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1.

TCP/IP thuc lp Transport


L mt b cc giao thc truyn thng ci t chng giao thc m Internet v hu ht cc mng my
tnh thng mi ang chy trn .
Nh nhiu b giao thc khc, b giao thc TCP/IP c th c coi l mt tp hp cc tng, mi tng
gii quyt mt tp cc vn c lin quan n vic truyn d liu, v cung cp cho cc giao thc
tng cp trn mt dch v c nh ngha r rng da trn vic s dng cc dch v ca cc tng
thp hn.
Nhng tng gn trn nc gn vi ngi s dng hn, cn nhng tng gn y gn vi thit b truyn
thng d liu. Mi tng c mt giao thc phc v tng trn n, v mt giao thc s dng dch
v ca tng di n.

a. Quy trnh bt tay 3 bc:


Trc khi 2 my tnh bt u truyn ID cho nhau phn mm TCP/IP 2 my phi c kt ni bng
quy trnh bt tay 3 bc:
B1 : Client yu cu m cng dch v bng cch gi gi tin SYN (gi tin TCP) ti server, trong gi tin
ny, tham s sequence number c gn cho mt gi tr ngu nhin X.
B2 : Server hi p bng cch gi li pha client bn tin SYN-ACK, trong gi tin ny, tham
s acknowledgment number c gn gi tr bng X + 1, tham s sequence number c gn
ngu nhin mt gi tr Y.
B3 : hon tt qu trnh bt tay ba bc, client tip tc gi ti server bn tin ACK, trong bn tin
ny, tham s sequence number c gn cho gi tr bng X + 1 cn tham sacknowledgment
number c gn gi tr bng Y + 1.

Sau khi trao i d liu xong, kt thc kt ni hai bn s dng qu trnh bt tay 4 bc v chiu
ca kt ni kt thc c lp vi nhau. Khi mt bn mun kt thc, n gi i mt gi tin FIN v bn kia
gi li tin bo nhn ACK. V vy, mt qu trnh kt thc tiu biu s c 2 cp gi tin trao i.

b. C ch retransmit :
Sau khi host gi 1 gi TCP i, bt u m ngc ch cho n khi nhn li tin bo ACK trc khi
gi i 1 gi TCP khc.
Nu nh tin bo ACK ko c gi li trc khi m ngc kt thc, gi tin c coi nh l b rt
v bt u truyn li gi tin.
Quy trnh tm ra thi gian m ngc gi l quy trnh tnh gn ng Round-Trip Time (Round-Trip
Time estimation).
Tuy nhin, c ch retransmit s dng bng thng khng c hiu qu v host phi ch tn hiu ACK
trc khi gi i 1 gi tin mi v mi ln ch gi c 1 gi tin.

c. TCP header:

d. Lp IP:
Cch chia nh gi tin:
Thit b ph trch qu trnh chia nh (fragmentation) thc hin thut ton c th no chia d
liu ra thnh nhiu phn nh truyn i d dng.
Khi d liu c kch thc ln hn MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) th bt buc phi chia nh ra
thnh nhiu fragment nh hn.Header ca d liu gc s thnh header ca fragment u tin v cc
fragment cn li s c to mi header.
Sau khi chia nh gi tin, thit b gi s thm vo thng tin i km vi d liu c chia nh
thit b nhn c th ghp gi tin li thnh d liu hon chnh, thng tin nm trong IP header bao
gm Total Length, Identification, More Fragments, Fragment Offset.

Total Length : kch thc ca mi fragment, khng phi kch thc ca ton b gi
tin.Thng s bng vi gi tr ca MTU ( Maximum Transmission Unit) v chia ht cho 8
cho ra Fragment Offset trn.
Identification : phn bit gia cc gi tin khc nhau, cc fragment c chia ra t
cng 1 d liu gc s c chung Identification.

More Fragments : flag ny = 0 th l fragment cui cng, = 1 th cha phi l fragment


cui cng.
Fragment Offset : xc nh th t ca mi fragment, bng tng Total Length ca cc
fragment trc chia cho 8.

