones subjected to
localized loads requiring iron-banding reinforcement, these longitudinal bars must

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS HORS-SERIE N 1 2005


235

The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

satisfy both the requirement of BAEL 91


Section A.5 concerning shear force if this is
large in relation to the accompanying normal force ( u >0,07f cj / b ) and Section
A.8.1.3. concerning transverse reinforcing
links for units in compression.
It is perfectly acceptable not to incorporate
transverse reinforcing links around circumferential bars with a diameter less than 20
mm, which are not in corners and not taken
into account in the relevant strength calculations (i.e. only derived from minimum percentages of reinforcing steel).
In some rather exceptional cases, such as
fire resistance checking, stirrups must also
be checked in relation to their potential
role in preventing unsuppor ted thrust of
cur ved bar s under tension (BAEL 91,
Section A.7.4,2).
Finally, correctly designed longitudinal reinforcing bars contribute to balancing the
shear force resulting from the TBM cylinders
thrust loads.
At unit ends, the loads transferred from one
segment to another through each localized
reduced bearing zone are spread through
the total thickness of the segment. Surface
and bursting reinforcement must be provided in these bearing zones. These can be
designed in accordance with the recommendations provided in BAEL 91, Annex E.8
(not taking into account the minimum sectional area of bursting reinforcement under
TBM thrust cylinder temporar y loading).
Reinforcement can comprise small diameter
bars bent into coils or welded bars ( 5.25
of Eurocode 2).

bridges and civil engineering structures;


French standards NF P 22-430 and NF P
22-431 for non-prestressed (plain) bolted
assemblies;
French standards NF P 22-460 and NF P
22-469 for control-tightened bolted assemblies;
Eurocode 3 "Design of steel structures"
adopted by the European Standardization
Committee in 1992.
5.1.2 - Nature of actions and loadings
5.1.2.1 - Permanent actions (G)

These actions are associated with keeping


the waterproofing gaskets compressed and
are to be considered especially near stations.
They will be determined from crushing
force - deformation curves provided by the
waterproofing gasket supplier.
5.1.2.2 - Variable actions (Q)

These are represented by loads applied


during construction. In par ticular, those
associated with:
- crushing of waterproofing gaskets,
- segments overhanging from the previously
installed ring during erection, when a thrust
ring is used for TBM penetration (rare),
- action resulting from the erector arm
(possible).
5.1.2.3 - Accidental actions (FA)

Possible accidental actions will be detailed


in the project specifications.

5 - DESIGN OF ASSEMBLY
SYSTEMS

It should be recalled that a commonly retained accidental loading case is that associated with overhanging of a segment especially following a hydraulic failure in the TBM
thrust cylinders.

5.1 - Design assumptions


for bolts and socket bolts
5.1.1 - Regulations
The following regulations or standards apply
to the design of steel bolts or anchor bolts:
Design rules for structural steelwork or
CM 66 design rules for steel buildings;
Additional Clause 80, which takes into
account the concepts of plasticity and limit
states;
CPC Fascicule n 61 Titre V "Conception
et calcul de ponts et constructions mtalliques en acier" (Design and analysis of
bridges and str uctural steelwor k) for

This loading case must also be combined


with possible action resulting from the
waterproofing gaskets.
5.1.3 - Combined actions - Design
stresses
a) Basic combined action put forward by
the CM 66 rules
4/3 Gmax + Gmin + 3/2 Q
b) Basic combined action put forward by
Eurocode 3
1.35 Gmax + Gmin + 1.5 Q

