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1. To investigate the head loss due to friction across bends and elbows.

2. To find the bend/elbow constant for given pipe.


Minor loss is caused when there is additional component os added to the straight pipe
such as tees, elbows and bend. This minor loss will contribute to head loss due to the friction
across bends and elbows.

Bernoulli’s equation relates pressure, velocity and elevation between any two points in the
flow. But since the equation have some restriction, a new term must be introduce.

P1/ρg + V1/2g + z1= P2/ρg + V2/2g + z2 + hL

Head loss is added because in real life situation there are losses. The head loss will increase
when the fluid flow through fittings (elbows or bends) due to the friction effect that caused by
the viscosity. This situation can be proved by calculation of the drop in the flow rate. Minor
losses expressed in terms of loss coefficient, Kι and defined as: Kι = hι / (V²/ (2g). The values
of Kι are related to the pipe friction factors by a constant which is dependent on the ratio of
the bend radius to the pipe diameter R/D.


1. Start the pump and wait till there is water flow.

2. Raise the swivel tube.

3. Adjust the bench regulating valve to provide a small averflow through both inlet tank
and overflow pipe.

4. Set a series of condition as in Table 1.

5. Measure flow rate at each condition using stopwatch and volumetric tank.
6. Repeat steps 1-5 for pipe with elbows.


Required volume of water, V = 3 liter = 0.003m3

Diameter for both pipes, D = 0.003m3

Temperature of water = 24 ºC

# Outlet head (cm) Inlet head, h1 Inlet head, h2 Time, t
(cm) (cm) (second)
1 35 385 121 42
2 30 366 97 32
3 25 336 80 29
4 20 314 70 27
5 15 288 60 25
Table 1

# Outlet head (cm) Inlet head, h1 Inlet head, h2 Time, t
(cm) (cm) (second)
1 35 426 115 64
2 30 420 92 56
3 25 410 78 48
4 20 400 64 44
5 15 390 50 38
Calculated data:
Table 3


# Volumetric Average Re # Total Friction factor, Head loss due to Bend constant,
flow rate Q velocity V (dimensionles head f a single bend, hb Kb
(m3/s) (m/s) s) loss hL (dimensionless) (m)

1 7.143 x 10-5 0.909 10171.41 2.64 0.74 0.44 10.43

2 9.375 x 10-5 1.193 13315.71 2.69 0.44 0.45 6.23

3 1.034 x 10-4 0.132 14658.47 2.56 0.34 0.43 4.92

4 1.111 x 10-4 0.141 15777.44 2.44 0.28 0.41 4.05

5 1.200 x 10-5 0.153 17120.20 2.28 0.22 0.38 3.18

Table 4


# Volumetric Average Re# Total Friction factor, Head loss due to Bend constant,
flow rate Q velocity V (dimensionles head f a single bend, hb, KB
(m3/s) (m/s) s) loss hL (dimensionless) (m)

1 4.688 x 10-5 0.60 6713.80 3.11 0.97 0.54 29.43

2 5.357 x 10-5 0.68 7608.98 3.28 0.80 0.57 24.19

3 6.25 x 10-5 0.80 8951.74 3.12 0.55 0.54 16.55

4 6.818 x 10-5 0.87 9735.02 3.36 0.50 0.58 15.03

5 7.895 x 10-5 1.01 11301.57 3.40 0.38 0.58 11.16

Bend /Elbow constant, Kb %diff

From experiment Table A

Bend 10.43 6.6 58.03

Elbow 29.43 29.10 1.13


1. Volumetric flow
3L=0.003 m3

Q (m3/s) = Volume (m3) / Time= (0.003m3) /42= 7.1428 x 10-5m3/s

2. Average velocity
Area of pipe= π (D²/4) = π (0.01²/4) = 7.854x10-5 m2

V (m/s) = Q/A= (7.1428 x 10-5m3/s)/ (7.854x10-5 m2) = 0.909 m/s

3. Reynolds #

Reynolds # = ρ (kg/m3) x V (m/s) x d (m)

µ (Ns/m2)

= (997.0x0.909x0.01)/ (0.891x10-³) = 10171.41

4. Frictional head loss hf (m)

hf= h1(m) – h2(m) = 0.385m – 0.121m = 0.264m

5. Friction factor, f (dimensionless)

ƒ = 2gDhf = 2(9.81 m2/s) (0.007m) (0.264m) = 0.0543

LV2 0.36m x (1.856m/s) 2

6. hf = f x (L/D) x (V2/2g)