2. UDP ICMP port unreachable scanning :


S dng giao thc UDP thay v TCP.
=>Kh hn bi v cc port m khng gi ACK tr li li truy vn t bn ngoi.
Nhng v hu ht cc server c gi gi tin li ICMP_PORT_UNREACHABLE khi gi 1 gi n port
UDP ng => c th tm ra cc port ang ng =>suy ra c port no ang m.
Tuy nhin khng chc chn rng gi tin UDP s n ch hoc gi tin li ICMP s quay tr li m
khng b rt gia ng truyn => UDP scanner phi p dng quy trnh Retransmit gi li nu
nh b mt gi tin.
Tuy nhin, k thut qut ny c coi l chm v cc server s gii hn tn s gi gi tin li ICMP tr
li li.

ICMP : Internet Control Message Protocol l 1 trong nhng giao thc chnh ca b giao thc
mng.c s dng bi cc thit b mng nh router gi i gi tin li.
ICMP cn dng gi i gi tin truy vn (query message).
C s th t giao thc l 1.
ICMP khc UDP vi TCP ch n khng c dng trao i d liu gia cc h thng
hay c dng thng xuyn bi cc ng dng mng ca ngi dng (ngoi tr tracert v
ping).
Nm lp 2 Internet ca TCP/IP.

3. DNS thuc lp Application :


1. Gii thiu v DNS :
- Mi my tnh, thit b mng tham gia vo mng Internet u giao tip vi nhau bng a ch IP
(Internet Protocol) . thun tin cho vic s dng v d nh ta dng tn min (domain name)
xc nh thit b . H thng tn min (Domain Name System) c s dng nh x tn min
thnh a ch IP. V vy, khi mun lin h ti cc my, chng ch cn s dng chui k t d nh
(domain name) nh: www.microsoft.com,www.ibm.com..., thay v s dng a ch IP l mt dy s
di kh nh.
- Ban u, khi DNS cha ra i, ngi ta s dng mt file tn Host.txt, file ny s lu thng tin v
tn host v a ch ca host ca tt c cc my trong mng, file ny c lu tt c cc my
chng c th truy xut n my khc trong mng. Khi , nu c bt k s thay i v tn host, a

ch IP ca host th ta phi cp nht li ton b cc file Host.txt trn tt c cc my. Do vy n nm


1984 Paul Mockpetris thuc vin USCs Information Sciences Institute pht trin mt h thng qun
l tn min mi ly tn l H thng tn min Domain Name .
- H thng tn min ny cng s dng mt file tn host.txt, lu thng tin ca tt c cc my trong
mng, nhng ch c t trn my lm my ch tn min (DNS). Khi , cc Client trong mng
mun truy xut n cc Client khc, th n ch vic hi DNS.
- Thuc lp Application chy port 53.
- Nh vy, mc ch ca DNS l :

Phn gii tn min thnh a ch IP v ngc li.


Qun l c s d liu tn min trong 1 khu vc.

2. DNS namespace :
- H thng tn trong DNS c sp xp theo m hnh phn cp v cu trc cy logic c gi l
DNS namespace.
3. Cu trc ca h thng tn min :
- Hin nay h thng tn min c phn thnh nhiu cp :
- Gc (Domain root) : N l nh ca nhnh cy ca tn min. N c th biu din n gin ch l du
chm .
- Tn min cp mt (Top-level-domain) : gm vi k t xc nh mt nc, khu vc hoc t chc. N
c th hin l .com , .edu .
- Tn min cp hai (Second-level-domain): N rt a dng rt a dng c th l tn mt cng ty, mt
t chc hay mt c nhn.
- Tn min cp nh hn (Subdomain) : Chia thm ra ca tn min cp hai tr xung thng c s
dng nh chi nhnh, phng ban ca mt c quan hay ch no .

4. Phn loi tn min :


- Com : Tn min ny c dng cho cc t chc thng mi.
- Edu : Tn min ny c dng cho cc c quan gio dc, trng hc.
- Net : Tn min ny c dng cho cc t chc mng ln.
- Gov : Tn min ny c dng cho cc t chc chnh ph.
- Org : Tn min ny c dng cho cc t chc khc.
- Int : Tn min ny dng cho cc t chc quc t.

- Info : Tn min ny dng cho vic phc v thng tin.


