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VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT

VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT

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Fluid Mechanics Lab Report
Fluid Mechanics Lab Report

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Published by: whoelse_i on Mar 13, 2010
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12/17/2012

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Objectives

1. To use the Volumetric tank and the V type Weir notch to determine the volumetric flow and the mass flow rate of water 2. To get the relation between the pressure applied to the flow and the average velocity of water in the pipe. 3. To plot the graph of Average Velocity vs Pressure for both method.

Introduction
In this experiment, we are required to use volumetric tank and the V-type Weir notch to determine the volumetric flow and the mass flow rate of water. The volumetric flow rate (V) of a system is a measure of the volume of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time. The volumetric flow rate can be calculated as the product of the cross sectional area (A) for flow and the average flow velocity (v).

If area is measured in square feet and velocity in feet per second, Equation 3-1 results in volumetric flow rate measured in cubic feet per second. The V-notch weir is a triangular channel section, used to measure small discharge values. The upper edge of the section is always above the water level, and so the channel is always triangular simplifying calculation of the cross-sectional area. V-notch weirs are preferred for low discharges as the head above the weir crest is more sensitive to changes in flow compared to rectangular weirs.

Procedures
Method 1 1. The pump is started and the tank outlet valve is opened. 2. The control valve is adjusted until the gage pressure has reached 0. 3. Stopwatch is started when the indicator shows 0. 4. Time for the measuring tube to reach 10 L is recorded. 5. The measuring tank outlet valve was opened after measurement. 6. Steps 1-5 is repeated for other required values. 7. Mass flow rate and average velocity are calculated. 8. Graph of Average Velocity Vs Pressure is plotted. Method 2 1. The pressure bar is adjusted to 0.5 bar and instantaneous volumetric flow is recorded. 2. Steps 1 is repeated for other required value. 3. The mass flo rate and average velocity is calculate (Table 3). 4. Graph of Average Velocity Vs Pressure is plotted.

Results
Volumetric tank (method 1) # 1 2 3 4 5 Pressure(m bar) 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 Volume (L) 10 10 10 10 10 Time (s) 17.65 23.97 35.01 1.00.71 1.51.38

Weir measurement (method 2) # 1 2 3 4 5 Pressure(m bar) 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 Volume flow rate (L/s) 26 18 10.5 8 4

Calculation Data
Volumetric tank (method 1) # 1 Pressure, (kPa) 50 P Volumetric flow Mass flow rate Average velocity Reynolds # (m3/s) (kg/s) (m/s)
5.67 x 10-4

0.565

2.50E+00

47514.21706

2

70

4.17 x 10-4

0.417

1.84E+00

34944.31837

3

90

2.86 x 10-4

0.285

1.26E+00

23966.60684

4

110

1.65 x 10-4

0.164

7.27E-01

13826.88856

5

130

6.71 x 10-5

0.067

2.96E-01

5622.934682

Weir measurement (method 2) # 1 Pressure, (kPa) 50 P Volumetric flow Mass flow rate Average velocity Reynolds # (m3/s) (kg/s) (m/s) 0.000433333 0.4320 0.190895742 3631.304067

2

70

0.0003

0.2991

0.13215859

2513.979739

3

90

0.000175

0.1745

0.077092511

1466.488181

4

110

0.000133333

0.1329

0.058737151

1117.324328

5

130

6.66667E-05

0.0665

0.029368576

558.6621641

Calculation • Volumetric tank (method 1): 1. Pressure 0.7 x 100 kPa = 70 kPa

2. Volumetric flow, Q (m3/s) = Volume Time

1L = 1.0 x 10-3 [m3] 10L=0.01 m3

=10 (1x10-3 m3) / 17.65s
= 5.67 x 10-4 m3/s

3. Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) = Q (m3/s) x  (kg/m3)

