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COURSE DESCRIPTION

This CE course will describe commonly performed laboratory


tests and their usefulness in diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The tests are listed by the section of the laboratory where the
tests are performed. However, this may vary by facility. The
disease states are listed by body system. Please note that these
lists are not meant to be all-inclusive.

Rev 3.0
4/2014

COURSE TITLE: Common Laboratory Tests & Their Use in


Diagnosis & Treatment
Author: Lucia Johnson, MA Ed, MT(ASCP)SBB
Vice President, Recertification
NCCT
Number of Clock Hours Credit: 3.0
Course # 1221108
P.A.C.E. Approved:
Yes
_X

No

OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this continuing education course, the professional
should be able to:
1. Name the commonly ordered laboratory tests.
2. Describe the usefulness of the commonly ordered laboratory tests in
the diagnosis of disease and the maintenance of health.
3. Correlate the most frequently ordered laboratory tests with body system
disorders.

Disclaimer
The writers for NCCT continuing education courses attempt to provide factual information based on
literature review and current professional practice. However, NCCT does not guarantee that the
information contained in the continuing education courses is free from all errors and omissions.

INTRODUCTION
Laboratory tests are an important, yet often underappreciated, part of healthcare. They
are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of illness and maintenance of health.
Billions of dollars are spent annually on laboratory tests. Research indicates laboratory
test results influence 60% 70% of treatment decisions, but they account for about 3%
of Medicare all Medicare Part B payments
This CE course describes commonly performed laboratory tests and their usefulness in
diagnosis and treatment of disease. The tests are listed by the section of the laboratory
where the tests are performed. However, this may vary by facility. The disease states
are listed by body system. Please note that these lists are not meant to be all-inclusive.

COMMON LABORATORY TESTS


HEMATOLOGY
The hematology section performs laboratory tests to identify diseases associated with
the blood and blood-forming tissues. Hematology tests assist the physician in
diagnosing infections, leukemia, polycythemia, anemia, and other blood abnormalities.
The most commonly ordered hematology tests are listed in the following table.
TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE HEMATOLOGY SECTION
Body Fluid Analysis

determines the number and type of cells in various body fluids

Bone Marrow
Aspiration &
Evaluation
Erythrocyte
Sedimentation Rate
Flow Cytometry

determines the number and type of cells in the bone marrow

Hemoglobin &
Hematocrit*
Hemoglobin
Electrophoresis
MCH*
MCHC*
MCV*
Platelet Count*
Red Blood Cell
(RBC) Count*
RDW*
Reticulocyte Count

also known as sed rate or ESR; a nonspecific test for inflammatory disorders that
determines the rate of red blood cell sedimentation; referred to as sed rate
analytic method where cells from blood, bone marrow, or biopsies are sorted and
identified by immunofluorescent techniques
determines the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells and the percentage of
red blood cells present in the blood; abbreviated as H & H
determines the type and quantity of hemoglobins present in the blood
mean corpuscular hemoglobin; determines the average amount of hemoglobin in
a population of red blood cells
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; determines the average weight of
hemoglobin in a red blood cell population and compares it with the size of the cell
mean corpuscular volume; determines the average size of red blood cells
frequently abbreviated as plt; determines the number of platelets in the circulating
blood
determines the number of red blood cells in the circulating blood
red cell distribution width; calculation of the differences in the size of the red blood
cells
Frequently abbreviated as retic; evaluates the bone marrow production of red
blood cells

*part of a Complete Blood Count (CBC)

TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE HEMATOLOGY SECTION-cont.


Sickle Cell Screen

detects the presence of hemoglobin S

White Blood Cell


(WBC) Count *
WBC Differential
(Diff)

determines the number of white blood cells present in the blood


determines the percentage of the different types of white blood cells and
evaluates red blood cell and platelet appearance; WBC types include neutrophil,
lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil

*part of a Complete Blood Count (CBC)

COAGULATION
The coagulation section of a laboratory evaluates the overall process of hemostasis (the
stoppage of blood flow from an injured vessel). This includes the coagulation
mechanism and the mechanism that dissolves blood clots. Platelet numbers and
function, blood vessel integrity, coagulation factors, fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors,
and anticoagulant therapy are evaluated in the coagulation section. Disease conditions
such as hemophilia and disseminated intravascular coagulation are diagnosed using
results of tests performed in this section. A table of the most commonly ordered
coagulation tests follows.
TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE COAGULATION SECTION
Activated Partial
Thromboplastin
Time (aPTT or PTT)
Bleeding Time (BT)