c) Accidental combined action put forward


by the CM 66 rules and Eurocode 3
Gmax + Gmin + FA

5.2 - Proof of assembly


and pick-up components
using materials other than
steel
5.2.1 - Introduction
Amongst the assembly systems most often
used can be mentioned sockets for bolts
and pick-up bolts or plugs positioned between consecutive rings.
Although the design and analysis of steel
assembly systems is based on regulator y
documents and standards, the use of different materials is not necessarily included in
an engineering regulation framework covering the behaviour of the components
concerned.
The forces likely to be imposed by such
components must therefore be surveyed,
then factors of safety to be applied to the
inherent strength of these elements as well
as their behaviour under service conditions
must be evaluated on the basis of suitable
mechanical tests.
It should be recalled that, because of the
actions applied, these different segmentinser ted components transmit often high
local stresses to the concrete. Additional
reinforcement may be required to balance
these stresses and ensure concrete integrity.
5.2.2 - Actions to be considered
The same type of actions as for steel assembly systems (cf. 5.1) are found in relation
to bolt sockets and plugs.
Attention should be drawn to the following
specific characteristics associated with the
use of plugs in relation to the actions
already referred to:
high local pressures around interlock pockets when installing segments;
structural continuity of the lining between
consecutive rings ensuring greater longitudinal rigidity (limited relative mutual displacement of components);
systematic permanent presence.
Structural continuity may be the cause of
stresses which are difficult to quantify:
Thus, when an inert or semi-inert grout is
used for back grouting behind the segments
at the rear end of the shield tail, overriding

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
buoyancy with respect to the lining weight
can induce significant loads in assembly systems;

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It should also be noted that in small


radius cur ves, thrust cylinder action can
induce large forces resulting from the transverse component of thrust.
Most of these actions occur in the shor tterm. One should also mention long-term
actions which can be associated with, for
example, local defects or losses of contact
between lining and surrounding ground due
to par ticular geological conditions (dissolving of gypsum, presence of karsts, etc.) or
resulting from the construction of later
structures.
5.2.3 - Combined actions - Stresses
The different combined actions must be
quantified on the basis of project data.
If no regulation applies, a factor of safety of
one is applied to each action. Stresses
applied to assemblies are then evaluated by
considering models and simple behaviour.
5.2.4 - Behaviour of materials and
assemblies - Tests

This file will focus specifically on:

refuges for vehicles;

a description of tests carried out;

wastewater drainage;

the statistically aspect of the results;

collection and discharge of groundwater ;

technical data-sheets for the products


used.

maintenance of the structures.

6 - TRANSITION AND
ANCILLARY WORKS
Design of underground works is not limited
to designing just the running tunnel; civil
works for an underground project usually
comprise:
tunnels, which are continuous structures
allowing circulation of trains, vehicles, fluids
or transmission of energy;
transition works:
- with the surface: specific examples are stations, ventilation shafts, emergency shafts,
inspection shafts and galleries, etc.,
- between tunnels: specific examples are
branches providing communication, piston
relief, ventilation, rolling stock depot and
turning galleries, etc.;
ancillary works: specific examples are
- ventilated refuges or collection areas,

In practice, actual material and assembly


behaviour can only be fully understood
through static and dynamic testing (shear,
tension, etc.). These types of test can go as
far as testing the capacity of the whole
assembly chain including the surrounding
concrete (with its design strength), as well
as the reinforcement measures adopted
around the connector inserts.

- safety recesses,

In general, test stresses differ from actual


stresses; consideration of factors of safety
which are adequate with respect to test
results and conditions particular to the project therefore appears necessary.
5.2.5 - Conclusions
Tests on anchor and pick-up sockets, for
example, fall within the scope of conventional testing. On the other hand, because the
plug system is relatively recent, experiments
should be pursued to define more accurately the sizing problems and advantage
should be taken of experience feedback
from different projects in order to extend
knowledge in relation to the operation of
this intersegment connection system.
However manufacturers must supply a full
engineering file covering whatever systems
are adopted.

- fire recesses,

Internal sizing and spacing of in-line works is


often codified under reference documents.
Thus, in France, the following documents
apply:
the Dossier Pilote des Tunnels (guidelines
for tunnels) published by CETu and the
latest circulars in force covering road and
motorway tunnels (and, by extension, all
roads);
Owner-published (SNCF, RATP, etc.) rules
for rail tunnels;
the Instruction technique relative aux
rseaux d'assainissement des agglomrations (Engineering directive covering wastewater systems for urban areas) (Circular n
77.284 INT of 22 June 1977).

