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1. To refine the Bernoulli’s equation by introducing the frictional head

loss, hf. 2. To investigate the pressure loss due to friction in straight pipes. (D1=10mm, D2=7mm) 3. To compare the calculated friction factor to the estimated friction factor from the Moody diagram.

Introduction Fluid flow can be either laminar or turbulent or transitional. The factor that determines which type of flow is present is the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces within the fluid, expressed by the nondimensional Reynolds Number, Reynolds number : Re= ρVD μ

where V and D are a fluid characteristic velocity and distance. For example, for fluid flowing in a pipe, V could be the average fluid velocity, and D would be the pipe diameter. Typically, viscous stresses within a fluid tend to stabilize and organize the flow, whereas excessive fluid inertia tends to disrupt organized flow leading to chaotic turbulent behaviour. Fluid flows are laminar for Reynolds Numbers up to 2000. Beyond a Reynolds Number of 4000, the flow is completely turbulent. Between 2000 and 4000, the flow is in transition between laminar and turbulent, and it is possible to find subregions of both flow types within a given flow field.

Procedures 1. the pump is started and water will start to flow 2. the swivel tube is raise so that it close to the vertical. 3. the bench-regulating valve is adjusted so that there is small overflow from the inlet tank and overflow tank. 4. series of flow condition with outlet head is set. 5. at each condition , the flow rate is measure using volumetric tank and a stopwatch 6. steps 1-5 is repeated for 10 mm pipe 7. graph of log (hf/L) vs log (V) is plotted. 8. the friction factor is estimated from Moody Diagram.

Results

Pipe, D = 7mm # Outlet head (cm) Inlet head, h1 (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 35 30 25 20 15 400 380 299 268 234 Inlet head, h2 (cm) 285 255 185 131 75 Time, t (second) 78 67 59 53 47

Pipe, D = 7mm # Outlet head (cm) Inlet head, h1 (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 35 30 25 20 15 367 333 299 268 234 Inlet head, h2 (cm) 285 255 185 131 75 Time, t (second) 78 67 59 53 47

Calculated data

Pipe, D = 7mm #

Volumetric flow rate Q (m3/s) Average velocity V (m/s) Re # (dimensionless) Fraction head loss hf (m) Friction factor, f (dimensionless) Log of Frictional head loss per unit length, log (hf / L) Log of average velocity Log (V)

1 2 3 4 5

3.85x10-5 4.48x10-5 5.09x10-5 5.66x10-5 6.38x10-5

1.00 1.16 1.32 1.47 1.66

7832.77 9086.02 10339.26 11514.18 13002.40

0.82 0.78 1.14 1.37 1.59

0.31 0.22 0.25 0.24 0.22

0.36 0.34 0.50 0.58 0.65

0.00 0.06 0.12 0.17 0.22

Pipe, D = 10mm #

Volumetric flow rate Q (m3/s) Average velocity V (m/s) Re # (dimensionless) Fraction head loss hf (m) Friction factor, f (dimensionless) Log of Frictional head loss per unit length, log (hf / L) Log of average velocity Log (V)

1 2 3 4 5

6.00x10-5 3.53x10-5 4.11x10-5 9.38x10-5 4.48x10-5

0.76 0.45 0.52 1.19 0.57

8504.15 5035.35 5818.63 13315.71 6378.11

0.60 0.79 1.00 1.17 1.32

0.56 2.21 2.02 0.45 2.16

0.22 0.34 0.44 0.51 0.56

-0.12 -0.35 -0.28 0.08 -0.24

Friction factor, f D = 7mm # 1 2 3 4 5 Calculated 0.31 0.22 0.25 0.24 0.22 Moody diagram D = 10mm Calculated 0.22 0.34 0.44 0.51 0.56 Moody diagram

CALCULATION:

1. Volumetric flow 3L=0.003 m3 Q (m3/s) = Volume (m3) / Time= (0.003m3) /78= 3.846 x 10-5m3/s

2. Average velocity Area of pipe= π (D²/4) = π (0.007²/4) =3.8485x10-5 m2 V (m/s) = Q/A= (3.846 x 10-5m3/s)/ (3.8485x10-5 m2) = 1.00 m/s

3. Reynolds # _ Reynolds # = ρ (kg/m3) x V (m/s) x d (m) µ (Ns/m2) = (997.0x1.00x0.007)/ (0.891x10-³) = 7832.77

4. Frictional head loss hf (m) hf= h1(m) – h2(m) = 0.285m – 0.367m = 0.82m

**5. Friction factor, f (dimensionless) ƒ = 2gDhf LV2 = 2(9.81 m2/s) (0.007m) (0.82m) 0.36m x (1.0m/s)
**

2

= 0.3128

6. Log of frictional head loss per unit length, log( hf / L )

log(hf / L ) = log

0.82m 0.36m

= 0.3575

7. Log of average velocity, log( V ) Log V = log (1.00 m/s) = 0

Discussion

From this experiment will obtain data that will tell us whether the water flow is turbulent or laminar. From the results we manage to get, we calculated the Reynold’s Number. All the Reynold’s Number that we calculated show values higher than 4000. This shows that the water flow is completely turbulent. We also manage to observe the head loss that occurs in a pipe. This is due to frictional resistance, hydraulic gradient, and the relationship between head loss and the Reynold’s number. We also manage to see that when the diameter is larger, the Reynold Number will be higher as well as the volume flow rate. This is due to the equation Reynolds # = ρ (kg/m3) x V (m/s) x d (m) µ (Ns/m2)

That shows diameter is increased, the viscousity will decrease and average velocity of water will increase. All these will lead to higher Reynld Number. There are several things we need to observe when doing the experiment. Since this experiment involving taking reading, our eyes level should be parallel to the reading to avoid parallax error. We also must take the reading immediately after the volumetric tank stop. Members in the group should cooperate well to have better result fom the experiment.

Conclusion

We manage to finished our experiment succesfully without many problem. We also manage to understand Reynold Number clearly. We also manage to use Moody Chart correctly and manage to differentiate between turbulent and laminar flow. Overall, the experiment is a success.

References:

1.

2.

Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Guidelines for Biotechnology Engineering Lab 1, 3rd edition (Jan 2007), Syed Abu Bakar Al-Saggoff. Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and Applications, Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala

QUESTIONS:

Part I:

1. Derive the Bernoulli’s equation from the First Law of Thermodynamics. During the derivation, state all assumption and consideration clearly.

Pout /ρ + V2out/2 + gzout = Pin/ρ + V2in/2 + gzin

Assumptions:

Inviscid flow Incompressible flow Steady flow

2. What are the Hydraulic Grade Line and Energy Grade Line? How 2 lines are

relates to each other? How the 2 lines relates with Bernoulli equation?

Hydraulic Grade Line is line that shows the sum of the static pressure and the elevation heads, P/ρg + z.

Energy Grade Line is line that shows the total head of the fluid, P/ρg + V2/2g + z

Thus, relationship between the lines is when the Energy Grade Line rise to a distance V2/2g above the Hydraulic Grade Line, Energy Grade Line = Hydraulic Grade Line + V2/2g.

Besides, both are part of the Bernoulli equation.

3. What is the restriction of Bernoulli equation?

Bernoulli’s equation is only applicable in certain conditions which are:

Steady flow Frictionless; along a streamline in the core region, not along a streamline close to the surface. Not applicable in flow section involves pump, turbine or fan. No temperature change.

4. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in the experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

We must define head loss in order to apply the frictional effect into Bernoulli equation. Thus, I should follow the restriction of Bernoulli equation in term of frictional effect.

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