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You are on page 1of 8

4

Before

Now

Why?

Key Vocabulary

line perpendicular

to a plane

postulate, p. 8

Use Postulates

and Diagrams

You used postulates involving angle and segment measures.

You will use postulates involving points, lines, and planes.

So you can draw the layout of a neighborhood, as in Ex. 39.

In geometry, rules that are accepted without proof are called postulates or

axioms. Rules that are proved are called theorems. Postulates and theorems

are often written in conditional form. Unlike the converse of a definition, the

converse of a postulate or theorem cannot be assumed to be true.

You learned four postulates in Chapter 1.

POSTULATE 1

Ruler Postulate

page 9

POSTULATE 2

page 10

POSTULATE 3

Protractor Postulate

page 24

POSTULATE 4

page 25

Here are seven new postulates involving points, lines, and planes.

POSTULATES

Point, Line, and Plane Postulates

POSTULATE 5

POSTULATE 6

POSTULATE 7

one point.

POSTULATE 8

exactly one plane.

POSTULATE 9

POSTULATE 10

them lies in the plane.

POSTULATE 11

previous courses.

One way to graph a linear equation is to plot two points whose coordinates

satisfy the equation and then connect them with a line. Postulate 5

guarantees that there is exactly one such line. A familiar way to find a

common solution of two linear equations is to graph the lines and find the

coordinates of their intersection. This process is guaranteed to work by

Postulate 7.

96

EXAMPLE 1

a.

b.

then

If

then

If

Solution

a. Postulate 7 If two lines intersect, then their intersection is exactly

one point.

b. Postulate 11 If two planes intersect, then their intersection is a line.

EXAMPLE 2

Postulate 9 Plane P contains at least

three noncollinear points, A, B, and C.

plane P, so line n containing A and B

also lies in plane P.

(FPNFUSZ

GUIDED PRACTICE

at classzone.com

m

B

n

A

1. Use the diagram in Example 2. Which postulate allows you to say that

2. Use the diagram in Example 2 to write examples of Postulates 5, 6, and 7.

CONCEPT SUMMARY

Interpreting a Diagram

When you interpret a diagram, you can only assume information

about size or measure if it is marked.

YOU CAN ASSUME

]

]

BF and CE intersect.

]

]

BF and CE do not intersect.

]

]

AD and BF intersect at H.

] ]

AD BF or m AHB 5 908

A

G

B

H

F

C

J

E

97

EXAMPLE 3

]

Sketch a diagram showing TV intersecting }

PQ at point W, so that }

TW > }

WV.

Solution

AVOID ERRORS

STEP 1 Draw TV

was drawn so that W

does not look like a

midpoint of }

PQ. Also, it

PQ is

was drawn so that }

TV.

not perpendicular to }

TV.

STEP 3 Draw }

PQ through W.

line intersects the plane in a point and is

perpendicular to every line in the plane that

intersects it at that point.

must be marked with a right angle symbol.

EXAMPLE 4

assumed from the diagram?

A

S

}

AB plane S

}

CD plane T

]

]

AF intersects BC at point B.

E

F

Solution

No drawn line connects E, B, and D, so you cannot assume they are collinear.

CD plane T.

With no right angle marked, you cannot assume }

GUIDED PRACTICE

PW and }

QW are congruent, how would

3. If the given information stated }

you indicate that in the diagram?

4. Name a pair of supplementary angles in the diagram. Explain.

5. In the diagram for Example 4, can you assume plane S intersects

]

plane T at BC ?

]

98

2.4

HOMEWORK

KEY

EXERCISES

5 WORKED-OUT SOLUTIONS

on p. WS1 for Exs. 7, 13, and 31

Exs. 2, 10, 24, 25, 33, 39, and 41

SKILL PRACTICE

1. VOCABULARY Copy and complete: A ? is a line that intersects the

intersects it.

2.

EXAMPLE 1

on p. 97

for Exs. 35

WRITING Explain why you cannot assume BHA > CJA in the

Concept Summary on page 97.

3.

4.

A

A

B

then

If

then

If

a. Rewrite Postulate 8 in if-then form.

b. Write the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of Postulate 8.

c. Which statements in part (b) are true?

EXAMPLE 2

on p. 97

for Exs. 68

6. Postulate 6

7. Postulate 7

K

H

8. Postulate 8

EXAMPLES

3 and 4

]

]

] ]

so XY WV . In your diagram, does }

WT have to be congruent to }

TV ?

Explain your reasoning.

on p. 98

for Exs. 910

10.

cannot be assumed from the diagram?

B Points F, B, and G are collinear.

] ]

C HC GE

]

D EC intersects plane M at point C.

F

P

A

E

is true or false. If it is false, give a real-world counterexample.

11. Through any three points, there exists exactly one line.

12. A point can be in more than one plane.

13. Any two planes intersect.

2.4 Use Postulates and Diagrams

99

true or false.

