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CPB 30004





1. To identify the major components of the heat exchanger process control training
2. To systematically start-up the process.
3. To study ON/OFF temperature control of electric heaters.
4. To study temperature control in the heat exchanger using PID controller.

The experiment was conducted to determine the main objective which is to identify
the major components of the heat exchanger process control training system and learn how to
start-up the process systematically. Moreover, the experiment were run to study ON/OFF
temperature control of electric heaters and finally the temperature control in the heat
exchanger using PID controller. Based on the theory, the main purpose of a heat exchanger
system is to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a cooler fluid, so temperature control of outlet
fluid is of prime importance. It also functions to control the temperature of outlet fluid of the
heat exchanger system by using a conventional PID controller. The designed controller
regulates the temperature of the outgoing fluid to a desired set point in the shortest possible
time irrespective of load and process disturbances, equipment saturation and nonlinearity.
Hence, there are few types of heat exchanger that works on its own design. The experiment
was begun with the filling up both the tank until it overflows and certain valves were opened
and shut according to the procedure. Next, the set point, PBI, TII and TDI was set and
changed accordingly until the experiment end. (tambah pasal discussion main points) The
result was recorded using the recorder in the PID controller and results were tabulated in
chart paper. Based on the discussion, the green and red pen played an important role. Finally,
the objective of doing this experiment was achieved but some recommendation such as
having good knowledge on control prior of conducting the experiment will be a good value to
avoid misconduct during the experiments.



Heat exchanger system is widely used in chemical plants because it can sustain wide
range of temperature and pressure. The main purpose of a heat exchanger system is to
transfer heat from a hot fluid to a cooler fluid, so temperature control of outlet fluid is of
prime importance. To control the temperature of outlet fluid of the heat exchanger system a
conventional PID controller can be used. Due to inherent disadvantages of conventional
control techniques, model based control technique is employed and an internal model based
PID controller is developed to control the temperature of outlet fluid of the heat exchanger
system. The designed controller regulates the temperature of the outgoing fluid to a desired
set point in the shortest possible time irrespective of load and process disturbances,
equipment saturation and nonlinearity. The developed internal model based PID controller
has demonstrated 84% improvement in the overshoot and 44.6% improvement in settling
time as compared to the classical controller.
A shell-and-tube exchanger is used for larger flows, which are very common in
chemical process industries. The design of this exchanger is a shell with a bundle of tubes
inside. The tubes are in parallel and a fluid flows around them in the shell. Each arrangement
allows for a different type of flow such as co-current, counter-current and cross flow. The
tube-side can have one or more passes to increase the energy exchange from the tube-side
fluid. The shell-side may contain baffles, or walls, that channel the fluid flow and induce
turbulence, and thus, increase energy exchange.

Figure 3.1: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Controller System in Industry

Heat exchanger find widespread used in refrigeration, power generation, heating and
air-conditioning, chemical process, manufacturing, and medical application. A heat is
installed in an extension of the double pipe configuration. Instead of single pipe within a
larger pipe, a heat exchanger consists of bundles of pipes or tubes enclosed within a
cylindrical shell. In the heat exchanger one fluid flows through a tubes and a second fluid
flows through within the space between the tubes and the shell.
The outlet temperature of the heat exchanger system has to be kept at a desired set
point according to a process requirement. Firstly a classical PID controller is implemented in
a feedback control loop so as to achieve the control objectives. PID controllers exhibits high
overshoot which is undesirable. To reduce the overshoot and optimize the control
performance, a feed forward controller is used along with a feedback controller. The
combined effect of feedback and feed forward control schemes gives a much better result
than the feedback PID controller.

Figure 3.2: ON/OFF Controller working scheme to achive Set Point (SV).



The purpose of this experiment are to identify the major components of the
heat exchanger process control training system, to systematically start-up the process, to
study ON/OFF temperature control of electric heaters and to study temperature control in the
heat exchanger using PID controller. For the first objective, the process consist of two tanks,
T61 and T62, one shell and tube heat exchanger, three centrifugal pump, (P61, P62, P611),
and resistance temperature detector (RTD) as a temperature detector for T61 while
thermocouple is temperature sensor for T62. The heat exchanger used hot water from tank,
T62 as a heating medium to heat cold water from tank, T61. In this experiment also, the green
line indicated the temperature of the flowrate while the red line indicated wall of the heater
temperature.The results obtained while conducting this experiment can be divided into two
parts which were ON/OFF temperature control and PID control of temperature.
During the start up procedures (No 3.2 according to Lab Manual), the manual (M)
mode of manipulated value (MV) was 100% has been set with the value of proportional band
(PB1) was 15%, the time integral (TI1) was 35 seconds and the time derivative (TD1) was 8
seconds. The set value (SV) or simply set point was 40C and the chart speed was ensured at

