You are on page 1of 48

CGC

Certification Specification of China


General Certification Center
CGC/GF0042011
(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)

Technical Specification of Grid-connected


PV inverter

2011-08-22 Publish

2012-08-22 Implement

China General Certification Center

Published

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)

Contents
Contents ........................................................................................................................................... 1
FOREWORD................................................................................................................................... 0
Technical Specification of Grid-connected PV inverter............................................................... 1
1 Scope................................................................................................................................... 1
2 Normative references ........................................................................................................ 1
3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 2
3.1 photovoltaic grid-connected inverter.................................................................... 2
3.2 photovoltaic array simulator ................................................................................. 2
3.3 inverter AC output terminal .................................................................................. 2
3.4 maximum power point tracking .......................................................................... 2
3.5 Maximum powder point tracking efficiency ........................................................ 3
3.6 conversion efficiency, energetic (conv) ............................................................... 3
3.7 overall(total) efficiency .......................................................................................... 3
3.8 islanding .................................................................................................................. 3
3.9 intentional islanding ............................................................................................... 3
3.10 unintentional islanding ........................................................................................ 3
3.11 anti-islanding ........................................................................................................ 3
3.12 simulated utility .................................................................................................... 4
3.13 quality factor, Qf .................................................................................................. 4
3.14 resonant frequency ............................................................................................... 4
3.15 temporary ............................................................................................................. 5
4 Product Categories .......................................................................................................... 5
4.1 Product type ............................................................................................................ 5
4.2 Output power Characteristics .................................................................................. 5
5 Technical requirements ..................................................................................................... 6
5.1 Use conditions ......................................................................................................... 6
5.2 Quality of the body and structure ......................................................................... 6
5.3 Performance indicators ......................................................................................... 7
5.4
Electromagnetic Compatibility .......................................................................... 9
5.5 Protection functions ............................................................................................. 11
5.6 Array insulation resistance detection ................................................................. 13
5.7 Array residual current detection ........................................................................ 14
5.8
Communication ................................................................................................. 15
5.9
Auto on / off ....................................................................................................... 16
5.10 Soft-start ............................................................................................................. 16
5.11 Insulation resistance and dielectric strength test ............................................. 16
5.12 Degrees of protection provided by enclosure ................................................... 16
5.13 Environmental test requirements ..................................................................... 17
5.14 Power control and voltage regulation ............................................................... 17
5.15 Continuous operation test..................................................................................... 17
5.16 Temperature rise test ......................................................................................... 17
6 Test methods .................................................................................................................... 19

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
6.1 Test environmental conditions............................................................................. 19
6.2 Inspecting the quality of main body and structure ........................................... 20
6.3 Performance index test ........................................................................................ 20
6.4 EMC test ............................................................................................................... 22
6.5 Protection functions tests ..................................................................................... 23
6.6 PV array insulation resistance test ........................................................................ 27
6.7 Residual current testing method ............................................................................ 27
6.8 Communication interface test ............................................................................. 28
6.9 Automatic power on/off test ................................................................................ 28
6.10 Soft start test ....................................................................................................... 28
6.11 Insulation voltage strength ................................................................................ 28
6.12
Degrees of protection provided by enclosure ................................................. 29
6.13 Environmental test ............................................................................................. 29
6.14 Power control and voltage adjustment test ...................................................... 29
6.15 Continuous operation test.................................................................................. 30
6.16 Temperature rise test ......................................................................................... 30
7 Inspection rules ............................................................................................................... 30
7.1 Inspection categories ............................................................................................... 30
7.2 Factory Inspection................................................................................................... 32
7.3 Type test ................................................................................................................... 32
8 Logo, Packaging, Transportation, Storage.................................................................. 32
8.1 Logo .......................................................................................................................... 32
8.2 Packaging ................................................................................................................. 33
8.3 Transport ................................................................................................................. 33
8.4 Storage ...................................................................................................................... 33
Appendix A .................................................................................................................................... 34
Table A: Technical parameter table of grid-connected PV inverter ...................................... 34
Appendix B .................................................................................................................................... 36
Select of anti-islanding protection scheme .................................................................................. 36
Appendix C .................................................................................................................................... 37
Transient Voltage Protection ........................................................................................................ 37
Annex D.......................................................................................................................................... 39
Inverter efficiency ......................................................................................................................... 39
Annex E .......................................................................................................................................... 41
Test conditions for dynamic MPPT efficiency ............................................................................ 41

FOREWORD
To further guide our grid-connected photovoltaic inverter technology development, promote safe,
efficient, reliable application and promotion of products and combine with the latest technical
requirements of power, the original certification technical specification CNCA/CTS0004-2009
was amended.
This technical specification is proposed by National Standardization Technical Committee 20 on
Energy Fundamentals and Management.
The technical specifications are presented and centralized by Beijing general Certification Center.
The main drafting units of this technical specification are: Beijing general Certification Center,
Sungrow Power Supply Co.,Ltd, State Grid Electric Power Research Institute, China Electric
Power Research Institute, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
National Center Quality Supervision & Testing of Relay Protection and Automation Equipment,
Beijing Corona Science&Technology Co.,Ltd, Beijing Nego Automation Technology Co.Ltd,,
Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric Co.,Ltd.
The main units involved in this technical specification are: SMA Solar Technology AG, KACO
new energy GmbH, Siemens, Danfoss Drives A/S, Beijing Oasis New Energy Technology Co.,
Ltd., Fronius International GmbH, Beijing Jingyi Renewable Energy Engineering Co., Ltd,
Beijing Soaring Electric Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing Rijia Power Supply Co., Ltd, Beijing Jike
New Energy Technology Development Company, Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd, Shanghai
Solar Energy Science & Technology Co., Ltd, Anhui Jiyuan Electric Power System Tech Co., Ltd,
Sun Tech Solar Co., Ltd, Beijing Solar Power Institute, TBEA SunOasis Co., Ltd, Eifesun Sharing
Green Energy, XJ Flexible Transmission System Corporation.
The principal drafters of this technical specification are: Shilin Fan, Renxian Cao, Junjun Zhang,
Wei Feng, Huaguang Yan, Nan Jiang, Hongchao Zhang, Geng Wang, Zong Wang, Lin Wan,
Deliang Si, Taoyong Li, Yanxing Jiang, Tao Lei, Guichen Fu, Yun Li, Jie Liu, Wanyin Cai, Zhisen
Zhang, Ta Meng, Yang Zhou, Mingfeng Yu, Jing Zhang, Wei Zhao, Youquan Zhang, Xiaoge
Huang, Huo Wen.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)

Technical Specification of Grid-connected PV inverter


1

Scope

This technical specification provides product classification, terminology and definitions, technical
requirements, test methods, inspection rules and signs, packaging, transportation and storage for
grid-connected photovoltaic inverter.
This technical specification applies to grid-connected inverter.
2

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For
dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB 4208-2008 Degrees of protection provided by enclosure(IP code)(IEC 60529:2001,IDT)
GB 7260.2-2009 Uninterruptible power system(UPS) Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) requirements (IEC62040-22005,IDT)
GB 10593.1-2005 Measuring methods of environmental parameters for electric and electronic
products - Part 1: Vibration
GB/T 191-2008 Packaging storage icon logo
GB/T 2423.1-2008 Basic environmental testing procedures of electrical and electronic products
test ALow-temperature test method (IEC 60068-2-1:2007, IDT)
GB/T 2423.2-2008 Basic environmental testing procedures of electrical and electronic products
test Bhigh-temperature test method(IEC 60068-2-2:2007,IDT)
GB/T 2423.3-2006 Basic environmental testing of electrical and electronic products part 2 test
method test CabConstant damp heat test(IEC 60068-2-78:2001,IDT)
GB/T 3859.2-1993 Application guidelines of semiconductor converter(IEC 60146-1-2:1991,EQV)
GB/T 12325-2008 Power quality supply voltage allowable deviation
GB/T 12326-2008 Power quality-Voltage fluctuation and flicker
GB/T 13384-2008 General specifications for packing of mechanical and electrical product
GB/T 14549-1993 Power quality utility power grid harmonics
GB/T 15543-2008 Power quality three-phase voltage allowable degree of unbalancedness
GB/T 17626.2 Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing and measurement techniques The
Immunity Test to Electrostatic Discharge (IEC 61000-4-2:2001,IDT)
GB/T 17626.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility The Immunity Test to Radiated radio-frequency
electromagnetic field(IEC 61000-4-3:2002,IDT)
GB/T 17626.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility The Immunity Test to Electrical fast
transient/burst(IEC 61000-4-4:2004,IDT)
GB/T 17626.5 Electromagnetic Compatibility The Immunity Test to Surge (IEC
61000-4-5:2005,IDT)
GB/T 17626.6 Electromagnetic Compatibility The Immunity Test to conducted disturbances,
induced by radio-frequency fields(IEC 61000-4-6:2006,IDT)