- Mil : Tn min dnh cho cc t chc qun s, quc phng.
- M cc nc trn th gii tham gia vo mng internet, cc quc gia ny c qui nh bng hai
ch ci theo tiu chun ISO-3166 .V d : Vit Nam l .vn, Singapo l sg.
DNS Server :
- L mt my tnh c nhim v l DNS Server, chy dch v DNS service.
- DNS Server l mt c s d liu cha cc thng tin v v tr ca cc DNS domain v phn gii cc
truy vn xut pht t cc Client.
- DNS Server c th cung cp cc thng tin do Client yu cu, v chuyn n mt DNS Server khc
nh phn gii h trong trng hp n khng th tr li c cc truy vn v nhng tn min
khng thuc quyn qun l v cng lun sn sng tr li cc my ch khc v cc tn min m n
qun l. DNS Server lu thng tin ca Zone, truy vn v tr kt qu cho DNS Client.
- My ch qun l DNS cp cao nht l Root Server do t chc ICANN qun l:
+ L Server qun l ton b cu trc ca h thng tn min
+ Root Server khng cha d liu thng tin v cu trc h thng DNS m n ch chuyn quyn
(delegate) qun l xung cho cc Server cp thp hn v do Root Server c kh nng nh
ng n ca mt domain ti bt k u trn mng
- Phn loi DNS Server :
Primary Server :
- Thng tin v tn min do n qun l c lu tr ti y v sau c th c chuyn sang cho
cc Secondary Server.
- Cc tn min do Primary Server qun l th c to v sa i tai Primary Server v c cp
nht n cc Secondary Server.
Secondary Server :
- DNS c khuyn ngh nn s dng t nht l hai DNS Server lu cho mi mt Zone. Primary
DNS Server qun l cc Zone v Secondary Server s dng lu tr d phng cho Primary
Server. Secondary DNS Server c khuyn ngh dng nhng khng nht thit phi c.
- Secondary Server c php qun l domain d liu v tn min, nhng Secondary Server khng
to ra cc bn ghi v tn min (domain) m n ly v t Primary Server.
- Khi lng truy vn Zone tng cao ti Primary Server th n s chuyn bt ti sang cho Secondary
Server .Hoc khi Primary Server gp s c khng hot ng c th Secondary Server s hot

ng thay th cho n khi Primary Server hot ng tr li.


- Primary Server thng xuyn thay i hoc thm vo cc Zone mi. Nn DNS Server s dng c
ch cho php Secondary ly thng tin t Primary Server v lu tr n. C hai gii php ly thng tin
v cc Zone mi l ly ton b (full) hoc ch ly phn thay i (incremental).
Caching-only Server :
- Tt c cc DNS Server u c kh nng lu tr d liu trn b nh cache ca my tr li truy
vn mt cch nhanh chng. Nhng h thng DNS cn c mt loi Caching-only Server.
- Loi ny ch s dng cho vic truy vn, lu gi cu tr li da trn thng tin c trn cache ca my
v cho kt qu truy vn. Chng khng h qun l mt domain no v thng tin m n ch gii hn
nhng g c lu trn cache ca Server.
- Lc ban u khi Server bt u chy th n khng lu thng tin no trong cache. Thng tin s c
cp nht theo thi gian khi cc Client Server truy vn dch v DNS. Nu s dng kt ni mng WAN
tc thp th vic s dng caching-only DNS Server l gii php hu hiu cho php gim lu lng
thng tin truy vn trn ng truyn.
- Caching-only c kh nng tr li cc cu truy vn n Client. Nhng khng cha Zone no v cng
khng c quyn qun l bt k domain no. N s dng b cache ca mnh lu cc truy vn ca
DNS ca Client. Thng tin s c lu trong cache tr li cc truy vn n Client.
Stub Server :
- L DNS Server ch cha danh sch cc DNS Server c authoritative t Primary DNS
- S dng stub c th tng tc phn gii tn v d qun l.