500 !! . By referring to the graph, green line indicated the temperature of TE62 whilst the red
line indicated TE61 temperature.
Basically, the control valve TCV 61 is Air-to-Open and has a current-to-air positioner
(EP), in which it was tagged as TCY61 in the plant. Air to open valves is normally held
closed by the spring and require air pressure (a control signal) to open them - they open
progressively as the air pressure increases. Then, a test on control valve, TCV61 has been
done by adjusting the MV values. When MV = 25%, 50% and 100% opened, the control
valve, TCV61 stem position are also opened according to MV adjustments. Figure 4.1 shows
a pneumatic Actuator, Air to Open and the position of Stem that will drive the position
indicator to shows the value of MV.


Figure 4.1 : Pneumatic Actuator with Air-to-Open function.


In this experiment, there are two types of controller that we study which is ON/OFF
controller of heater, and the heat exchanger controller using PID controller. Firstly, the
ON/OFF temperature controller of heater experiment is performed. The equipment was tested
by running some trial in order to ensure it runs in a good condition. Besides that, it help a
better understanding on how an ON/OF controller functions; the function of controller in
order to maintain the set point.
For ON/OFF temperature control, the heater will be turned on till it reaches the set
point of 40C. Then, the heater will be switched off when the temperature went above the set
point temperature that was 40C. Due to the tank is an open tank, thus the temperature will
drop. Thus, the heater will then be switched on when the temperature was 0.5C less than the
set point which also known as Deadband. Figure 4.2 explains the theory of deadband.


The parameters of the ON/OFF controller were then set up at high temperature limit
as shown in Table 4.1 in which (PO1) equal to 55C same as the high limit for annunciator
TAH62 (PO3) and the dead band (PO2) indicated 0.5C same as the dead band for
annunciator TAH61 (PO4). The I/O data showed that the value of X2 was 44.3 with DO2 was
off (0) and DO1 (1) was on position. The data and the graph were shown below as in figure

Figure 4.2: Deadband in a temperature operating control system

Table 4.1: The PT Register value set up (According to Lab Manual, 3.3 No. 4)
PT Register

Temperature value

PO1 (high temperature limit)

55 oC

PO2 (dead band)

0.5 oC

PO3 (high limit for annunciator)

55 oC

PO4 (dead band for annunciator)

0.5 oC

Table 4.2: The I/O Data recorded

I/O Data


TIC62 Controller

DO1: 0

55 oC

TAH62, Annunciator

DO2: 1

55 oC


The graph are represented in Figure 4.3. No 1 marked in the graph shows that the
recorder TR61 has been started. During this process (Refer Lab Manual- 3.3 No. 6), TE62 or
TIT62 rises and exceeds the High Limit, 55C. When the temperature go above 55C, the
heaters are noted to be switched off and the Annunciator TAH62 is activated (with alarm
sounds). This indicates the temperature that already exceeds the highest point that has been
set in the system, 55C. Then, temperature drops to the High Limit Temperature, 55C. The
temperature drops further by an amount equal to deadband which is 0.5C (drops 0.5C
below high limit), this is representated as No. 2 in the graph. In this stage, the heaters are
switched on again. The temperature will rise till it reaches the High Limit of 55C and
exceeds further. When it exceeds the high limit, (56C) the annunciator will sounds and
TAH62 is switched OFF by pressing the acknowledge button on the control panel. The
status and the I/O Data has been recorded in Table 4.2.
The process continues in the same mode as shown in graph, a full of 3 cycles with
decay ratio (the measure of the amount by which the controlled variable exceeds the set-point
in successive peaks) is achieved and indicated as No. 3 (56C), No. 4 (57C) and No. 5
(56C) on the graph in Figure 4.3. It produces an oscillatory curve which is the nature of
ON/OFF controller as shown in Figure 3.2.
Basically, an On-Off control is like operating a switch. This type of temperature
controller will turn on the heat when the process variable is below the set point and turn it off
when the process variable is above the set point. These controllers normally include a delay,
hysterisis and or a cycle time to reduce the cycling or "hunting" when the process variable is
close to the set point.


Figure 4.3: The graph produced for ON/OFF controller.