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
GB/T 17626.8-2006 Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing and measurement techniques Power
frequency magnetic field immunity test(IEC 61000-4-8:2001,IDT)
GB/T 17626.11-2008 Electromagnetic Compatibility The Immunity Test to Voltage Dips, Short
Interruptions and Voltage Variations(IEC 61000-4-11:2004,IDT)
GB/T 17626.12-1998 Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing and measurement techniques
Oscillatory waves immunity test(IEC 61000-4-12:1995,IDT)
GB/T 17626.14-2005 Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing and measurement techniques
Voltage fluctuation immunity test(IEC 61000-4-14:2002,IDT)
GB/T 18479-2001 Terrestrial photovoltaic(PV) power generating systems General and
guide(IEC 61277:1995,IDT)
GB/T 20514-2006 Photovoltaic systems Power conditioners Procedure for measuring efficiency
(IEC 61683:1999,IDT)
IEC 62109-1-2010 Safety of power converters for use in PV power systems Part 1: General
requirements
IEC 62109-2-2010 Safety of power converters for use in PV power systems Part 2: Particular
requirements for inverters
EN 50530-2010 Overall efficiency of grid connected photovoltaic inverters
IEC 60990-1999 Methods of measurement of touch current and protective conductor current
IEC 62116-2008 Test procedure of islanding prevention measures for utility-interconnected
photovoltaic inverters
Q/GDW 617-2011 Technical rule for photovoltaic power station connected to power grid
Q/GDW 618-2011 Test procedures for photovoltaic power station connected to power grid
3

Terms and definitions

For this technical specification, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1

photovoltaic grid-connected inverter

Equipment that converts direct current (dc) from solar cells to alternating current (ac).

Note1:Mentioned inverter in this specification refer to grid-connected PV inverter


Note2:Technical requirements and test methods in the specification do not apply to the inverter of AC MODULE

3.2

photovoltaic array simulator

Current source that simulates static and dynamic PV array current and voltage characteristics.
3.3

inverter AC output terminal

Connection point of inverter, local ac load and grid.


3.4

maximum power point tracking

Automatic adjustment in order to abtain the utmost power output from connected PV array, by
tracking and controlling the variation of output voltage and current,which resulting from the
variation of surface temperature and solar irradiation of PV module.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
3.5

Maximum powder point tracking efficiency

ratio of the energy drawn by the device under test within a defined measuring period TM to the
energy provided theoretically by the PV simulator in the maximum power point (MPP):

where
PDC(t) instantaneous value of the power drawn by the device under test;
PMPP(t) instantaneous value of the MPP power provided theoretically by the PV simulator
3.6

conversion efficiency, energetic (conv)

ratio of the energy delivered by the device under test at the AC terminal within a defined
measuring period TM to the energy accepted by the device under test at the DC terminal:

where
PAC(t) instantaneous value of the delivered power at the AC terminal of the device under test;
PDC(t) instantaneous value of the accepted power at the DC terminal of the device under test
3.7

overall(total) efficiency

ratio of the energy delivered by the device under test at the AC terminals within a defined
measuring period TM to the energy provided theoretically by the PV simulator:

3.8

islanding

A state in which a portion of the electric utility grid, containing load and generation, continues to
operate isolated from the rest of the grid.
3.9

intentional islanding

According to a pre-configured control strategy, a plan to place an island effect.


3.10

unintentional islanding

Unplanned and non-controlled island effects occurring.


3.11

anti-islanding

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
Must not unplanned island effect
Note1: while non-planned island effect occuring, due to system power state was unknown, it will
cause the following adverse effects:1 it is likely to endanger for staff and users of Power
line maintenance.
Note2: power Interfere with the normal switch on
Note3: Power do not control islands voltage and frequency, thereby equipments
of distributions and users will be damaged.
3.12

simulated utility

It is used for the test device of public power grid and its voltage and frequency are adjustable.
3.13

quality factor, Qf

A measure of the strength of resonance of the islanding test load.


Note:In a parallel resonant circuit, such as a load on a power system

Q
R CL
f

(1)

Where:
Qf is quality factor
R is effective load resistance
C is reactive load capacitance (including shunt capacitors)
L is reactive load inductance
With C and L tuned to the power system fundamental frequency, Qf for the resonant circuit
drawing real power, P, reactive powers Qf, for inductive load and Qc for capacitive load, Qf can
be determined by

Qf PqL PqC P
where
P is real power
Qf is inductive load
Qc is capacitive load
Note: In a parallel resonant circuit PqC PqL
Let PqC Pq

Qf Pq P
3.14

resonant frequency

In a parallel resonant circuit, such as a load on a power system

1
2 LC

Where
f is resonant frequency
L is inductive load
C is capacitive load
Note: while Parallel RLC circuit resonanting, capacitive and inductive reactive power are equal,
so parallel RLC resonant circuit is equivalent to a pure resistance.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
3.15

temporary

Used to quantify the duration of short-term changes, refers to the time range 3s ~ 1min.
4

Product Categories

4.1
4.1.1

Product type
According to grid-type

a. single-phase inverter
b. three-phase inverter
c. multi-phase inverter
4.1.2

According to the installation environment

a. indoor type
b. outdoor type
4.1.3 According grid-connected methods
a. reversible flow type
b. irreversible flow type
4.1.4

According to means of electrical isolation

a. isolated type
b. non-isolated type
4.1.5

According to voltage levels of connected grid

a. low voltage type


b. medium-high voltage type
4.1.6

According to emission limits

a. A-type inverter
A type inverter is not household inverter and inverter that not directly connected to the residential
facilities for low-voltage supply network. Sales of this type of inverters should not be limited. But
the following contents should be included in the operation instruction: Warning: This is an A-type
inverter product. It may cause radio interference in home environment. At this point, the user may
need additional measures.
b. B-type inverter
B-type inverter apply to all occasions, including home environment as well as all facilities which
directly connect to residential low-voltage power supply network.
4.2 Output power Characteristics
Rating values of inverter output power is priority to the following values(units kw).
4.2.1 Single-phase inverter module

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9.
4.2.2

Three-phase inverter module

10; 30; 50; 100; 250; 500; 1000.


5

Technical requirements

5.1

Use conditions

Unless otherwise agreed upon by the manufacturer/suppier and purchaser, inverter should comply
prescribed performance requirements in 5.1.1 ~ 5.1.2 in this specification. For the terms of the
agreement, the test should be performed in accordance with the terms.
5.1.1 Environmental conditions of normal use
a. Temperature: Indoor type is -20 ~ +40 , outdoor type is -25 ~ +60 (no direct
sunlight); relative humidity 90%, non-condensing;
b. Altitude is not more than 1000m; when altitude> 1000m, inverter should be derating used
according to the reqirement of GB / T 3859.2;
c. No severe vibration impact, the vertical gradient 5 ;
d. No conductive explosive dust, corrosion of metals and destruction of insulating gases and steam
exist in the working environment.
5.1.2 Power conditions of normal use
a. Absence of other provisions, inverter should be able to run in following grid conditions
Utility grid harmonic voltage should not exceed the limits in Chapter 4 of GB / T 14549. Total
harmonic voltage distortion5%. Odd harmonic voltage distortion4%. Even harmonic voltage
distortion2%.
b. Three-phase inverter AC output voltage unbalance should not exceed GB / T 15543 specified
value, allowing a value of 2%, short-term should not exceed 4%.
c. For AC output voltage of 20kV or less, three-phase voltage Tolerance is 10% of the rated
voltage, 220V single-phase voltage Tolerance is +10%, -15% of rated voltage. Other cases, Power
Grid Voltage Tolerance should conform to GB / T 12325.
d. Power Grid Frequency Tolerance should conform to GB / T 15945,which is no more than
0.5Hz.
5.1.3

Special conditions

If the inverter is not used in the conditions of 5.1.1 and 5.1.2, users should reach agreement with
the suppliers.
5.2

Quality of the body and structure

Inverter structure and manufacturing quality of cabinet itself, the main circuit connection,
installations of secondary lines and electrical components shall meet the following requirements.
a. The components of rack assembly should be consistent with the technical requirements.
b. Paint plating should be firm, smooth, non-peeling,rust and cracking phenomena and so on.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
c.
d.
e.
f.

Rack panels to be flat, text and symbols to be clear, clean, standardize and correct.
Signs and markings should be complete and clear.
A variety of switches should be easy to operate, flexible and reliable.
Cabinet should have the appropriate protective measures to prevent the operator from
contacting with the electrode part directly, including AC and DC connection terminals and the
electrode of various electrical components.

5.3
5.3.1

Performance indicators
Conversion efficiency

Maximum conversion efficiency of transformerless inverter should not be less than 96%.
Maximum conversion efficiency of transformer inverter should not be less than 94%.
Note: Maximum power point tracking efficiency (including static and dynamic) will also affect the inverter
effectively use electric energy geneated by photovoltaic power system. This need scientific test. Specific limits
based on actual test data will be further clear.