6.2 - Construction of transition and ancillary works


Communication between transition ans
ancillary works and the running tunnel invariable requires the construction of various
size openings in the running tunnel lining.

- vehicle turning galleries,

For example, construction of a transverse


opening from inside the running tunnel
usually involves the following operations:

- sand traps,

special spacing of the lining rings;

which are essential for the operation of the


structure.

temporary support of rings to be cut into


by propping or bolting;

The present section is simply aimed at drawing attention to a number of design and
construction aspects of these transition and
ancillary works, which commonly represent
unusual points in terms of precast concrete
segmental lining design. Moreover, they
represent a major burden on the project in
terms of cost and time.

possible treatment of ground around the


future opening;

- plantrooms,

6.1 - Design of ancillary


works

in one or several stages, cutting out and


removal of segments in front of the opening
under construction;
in one or several stages, excavation and
concreting of the final reinforced concrete
lining of the strengthening structure around
the opening;
removal of temporary support.

transfer and safety of the public;

Construction of in-line works must be foreseen as early as possible; consequently, their


geometrical proper ties and method of
construction must be fully defined by the
Engineer and Owner's Representative right
from design stage.

ventilation (with respect to its twin


aspects of health-related ventilation and fire
safety);

Their construction stage must have a minimum impact on progress of TBM-excavated


construction of the main works.

Design of ancillary works is closely dependent on their functions.


In particular, functions resulting in extensive
geometry can involve:

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)
7 - INSTRUMENTATION

7.2 - Monitoring methods

7.1 - Aims

To achieve the above aims, the principal


effects to be measured are as follows:

Precast concrete segments lining instrumentation and monitoring schemes must


satisfy several aims:

stresses and pressures:

to check that lining actual behaviour complies with forecasts resulting from planned
theoretical sizing and, in turn, to verify the
level of safety of the structure in terms of
forces and deformations;
to gain greater knowledge of:
- the intensity and distribution of external
actions impacting on the lining during the
different stages construction progress (TBM
thrust, annular gap back grouting, short- and
long-term pressures exer ted by the surrounding ground),

- measurement of pressures exerted by the


back grouting material and ground on the
lining extrados,
- measurement of pressures exerted at segment contact joints.
These measurements are often disrupted
by the effect of sensor interaction (total
pressure cells) with the medium in which it
has been installed. Results should always be
subjected to careful analysis;
segment deformations:
These are often measured using vibrating
wire tensometers embedded in the segments and arranged:

- the intensity and distribution of segment


internal loads, especially:

- in a longitudinal direction, with a view to


analysing stresses induced by TBM main
cylinder thrust,

resulting from TBM thrust (presence or


absence of defects in bearing between different elements, evaluation of TBM length
influencing the lining),

- in a radial direction, with a view to analysing stresses induced by back grouting, the
surrounding ground and possible disruptive
effects associated with TBM thrust.

resulting from successive actions involving


back grouting and the surrounding ground
under par tial cutter section confinement
and showing, for example, possible load
redistribution due to alternation of radial
contact joints over a succession of rings.

A concrete control block fitted with sensors


is often provided as a reference, although its
behaviour is somewhat different of that of
the lining segments.

In any case, Owners and contractors should


be made aware that these instrumentation
schemes do not originate from the research
field but must be regarded as a driving factor in terms of fur thering the technical
nature of this type of lining and allowing
both acquisition of quantifiable reference
data, concerning the quality of the completed tunnel, and advantage to be gained from
analysing information fed back in order to
refine the actual behaviour of this form of
discontinuous lining.

