You are on page 1of 5

RocioSaucedo

HonorsAnatomy3rdPeriod
Mrs.Lafferty
9/25/15
IntegumentarySystemLabReport

Theorgansoftheintegumentarysystemconsistoftheskinandaccessoryorgans.Some
accessoryorgansincludethehair,nails,sweatglands,andsebaceousglands.Alloftheseorgans
helpoutthehumanbodyindifferentway.Theyhelpprotectunderlyingtissues,regulatebody
temperature,keepavarietyofsensoryreceptors,andsynthesizecertainproducts.Theskin
consistsofthreelayers,epidermis,dermis,andafatlayer(subcutaneouslayer).
Theepidermisis
thetoughouterlayeroftheskin,mostofitscellsarekeratinocytes.Thekeratinocytesconsistof
90%ofwaterproofing.Thedermis,theskin'snextlayer,isathicklayeroffibrousandelastic
tissue(mademostlyofcollagen,elastin,andfibrillin)thatgivestheskinitsflexibilityand
strength.Thedermisisdense,irregularconnectivetissue.Thelastlayeristhefatlayeror
(hypodermis)thathelpsinsulatethebodyfromheatandcold,italsoprovidesprotectivepadding,
andservesasanenergystoragearea.Someoftheprotectionfoundintheintegumentarysystem
consistoftheMelanin,Keratin,Langerhans,FibricCells,andtheSebum.Intheepidermisthere
arespecializedcellscalledmelanocyteswhichproducethedarkpigmentmelanin.Melanin
providestheskincolor,anditalsoabsorbstheultravioletorUVradiationfromsunlight.Thatis
verybeneficialforusbecauseifwedidnothaveanyprotectionforourintegumentarysystemwe
wouldcauseskindamages.Themoremelaninthedarkerourskincoloris.Environmentalfactors
suchassunlight,ultravioletlightfromsunlamps,andXraysaffecttheskinaswell.Allofthese
environmentalfactorsquicklydarkenthepreviouslyexistingmelanin,andtheyalsostimulate
melanocytestoproducemorepigmentandtransferittonearbyepidermalcellswithinfewdays.

Figure1:
Thisisa
histologydrawingofthe
theintegumentary
system.TheEpidermisis
labeledatthetop,than
belowitisthedermal
papaline,thensome
bloodvessels,andan
adiposetissue.Onthe
othersidesomeStratum
arelabeled,arrectorpili,
denseconnectivetissue
andthecollagenfibers.


Thermoregulationistheprocessbywhichthebodymaintainsitsinternaltemperatureata
safeandaveragetemperature.Thestateofhavinganequalsafeinternaltemperatureiscalled
homeostasis.Allthermoregulatorymechanismsaredesignedtoreturnthebodytohomeostasis.
Thehumanbodyaveragesatemperatureof37degreescelsiusforastableinternaltemperature.
Havingaregulatedbodytemperatureiscrucialbecauseequalslightshiftscandisrupttheratesof
metabolicreactions.Themaintenanceofastabletemperaturerequiresthattheamountofheatthe
bodylosesisthesameequalamountoftemperatureitproducesback.Theintegumentarysystem
isimportantinthehomeostaticmechanismthathelpsregulatethebodystemperature.Thereare
severalfactorsthatcanaffectthebodystemperatureregulationlikeillness,exercise,digestion,
andclimate.Whenthebodystemperaturerisesduetoexerciseofhotclimatethebodyactivates
abodysystemforheatlossorwhenthebodystemperaturedroptocoldweather.Thefirststep
thebodydoesissensorsinyourcentralnervoussystem(CNS)sendmessagestoyour
hypothalamus,tellingityourinternaltemperatureisincreasing.Yourhypothalamus,which
controlsthermoregulation,receivesthemessage.Thanyourhypothalamusactivatesoneof
severalmechanismstodecreaseyourtemperature.Theprimarymeansofbodyheatisradiation
whereinfraredheatraysescapefromwarmersurfacestocoolersurroundings.Conductionand
convectionalsoplayaroleinthereleaseofheat.Incontrastfromotherfunctionsthatreleasea
lotofheat,theyreleaseasmalleramountofit.Anotherwayoflosingbodyheatisby
evaporation.Whenthebodytemp.risesabovenormal,thenervoussystemstimulateseccrine
sweatglandstoreleasesweat.Inconclusionwecanseethattheskinortheintegumentarysystem
playsanextremelyimportantroleforthermoregulation.Thereareotherfactorsthatcanaffectit,
butskinprovidesanimportantpartinmaintainingthebodywithagoodaveragetemperature
troughhomeostasis.FrommydataIcanconcludethattheHands(dorsal)hadmorebloodvessels
inthecapillarieswhichproducemoresweatglands.Myrecoverytimedemonstrateitthatmy
palmwasgreaterthanmyforearm.