5.3.2

Grid-connected current harmonic

The PV system output should have low current-distortion levels to ensure that no adverse effects
are caused to other equipment connected to the utility system.
Total harmonic current distortion shall be less than 5 % at rated inverter output. Each individual
harmonic shall be limited to the percentages listed in Table 1 and 2. Under other loads, current of
the inverter into the power grid should not exceed the acceptable harmonic current rated inverter
output.
Table 1 Current distortion limits for odd harmonics
Odd harmonics

Distortion limit

3 through 9

Less than 4.0 %

11 through 15

Less than 2.0 %

17 through 21

Less than 1.5 %

23 through 33

Less than 0.6 %

35 and above

Less than 0.3%

Table 2 Current distortion limits for even harmonics


Even harmonics

Distortion limit

2 through 10

Less than 1.0 %

12 through 16

Less than 0.5 %

18 through 22

Less than 0.375 %

24 through 34

Less than 0.15 %

36 and above

Less than 0.075 %

Note: As the voltage distortion may lead to more severe current distortion, harmonic test may be
has some problems. Injected harmonic currents shall not include any harmonic currents caused by
harmonic voltage from grid not connected to the PV system. Tests meeting the above
requirements may be regarded as ok, no further tests.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
5.3.3

Power factor

The PV system shall have a power factor no less than 0.98(leading or lagging) when the output
active power is greater than 50 % of the rated inverter output power. Power factor should be no
less than 0.95(leading or lagging) when the output active power is between 20%~50%.
Average Power Factor(PF)is

PF

Pout
2
2
Pout
Qout

where

Pout Total the inverter output active power


Qout Total the inverter output reactive power.

Note : Specially designed systems that provide reactive power compensation may operate outside
of this limit with utility approval.
5.3.4

Response to abnormal voltage

The inverter should work properly when the power grid voltage is in the following range. The
single-phase voltage (220V) deviation is between -15% and +10% of rated voltage and
three-phase voltage (380V) deviation is between -10% and +10% of rated voltage. The inverter of
other output voltage should be able to work properly in the corresponding allowable grid voltage
deviation according to GB / T 12325.
When the output voltage of inverter deviates outside the conditions specified in Table 3, the
photovoltaic system shall cease to energize the utility distribution system and send warning signal.
The respond time to abnormal voltage should comply with the requirements specified in Table 3.
Inverter should restart and operate normally after the grid voltage recovers to the allowable range.
This applies to any phase of a multiphase system.
Table 3 Response to abnormal voltage
a
Voltage (at point of utility connection)
Maximum trip time
V < 0.5 * Vnominal

0.1s

50 % Vnominal V < 85 % Vnominal

2.0s

110 % Vnominal < V < 135 % Vnominal

1.0s

135 % Vnominal V

0.05s

: Effective voltage

Note 1: Trip time refers to the time between the abnormal condition occurring and the inverter
ceasing to energize the utility line.
Note 2: When in the Table 3 the response time for abnormal voltage and other protection methods
conflict, give priority to other protection.
5.3.5

Response to abnormal frequency

When the grid frequency various, the inverter should comply with the requirments in Table 4.
When the inverter cease to energize the utility distribution system, it should restart and operate
normally after the grid frequency recovers to the allowable range.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)

Table 4 Response to abnormal frequency


Frequency range
Inverter response

5.3.6

48Hz

Inverter stops operating within 0.2 seconds

48-49.5Hz

Inverter stops operating after 10 minutes


working

49.5-50.2Hz

Inverter works normally

50.2-50.5Hz

Inverter stops operating after 2 minutes


working, It is forbid to connect the grid

50.5Hz

Inverter stops operating after 0.2 seconds


working, It is forbid to connect the grid

DC Component

When inverter operate at rated power connecting to the grid, DC component from grid feeded
inverter should not exceed 0.5% of output current rating of or 5mA, whichever is the larger value
should be.
5.3.7

Voltage unbalance degree

When inverter operate connecting to the grid (three phase output), three-phase voltage unbalance
of public connection point of inverter accessing to the grid does not exceed the limits specified in
GB / T 15543. Negative sequence voltage unbalance of common connection point should not
exceed 2%, short-term should not exceed 4%; the negative sequence voltage unbalance caused by
inverter does not exceed 1.3%, short-term not more than 2.6%.
5.3.8

Noise

While inputting rated voltage and the inverter is under full load operation , noise is measured by
the sound level meter at a distance of 1m in level position away from device. For the noise level is
greater than 80dB, conspicuous position of the inverter should affixed "hearing damage" warning
signs. The guidance should be given in the instructions to reduce hearing damage.
5.4

Electromagnetic Compatibility

5.4.1
5.4.1.1

Emission requirements
Conducted emission test

In the frequency range of 0.15 MHz to 30 MHz, the disturbance voltage limit of auxiliary power
supply port of A-type and B-type inverter is listed in table 5. The disturbance voltage of auxillary
power supply port should not exceed the value specified in table 5.
Table 5 In the frequency range of 0.15 MHz to 30 MHz, the disturbance voltage limits of
auxiliary power supply port for A-type and B-type inverter
Frequency Range
MHz

Limit
dBV

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
A-type
quasi peak
average value
0.150.50
79
66
0.505.0
73
60
5.0 30.0
73
60
a Limit decreases with logarithm of the frequency.
5.4.1.2

quasi peak
a
6656
56
60

B-type
average value
a
5646
46
50

Radiated Emission test

In the frequency range of 30MHz to 1000MHz, the radiated emission limit of A-type and B-type
inverter listed in table 6. The radiated emission should not exceed the value specified in table 6.
Table 6

In the frequency range of 30MHz to 1000MHz, the radiated emission limits of


A-type and B-type inverter

Frequency Range
MHz
30230
2301000
5.4.2
5.4.2.1

Quasi peak limit


dB(V/m)
A-type, 10m test distance
40
47

B-type, 10m test distance


30
37

Immunity requirements
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) immunity test

Inverter should be subjected to class 3 at least in GB/T 17626.2-2006, and the test results should
meet the requirements of class b in GB/T 17626.2-2006.
5.4.2.2

Radiated radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RFEMS) immunity test

Inverter should be subjected to class 3 at least in GB/T 17626.3-2006, and the test results should
meet the requirements of class a in GB/T 17626.3-2006.
5.4.2.3

Electrical fast transient/burst (EFT) immunity test

Inverter should be subjected to class 2 at least in GB/T 17626.4-2008, and the test results should
meet the requirements of class a in GB/T 17626.4-2008.
5.4.2.4

Voltage fluctuations immunity test

Inverter should be subjected to class 2 at least in GB/T 17626.14-2005, and the test results should
meet the requirements of class a in GB/T 17626.14-2005.
5.4.2.5

Surge immunity test

The auxiliary power supply port of inverter should be subjected to 1.2/50s surge signal, line to
line1kV,line to earth2kV, and the test results should meet the requirements of class b in GB/T
17626.5-2008.
5.4.2.6

Conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields immunity test

Inverter should be subjected to class 3 at least in GB/T 17626.6-2008, and the test results should

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
meet the requirements of class a in GB/T 17626.6-2008.
5.4.2.7

Power frequency magnetic field immunity test

Power frequency magnetic field immunity should use GB / T 17626.8-2006 test level in the stable
and sustainable magnetic field (see Table 7), the inverter should be able to withstand the selected
level of power frequency electromagnetic field test in stable and continuous magnetic field.
Table 7 Magnetic field test levels
level
magnetic field intensity
A/m
1

10

30

100

1)

Special

1) Open level, can be given in the product


specification.
For type-A inverter which expects to connect to the grid and the industrial working
environment, power frequency magnetic field immunity should use test level 4 of GB / T
17626.8-2006 in the stable and sustainable magnetic field. The inverter should be able to
withstand stable and sustainable power frequency magnetic field of selected test level.
For type-B inverter which expects to connect to commercial and light industrial environments,
power frequency magnetic field immunity should use test level 3 of GB / T 17626.8-2006 in the
stable and sustainable magnetic field. The inverter should be able to withstand stable and
sustainable power frequency magnetic field of selected test level.
5.4.2.8

Oscillatory waves immunity test

According to the working environment, inverter should be tested for the specified test level in
GB / T 17626.12 oscillatory wave immunity test. Test criterion should be made respectively
according to different working environment.
5.5

Protection functions

5.5.1
5.5.1.1

Power failure protection


Anti-islanding protection

The inverter should have the function of anti-islanding protection. The inverter must cease to
energize the utility line with warning signals within 2 s when the grid which inverter connected to
fails to power supply. Refer o Appendix B for anti-islanding protection scheme selection rule
5.5.1.2

Low voltage withstanding capability

The medium and high voltage inverters specifically applicable to large PV power stations shall
have certain withstanding capability to the voltage abnormality in order to avoid the disconnection

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
when the grid voltage is abnormal and thus brings about grid power unstability. When the voltage
at the POI is within the area of the voltage outline or above shown in Figure 1, the PV power
station must ensure the continuous interconnection operation; if the voltage at the POI is below the
voltage outline in the figure, the PV power station is allowed to stop the power feeding into the
grid line.