DNS Zone :
- DNS Zone l tp hp cc nh x t host n a ch IP v t IP n host ca mt phn lin tc
trong mt nhnh ca domain..
- H thng tn min (DNS) cho php phn chia tn min qun l v n chia h thng tn min
thnh Zone v trong Zone qun l tn min c phn chia .Cc Zone cha thng tin v min cp
thp hn, c kh nng chia thnh cc Zone cp thp hn v phn quyn cho cc DNS Server khc
qun l.
- C 2 loi DNS Zone : Standard Primary Zone v Active Directory Integrated Zones.
Standard Primary Zone :
- c s dng trong cc single domain, khng c Active Dicrectory .
- Tt c nhng thay i trong Zone s khng nh hng n cc Zone khc.Tuy nhin nu ta to
thm mt Zone (Secondary Zone), th Zone ny s b nh hng t Primary Zone. Secondary Zone

s ly thng tin t Primary Zone.


- Qu trnh chuyn thng Primary Zone n Secondary Zone c gi l Zone Transfer. Sau mt
khong thi gian nht nh, Secondary Zone s cp nht cc records t Primary Zone, qu trnh ny
c gi l synchronized ( ng b ha).
Active Directory Integrated Zones :
- Mc nh s c to khi my tnh chy DNS Server c nng cp thnh Domain Contronller.
Active Directory Integrated Zones thc cht l Zone c nng cp ln t Standard Primary Zone khi
ln Domain Controller
- DNS Zones c lu nh mt i tng trong c s d liu ca Active Directory.
- Thng tin v DNS Zones u cha trn tt c Domain Contronller. Cho php vic cp nht t ng
c s d liu DNS Zones bo mt (secure updates ).

4.RIPv1 v RIPv2 thuc lp Application :


RIPv1
RIPv1 l giao thc nh tuyn theo DistanceVector.
RIPv1 l giao thc nh tuyn theo lp a ch
(Classful), tc l ch p dng subnet mask mc
nh ca a ch lp A,B v C /8 /16 /24.Khng
gi km subnet mask khi gi cp nht nh
tuyn.
RIPv1 khng h tr VLSM (Variable Length
Subnet Masking).
RIPv1 h tr maximum metric (hop count) l 15.
Bt k router no c metric cao hn 15 c
xem nh l unreachable.
RIPv1 gi cp nht nh tuyn theo chu k mi
30 giy bng broadcasts dng a ch IP ch
l limited broadcast IP adddress
255.255.255.255. V th cho nn, tt c router
phi x l thng tin cp nht nh tuyn d c
chy RIPv1 hay khng.
RIPv1 khng h tr xc minh thng tin nh
tuyn .

RIPv2
RIPv2 l giao thc nh tuyn theo DistanceVector c 1 vi c im ca giao thc nh
tuyn Link State.
RIPv2 l giao thc nh tuyn khng theo lp
a ch, cho php ngi dng t subnet mask
cho mng. C th gi km subnet mask khi gi
cp nht nh tuyn
RIPv2 h tr VLSM (Variable Length Subnet
Masking).
RIPv2 h tr maximum metric (hop count) l 15.
Bt k router no c metric cao hn 15 c
xem nh l unreachable.
RIPv2 h tr cp nht bt c lc no.
RIPv2 cp nht nh tuyn gi i Multicast n
a ch 224.0.0.9. Cp nht Multicast gim i lu
lng mng, gim i overhead khi x l d liu
gi tin cp nht nh tuyn router khng chy
RIPv2.
Ch cc router chy RIPv2 mi c tham gia
vo nhm Multicast 224.0.0.9. Nhng router
khng chy RIPv2 s lc gi tin i lp 2.
RIPv2 h tr xc minh thng tin nh tuyn
RIPv2 (plain-text or MD5). Xc minh gip nhn
bit c gi tin n t ngun ng tin cy.

RIPv1
nh tuyn theo lp a ch.
Khng gi thng tin v subnet-mask trong thng tin nh tuyn.
Khng h tr VLSM. V vy tt c cc mng trong h thng RIPv1 phi cng subnet mask.
Khng c c ch xc minh thng tin nh tuyn.
Gi qun b theo a ch 255.255.255.255
RIPv2
nh tuyn khng theo lp a ch.
C gi thng tin v subnet mask trong thng tin nh tuyn.
C h tr VLSM. Nn cc mng trong h thng RIPv2 c th c chiu di subnet mask khc nhau.
C c ch xc minh thng tin nh tuyn.
Gi qun b theo a ch 224.0.0.9 nn hiu qu hn.