For this experiment, the temperature of heated product at the exit of the heat
exchanger measured by TE61/TIT61 is controlled by the controller PID of TIC61.
On the temperature controller using the PID, the auto mode is being selected. The first
point is set at 40C and the PID values are recorded in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3: First Controller Parameters Values


PB1 (%)

TI1 (seconds) TD1





(SV1) (C)


(FI61) ( !" )

Trial 15






By referring to the graph in Figure 4.4, noted as No. 1 was the time during the chart
start to record. Where as, No. 2 indicates the observation on response of TE61/TIT61 as it
becomes steady around 40C when the Auto mode has been activated with the PID values
from Table 4.3. The process response smoothly in short period of time.
Since this process use all three control algorithms (PID) together, this process can be
! Achieve rapid response to major disturbances with derivative control
! Hold the process near setpoint without major fluctuations with proportional control
! Eliminate offset with integral control
Then, the process maintain at 40C steadily as indicated No. 3 on the graph in Figure 4.4.
For the second temperature controller in heat exchanger, initially the cold water
circulation was started up. Then, the mode will be changed into Auto (A) mode. Two test
disturbances were being conducted; set point change and load change.
Set point change has been done according to Lab Manual, 3.4 No. 5. The second Set
point and PID trial values has been key in on the control panel as shown in Table 4.4. Where
as, by referring the graph in Figure 4.4, its noted as No. 4. Since this is a temperature
operating process, thus a small dead time is encountered at No. 4 before it become steady at
new setpoint, 42C at No.5 on the graph in Figure 4.4.
Table 4.4: Second Controller Parameters Values

PB1 (%)

TI1 (seconds) TD1





(SV2) (C)


(FI61) ( !" )

Trial 10





Then, as the system maintained in steady state, the step change of the product flow
rate by opeing fully the MV61 has been done. The flowrate at FI61 has been noted was at 2.8
m3/hr. This was noted as No. 6 in the graph in Figure 4.4. The temperature drops to almost
40C before becomes steady again as indicated as No. 7 in the graph in Figure 4.4.


Controller Algorithms
Proportional, PI, and PID Control


By using all three control algorithms together, process operators can:

Achieve rapid response to major disturbances with derivative
Hold the process near setpoint without major fluctuations with
proportional control
Eliminate offset with integral control

14. What type of control is used in

an application where noise is
present, but where no offset can
be tolerated?

P only
Not every process requires a full PID control strategy. If a small offset
has no impact on the process, then proportional control alone may be
One of the temperature sensor elements used in this system was, Platinum thin film
RTD temperature sensor
The surface
sensor element
PI control
is used where
no offsetofcan
be film

do not reflect
true process
is coated with ceramic,
so theerror
and show
high insulation


condition) may be present, and where excessive dead time (time after
a disturbance before control action takes place) is not a problem.
In processes where no offset can be tolerated, no noise is present, and


where dead timeFOR
issue, customersPROCESS
can use fullVARIABLES
PID control.

Table 7.2 shows common types of control loops and which types of
control algorithms are typically used.


PI Control

PID Control





















Figure 4.5:
for aControl
few Controlled
7.2: Control
Loops and
Algorithms Variables.
The heat transfer process is generally a slow and a low gain process compared to flow
or level processes. This is also can be explained that, the processes with heat transfer has a
high chance to produce dead time and decay ratio. Because of the time required to change the
temperature of a process fluid (time taken for the heat to be transferred from the heating
medium to the fluid), temperature loops tend to be relatively slow. Feedforward control
strategies are often used to increase the speed of the temperature loop response. RTDs or
thermocouples are typical temperature sensors. Temperature transmitters and controllers are
used, although it is not uncommon to see temperature sensors wired directly to the input


interface of a controller.
of Control
Where as, flow
and level
control loops are regarded as fast loops that respond to

changes quickly, since they are dealing with heat transfer, rather only with mass transfer.
Therefore, flow control equipment must have fast sampling and response times.

Furthermore, by referring to Figure 4.5, its stated that the one and only process that
uses all three algorithm was temperature process/controlled variable. Nevertheless, only
temperature variable uses derivative algorithm and not the flow or level control. This is due
temperature variable are very slow response. Thus Derivative algorithm are needed to apply
an immediate response that is equal to the proportional plus reset action that would have
occurred in the process.



With integral action, the controller output is proportional to the amount of time the
error is present. Integral action eliminates offset.