= 0.74 x (0.288m/0.010m) x (0.91m/s) 2/2x9.81m/s

= 0.9m for bends

Head loss due to a single bend

hb = (hL – hf) / N

= (0.120m – 0.0373m) / 4 = 0.0207 m

Elbow constant, Kb

= (2ghb)/V2

= [2(9.81m/s2) (0.0207 m)] / (0.659m/s) 2

= 0.9352

Kb from table A = 30f = 30(0.0312) = 0.936

%diff = [(0.9352– 0.9360) / 0.9360] x 100% = 0.09%


For this experiment, we are using bend and elbows pipe the investigate the head loss
in the pipe. Different from previous experiment when we use straight pipe, bends and elbows
pipe will contribute to minor loss in the head loss. The losses in the bends and elbows are
caused by the flow seperation on the inner side of the pipes.

And just like the previous experiment, we find that the fluid flow is also turbulent flow as the
Reynold Number shows high values. This is because in real situation such as home piping it is
impossible to have laminar flow since the velocity will be very low and the materials will be too
expensive. We also realize that the time taken for the bends is shorter than the elbows for the fluid to
rise until 3L. This is because bends will allow the fluid to make turn easily rather than elbows that
will restric the fluid to move fast. It is recommended to reduce head loss we use bends rather than
elbows to have lower head loss

To avoid any parallax error we must take reading from the height of the inlet. We also must take the
reading immediately when the volumetric tank flow stop. Also make sure to connects the pipe
correctly and make sure there is no leakage anywhere in the connection.

Alhamdulillah, we manage to carry out the experiment without any problem. The percentage
error also is very small about 1% error which is acceptable. We also managed to observe the effect of
bends and elbows pipe to the flow of fluid.

1. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Guidelines for Biotechnology Engineering Lab
1, 3rd edition (Jan 2007), Syed Abu Bakar Al-Saggoff.
2. Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and Applications, Yunus A. Cengel, John M.

1. Derive Extended Bernoulli Equation and Modified Bernoulli Equation from

the First Law of Thermodynamics. What are the different between the 2

Extended Bernoulli Equation:



Modified Bernoulli Equation:


Therefore, difference between these 2 equations is that Modified Bernoulli Equation

have no shaft work, .

2. What are major losses, minor losses and head losses?

Major losses - the total head loss in a pipe

Minor losses – losses caused by additional component such as elbows abd bends in
the straight pipe system.

Head loss:

3. What is the equation to determine head loss for straight pipe?

Hf = h1 – h2

4. For a system with a constant diameter of straight pipe and not involving any
pump work, how can we determine the head loss?

By using piezometer. The head lost is the difference of inlet head and outlet.

5. What is the friction factor? How we can determine it experimentally? How it

change with Reynolds Number?
Friction factor:

ƒ= 2gDhf


Reynolds Number:

Reynolds Number is inversely proportional with the friction factor.

6. What is Moody Diagram? What we can obtain from it?

Moody Diagram is a graph that relates the friction factor, f for fully developed pipe
flow to the Reynolds Number, Re and relative roughness of a circular pipe. Thus, for
turbulent flow, that is Re>2300, we could find its friction factor, f.

7. What is equation to determine head loss for minor losses?

hL = kLV2/ 2g

8. For a system with 1 bend and not involving any pump work, how can we
determine the head loss for the bend?

Apply the head loss equation.

9. What is loss coefficient? What is equivalent length? How the 2 relates?

Loss coefficient - expression of minor loss or also called as resistance coefficient, KL.

Equivalent length - also expression of minor losses, Eequiv. = DKL/f.

Loss coefficient is relates to determine equivalent length by multiplying KL with D/f.

10. For a system in horizontal plane consists of 2 similar elbows and 3 straight
pipes with a constant diameter and having same length. Explain how we can
determine the head loss for the system and show that we can determine the friction
factor for the system if we apply the Modified Bernoulli Equation to the system.

Head loss for this system could be determined by comparing the height of the 1st and
3rd straight pipe, and friction factor could be found by using equation

11. How we can determine pressure drop from the head loss?

From the equation , pressure drop is,

12. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in
the experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

Identify the type of piping system being used, whether it is straight pipe, bend or
elbow. Then, we find its head loss and pressure drop.