5.NAT Netword Address Translation thuc lp Transport


v n thay i IP header:

a ch ring (Private Address) : l a ch IP c dnh ring v c th c s dng trong


mng ni b. Cc gi d liu c a ch ring s khng c nh tuyn trn internet.
o Lp A: 10.0.0.0/8 ->10.255.255.255
o Lp B: 172.16.0.0/16 ->172.31.255.255
o Lp C: 192.168.0.0/24 ->192.168.255.255
a ch cng cng (Public Address) : L a ch phi c ng k vi mt cng ty c thm
quyn internet. C th c thu t 1 ISP.

L qu trnh thay i thng tin a ch IP trong gi tin ang c truyn qua mt thit b nh tuyn.
Ban u, NAT c a ra nhm gii quyt vn thiu ht a ch ca IPv4.
NAT gip chia s kt ni Internet (hay 1 mng khc) vi nhiu my trong LAN ch vi 1 IP duy nht.
NAT che giu IP bn trong LAN.
NAT gip qun tr mng lc cc gi tin c gi n hay gi t mt a ch IP v cho php hay
cm truy cp n mt port c th.
C 4 loi NAT : Full Cone NAT, Restricted Cone NAT, Port Restricted Cone NAT, Symmetric NAT.
Cch hot ng:

NAT s dng IP ca chnh n lm Public IP Address cho mi my con c Private IP Address.


Khi mt my con thc hin kt ni hoc gi d liu ra ngoi internet, d liu s c gi ti
NAT, sau NAT s thay th a ch IP gc ca my con bn a ch Public ca NAT ri
gi gi d liu i.
Sau khi u bn kia nhn c gi tin s gi tr li cho NAT v NAT gi li cho my trong
mng ni b.
NAT cng c th coi nh mt firewall c bn. thc hin c cng vic , NAT duy tr
mt bng thng tin v mi gi tin c gi qua. Khi mt PC trn mng kt ni n 1 website
trn Internet header ca a ch IP ngun c thay i v thay th bng a ch Public m
c cu hnh sn trn NAT server , sau khi c gi tin tr v NAT da vo bng record
m n lu v cc gi tin, thay i a ch IP ch thnh a ch ca PC trong mng v