convergences:
- Invar wire or optical convergence measurement, with a view to evaluating short- and
long-term deformations withstood by lining
rings.
Temperature probes and relative humidity
sensors must also be implemented at instrumented sections in order to complement effectively the data collected.
Whilst tunnel lining monitoring has, until
now, been carried out conventionally by a
technician, this method is now being challenged by automatic data acquisition, which
offers many advantages such as:

rapid and virtually simultaneous measurements; data acquisition from a large number
of sensors therefore provides an "instantaneous picture" compared with TBM penetration rates;
scheduled frequency of measurement suited to both the nature or variability of
actions concerned and data sought during
different construction stages;
data acquisition facilitated, in par ticular,
when instrumented rings are within the
area enclosing the TBM back-up equipment.
Conversely, several drawbacks inherent in
the use of automatic data acquisition should
be mentioned:
danger of a systematic loss of data due to
defective installation or malfunction of a
component after fixing (closely supervised
installation then periodic checking to be
carried out by body in charge of measurement);
compatibility of recording box spatial
requirements with respect to clearances to
be provided temporarily for shor t-term
(erector arm, segments being erected, temporary equipment, back-up equipment, etc.)
and long-term (rolling stock, permanent
equipment, etc.);
possible problem of energy supply and
independence; depending on the quantity of
data to be collected, various options can be
envisaged: large-capacity batteries, sophisticated power plant controlled by energysaving electronics).
In particular, all monitoring schedules must
specify who is responsible for interpreting
results, the timescale and the data transmission chain. The validity of the monitoring
system must be questioned if this often
neglected interpretation stage does not
exist.
In general, reference should be made to
A.F.T.E.S. "Auscultation" (Monitoring)
Working Group n 19 recommendations on
tunnel monitoring measurements.

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REFERENCES
TERZAGHI K. - Rock defects and loads on tunnel support - Rock Tunnelling with Steel Supports, Commercial Shearing Co - Youngstown,
Ohio, pp. 15-99, 1946.
PROTODIAKONOV M.M. - Klassifikacija Gornych Porod - Tunnels et Ouvrages Souterrains I, pp. 31-34, 1974.
LAUFFER H. - Gebirgsklassifizierung fr den Stollenbau - Geologie Bauwesen, 74, pp. 46-51, 1958.

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

DUDDECK H., ERDMANN J. - On structural Design Models for Tunnels in Soft Soil - Underground Space,Vol 9, pp. 246-259, 1985.
CORBETTA F., BERNAUD D., NGUYEN-MINH D. - Contribution la mthode convergence-confinement par le principe de la
similitude. Revue Franaise de Gotechnique n 54, pp. 5-12, 1991.
BERNAUD D., ROUSSET G. - La nouvelle mthode implicite pour l'tude du dimensionnement des tunnels - Revue Franaise de
Gotechnique n 60, 3e trim., pp. 5-26, 1992.
PANET M. - Le calcul des tunnels par la mthode convergence-confinement - Presses de l'Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chausses, 1995.
NGUYEN-MINH D., GUO C. - Sur un principe d'interaction massif-soutnement des tunnels en avancement stationnaire - Eurok'93,
Lisbon, Portugal, 1993.
NGUYEN-MINH D., GUO C. - Tunnels creuss en milieu viscoplastique - Gotechnique et Environnement, Colloque Franco -Polonais,
Nancy, 1993.
MUIR WOOD A.M. - The circular tunnel in elastic ground - Geotechnique 25, n 1, 1975.
HOEK E., KAISER P.K., BAWDEN W.F. - Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock - A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Brookfield,
1995.

ANNEX :

impervious seals of the mould are then correctly positioned.

TUNNEL LINING CONSTRUCTION - PRECASTING AND INSTALLATION

Concrete contact surfaces are spray-lubricated with a release agent.

1 - GENERAL
The aim of the present section is to describe the main tunnel lining construction
stages in such a way that actions applied to
the segments during constr uction are
recorded.
In general, these operations are covered by
construction procedures describing general
and specific requirements for production
organization and which are consolidated
under a single more general document: the
project Quality Assurance Plan (Q.A.P.).