]

W

P

]

]

17. MN and RP intersect.

]

18. RP plane W

]

19. JK lies in plane X.

X

L

P

21. NKL and JKM are vertical angles.

22. NKJ and JKM are supplementary angles.

23. JKM and KLP are congruent angles.

24.

N

B

N

C

C

B

25.

] ]

] ]

]

intersecting at point M, AB bisecting }

LN, and DC LN .

illustrating three of the postulates about points, lines, and planes.

List the postulates used.

two different ways to make it true.

contained in a line.

27. REASONING Use Postulates 5 and 9 to explain why every plane contains

28. REASONING Point X lies in plane M. Use Postulates 6 and 9 to explain

why there are at least two lines in plane M that contain point X.

29. CHALLENGE Sketch a line m and a point C not on line m. Make a

conjecture about how many planes can be drawn so that line m and

point C lie in the plane. Use postulates to justify your conjecture.

100

5 WORKED-OUT SOLUTIONS

on p. WS1

5 STANDARDIZED

TEST PRACTICE

PROBLEM SOLVING

REAL-WORLD SITUATIONS Which postulate is suggested by the photo?

30.

33.

31.

32.

states that a line contains at least two points.

GPSQSPCMFNTPMWJOHIFMQBUDMBTT[POFDPN

34. DRAW A DIAGRAM Sketch two lines that intersect, and another line

GPSQSPCMFNTPMWJOHIFMQBUDMBTT[POFDPN

35. Postulate 5

36. Postulate 7

37. Postulate 9

38. Postulate 10

39.

about a neighborhood. Use the statements to complete parts (a)(e).

3UBJECT

'#!%

b. Where do Streets 1 and 2 intersect?

7

e. What street is Building E on?

3

2.4 Use Postulates and Diagrams

101

40. MULTI-STEP PROBLEM Copy the figure and label the following points,

a. Label the horizontal plane as X and the vertical plane as Y.

b. Draw two points A and B on your diagram so they

c. Illustrate Postulate 5 on your diagram.

d. If point C lies in both plane X and plane Y, where would

e. Illustrate Postulate 9 for plane X on your diagram.

41.

plane Q. What must be true about points E, F, and G if P and Q are

different planes? What must be true about points E, F, and G to force P

and Q to be the same plane? Make sketches to support your answers.

that meets the additional condition(s) and another diagram that does not.

42. AED and AEB are right angles.

43. Point E is the midpoint of }

AC .

44. EA and EC are opposite rays. EB and ED are not opposite rays.

45. CHALLENGE Suppose none of the four legs of a chair are the same length.

of the legs? Suppose exactly three of the legs of a second chair have the

same length. What is the maximum number of planes determined by the

lower ends of the legs of the second chair? Explain your reasoning.

MIXED REVIEW

PREVIEW

Prepare for

Lesson 2.5

in Exs. 4648.

M

N

18

B

16

16

26

C

R

Line l bisects the segment. Find the indicated length. (p. 15)

49. Find JK.

2x 2 3

J

x 1 10

K

3x 2 8

L

l

2x 1 7

x16

Z

22x

B

52. Right angle

56. Two angles form a linear pair. The measure of one angle is 9 times the

measure of the other angle. Find the measure of each angle. (p. 35)

102

EXTRA PRACTICE

classzone.com

Lessons 2.12.4

shows the time of the sunrise on different

days in Galveston, Texas.

Date in

2006

Time of sunrise

(Central Standard Time)

Jan. 1

7:14 A.M.

Feb. 1

7:08 A.M.

Mar. 1

6:45 A.M.

Apr. 1

6:09 A.M.

May 1

5:37 A.M.

June 1

5:20 A.M.

July 1

5:23 A.M.

Aug. 1

5:40 A.M.

the pattern.

1, 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, . . .

4. EXTENDED RESPONSE The graph shows

games. Tell whether each statement is the

result of inductive reasoning or deductive

reasoning. Explain your thinking.

Concession Sales at Games

Sales (dollasr)

300

200

100

0

0

100

Number of students

600

b. Use the times in the table to make a

the sunrise on September 1, 2006.

2. SHORT RESPONSE As shown in the table

speed of the wind in the storm. Use the table

to determine whether the statement is true or

false. If false, provide a counterexample.

Hurricane

category

Wind speed w

(mi/h)

74 w 95

96 w 110

111 w 130

131 w 155

w > 155

155 miles per hour.

b. A hurricane is a category 3 hurricane if

miles per hour.

reach $300.

b. Concession sales were highest at the game

c. The average number of students who

5. SHORT RESPONSE Select the phrase that

reasoning.

a. A person needs a library card to check out

out a book at the public library. You (must

have, may have, or do not have) a library

card.

b. The islands of Hawaii are volcanoes. Bob

Bob (has visited, may have visited, or has

never visited) volcanoes.

6. SHORT RESPONSE Sketch a diagram

]

]

showing PQ intersecting RS at point N. In

your diagram, PNS should be an obtuse

angle. Identify two acute angles in your

diagram. Explain how you know that these

angles are acute.

Mixed Review of Problem Solving

103

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