Voltage drop due to abnormal grid

PV power station must operate


in connection with grid

PV power station may be cut away from the grid

Figure 1 Low Voltage Withstanding Capability Requirement for Large and Medium PV Power
Station
UL0: the minimum voltage limit value in normal operation
UL1 : the lower voltage limit to be withstood
T1: the interconnection time necessary to be kept when the voltage falls to UL1
T2 : the interconnection time necessary to be kept when the voltage falls to UL0.
The determination of UL1, T1 and T2 shall consider such actual situations as protection and
reclosing action time, etc.
The actual limit should be in accordance with the technical specifications of relevant departments
in charge of grid access.
5.5.1.3

AC side short-circuit protection

The inverer should have the function of short-circuit protection. When output short-circuit was
detected, the inverter should cease to energize the gird. If twice of output short circuit protction is
detected in 1 minute, the inverter is forbidden to connected to the grid sautomatically
5.5.2

Prevention of anti-discharge protection

When the inverter DC side voltage is lower than the permitted work scope or inverter is turned off,
there should be no reverse current in the inverter DC side.
5.5.3

Reverse polarity protection

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
When the photovoltaic array in reverse polarity, the inverter should be protected from damage.
Polarity is received, the inverter should be able to work properly.
5.5.4

DC current overload protection

When the photovoltaic array output power exceeds allowed maximum DC input power of inverter,
the inverter should work in allowed maximum AC output power in limiting current automatically.
In the condition of 7 hours continuous operating or temperature exceeds the allowable value, the
inverter is permitted to cease to energise the grid. Normally, the inverter should be able to work
properly.
Note: overload protection of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter with maximum power point
tracking control is that working point deviate from maximum power point of photovoltaic array.
5.5.5

DC over voltage Protection

When the inverter DC input voltage is higher than the maximum DC Array allowable input
voltage, the inverter should not start or should stop working within 0.1s (running inverter) with
warning signals. After the DC side voltage recover to the allowable working voltage, the inverter
should start normally.
5.6

Array insulation resistance detection

5.6.1 Array insulation resistance detection for inverters for functionally grounded arrays
Inverters for use with ungrounded arrays shall have means to measure the DC insulation
resistance from the PV input (array) to ground before starting operation.If the insulation resistance
is less than R = (VMAX PV/30 mA) ohms, the inverter
a) For isolated inverters, shall indicate a fault (operation is
allowed); the fault indication shall be maintained until the array insulation resistance
has recovered to a value higher than the limit above;
b) For non-isolated inverters, or inverters with isolation not complying with the leakage
current limits in the minimum inverter isolation requirements, shall indicate
a fault, and shall not connect to the grid; the inverter may
continue to make the measurement, may stop indicating a fault and may connect to the
grid if the array insulation resistance has recovered to a value higher than the limit
above.
5.6.2 Array insulation resistance detection for inverters for functionally grounded arrays
Inverters that functionally ground the array through an intentional resistance integral to the
inverter, shall meet the requirements in a) and c), or b) and c) below:
a) The value of the total resistance, including the intentional resistance for array functional
grounding, the expected insulation resistance of the array to ground, and the resistance of
any other networks connected to ground (for example measurement networks) must not be
lower than R = (VMAX PV/30 mA) ohms. The expected insulation resistance of the array to
ground shall be calculated based on an array insulation resistance of 40 M per m2, with

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
the surface area of the panels either known, or calculated based on the inverter power
rating and the efficiency of the worst-case panels that the inverter is designed to be used
with.
b) As an alternative to a), or if a resistor value lower than in a) is used, the inverter shall
incorporate means to detect, during operation, if the total current through the resistor and
any networks (for example measurement networks) in parallel with it, exceeds the residual
current values and times in Table 8 and shall either disconnect the resistor or limit the
current by other means. If the inverter is a non-isolated inverter, or has isolation not
complying with the leakage current limits in the minimum inverter isolation requirements, it shall
also disconnect from thegrid.
c) The inverter shall have means to measure the DC insulation resistance from the PV input
to ground before starting operation.
5.7
5.7.1

Array residual current detection


General

In a non-isolated inverter, or an inverter with isolation that does not adequately limit the available
touch current, the connection of the mains to earth (ie the earthed neutral) provides a return path
for touch current if personnel inadvertently contact live parts of the array and earth at the same
time.
The requirements in this section provide additional protection against this shock hazard through
the application of 5.7.4 or 5.7.5, except neither is required where isolation is provided that limits
the available touch current to less than 30mA.
Ungrounded and grounded arrays can create a fire hazard if a ground fault occurs that allows
excessive current to flow on conductive parts or structures that are not intended to carry current.
The requirements in this section provide additional protection against this fire hazard by
is provided that limits the
application of 5.7.4 or 5.7.5, except neither is required where
available current to less than
- 300mA for inverters with rated continuous output power 30kVA, or
- 10mA per kVA of rated continuous output power for inverters with rated continuous
output power rating > 30kVA
5.7.2

30mA touch current type test for isolated inverters

The inverter must connect and operate under REFERENCE TEST CONDITIONS, except that the
DC supply to the inverter must not have any connection to earth, and the mains supply to the
inverter must have one pole earthed. It is acceptable (and may be necessary) to defeat array
insulation resistance detection functions during this test. The touch current measurement circuit of
IEC 60990, Figure 4 is connected from each terminal of the array to ground, one at a time. The
resulting touch current is recorded and compared to the 30mA limit.
5.7.3 Fire hazard residual current type test for isolated inverters

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
The inverter must connect and operate under REFERENCE TEST CONDITIONS, except that the
DC supply to the inverter must not have any connection to earth, and the mains supply to the
inverter must have one pole earthed. It is acceptable (and may be necessary) to defeat array
insulation resistance detection functions during this test. An ammeter is connected from each
terminal of the array to ground, one at a time. The current is recorded and compared to the limit in
5.7.1.
5.7.4 Protection by application of RCDs
The requirement for additional protection in 4.201.3.1 can be met by provision of an RCD with a
residual current setting of 30mA, located between the inverter and the mains. When required by
Part 1, the RCD must be type B rather than type A or type AC. The RCD may be provided integral
to the inverter, or may be provided by the installer if details of the rating, type, and location for the
RCD are given in the installation instructions per 5.3.2.208.
5.7.5 Protection by residual current monitoring
The inverter shall provide residual current monitoring that functions whenever the inverter is
connected to the MAINS with the automatic disconnection means closed. The residual current
monitoring means shall measure the total (both a.c. and d.c. components) RMS current.
For different inverter types, array types, and inverter isolation levels, detection may be required
for excessive continuous residual current, excessive sudden changes in residual current, or both,
according to the following limits:
a) Continuous residual current: The inverter shall disconnect within 0.3 seconds and signal a fault
if the continuous residual current exceeds:
- 300mA for inverters with continuous output power rating _ 30kVA
- 10mA per kVA of rated continuous output power for inverters with continuous output power
rating > 30kVA
b) Sudden changes in residual current: The inverter shall disconnect from the MAINS within the
time specified in Table 8 if a sudden change in residual current is detected exceeding the value
in the table.
Table 8 Response time limits for sudden changes in residual current

Residual
current sudden change

Max time to inverter


disconnection from the
MAINS

30mA

0.3s

60mA

0.15s

150mA

0.04s

5.8 Communication

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
Inverter should be set up local communication interface. Communication interface should be used
with fixed measures to protect effective connection between connecting table and equipment.
Communication port should have resistance to electromagnetic interference, and easy to form a
network.
5.9 Auto on / off
Inverter should be automatically startup and shutdown according to sunrise and sunset.
5.10

Soft-start

Inverter starts running, the output power should be slowly increasing, that is rate of change of the
output power should be adjustable. Output current has no impact.
5.11
5.11.1

Insulation resistance and dielectric strength test


Insulation resistance

The insulation resistance between input circuit to the ground, the output circuit to the ground of
inverter and input circuit and output circuit should not be less than 1M. Insulation resistance is
only reference for dielectic strength test.
5.11.2 Dielectric strength test
Inverter input circuit to ground, the output circuit to ground and input circuit to the output circuit
should withstand 50Hz sinusoidal AC voltage or equivalent DC voltage for 1 min. The
root-mean-square values of test voltage is listed in Table 4. In the test, no breakdown and arcing
shall occur. The leakage current <20mA.
Test voltage should be increased to the specified value in level adjustment method by 5% of
specified value and last for 1min.
Table 9 Dielectric strength test voltage
Rated voltageN (V)
N

60

Test voltage (V)


1000

60N 300

2000

300N690/

2500

690N 800

3000

800N1000

3000

1000N1500*

3000

* Refers effective value for AC voltage.