evaluates the intrinsic coagulation pathway; monitors heparin therapy

Factor Assays

determines the amount of coagulation factors in the plasma; examples Factor


VIII, Factor X
tests for increased fibrinolysis

Fibrin Degradation
Products (FDP)
Fibrinogen

evaluates platelet function

determines the amount of fibrinogen in plasma

Platelet Aggregation

evaluates the function of platelets

Prothrombin Time
(PT)
Thrombin Time (TT)

evaluates the extrinsic coagulation pathway; monitors Coumadin therapy


determines the ability to convert fibrinogen to fibrin

CHEMISTRY
The chemistry section of the laboratory is often the largest and performs the majority of
laboratory tests. Examples of tests performed in this section are glucose, triglycerides,
cholesterol, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide), uric acid,
creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), bilirubin, serum proteins, iron, pregnancy tests,
cardiac enzymes, liver enzymes, and more. The chemistry section also performs both
therapeutic drug monitoring and drugs of abuse detection.

TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE CHEMISTRY SECTION


Acid Phosphatase

elevated levels indicate prostate cancer

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)


Albumin

elevated levels indicate liver disorders

Alcohol

elevated levels indicate intoxication

Alkaline
Phosphatase (ALP)
Ammonia

elevated levels indicate bone or liver disorders

Amylase

elevated levels indicate pancreatic disorders

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)


Bilirubin

elevated levels indicate recent myocardial infarction or liver disorders

Blood Urea Nitrogen


(BUN)
B-Type Natriuretic
Peptide (BNP)
Calcium

elevated levels indicate kidney disorders

Cholesterol

elevated levels indicate cardiovascular disease risk

Creatine Kinase (CK)

elevated levels indicate myocardial infarction or other muscle damage

Creatine Kinase (CK)


Isoenzymes
Creatinine

determines the extent of muscle or brain damage

Creatinine Clearance

urine and serum tests used to measure the glomerular filtration rate of the kidney

C-Reactive Protein
(CRP)
Drug Screen

measures inflammation in the body; can be used as a cardiac diagnostic test,


among other things
detects common drugs of abuse

Electrolytes (Lytes)

consists of sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide; evaluates body


fluid balance
elevated levels indicate early liver disorders

Gamma Glutamyl
Transferase (GGT)
Glucose

decreased levels indicate liver or kidney disorders or malnutrition

elevated levels indicate severe liver disorders

often abbreviated as bili; elevated levels indicate liver or hemolytic disorders

used to help diagnose and grade the severity of congestive heart failure
abnormal values associated with bone, musculoskeletal, or endocrine disorders

elevated levels indicate kidney disorders

elevated levels indicate diabetes mellitus

Glucose Tolerance
Test (GTT)
High Density
Lipoprotein (HDL)
Lactic
Dehydrogenase (LD)
Lead

detects diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia

Lipase

elevated levels indicate pancreatic disorders

used with other lipid tests to assess cardiovascular disease risk


elevated levels indicate myocardial infarction or lung or liver disorders
elevated levels indicate lead poisoning

TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE CHEMISTRY SECTION-cont.


Lithium

monitors levels of the antidepressant drug lithium

Low Density
Lipoprotein (LDL)
Peak/Trough
Therapeutic Drug
Monitoring (TDM)
Phosphorus

used with other lipid tests to assess cardiovascular disease risk

Protein

decreased levels associated with liver or kidney disorders

Total Protein (TP)

decreased levels indicate liver or kidney disorders

Tumor Markers

small proteins in blood that are elevated in certain types of cancer; examples-CA-125 (ovarian), CEA (colorectal, others), PSA (prostate cancer), CA 15-3
(breast)
often abbreviated as trig, trigs, or trigies; used with other lipid tests to assess
cardiovascular disease risk

Triglycerides

Uric Acid

measures and monitors levels of certain antibiotics, antidepressants, cardiac


drugs, bronchodilators, anti-seizure drugs
abnormal levels associated with skeletal or endocrine disorders

elevated levels indicate kidney disorders or gout

BLOOD BANK/TRANSFUSION SERVICES


The blood bank section of the laboratory is where blood and blood components donated
by volunteers at community blood centers or Red Cross centers are stored and
prepared for transfusion. Patients receive transfusions of red blood cells, platelets,
fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, injections of Rh immune globulin, and specially
prepared coagulation factors. Blood samples from donors and patients must be
carefully tested before a transfusion can be administered so that incompatibility and
transfusion reactions can be avoided. Failure to follow patient identification and
specimen labeling procedures can cause a patient to die if an incompatible unit is
transfused.
TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE BLOOD BANK SECTION
ABO & Rh Type
(blood type)
Antibody Screen
Antibody
Identification
Direct Antihuman
Globulin Test (DAT
or Direct Coombs)
Indirect Antihuman
Globulin Test
(Indirect Coombs)
Transfusion
Reaction
Type & Crossmatch
Type & Screen
(T&S)