2 - DESCRIPTION OF SEGMENT PRECASTING

2.1.2 - Reassembly of mould elements


The mould will be reclosed in accordance
with the specified flank and end closing
order.
2.1.3 - Self-inspection
After closing the mould, the operator will
ensure proper closure of the mould by keeping a watch on alignment of flank and end
reference marks and by undertaking other
checks detailed in the Q.A.P..
The operator will then examine visually
each mould; these operations will be entered on the compliance inspection record
specified in the Q.A.P..

2.2 - Placement of reinforcing cages

2.1 - Mould preparation


2.1.1 - Cleaning
Careful brush-cleaning of the peripheral
ends and flanks (especially their bearing
faces) and mould bottom is under taken
with the mould in an open position. The

With respect to the logical sequence of


precasting operations, it is assumed that
reinforcing cage production has followed its
own fabrication Q.A.P., incorporating all
joint contracting and subcontracting fabrication Q.A.Ps. as well as all the supply items
entering into the composition of a cage.

2.2.1 - Cage preparation


Each reinforcing cage will be fitted with spacers designed to ensure its accurate positioning in the mould and, thus, compliance with
specified concrete cover to the reinforcing
bars.
2.2.2 - Self-inspection and placing
of the reinforcing cage
Before placing the cage in the mould, the
operator will ensure, in accordance with the
reinforcing cage production Q.A.P., that this
cage:
is not deformed in any way;
corresponds perfectly with the mould for
which it is intended;
is fitted with all the designed spacers, both
in number and in position.
After placement of the reinforcing cage in
the mould, the operator will ensure that the
cage is correctly centred with respect to the
mould and will then fill in the compliance
inspection record.

2.3 - Mounting of connector


inserts and accessories
Whatever the systems selected, they will be
positioned generally after installing the reinforcing cage in the mould.They usually /
comprise:

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The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


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a pick-up device;
sockets and pins for implementing socket
bolts or any other connection system;

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a system for possible grouting behind segments, etc..

2.4.4 - Heat treatment, preheating


of concrete

- inspection of first reinforcing cages fabricated in accordance with mass production


procedures.

Depending on the type of concrete thermal


maturing selected, several methods can be
envisaged:

During production

As in other fabrication operations, self-inspection will be carried out by the operator,


who will check the correct positioning of all
these connector inser ts and accessories
before filling the compliance inspection
record.

hot water mixing of concrete (maximum


water temperature 80 C);

2.4 - Concreting

2.5 - Mould stripping Handling - Pre-storage

The concrete Q.A.P. or CONCRETE FILE


specifies the type of concrete, its properties, constituent materials and, in particular :

Unbolting and removal of connector insert


and accessory supports;

the concrete mix;

Release of lock-bolts for opening flanks and


ends of mould;

the physical chemical analysis of constituent materials: fine aggregate, coar se


aggregate, cement, water ;
the active alkali balance;
admixture engineering data sheet(s);
test results for trial mixes produced for
design and suitability purposes;
the Q.A.P. for the approved testing laboratory.
2.4.1 - Concrete production and
preliminary checks
At the star t of each concreting shift, the
operator will check proper operation of:
the concrete plant PLC-controlled system
for weighing and accurately recording the
weights of constituent materials;
the water, admixture, plasticizer, accelerator, etc., regulation system;
the mixing time control system.
2.4.2 - Concrete placement
Continuous uniform placement in the
mould of the segment concrete volume will
be ensured.

heating of mould underside;


steam curing under controlled temperature and relative humidity.

Positioning of lifting beam fitted with suction pads, or other gripper- or sling-based
handling system.
After mould stripping, segments will be set
down and stacked on suppor ts located in
prepared sections of the pre-storage
(curing) area inside the precasting shop or
outside under suitable protection. Timber
blocks will be placed between segments
taking care that they are aligned with the
supports. Curing time will be approximately
8 hours and in general imposed by the
sequencing of mould stripping, storing,
gluing, turning, packing and then loading-out
operations.
Self-inspection
The operator will then carry out the necessary inspections and fill in the relevant compliance inspection report.