Note1: Machine insulation strength is only tested once according to the above
requirement.Insulation strength test voltage should be reduced by 25% of above listed test voltage
when user accept product.
Note2: Insulation strength test is not performed between the input circuit to the output circuit
for inverter without isolation transformer.
Note3: If the inverter test circuit contains capacitors, DC voltage can be used for testing. DC
voltage value corresponds to peak value of AC test voltage.
5.12

Degrees of protection provided by enclosure

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
Degrees of protection provided by enclosure of inverter should comply with the requirement of
GB 4208. Indoor-type inverter should not be less than IP20; outdoors-type should not be less than
IP54.
5.13
5.13.1

Environmental test requirements


Low-temperature starting test

Inverter should work normally after the test according to the requirement specified in 6.13.1.
5.13.2

High-temperature starting and operating test

Inverter should work normally after the test according to the requirement specified in 6.13.2.
5.13.3

Constant damp heat test

Inverter should work normally after the test according to the requirement specified in 6.13.3.
5.14
5.14.1

Power control and voltage regulation


Active power control

Inverters suitable for large and medium PV power stations shall have the capability of active
power regulation. The current produced in the process of power adjustment should not exceed 1.5
times of rated current
5.14.2

Voltage/Reactive power regulation

The power factor of the medium and high voltage inverters shall be adjustable in the scope of 0.98
(forward) ~ 0.98 (backward); in special circumstance, the power factor can be confirmed through
a negotiation with the power grid company. In the reactive output scope, the large and medium PV
power stations shall have the capability of regulating reactive output and participating in the
regulation of the grid voltage according to the voltage level at the POI, and its regulation mode,
reference voltage, voltage regulation difference ratio, etc shall be able to be set remotely by the
grid dispatching department.
5.15 Continuous operation test
No abnormity should occur when inverter opeating under the rated power for 72 hours .
5.16
5.16.1

Temperature rise test


General

This subclause specifies requirements intended to prevent hazards due to:


a)touchable parts exceeding safe temperatures; and
b)components, parts, insulation and plastic materials exceeding temperatures which may degrade
safety-related electrical, mechanical, or other properties during normal use over the expected life
of the equipment; and
c)structures and mounting surfaces exceeding temperatures which may degrade the materials over
the expected life of the equipment.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
5.16.2

Maximum temperatures

Materials and components shall be selected so that under the most severe rated operating
conditions, the temperatures do not exceed the temperature limits below. Compliance is verified
by measuring temperatures under each rated operating condition or mode of the inverter that could
affect the resulting temperatures. Tests of equipment rated for use in ambient temperatures up to
50 C may be conducted at any ambient temperature, in which case the difference between the
maximum rated ambient temperature and the actual test ambient is to be subtracted from or added
to (as appropriate) the measured temperatures for comparison to the limits specified below. The
difference between the maximum rated ambient temperature and the test ambient is to be
subtracted from or added to (as appropriate) the measured temperatures for comparison to the
limits specified below. During thermal testing within normal conditions protective devices other
than automatic output derating systems shall not operate. Temperatures are to be measured by
thermocouples:
a) For coils and their insulation systems, the temperature limits in Table 11 apply.
b) For other components the measured temperatures shall not exceed the lower of:

1) the limits in the applicable IEC component standards


2) the component or material manufacturers rated operating temperature
3) if neither of the above exists, temperature limits are given in Table 12.
Table 10 Total temperature limits for transformers, inductors, and other coils and their
insulation systems
Class of insulation
(see IEC 60085)

Limits for surface


mounted
Thermocouple
measurements
C

Limits for resistance method and


multiple embedded thermocouple
measurements
C

Class A(105C)

90C

95C

Class E(120C)

105C

110C

Class B(130C)

110C

120C

Class F(105C)

130C

140C

Class H(180C)

150C

160C

Class N(200C)

165C

175C

Class R(220C)

180C

190C

Class S(240C)

195C

205C

NOTE Surface mounted thermocouples are assumed to not be located on the hot-spot, but will
be typically attached to the core, coil, and insulation that is accessible on a completed part.
Multiple embedded thermocouples, where the thermocouples are attached during winding of the
part, are more likely to record hot-spot temperatures. The resistance method gives an average
temperature for the specific winding whose resistance rise was measured.
Table 11 Total temperature limits for materials and components where manufacturers
ratings and component standards do not exist
Materials and components

Limit C

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
Capacitors - electrolytic types

75C

Capacitors - other than electrolytic types


Wiring terminals for external connections

100C

[1]

70C

Any point on or within a wiring compartment


which external conductors are able to contact [1]

70C

Insulated conductors internal to the inverter

rated temperature

Fuses

100C

Printed circuit boards

115C

Insulating materials

100C

Connection between semiconductor


components and conductor of main circuit

Bare copper75
Tin-plated85
Silver-plated100

[1]

Wiring point measured at connecting terminal and in connecting box


Table 12 Total touch temperature limits for accessible surfaces
Limit
C
Metal

Glass,
porcelain, and
other vitreous
materiala

Plastic and
rubbera

User operated devices (knobs, handles, switches,


displays, etc.) which are continuously held in normal
use

65C

75C

80C

User operated devices (knobs, handles, switches,


displays, etc.) which are held for short periods only in
normal use

70C

75C

90C

Enclosure parts accessible to user by casual contact.

80C

90C

100C

Part

a Nonmetallic materials shall not be used above their temperature ratings.


For the operating handle touched only when device opened, as they do not always operate, it is allowable a
higher temperature.

Test methods

The following test methods are explained based on single-phase grid-connected inverters, for
three-phase inverters they can be referenced.
Note : The minimum allowable output power is used if it is larger than 5% of the rated AC output
power.
6.1

Test environmental conditions


Unless otherwise specified, measurements and tests are performed under the following

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
conditions:
a Temperature: 15~35;
b Relative humidity: 45%~75%;
c Air pressure: 86kPa~106kPa.
6.2

Inspecting the quality of main body and structure

Perform visual inspection and operation tests pursuant to provisions in 5.2.


6.3
6.3.1

Performance index test


Performance index test platform

Figure 2 shows reference circuit of the performance index test for the inverters, some of the
protection function can also be referenced. The test requirements are as follow:
a) The simulation AC grid should be compliant with the provisions in section 5.1.2, and the
capacity should be larger than 2 times of the rated power of the inverter to be measured
or satisfy relevant testing requirements
b) The DC input source of the inverter to be measured is better to be a PV array or a PV
array simulator. The DC input source should at least be able to provide 1.5 times the
maximum DC input power of the inverter to be measured, and the output voltage of the
DC input source should match the operation range of the DC input voltage of the inverter
to be measured; the voltage fluctuation should not exceed 5% during the test;
c) If the inverter to be measured has specified DC input source, but this input source is not
able to provide the inverter output power specified for the test, then the test should be
done within the range that the input source is able to supply.

DC input source
Inverter under test
Power quality analyzer
Grid simulator
Fig.2 Performance index test platform
Note 1: K1 is the grid-side disconnecting switch of the inverter.
6.3.2

Conversion efficiency test

Test circuit should conform to the relevant criterion in GB/T 20514-2006. The whole efficiency
test should include:

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)

6.3.2.1 Maximum Conversion efficiency


According to the design of the inverter, the maximum conversion efficiency test result should
conform to the provisions in section 5.3.1.
Note1: If the inverters control connectors are powered in other way, a power consumption should
be noted in the report, when the inverter reaches its maximum efficiency.
Note2: In the process of testing, MPPT function should be shut down.
6.3.2.2

Conversion Efficiency curve

Measure at the load of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 5%, 30%, 50%, 75%, 100% maximum conversion
efficiency appeared load point and inverters conversion efficiency at its maximum output power,
and show these results in the report in the form of curve diagram. Also it should show the values
of voltage and current at each load point.
The test should also provide the inverter efficiency curve measured under high temperature
conditions specified in section 6.13.1. Test results should be shown in the report.
6.3.3

Grid-connected current harmonic test

Measure testing point should be chosen at the AC grid side where inverter is connected to, run the
test when the output of the inverter is the rated power. Measure the total current harmonic
distortion rate and the both harmonic current ratios using a power quality analyzer. The results
should be compliant with the provisions in section 5.3.2. Meanwhile, measure the each current
harmonic distortion value at the load of 30% 50% 70%, that value should not exceed the each
current harmonic distortion value at the rating load.
6.3.4 Power factor measurement
The measured power factor (PF) using a power quality analyzer or a power factor meter should be
compliant to the provisions in section 5.3.3.
6.3.5 Grid voltage response test
This test should run at the inverters minimum working power, set the grid simulators output
voltage value, it reacts or reacting time should be compliant to the provisions in section 5.3.4.
6.3.6 Grid frequency response test
This test should run at the inverters minimum working power, set the grid simulators output
voltage frequency, it reacts or reacting time should be compliant to the provisions in section 5.3.5.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
6.3.7