Figure 4.6: P, I and D controllers to show the response against Process Variable.
It can be noted that the offset (deviation from set-point) in the time response plots is
has gone. Integral action has eliminated the offset. The response is somewhat oscillatory and
can be stabilized some by adding derivative action. (Graphic courtesy of ExperTune Loop
Integral action gives the controller a large gain at low frequencies that results in
eliminating offset and "beating down" load disturbances. The controller phase starts out at
90 degrees and increases to near 0 degrees at the break frequency. This additional phase lag is
what you give up by adding integral action. Derivative action adds phase lead and is used to
compensate for the lag introduced by integral action.
Where as, with derivative action, the controller output is proportional to the rate of
change of the measurement or error. The controller output is calculated by the rate of change
of the measurement with time. Some manufacturers use the term rate or pre-act instead of
derivative. Derivative, rate, and pre-act are the same thing.


Derivative action can compensate for a changing measurement. Thus derivative takes
action to inhibit more rapid changes of the measurement than proportional action. When a
load or set-point change occurs, the derivative action causes the controller gain to move the
"wrong" way when the measurement gets near the set-point. Derivative is often used to avoid
overshoot. Derivative action can stabilize loops since it adds phase lead. Generally, if
derivative action was used, more controller gain and reset can be used.

Figure 4.7: Phase degree and Amplitude Ratio for Derivative and Integral

With a PID controller the amplitude ratio now has a dip near the center of the
frequency response. Integral action gives the controller high gain at low frequencies, and
derivative action causes the gain to start rising after the "dip". At higher frequencies the filter
on derivative action limits the derivative action. At very high frequencies (above 314
radians/time; the Nyquist frequency) the controller phase and amplitude ratio increase and
decrease quite a bit because of discrete sampling. If the controller had no filter the controller
amplitude ratio would steadily increase at high frequencies up to the Nyquist frequency (1/2
the sampling frequency). The controller phase now has a hump due to the derivative lead
action and filtering.


Valve positioners compare a control signal to a valve actuators position and move the
actuator accordingly. They are used with both linear valves and rotary valves. Valve
positioners are used when the 0.2 to 1 bar pressure in the diaphragm chamber is not able to
cope with friction and high differential pressures. The positioner is fitted to the yoke of the
actuator and is linked to the spindle of the actuator by a feedback arm in order to monitor
valve position. When a control signal differs from the valve actuators position, the valve
positioner sends the necessary power to move the actuator until the correct position is
reached. This uses a high air supply.

Figure 3: shows the temperature and heat output in a room controlled by an ON/OFF
controller. In practice the use of ON/OFF control can cause problems. As can be seen in
Figure 2, the heating system rapidly switches ON an OFF leading to inefficient system
operation and increased mechanical wear.







upper set point OFF

lower set point ON

Figure 2: ON/OFF control of air temperature.


heat output

room air temperature

set point temp.


Figure 3: ON/OFF control with a dead band

To address this deficiency a 'dead band' may be introduced. Effectively this defines an upper
and lower set-point. The control mechanism is now as summarised in Figure 3:

if the sensed temperature is below the lower set-point then the heating system is ON;

if the sensed temperature rises above the lower set-point but is still below the upper setpoint then the heating system is ON;

if the sensed temperature is above the upper set-point then the heating system is OFF; and

if the sensed temperature falls below the upper set-point but is still above the lower setpoint then the heating system is ON.

The addition of the upper and lower set-points acts to reduce the frequency of the plant
switching at the expense of poorer control of the controlled variable (here temperature).
ON/OFF control offers a crude means of controlling conditions in a building and is typically
employed where close control is not required, e.g. temperature control of domestic boilers.


The experiment conducted meet the objective as were discussed earlier. The entire
four objectives were achieved and discussed with the accordance in theory of process control.

As a recommendation, using more advance or intelligent machine can help to get
accurate and better result. Especially the recorder, by using more computational and visualize
to show the pattern of the response it would be much easier; the response can be record using
software or cds so that the students do not have to use paper to record because the papers got
stucked. Besides, students that handle the machine should get the overview how the machine
running and also should have some basic knowledge to obtain a correct reading. Mainly, the
chart paper should be placed correctly in order to avoid error during the recording.
Furthermore, during the changes of set point and other related parameters the student should
jot down for discussion purpose and their understanding. Ensure all the valves are closed and
opened as mentioned in the methodology. Set Point change for ON/OFF controller should be
added in the experiment change as well as the PID Controller system, and both types of
control system should be discussed to show the major difference of both control systems.


Yuvraj, B.K, and Yaduvir, S. (2010). PID Control of Heat Exchanger System, International
Journal of Computer Applications, 22-23.
Mark, J.W. (1999). Some Conventional Pocess Control Schemes, Department of Chemical
and Process Engineering University of Newcastle, 2-5.
Process Control, 2012. [pdf].
Available at: <> [Accessed 4
September 2012]