Figure2:
Onthe
Hands(palm)
columnthereare14
sweatglands,Hands
(dorsal)1,317
sweatglands,
Forearm(dorsal)78
sweatglands,and
onthelastcolumn
Forearm(ventral)
23sweatglands.


Figure3:
The
informationcollected
demonstratesthatthe
recoverytimeforthe
palmtemperaturewas
highercomparedtothe
temperatureofthe
forearm.Itwasnotbya
lotbutitdoeshavesome
noticeablechanges.

Touchiswhentwobodieshavecontactwithoneanother.Inneurosciencetouch
describesthespecialsensebywhichcontactwiththebodyisperceivedintheconsciousmind.
Ourmostpowerfulsensesareourhands(touch).Sensoryreceptorsinourskinprovide
informationtothebrainaboutthesizeandshapeofobjectswehold.Thesereceptorsallowusto
perceivehowobjectsappearintexture,weight,temperatureandwhethertheoverallsensation
producespainorpleasure.Thetactilesenseisoneoftheseveralsubmodalitiesofthe
somatosensorysystem,thesenseofonesownbody.Receptorssignalwherecontactismadeby
mechanicaldeformation.Thesensationsmadebythesensorymechanismsarethenturnedinto
electricalsignals.Oneofthesomaticsenseorganisthemechanoreceptor,itrespondsto
mechanicalpressureordistortion.Itusuallycontainsfourmaintypesintheglabrousskin,
Paciniancorpuscles,Meissner'scorpuscles,Merkel'sdiscs,andRuffiniendings.Thesesensory
neuronsarecalledprimaryafferents,theyhavethreemajorpartsacellbody,aperipheralbranch
andacentralbranch.Theneurobiologicalprocessesthatunderliesensationsoftouchstartby
mechanoreceptorsthattransformphysicaldeformationoftheskinintoelectricalsignals
proportionaltotheappliedforces.Theinformationisthantransferredtothecentralnervous
systembytheperipheralnerves.Topographicallyorganisedascendinganatomicalpathways
transmittactileinformationtothecerebralcortexwhereitisanalysedbytheconsciousmindto
perceivethespecificobjectthatistouched.Tactilesensationsmaybealteredbyexperienceorby
lesionsinsomatosensoryareasofthebrain.Inconclusionwiththedatagivenfrommybar
graphandhomunculusdrawing,thetipsofmyphalangesandfacialbodypartsweremore
sensitivethantheotherpartsinmybody.Thescalp,backandtorsowere


Figure4:
Theinformationshowsthatthebiggerthebodypartthebiggerthemeasurement
number.Forexamplethescalphad30mmcomparedtothetipofthephalangeswhichwasa
1mm.Wecanevensaythatthethickerandtougherthebodypartthemorebiggerthenumber.

Figure5:
TheHomunculusshown
representstherelationshipofthe
sensorytouchreceptorsofthehead,
back,arms,hands,legs,andfeet.My
headwas30mmwhichwasthe
highestandthelowestonesareof
7.5mm.

APACITATIONSOURCES:

Gardner,EstherP."Touch."
eLS
(2010).

Thermoregulation.(n.d.).RetrievedSeptember30,2015.

Bierman,William."Thetemperatureoftheskinsurface."
JournaloftheAmericanMedical
Association
106.14(1936):11581162.

Sheir,David.
Holeshumananatomy&physiology/DavidShier,JackieButler,RickiLewis
Thirteenthed.p.cm.