DC component test

When the inverter operates at the nominal load, then measure the DC component in the AC
current, the results should be compliant to the provisions in section 5.3.6.
6.3.8

Voltage unbalance test

When the inverter operates at the nominal load, then measure the three-phase voltage unbalance at
the point of common coupling, the results should be compliant to the provisions in section 5.3.7.
6.3.9

Noise test

Inverter works in the harshest condition, in the direction where noise is highest, measure the
noise level using noise meter at 1m away from the inverter. For the noise meter, it should use the
A-weight pattern.
When testing, it should be sure that the difference between real test noise and background
noise is larger than 3dB, or else steps should be taken, to make test environment meet the
requirement, if the test result and background noise s difference is larger than 10dB, test result
does not need to be amended. When the difference between noise and background noise is in the
range of 3dB to 10dB, amending the result according to the table 13
Table 13 Table of measurement value correction for background noise

6.4

Difference value(dB)

45

610

Correction value(dB)

-3

-2

-1

EMC test

For all the tests, the inverter should be configured according to the actual installation conditions if
possible, including the relevant wiring and agreed termipoints. All components of the inverter
should be incorperated into the enclosure with all the covers and panels installed, and with proper
grounding, unless otherwise agreed with the user.
6.4.1
6.4.1.1

Emission test
Conductive emission test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in appendix A
of GB 7260.2-2009. The results should be compliant to the provisions in section 5.4.1.1.
6.4.1.2

Radiation emission test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in appendix A
of GB 7260.2-2009. The results should be compliant to the provisions in section 5.4.1.2
6.4.2

Immunity test

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
6.4.2.1

Electrostatic discharge immunity test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.2-2006. The test should be done through single-discharge, apply ten times of
single-discharge at the pre-selected point.
6.4.2.2

RF electromagnetic field radiation immunity test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.3-2006.
6.4.2.3

Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.4-2008.
6.4.2.4 Voltage fluctuating immunity test
The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.14-2005.
6.4.2.5

Surge (impact) immunity test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.5-2008.
6.4.2.6

Test for immunity to conducted disturbances induced by RF field

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.6-2008.
6.4.2.7

Power frequency magnetic field immunity test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.8-2006.
6.4.2.8

Oscillatory waves immunity test

The test arrangement and measurement principles should conform to the provisions in GB/T
17626.12-1998.
6.5

Protection functions tests

6.5.1 Grid fault protection test


6.5.1.1

Anti islanding protection test

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)

Fig.3 Anti-islanding protection test platform


DC input source
Inverter under test
Digital oscilloscope
Grid
Figure 3 shows the anti-islanding protection test platform, where K1 is the grid side
seperation switch of the measured inverter and K2 is the load separation switch. The load is
porvided by a variable RLC resonance circuit. The resonance frequency equals to the rated
frequency (50/60Hz) of the measured inverter, and the power consumption equals to the output
active power of the measured inverter. The test should be done under the conditions specified in
table 14.
Note: Due to the uncertainty of the absorption of active and reactive power by the grid from the
inverter, for this test it is more convincible to use actual grid than simulation grid.
Tab.14 Test conditions for anti-islanding protection
Condition

Output power PEUT of


the measured inverter

Input voltage of the


measured inverter

Trip set value of the


measured inverter

100% the rated AC


output power

> 90% the range of the DC


input voltage

The voltage and


frequency trip values
specified by the
manufacturer

50%10% the the range of


the DC input voltage

The voltage and


frequency trip values are
set as the rated values

<10% the the range of the


DC input voltage

The voltage and


frequency trip values are
set as the rated values

B
(50~66)% the rated AC
output power
C

(25~33)% the rated AC


output power

a
If the DC input voltage ranges from X~Y, then (90% the the range of the DC input
voltage)=X+0.9*(Y-X).
The test procedures are as follow:

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
a Close K1 and disconnect K2 to start the inverter. Let the output power PEUT of the
inverter equals to the rated AC output power and measure the output reactive power
QEUT of the inverter;
b Stop the inverter and disconnect K1;
c Adjust the RLC circuit so that Qf=1.00.05 following the procedures bellow;
The inductive reactive power of the RLC circuit can be expressed as:
QL=Qf*PEUT=1.0*PEUT;
Connect in the inductance L so that the reactive power consumption equals to QL;
Incorporate capacitor C so that the capacitive reactive power consumption can be
expressed as: QC+QL=- QEUT;
Finally incorporate the inductance R so that the active power consumption equals to
PEUT.
d Close K2 to connect it into the RLC circuit and close K1to start the inverter. Make sure
that the output power is compliant with the provisions in step a). Adjust R, L and C until
the fundamental-frequency current is less than 1% the rated output current of the inverter
at steady-state.
e Disconnect K1 and record the time period from when K1 is connected to when the output
current of the inverter decreases to and maintains 1% the rated output current;
f Adjust the active load (resistor R) and any reactive load (L or C) to achieve the situation
that the load indicated by the parameters in the brackets in table 16 doesnt match. The
parameters in table 15 are the deviations in percentage; the signs indicate the direction of
the active power flow and reactive power flow through switch K1 in figure 3. The
positive sign means that the power flow is from the inverter to the grid. The time
between when K1 is disconnected and when the output current of the inverter decreases
to and maintains 1% the rated output current. If any of the recorded time exceeds the
recorded time in step e), the parameters not in the brackets in table 15 should also be
tested;
g For test condition B and C, adjust any reactive load (L or C) so that it varies by 1% each
time according to table 17. The parameters in table 17 indicate the direction of the active
power flow and reactive power flow through switch K1 in figure 3. The positive sign
means that the power flow is from the inverter to the grid.The time between when K1 is
disconnected and when the output current of the inverter decreases to and maintains 1%
the rated output current. If the recorded time is increasing, the adjustment range should
be expanded by 1% step continuously until when the recorded time is decreasing.
h The recorded time in the above steps should be compliant with the provisions in section
5.5.1.1, or else the test is deemed to fail.
Tab.15 Load non-matching situations under test condition A
Deviation percentage (%) between the active and reactive power consumption of the load
-10+10

-5+10

0+10

+5+10

+10+10

-10+5

(-5+5)

(0+5)

(+5+5)

+10+5

-100

(-50)

00

(+50)

+100

-10-5

(-5-5)

(0-5)

(+5-5)

+10-5

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
-10-10

-5-10

0-10

+5-10

+10-10

Tab.16 Load non-matching situations under test condition B and C


Deviation percentage (%) between the active and reactive power consumption of the load
0-5
0-4
0-3
0-2
0-1
01
02
03
04
05
6.5.1.2 Low voltage ride-through test
Figure 4 shows the Low voltage ride-through test platform, Medium or High Voltage type inverter
or the inverter which has the Low voltage ride-through function; their Low voltage ride-through
function should be compliant with the provisions in section 5.5.1.2.

Figure 4 Low voltage ride-through test platform


DC input source
Inverter under test
Oscilloscope
Low voltage ride through simulator
Grid
6.5.1.3

Output short-circuit protection test

The inverter should be able to protect itself when it is shorted. For three-phase inverters,
shorts are conducted between phase to phase, phase to neutral line, and phase to ground
respectively. For inverters with isolation transformers, shorts should be conducted at the primary

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
side and secondary side of the transformer respectively.
6.5.2

Anti reverse discharge protection test

There should be no reverse current at the DC side of the inverter when the DC side voltage of
the inverter is lower than the allowable operation range or the inverter is in power-off status.
6.5.3

Reverse polarity protection test

Wire up as shown in figure 2, when using a PV array simulator, adjust the simulator so that
the output voltage reaches the maximum rated input voltage of the inverter and the output current
should not be larger than 1.5 times the rated input current of the inverter.
Reverse the PV array or the PV array simulator, the inverter should be able to conduct
automatic protection; connect PV array correctly after 1min, the inverter should be able to operate
normally.
6.5.4

DC Overload protection test

Adjust the DC input source so that the output power exceeds the allowable maximum DC
input power of the inverter, and the operation status of the inverter should be compliant with the
provisions in 5.5.4.
6.5.5

DC over-voltage protection

Adjust the voltage of DC input source until the DC side input voltage deviates from the range
of the allowable DC input voltage of the inverter, and the operation status of the inverter should be
compliant with the provisions in 5.5.5.
6.6 PV array insulation resistance test
Connect inverter to the testing circuit loop, connect a less than Table 8 in 5.6 resistance to the
inverter input ports, the inverter should be compliant with the provisions in 5.6.
6.7 Residual current testing method
6.7.1 Continuous residual current testing method
Inverter operates at rated load in the harshed working condition, and DC side does not connect to
the ground, AC output side has one pole connect to the ground. PV array insulation resistance
monitoring function can be shut down. Connect adjustable resistance between DC input and
ground. The initial value of the resistance should be set making initial residual current under the
5.7.1 a) limitation. Then gradually reduce the resistance, record the current when the residual
current protection device reactive. Repeat this test for 5 times, all the test results should not either
exceed the limitation in 5.7.1 a) or disconnect from the AC grid in 0.3s.