2.6 - Inspections
Moulds for the same lining ring must be
fabricated and inspected from every angle
in relation to the ring. Similarly, in the case
of several ring moulds, the type of mould
must be identical irrespective of the ring it
forms.
The following inspections are usually carried out:

2.4.3 - Finishing of extrados or


non-shuttered surfaces
On completion of concreting, the free surface of the concrete will be floated as accurately as possible.
After waiting for the initial set of the
concrete (approximately 20 - 40 minutes),
final trowelling of the top of the segment
will be carried out to eliminate bug holes
and unevenness.

Prior to starting mass production of segments


- inspection of mould fabrication,
- inspection of ring geometry and assembly
using reinforced concrete segments from
initial precast shop casting,
- inspection of moulds on delivery to precast plant,

Segment precasting involves mass production, therefore procedures specifying details


of inspections to be carried out at regular
intervals throughout the production period
should be established to ensure that tolerances for moulds, segments and reinforcing
cages, as well as concerning reinforcing cage
assembly quality, always remain less than the
initially established values.
- inspection of moulds approximately every
50 casting operations,
- same frequency inspection of corresponding segments at line output and correction
of mould adjustment if deviations are
observed.
These inspections are essentially based on:
overall dimensions of the assembled ring;
lengths of segments generating ring taper ;
segment wall thickness;
flatness of ring/ring contact surfaces;
roughness;
geometry of designed pockets and their
layout (impervious gasket grooves, etc.);
positioning of connector inserts (pick-up
socket, connection system, etc.);
geometry of reinforcing bars, quality of
reinforcing cages and their position in the
moulds.

2.7 - Repairs
A repair report, which will be attached to
the relevant compliance inspection report,
will be drawn up for every repair.
The Q.A.P. will specify repair procedures
and materials to be used for the different
cases encountered:
honeycombing;
bubbles in waterproofing gasket grooves;
spalling at edges, etc.
Self-inspection after repair
inspection of waterproofing gasket groove
surface condition;
inspection of extrados surface condition;
inspection of bearing surfaces.

2.8 - Installation of waterproofing gasket


In the case of a glued waterproofing gasket
section, gluing will be carried out using an
adhesive payer recommended by the sup-

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plier of the gasket and installed in accordance with his instructions and procedures.

2.9 - Packing and marking


In general, segments of the same ring will be
packed together on timber blocks.

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Timber blocks between segments must be


perfectly aligned.
Each segment will be marked according to
instructions given on the contract drawings
(intrados bearing face), to enable it to be
identified and cross-referenced with the
relevant inspection record (traceability).

2.10 - Internal preshipment


inspection
The segment loading supervisor will indicate the transported ring number, as well as
the precasting date of its component segments, on the preshipment inspection
report.
He will check that connector inser ts and
accessories are clean and protected, that
there is no concrete spalling, that waterproofing gaskets and possibly pads are properly glued.
He will also check segment packing, alignment of timber blocks and the size of the
pack.

Segments will be positioned at the precast


plant storage yard to avoid a segment turning operation between yard storage and
pick-up by the segment erector, whose suction pads or handling mechanisms pick up
the segment from the intrados side.
When the erector is supplied in the upper
section of the TBM, segments are stored
intrados lowermost.
When the erector is supplied in the lower
section of the TBM, segments are stored
intrados uppermost and, in this case, a segment turning machine enables this operation to be carried out at the precast plant.
In its storage position, the segment rests on
two timber blocks of the same length as the
segment itself and positioned directly in line
with the longitudinal assembly systems.
Segments are stored by stacking each set of
segments comprising a ring.
Segments must be stored after precasting
and can only be installed if their strength
exceeds or is equal to that required by the
project specifications.

4 - SEGMENT COLLECTION,
TRANSPORT AND ACCEPTANCE ON SITE

copy will be returned to the segment manufacturer.

