Fluid Mechanics Lab Report

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Fluid Mechanics Lab Report

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Impact of Jet
- FRICTION LOSSES IN STRAIGHT PIPE
- FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPES
- Friction Loss in Pipe
- Mechanics of Fluids Lab Impact of a Jet
- Major and Minor Losses in Pipes
- Expt 1 - Friction Loses in Pipes
- Lab Report 2- Head Loss in Pipe & Bends
- Pipe Flow
- Experiment No 4 Flow Measurements
- Head Loss Due to Pipe Fitting
- Minor Losses in pipes
- The Perfect Gas Expansion Experiment (TH 11)
- 87426770-Experiment-9
- Energy Loss in Pipes
- Experiment 1 - Friction Losses in Pipes-report
- Losses in Bends Fittings
- Experiment No 7
- Lab Report 2
- Lab report. pressure loss in pipe systems

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1. To investigate the head loss due to friction across bends and elbows.

Introduction

Minor loss is caused when there is additional component os added to the straight pipe

such as tees, elbows and bend. This minor loss will contribute to head loss due to the friction

across bends and elbows.

Bernoulli’s equation relates pressure, velocity and elevation between any two points in the

flow. But since the equation have some restriction, a new term must be introduce.

Head loss is added because in real life situation there are losses. The head loss will increase

when the fluid flow through fittings (elbows or bends) due to the friction effect that caused by

the viscosity. This situation can be proved by calculation of the drop in the flow rate. Minor

losses expressed in terms of loss coefficient, Kι and defined as: Kι = hι / (V²/ (2g). The values

of Kι are related to the pipe friction factors by a constant which is dependent on the ratio of

the bend radius to the pipe diameter R/D.

Procedures

3. Adjust the bench regulating valve to provide a small averflow through both inlet tank

and overflow pipe.

5. Measure flow rate at each condition using stopwatch and volumetric tank.

6. Repeat steps 1-5 for pipe with elbows.

Results

Temperature of water = 24 ºC

BENDS

# Outlet head (cm) Inlet head, h1 Inlet head, h2 Time, t

(cm) (cm) (second)

1 35 385 121 42

2 30 366 97 32

3 25 336 80 29

4 20 314 70 27

5 15 288 60 25

Table 1

ELBOWS

# Outlet head (cm) Inlet head, h1 Inlet head, h2 Time, t

(cm) (cm) (second)

1 35 426 115 64

2 30 420 92 56

3 25 410 78 48

4 20 400 64 44

5 15 390 50 38

Calculated data:

Table 3

BENDS

# Volumetric Average Re # Total Friction factor, Head loss due to Bend constant,

flow rate Q velocity V (dimensionles head f a single bend, hb Kb

(m3/s) (m/s) s) loss hL (dimensionless) (m)

(m)

Table 4

ELBOWS

# Volumetric Average Re# Total Friction factor, Head loss due to Bend constant,

flow rate Q velocity V (dimensionles head f a single bend, hb, KB

(m3/s) (m/s) s) loss hL (dimensionless) (m)

(m)

Bend /Elbow constant, Kb %diff

CALCULATION:

1. Volumetric flow

3L=0.003 m3

2. Average velocity

Area of pipe= π (D²/4) = π (0.01²/4) = 7.854x10-5 m2

3. Reynolds #

_

µ (Ns/m2)

5. Friction factor, f (dimensionless)

6. hf = f x (L/D) x (V2/2g)

hb = (hL – hf) / N

Elbow constant, Kb

= (2ghb)/V2

= 0.9352

Discussion

For this experiment, we are using bend and elbows pipe the investigate the head loss

in the pipe. Different from previous experiment when we use straight pipe, bends and elbows

pipe will contribute to minor loss in the head loss. The losses in the bends and elbows are

caused by the flow seperation on the inner side of the pipes.

And just like the previous experiment, we find that the fluid flow is also turbulent flow as the

Reynold Number shows high values. This is because in real situation such as home piping it is

impossible to have laminar flow since the velocity will be very low and the materials will be too

expensive. We also realize that the time taken for the bends is shorter than the elbows for the fluid to

rise until 3L. This is because bends will allow the fluid to make turn easily rather than elbows that

will restric the fluid to move fast. It is recommended to reduce head loss we use bends rather than

elbows to have lower head loss

To avoid any parallax error we must take reading from the height of the inlet. We also must take the

reading immediately when the volumetric tank flow stop. Also make sure to connects the pipe

correctly and make sure there is no leakage anywhere in the connection.

Conclusion

Alhamdulillah, we manage to carry out the experiment without any problem. The percentage

error also is very small about 1% error which is acceptable. We also managed to observe the effect of

bends and elbows pipe to the flow of fluid.

References:

1. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Guidelines for Biotechnology Engineering Lab

1, 3rd edition (Jan 2007), Syed Abu Bakar Al-Saggoff.

2. Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and Applications, Yunus A. Cengel, John M.

Cimbala

QUESTIONS:

the First Law of Thermodynamics. What are the different between the 2

equations?

where

&

with

have no shaft work, .

Minor losses – losses caused by additional component such as elbows abd bends in

the straight pipe system.

Head loss:

Hf = h1 – h2

4. For a system with a constant diameter of straight pipe and not involving any

pump work, how can we determine the head loss?

By using piezometer. The head lost is the difference of inlet head and outlet.

change with Reynolds Number?

Friction factor:

ƒ= 2gDhf

LV2

Reynolds Number:

Moody Diagram is a graph that relates the friction factor, f for fully developed pipe

flow to the Reynolds Number, Re and relative roughness of a circular pipe. Thus, for

turbulent flow, that is Re>2300, we could find its friction factor, f.

hL = kLV2/ 2g

8. For a system with 1 bend and not involving any pump work, how can we

determine the head loss for the bend?

Loss coefficient - expression of minor loss or also called as resistance coefficient, KL.

Loss coefficient is relates to determine equivalent length by multiplying KL with D/f.

10. For a system in horizontal plane consists of 2 similar elbows and 3 straight

pipes with a constant diameter and having same length. Explain how we can

determine the head loss for the system and show that we can determine the friction

factor for the system if we apply the Modified Bernoulli Equation to the system.

Head loss for this system could be determined by comparing the height of the 1st and

3rd straight pipe, and friction factor could be found by using equation

11. How we can determine pressure drop from the head loss?

12. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in

the experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

Identify the type of piping system being used, whether it is straight pipe, bend or

elbow. Then, we find its head loss and pressure drop.

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