= 997 kg/ m3x 5.67 x 10-4 m3/s

= 0.565 kg/s

4. Average velocity V (m/s) = Volume (m3) A (m2) x Time (s)

= 5.67 x 10-4 2.27 x 10-4 m2

= 2.50 m/s

5. Reynolds # =  (kg/m3) x V (m/s) x d (m)  (Ns/m2)

= 997 kg/ m3 (2.5m/s) (0.017m)/0.891 x 10-3kg/ms

= 47514.21706

Weir measurement (method 2) 6. Pressure 0.7 x 100 kPa = 70 kPa

7. Volumetric flow Q (m3/s) = Volume Time

1L = 1.0 x 10-3 [m3] 10L=0.01 m3

= 26 x 0.001 m3/60s

= 0.000433333 m3/s

8. Mass flow rate m (kg/s) = Q (m3/s) x  (kg/m3)

= 997kg/ m3 x 4.33 x 10-4 m3/s

= 0.432 m/s

9. Average velocity V (m/s) = Volume (m3) A (m2) x Time (s)

= 4.33 x 10-4 m3/s 2.27 x 10-4 m2

= 0.191 m/s

10. Reynolds # = ρ(kg/m3) x V (m/s) x d (m)  (Ns/m2)

= 997 kg/ m3 (0.191m/s) (0.017m)/0.891 x 10-3kg/ms

= 3631.304067
PERCENTAGE ERROR:

Method 1:

= (Q weir measurement - Q volumetric tank) x 100 Q weir measurement

= 0.000433333 m3/s - 5.67 x 10-4m3/s x100

0.000433333 m3/s
= 30.95% Method 2:

= (Q volumetric tank - Q weir measurement) x 100 Q volumetric tank

= 5.67 x 10-4m3/s - 0.000433333 m3/s x100 5.67 x 10-4m3/s = 23.63%

Discussion In this experiment, we are expected to get same volumetric flow rate for both weir notch and volumetric tank but that not the case with experimental values. Since experimental values have the tendency to get error because of the surrounding and human factor, our experimental error range from 23% to 31% which is very big. This is because the problem with the equipment itself. We have to keep changing the pressure switch because the reading will not go up. We also have been informed that the other group also facing the same problem. We used the nearly the same procedures for both of the method except that for weir notch we add a V notch weir as obstruction and take the corresponding volume flow rate. It is true that the higher pressure we set, more time will be taken to reach 10L for the water and the other way around. This is pressure will add resistance to the water flow. The Reynold’s Number varies with different pressure but we conclude that the flow is turbulent because the highest result we get is above 4000. Conclusion To conclude, the experiment is successful considering we manage to get results for this session. The percentage error range is high about 23% until 31% due to environment factor that we cannot avoid. Overall it is satisfactory for us.

References:
1. Syed Noh, Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual, pp 1-8, IIUM Press, 2007 2. Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala, pp 174 – 178, McGraw Hill

QUESTIONS

1. What is the principle behind the obstruction flow meter? Pressure drop between two points along the flow can be measured by a differential pressure transducer or manometer that are called obstruction flow meter and a simple flow rate measurement device can be built by obstructing the flow.

2. How to measure theoretical flow rate from obstruction flow meter? by constricting the flow and measuring the decrease in pressure due to the increase in velocity at the constriction site. Thus, the pressure drop between two points along the flow can be measured by a differential pressure transducer or manometer.

3. Derive theoretical flow rate equation for obstruction flow meter. Mass balance: Q = V1A1 = V2A2  V1 (A2/ A1) V2 = (d/D)2 V2

Bernoulli equation (z1 = z2): P1/  + V12/2g = P2/ρg + V22/2g g

Combining these two equations, we will get;

Obstruction (with no loss): V2 = (2(P1- P2)/(ρ(1-ß4))1/2

Where ß = d/D is the diameter ratio.

Obstruction flow meters: Q = A0/Cd (2(P1- P2 )(ρ(1-ß4))1/

4. Explain what is the coefficient discharge? Coefficient discharge is the ratio of actual flow rate to the ideal flow rate. Losses can be accounted for by incorporating a correction factor called the discharge coefficient.

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