5 - SEGMENT SUPPLY TO
THE WORKFACE
After segment acceptance, unloading and
storage in an area near the tunnel access
(shaft, adit, etc.), supply to the workface
usually depends on the area available and it
represents a minimum stock.
Storage can be organized by:
segment;
by segment pair ;
by rings palletized on steel frames.
Storage design is therefore based on the
selected transport methods within the tunnel and to the TBM, where the segments are
unloaded, then placed on a belt or roller
feed conveyor which delivers them to the
front where they are picked up by the segment erector.

6 - LINING RING BUILDING


Section 3.5.5 "Segment assembly systems"
of the present recommendations specifies
and describes:

A copy of the inspection report will be sent


to site along with the delivery note.

In principle, the precast plant loading supervisor is responsible for collecting segments
from the plant storage yard and the haulage
contractor is responsible for transport.

3 - STORAGE AT PRECAST
PLANT YARD

Segments are picked up at the precast plant


storage yard by lifting beam fitted with suction pads, grippers or slings and they are
then loaded onto lorries or another means
of transport.

The following table complements this information by considering an example of building a lining ring comprising rectangular(standard) and trapezoidal-shaped (key and
counter) segments. It details:

On-site segment inspection for acceptance


purposes will be conducted on the lorry or
other means of transpor t. Prior to unloading, the site representative will sign and
make any written remarks on the delivery
note.

the successive segment erection stages;

Special care is required in relation to storage and possible thermal protection conditions to prevent segment concrete microcracking at the precast plant storage yard.
Handling will be undertaken using a lifting
beam fitted with either suction pads or
slings, which allows a pack of several segments to be picked up.

Detailed observations will be included on


the pre-unloading inspection report and a

the different assembly systems;


the aims sought under construction and
service conditions.

recommendations associated with the


operating environment for each erection
stage;
A few remarks of a general nature complement the table.

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS HORS-SERIE N 1 2005


241

The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments


installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM)

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

REMARKS

1) Supply of first segment to erector.

Supply possible from:


- upper level;
- lower level.

2) First segment pick-up.

Pick-up possible using suction pads, grippers, bolts.

All reproduction, translation and adaptation of articles (partly or totally) are subject to copyrigth.

3) Retraction of thrust cylinders corresponding


to placement of first segment.
4) Positioning of first segment by
rotating erector.

Detailed analysis of loads in each pick-up system


position and of indirect loads on segments.

Light ray guidance systems can facilitate


approach and final positioning of segment.

5) Radial approach of first segment.


6) Final approach with rotational, longitudinal and
transverse balance adjustment.

Control of approach speeds by selection of


proportioning hydraulic controls.

7) Holding of first segment on ring.

Pads of other thrust cylinders remain under pressure


in contact with other segments to safely ensure:
- segments holding and assembly,
- compression of waterproofing gaskets and
prevention of their decompression,
- stability of the machine under the confinement p
ressure.

TBM main cylinder thrust on the other segments


must prevent any forward displacement of
the machine.
At this time, the segment is simultaneously held by
the erector and the thrust from the main cylinders.

8) Fixing of first segment

see 3.5.5 "Segment assembly systems"

By ring/ring (longitudinal), segment/segment


(transverse) connection.

9) Installation and fixing of standard segments.

Same recommendation as for the first segment.


Provide alternate installation of segments in each
ring to minimize tube roll effects.

ame remark as for the first segment.

10) Installation of counter segments.

Use of template to calibrate gap between


counter segments.

Same remark as for first segment.

11) Key segment installation.

Use of template prevents:


- tearing of waterproofing gaskets,
- concrete chipping.
- greasing of waterproofing gaskets.

It should be noted that on completion of erection,


the ring is stabilized by the prestress between the
erection jacks and the previously installed ring.
The only contact between the shield tail and
the segmental lining is the shield tail seal.

TUNNELS ET OUVRAGES SOUTERRAINS HORS-SERIE N 1 2005


242

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