chuyn tip i. Thng qua c ch qun tr mng c kh nng lc cc gi tin c gi n


hay gi t mt a ch IP v cho php hay cm truy cp n mt port c th.
NAT x l mt gi tin xut pht t bn trong i ra bn ngoi mt mng theo cch thc sau:
+> Khi NAT nhn mt gi tin t mt cng bn trong, gi tin ny p ng cc tiu chun NAT,
router s tm kim trong bng NAT a ch bn ngoi (outside address) ca gi tin. Ni cch khc,
tin trnh NAT tm kim mt hng trong bng NAT trong a ch outside local address bng vi
a ch ch ca gi tin. Nu khng c php so trng no tm thy, gi tin s b loi b.
+> Nu c mt hng trong bng NAT l tm thy (trong hng ny, a ch ch ca gi tin bng vi a
ch outside local), NAT s thay th a ch ch trong gi tin bng a ch outside global theo thng tin
trong bng NAT.
+> Tin trnh NAT tip tc tm kim bng NAT xem c mt a ch inside local no bng vI a ch
ngun ca gi tin hay khng. Nu c mt hng l tm thy, NAT tip tc thay th a ch ngun ca
gi tin bng a ch inside global. Nu khng c mt hng no c tm thy, NAT s to ra mt hng
mi trong bng NAT v chn a ch mi vo trong gi tin.
NAT s x l mt gi tin xut pht t mng bn ngoi i vo mng bn trong theo cch sau:
+> Khi NAT nhn c mt gi tin xut pht t mt cng bn ngoi, p ng cc tiu chun NAT,
tin trnh NAT s tm kim trong bng NAT mt hng trong a ch inside global l bng vI ia ch
ch ca gi tin.
+> Nu khng c hng no trong bng NAT c tm thy, gi tin b loi b. Nu c mt hng tm
thy trong bng NAT, NAT s thay th a ch ch bng a ch inside local t bng NAT.
+> Router tm kim bng NAT tm ra a ch outside global bng vi a ch ngun ca gi tin. Nu
c mt hng l tm thy, NAT s thay th a ch ch bng a ch outside local t bng NAT. Nu
NAT khng tm thy mt hng no, n s to ra mt hng mi trong bng NAT v cng thc hin
nh bc 2.
Cc khi nim c bn .
1. Inside local address - a ch IP c gn cho mt host ca mng trong. y l a ch c cu
hnh nh l mt tham s ca h iu hnh trong my tnh hoc c gn mt cch t ng thng
qua cc giao thc nh DHCP. a ch ny khng phi l nhng a ch IP hp l c cp bi NIC
(Network Information Center) hoc nh cung cp dch v Internet
2. Inside global address - L mt a ch hp l c cp bi NIC hoc mt nh cung cp dch v
trung gian. a ch ny i din cho mt hay nhiu a ch IP inside local trong vic giao tip vi mng
bn ngoi.
3. Outside local address - L a ch IP ca mt host thuc mng bn ngoi, cc host thuc mng
bn trong s nhn host thuc mng bn ngoi thng qua a ch ny. Outside local khng nht thit
phi l mt a ch hp l trn mng IP (c th l a ch private).
4. Outside global address - L a ch IP c gn cho mt host thuc mng ngoi bi ngi s
hu host . a ch ny c gn bng mt a ch IP hp l trn mng Internet
Chng ta c th hnh dung phn bit 4 kiu a ch ny nh sau:
Cc gi tin bt ngun t bn trong mng ni b (inside) s c source IP l a ch kiu inside local
v destination IP l ouside local khi n cn trong phn mng ni b. Cng gi tin , khi c
chuyn ra ngoi mng (qua NAT) source IP address s c chuyn thnh "inside global address"
v a destination IP ca gi tin s l outside global address. Hay ngc li, khi mt gi tin bt
ngun t mt mng bn ngoi, khi n cn ang mng bn ngoi , a ch source IP ca n s l
"outside global address", a ch destination IP s l "inside global address". Cng gi tin khi c
chuyn vo mng bn trong (qua NAT), a ch source s l "outside local address" v a ch
destination ca gi tin s l "inside local address".

5b.NAT-T (Traversal)
NAT traversal (vt tng) l thut ng chung cho nhng k thut to dng v duy tr kt ni mng
gia nhng my nm sau router NAT. NAT thng xuyn gy ra vn vi cc kt ni mng, nht
l cc kt ni gia hai ngi dng (end-to-end hoc peer-to-peer connectivity). V th, mt nhm cc
k thut c pht trin khc phc vn ny. Cc k thut ny l ti quan trng i vi cc
ng dng/giao thc da trn kt ni ga hai ngi dng, in hnh nh VoIP, chat, instant
messaging, video/audio call, WebRTC...
Vn ch yu i vi cc k thut Vt Tng NAT l khng c mt tiu chun nh ngha chung
cho tt c cc loi NAT. V th, nhiu k thut khc nhau thng c ng dng t 100% thnh
cng.

6. Thit lp quan h lng ging OSPF EIGRP thuc lp


Network Access :
Ging OSPF, ngay khi bt EIGRP trn mt cng, router s gi cc gi tin hello ra khi cng thit
lp quan h lng ging vi router kt ni trc tip vi mnh. im khc bit l cc gi tin hello c
gi n a ch multicast dnh ring cho EIGRP l 224.0.0.10 vi gi tr hello timer (khong thi
gian nh k gi gi hello) l 5s.

Hnh 1 - Cc router gi gi tin hello.


V cng ging nh OSPF, khng phi cp router no kt ni trc tip vi nhau cng xy dng c
quan h lng ging. quan h lng ging thit lp c gia hai router, chng phi khp vi nhau
mt s thng s c trao i qua cc gi tin hello, cc thng s ny bao gm:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Gi tr AS c cu hnh trn mi router.


Cc a ch u ni gia hai router phi cng subnet.
Tha mn cc iu kin xc thc.
Cng b tham s K.