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
Note: If equipped with multiple inputs with same circuit principle and possible test result, there is
no need to test one by one.
6.7.2 On fire residual current testing method
Inverter works under the harshed condition, and the DC side does not connect to the ground, AC
output side has one pole connect to the ground. PV array insulation resistance monitoring function
can be shut down. Use a current meter to measure the residual current between every PV array
port and ground.
6.7.3 Residual current sudden change testing method
Inverter operates at rated load. Connect a resistance between DC input and ground, this resistance
can be controlled by a breaker. Adjust this resistance to generate exact 30mA, 60mA, 150mA
residual current between the input port and ground, the inverter disconnecting time from the AC
grid should not exceed the limitation listed in Table 8 in 5.7.1 b).
Note: If equipped with multiple inputs with same circuit principle and possible test result, there is
no need to test one by one.
6.8

Communication interface test

Check the communication ports are stable or not. Install the communication software on site,
check if the communication of the inverter is normal.
6.9

Automatic power on/off test

Simulate the sunlight irradiation conditions through changing the input DC voltage of the inverter,
and the inverter should be able to power on/off pursuant to the provisions in section 5.9.
Follow these specific procedures to do: wire up as shown in figure 2, adjust the DC input source
so that the DC side voltage increases from a voltage that is less than the lower limit of the
allowable DC voltage of the inverter. When the DC side voltage is larger than the lower limit of
the allowable range, the inverter should be able to power on automatically; adjust the DC input
source so that the DC side voltage decreases to the upper limit of the allowable DC voltage of the
inverter, and when the inverter should be able to power/off automatically.

6.10

Soft start test

When the inverter starts to work, use the power analyzer or other power monitoring
equipments to monitor the output power of the inverter, the change of the power should be
compliant with the provisions in 5.10.
6.11
6.11.1

Insulation voltage strength


Insulation resistance measurement

Measure the insulation resistance value of the inverter between the input circuit and ground,

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
output circuit and ground, and the input circuit and the output circuit using a megohmmeter or an
insulation resistance tester under 1000V test voltage. The results should be compliant with the
provisions in section 5.11.1. The insulation strength test can only be conducted after the
measurement of insulation resistance passes.
6.11.2

Insulation strength measurement

Measure the inverter between the input circuit and ground, output circuit and ground, and the
input circuit and the output circuit using a voltage-withstanding tester according to the 5.9.2. The
results should be compliant with the provisions in section 5.11.2.
Note: when testing the insulation resistance and the insulation strength, low voltage control circuit
can be removed.
6.12

Degrees of protection provided by enclosure

Conduct the test pursuant to GB 4208-2008, the enclosure ingress protection of the inverters
should be compliant to the provisions in section 5.12.
6.13
6.13.1

Environmental test
Low-temperature start test

Conduct the test pursuant to


Test A in GB/T 2423.1. Keep the product under (-203)
(indoor type) or (-253) (outdoor type) test temperature conditions without the packaging stuff
for 2 hours, the inverter should be able to start normally
6.13.2

High-temperature start and operation test

Conduct the test pursuant to


Test B in GB/T 2423.2. Keep the product under (402)
(indoor type) or (602) (outdoor type) test temperature conditions without the packaging stuff
for 2 hours, the inverter should be able to start normally; then power up and apply rated load for 2
hours and let the inverter recover under standard atmosphere conditions for 2 hours, the inverter
should be able to operate normally.
6.13.3

Constant damp heat test

Conduct the test pursuant to GB/T 2423.3. Keep the product under (402) (indoor type) or
(602) (outdoor type) test temperature and (903)% constant humidity and temperature
conditions without the packaging stuff and without power on for 48 hours; then take out the
inverter and let it recover under normal environmental conditions for 2 hours, the inverter should
be able to operate normally.
6.14 Power control and voltage adjustment test
6.14.1

Active power control test

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
Send active power control signals (including the maximum output power and power variation
rate etc.) to the inverter through simulating using a PC, the inverter should be able to receive and
execute the signals. Inverter current should not exceed the 1.5 times impulse current when inverter
changing at the maximum power change rate
6.14.2

Voltage/reactive power adjustment test

Send reactive power control signals (including the adjust method, reference voltage and voltage
adjustment ratio etc.) to the inverter through simulating using a PC, the inverter output reactive
power should be within the specified range and the inverter should be able to adjust the reactive
output based on the voltage level at the grid-connection point.
6.15

Continuous operation test

Wire as shown in figure 2 and put the inverter in operation under rated power, observe the
working condition of the inverter, no abnormal situation should occur within 72 hours.
6.16

Temperature rise test

Temperature meters, thermocouples, thermistor components, or other effective methods can be


used to measure the temperature.
The test should last for a period long enough so that the temperatures at all positions of the
inverter achieve stable values of thermal balance. There should be no action taken in the process
of testing, such as open the front cover of the cabinet, which will influence the normal heat
dissipation mode. The temperature rise is considered stable when the temperature variation is
slower than 1/half an hour.
In the test, difference correction method can be used. That is measure the temperature rise in the
normal condition, and add the temperature rise to the highest allowable working temperature,
compare the result with the figure in 5.16.

Inspection rules

7.1 Inspection categories


Factory inspection and product testing sub-type testing, test items shown in Table 5
No.

Test item

Type test

Factory
inspection

Quality of the body and structure


inspection

Conversion efficiency test

Grid-connected current harmonic test

Test Method

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
No.

Test item

Type test

Factory
inspection

Power factor test

Response to abnormal voltage test

Response to abnormal frequency test

DC component test

Voltage unbalance degree test

Noise test

10

Conducted emission test

11

Radiated emission test

12

Electrostatic discharge immunity test

13

Radiated,
radio-frequency
electromagnetic field immunity test

14

Electrical fast transient burst immunity


test

15

Voltage fluctuation immunity test

16

Surge immunity test

17

Conducted disturbance, induced by


radio-frequency fields immunity Test

18

Power
frequency
immunity test

19

Oscillatory waves immunity test

20

Anti-island protection test

21

Low voltage withstanding capability test

22

AC side short-circuit protection test

23

Prevention of anti-discharge protection


test

24

Reverse polarity protection test

25

DC current overload protection test

26

DC over voltage test

27

Communication test

28

Auto on / off test

29

Soft-start test

30

Insulation resistance test

31

Dielectric strength test

32

Degrees of
enclosure

33

Low-temperature starting test

34

High-temperature starting and operating


test

35

Constant damp heat test

36

Active power control test

37

Voltage/Reactive power regulation test

magnetic

field

protection provided by

Test Method

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
No.

Test item

Type test

Factory
inspection

38

Temperature rise test

39

Array insulation resistance detection test

40

Array residual current detection test

41

Continuous operation test

Test Method

7.2 Factory Inspection


Each inverter factory inspection should be carried out. One in Taichung and a performance does
not meet the requirements, that is, unqualified to be reworked re-examination, re-examination is
still unsatisfactory, for the test failed. After passing inspection, complete inspection records and
issue a certificate before being manufactured.
7.3 Type test
7.3.1 When there is one of the following conditions, type of inspection should be carried out
a) Identification of new products
b) After official production, The structure, the material, the craft have change greatly,
affects when sufficiently the product performance
c) mass-produced products, once type tests every three years
d) Product discontinued two years after the resumption of production
e) State Administration of Quality Supervision agencies to conduct type test requirements
7.3.2 Methods of sampling and determine the rules
Samples for type testing, factory inspection shall be qualified through the random sample of
products. The quantity is two units, according to GB / T 2829 standard requirement. Determine the
level of the sample using a sampling plan for the , the product quality to unqualified number
indicates a failure to take quality of RQL = 120
8

Logo, Packaging, Transportation, Storage

8.1 Logo
8.1.1 Product logo
The inverter nameplate should be place on the appropriate place. The nameplate as follows
a) Product name
b) Product model
c) Technical parameter
Fixed AC output power(kW)
Maximal contrastive efficiency(%)
DC entering voltage range(V)
Nominal AC voltage range(V)

CGC/GF004:2011(CNCA/CTS 0004-2009A)
Protection Level
d) serial number
e) the date of manufacture
f) manufacturer name
8.1.2 Packaging marks
The inverter should have the consignor marks, packaging and storage marks and warning marks
According to the relevant provisions of GB / T 191
8.2 Packaging
8.2.1 The technical documentation accompanying the product
a) Installation Manual
b) Instruction of the product
c) Technical Specifications and parameters
d) Product quality certification
e) Warranty Card
f) The views of users questionnaire;
Note: Product Technical Data Sheet Reference Appendix A.
8.2.2 Product Packaging
Product packaging should conform to the relevant provisions of GB / T 3873
8.3 Transport
The inverter should not have the strenuous vibration, attack and to put upside down in the
transportation process,
8.4 Storage
Before the product use, should place in the original package boxStored in the air circulation, the
surrounding environment of not less than -40 , relative humidity of not more than 90%,
non-harmful gases and flammable, explosive materials, and corrosive materials in the warehouse
And should not be a strong mechanical vibration, shock and strong magnetic field.

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Table A:

Appendix A
(Informative appendix)
Technical parameter table of grid-connected PV inverter

Manufacturers
Model
DC input
Rated maximum
power(kWp)

Photovoltaic

array

Maximum DC input power(kW)


Maximum array open-circuit voltage(V)
Maximum array input current (A)
DC input voltage range(V)
MPPT range(V)
AC output
Rated AC Output power(kW)
maximum AC Output power(kW)
Operating voltage range (V%)
Operating Frequency Range(Hz%)
Maximum inverter efficiency(%)
Efficiency of 25%,50%,100% of rated
load
Power factor

Total harmonic current distortion(%)


Power consumption at night(W)
Noisy(dB)
Protection Function
Over / under voltage protection(yes/no)
Over/under frequency protection(yes/no)
Islanding protection(yes/no)
Over current Protection(yes/no)
Prevention of Anti-discharge protection
test(yes/no)
Reverse polarit protection(yes/no)
Overload Protection(yes/no)
Safe requirements
insulation resistance
insulation intension
shell protection grade
communication interface
Size
Length/Width/Height(mm)

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Weight (Kg)
Documentation requirements
Product instruction(yes/no)
User manual(yes/no)
Product qualification certificate(yes/no)
Warranty card(yes/no)

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Appendix B
(Informative appendix)
Select of anti-islanding protection scheme
Anti-islanding protection schemes of grid-connected PV inverter are active and passive.
Passive scheme is made by measuring AC output voltage or frequency of inverter. Because of the
shortcoming of passive scheme, active scheme is made to up to safety standards of anti-islanding
protection. Active scheme is made by inducting deliberately disturbance signal to monitor change
of voltage, frequency and impedance to determine the grid deposit.
Active scheme of anti-islanding protection is including change of impedance caused by
frequency deviation and inpouring of current pulse and power-line carrier communication system.
Passive scheme of anti-islanding protection is including voltage phase jump, 3rd harmonic
voltage change, and detection of change rate of frequency, active power change and reactive
power change.
Select of anti-islanding protection scheme should observe the following rules:
1) Influence of transient response of check Property, output power quality is considered.
2) If harm of islanding is lower than other electric power harm by a anti-islanding protection
scheme that is simple and low cost, anti-islanding protection scheme is appropriate.
Necessity of anti-islanding protection scheme that is has well detection performance with a
high cost is also in dispute.

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Appendix C
(Informative appendix)
Transient Voltage Protection
In order to avoid the break down of the equipments which connect to the circuit together with the
inverter, when inverter disconnect from the grid, the output AC voltage of inverter and its duration
time should not exceed the figures listed in the below table.
Table C-1 Transient Voltage limitation and duration

Transient Voltage limitation


Phase voltage, line voltage
Duration time
Figure 5 shows the Transient voltage protection test platform, before the breaker K1 open,
AC output voltage should keep in the range of 5% of nominal voltage. The test should run under
the nominal output power of inverter: 25%~33%, 50%~66% and 100%. Open K1, record the
inverter output AC voltage, the result and the duration time should be compliant with the
provisions in 5.5.5.

Grid

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

DC input source
Inverter under test
Power quality analyzer
HRC fuse
Rectifier bridge
Grid
Figure 5 Transient voltage protection test platform
Note: R=560k

C=100F

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Annex D
(informative)
Inverter efficiency
For PV modules there is a tendency to improve specifications in a way that not only power
specifications at STC (and at lower irradiance levels) are indicated, but also energy yields
measured during a certain time period under real weather conditions. This will make possible an
improvement for the calculation of the DC-energy yield of a PV array. But if energy losses caused
by poor MPP-tracking of the inverter are not considered, another essential uncertainty for accurate
determination of the energy yield of gridconnected PV plants remains. The introduction of overall
or total efficiency t as described in this standard will resolve this problem.
The scope of the standard is to define a quantity (overall efficiency t) which includes both
conversion efficiency and MPP-tracking properties and gives a more accurate description of the
overall behaviour of grid-connected PV inverters than conversion efficiency conv alone.
A grid-connected inverter consists of two main parts, the MPP-tracker, which has to draw always
the maximum available power PMPP from the array (varying according to irradiance G and
module temperature T), and the DC-AC converter, which has to convert the available DC power
PDC to AC power PAC as efficiently as possible.
D.1 MPPT and conversion efficiencies
D.1.1 General description
The MPPT efficiency describes the accuracy of an inverter to set the maximum power point on the
characteristic curve of a PV generator. The MPPT efficiency is divided into the static and dynamic
case. Both the static as well as the dynamic MPPT efficiencies are determined from the sampled
instantaneous values of voltage and current at the input of the inverter. It indicates which amount
of the theoretically usable PV generator power is actually used by the inverter.
D.1.2 Static MPPT efficiency
The static MPPT efficiency is determined by means of measurement as follows:
.......... (D.1)

.......... (D.1)

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

where
UDC,i sampled value of the inverters input voltage;
IDC,i sampled value of the inverters input current;
TM overall measuring period;
T period between two subsequent sample values.
The static MPPT efficiency describes the accuracy of an inverter to regulate on the maximum
power point
on a given static characteristic curve of a PV generator.
NOTE

UDC,i and IDC,i must be sampled at the same time.

D.1.3 Dynamic MPPT efficiency


Variations of the irradiation intensity and the resulting transition of the inverter to the new
operation point are not considered with the static MPPT efficiency. For the evaluation of this
transient characteristic the dynamic MPPT efficiency is specified. The dynamic MPPT ef iciency
is defined as:

MPPTdyn

MPP , PVS , j

T j

DC ,i

I DC , i Ti

where
Tj period in which the power PMPP,PVS,j is provided;
Ti period in which the power UDC,i and IDC,i are sampled.

........... (D.2)

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Annex E
(normative)
Test conditions for dynamic MPPT efficiency
E.1 Test profiles
Test for the dynamic MPPT efficiency are to be performed with the following sequences. The
percentage specification of the radiation intensity is related to standard test conditions (STC).
100 % corresponds to 1000 W/m at 25 C

Figure E.1 Test sequence for fluctuations between


small and medium irradiation intensities

Figure E.2 Test sequence for fluctuations between


medium and high irradiation intensities

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Key for Figures E.1 and E.2


Descriptive code: n repetitions, in brackets the rise time t1, the dwell time t2 on high level (value
+H), thefall time t3 and finally the dwell time on low level (value +L).
E.2 Test sequence with ramps 10 % - 50 % PDCn
Table E.1 Dynamic MPPT-Test 10 % -50 % (valid for the evaluation of MPPTdyn)
Form to

Delta

Waiting time setting

W/m2

W/m2

100-500

400

300

Slope

Ramp up

Dwell time

Ramp DN

Dwell time

Duration

W/m2/s

0,5

800

10

800

10

3540

400

10

400

10

1940

200

10

200

10

1560

133

10

133

10

1447

80

10

80

10

1380

57

10

57

10

1374

10

10

40

10

40

10

1300

10

14

29

10

29

10

1071

10

20

20

10

20

10

900

10

30

13

10

13

10

767

10

50

10

10

660

Total

15 939

04:25:39

#number

E.3 Test sequence with ramps 30 % - 100 % PDCn


Table E.2 Dynamic MPPT-Test 30 % -100 % (valid for the evaluation of MPPTdyn)

From to

Delta

Waiting time

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

W/m2

W/m2

300-1000

700

300

Slope

Rame UP Dwell time

Ramp DN

Dwell time

Duration

W/m2/s

10

10

70

10

70

10

1 900

10

14

50

10

50

10

1 500

10

20

35

10

35

10

1 200

10

30

23

10

23

10

967

10

50

14

10

14

10

780

10

100

10

10

640

Total

6 987

01:56:27

#number

E.4 Start-up and shut-down test with slow ramps


Table E.3
From to

Delta

W/m2

W/m2

100-500

400

300

#number
1

Slope

Ramp UP Dwell time

Ramp DN

Dwell time

Duration

W/m2/s

0.1

980

30

980

30

2 320

Total

2320

00:38:40

CGC/GF001:2010CNCA/CTS 0004-2009

Figure E.3 Test sequence for the start-up and shut-down test
of grid connected inverters
NOTE Since on the one hand the PV simulator voltage decreases significantly at very low
irradiation intensities and on the otherhand the model of the PV generator is not exactly defined in
this low irradiation area, the test possibly starts at a certain minimum DC power, e.g. 0,5 % of the
rated DC power PDC, r of the device under test.
E.5 Total test duration
The total test duration is the sum of the test sequences according to Clauses E.2, E.3 and E.4.