Khi cu hnh EIGRP trn cc router, ta phi khai bo mt gi tr dng nh danh cho AS m router
ny thuc v. Gi tr ny buc phi khp nhau gia hai router kt ni trc tip vi nhau cc router
ny c th thit lp c quan h lng ging vi nhau. V mt cu hnh, gi tr AS ny nm v tr
trong cu lnh rt ging vi gi tr process id khi so snh vi cu lnh cu hnh OSPF. Tuy nhin,
gi tr process id trong cu hnh OSPF ch c ngha local trn mi router v c th khc nhau

gia cc router nhng gi tr AS trong cu hnh EIGRP bt buc phi ging nhau gia cc router
thuc cng mt routing domain.
Khng ging nh vi OSPF, EIGRP khng yu cu phi thng nht vi nhau v cp gi tr Hello
timer v Dead timer (EIGRP gi khi nim ny l Hold timer) gia hai neighbor.
Cc router chy EIGRP ch c mt loi trng thi quan h lng ging l Adjacency, khng chia
thnh nhiu cp neighbor nh vi OSPF. C th hiu Adjacency vi EIGRP tng ng vi
quan h dng Full ca OSPF.
Tiu chun ln lng ging

OSPF:
o Nm trong cng 1 Area-ID.
o Cc cng c cng Hello-timer v Dead-timer.
o C cng Subnet Mask v Stub Flag.
o Password ging nhau.
EIGRP:
o C cng AS
o C cng b tham s K
o C cng Subnet Mask.
o Password ging nhau.
o C cng ch smetric EIGRPf(BW,delay,load,reliability).

7.OSPF + EIGRP
Mt s c im chnh ca giao thc OSPF:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

L chun m chy trn router tt c cc hng.


OSPF l mt giao thc link state in hnh.
Hot ng :
a.
Tt c router phi c ID c dng ging a ch IP.
b.
B1 :Mi router khi chy giao thc s gi cc trng thi ng link ca n cho tt c
cc router trong vng (area).
c.
B2 :Sau mt thi gian trao i, cc router s ng nht c bng c s d liu
trng thi ng link (Link State Database LSDB) vi nhau, mi router u c
c bn mng ca c vng.
d.
B3 :T mi router s chy gii thut Dijkstra tnh ton ra mt cy ng i ngn
nht (Shortest Path Tree) v da vo cy ny xy dng nn bng nh tuyn.
OSPF c AD = 110.
Metric ca OSPF cn gi l cost, c tnh theo bandwidth trn cng chy OSPF.
OSPF chy trc tip trn nn IP, c protocol id l 89.

Mt s c im chnh ca giao thc EIGRP:


1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

EIGRP l mt giao thc nh tuyn do Cisco pht trin, ch chy trn cc sn phm ca
Cisco.
EIGRP l mt giao thc dng Distance vector c ci tin (Advanced Distance vector).
EIGRP s dng thut ton DUAL. Cch thc hot ng ca EIGRP vay mn mt s cu
trc v khi nim ca OSPF nh: xy dng quan h lng ging, s dng b 3 bng d liu
(bng neighbor, bng topology v bng nh tuyn). Chnh v iu ny m EIGRP thng
c gi l dng giao thc lai ghp (hybrid). Tuy nhin, v bn cht th EIGRP thun ty
hot ng theo kiu Distance vector: gi thng tin nh tuyn l cc route cho lng ging
(ch gi cho lng ging) v tin tng tuyt i vo thng tin nhn c t lng ging.
EIGRP khng gi cp nht theo nh k m ch gi ton b bng nh tuyn cho lng ging
cho ln u tin thit lp quan h lng ging, sau ch gi cp nht khi c s thay i. iu
ny tit kim rt nhiu ti nguyn mng.
Vic s dng bng topology v thut ton DUAL khin cho EIGRP c tc hi t rt nhanh.
EIGRP s dng mt cng thc tnh metric rt phc tp da trn nhiu thng s: Bandwidth,
delay, load v reliability.
Ch s AD ca EIGRP l 90 cho cc route internal v 170 cho cc route external.
EIGRP chy trc tip trn nn IP v c s protocol id l 88.