identifies the presence or absence of antigens in the ABO and Rh blood group
systems; single most important test to do prior to transfusion of blood
detects abnormal antibodies to red cell antigens in many blood group systems;
sometimes abbreviated as ab sc or aby sc
identifies abnormal antibodies to red cell antigens in many blood group systems;
presence of abnormal antibodies can lead to problems providing compatible blood
detects antibodies bound to red blood cell antigens; positive in autoimmune
diseases, hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the newborn
same as antibody screen

a panel of tests performed when a patient has a suspected transfusion reaction;


tests are performed to rule out hemolytic reactions
a panel of tests performed on a patient prior to transfusion of blood; includes ABO
& Rh type, antibody screen, and compatibility tests; abbreviated as T&C
a panel of tests performed on a patient when transfusion may occur in the near
future; includes and ABO & Rh type and antibody screen

IMMUNOLOGY
The immunology section performs tests to evaluate the bodys immune response, i.e.,
the production of antibodies and cellular activation. Tests in the section detect the
presence of antibodies to bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and antibodies produced
against body substances (as seen in autoimmune disease).
TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE SEROLOGY SECTION
Anti-HIV

screening test for human immunodeficiency virus

Antinuclear Antibody
(ANA)
Antistreptolysin O
(ASO) titer
Cold Agglutinins

detects autoantibodies against nuclear proteins; seen in systemic lupus


erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis; other disorders
detects a previous infection with the streptococcus bacteria

Complement Levels
(C3, C4, CH 50)
Cytomegalovirus
(CMV) Antibody
Epstein-Barr (EBV)
Virus
Febrile Agglutinins
Antinuclear Antibody
(ANA)
Fluorescent
Treponemal
Antibody (FTA)
Hepatitis B Surface
Antigen (HBsAg)
Hepatitis Panels
Herpes simplex
(HSV) Virus Antibody
Immunoglobulin
Levels (IgG, IgM, IgE)
Influenza A/B

elevated levels indicate atypical pneumonia (caused by Mycoplasma


pneumoniae)
evaluates the function and activation of the immune system
detects current or previous infection with cytomegalovirus
confirms the presents of infectious mononucleosis
detects antibodies to microorganisms causing fever (tularemia, Rocky Mountain
Spotted Fever, typhus); not frequently used any longer
detects autoantibodies against various components of cells
confirms the presence of syphilis (Treponema pallidum) infection

detects the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen


detects antigens and antibodies found in viral hepatitis; used to determine if
patient has hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C
detects past or current infection with herpes virus
evaluates the function of the immune system
screening test for influenza A and influenza B

Monospot

brand name of a screening test for infectious mononucleosis

Polymerase Chain
Reaction (PCR)
Rapid Plasma
Reagin (RPR)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
(RA) Factor
Rubella Titer

method used to confirm the presence of infectious diseases that are difficult to
grow in culture; i.e., tuberculosis, hepatitis C, HIV, and more
screening test for syphilis (Treponema pallidum) performed on blood

Strep Group A
Venereal Disease
Research Laboratory
(VDRL) test

screening test for group A streptococcus infection (strep throat)


screening test for syphilis (Treponema pallidum) performed on cerebrospinal fluid

detects autoantibodies present in rheumatoid arthritis


evaluates past or current infection with the organism causing German measles

MICROBIOLOGY
The microbiology section is responsible for the identification of pathogenic
microorganisms and for hospital infection control. In large laboratories, the section is
divided into bacteriology, mycology, virology, and parasitology. The majority of
microbiology specimens are obtained from the blood, urine, throat, sputum,
genitourinary tract, wounds, and feces. The tests most frequently performed in the
microbiology section are listed in the table that follows.
TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE MICROBIOLOGY SECTION
Blood Culture

detects bacteria, yeast, or viruses in the blood

Culture & Sensitivity


(C&S)
Fungal Culture

detects and identifies the type of bacteria causing infection and determines the
most appropriate antibiotic treatment
detects the presence of and identifies the type of fungal infection

Gram Stain

detects the presence of and assists in the identification of bacteria; presumptive


diagnosis can sometimes be made from a Gram stain
performed on stool and gastric specimens; detects very small quantities of blood
in specimen; sometimes abbreviated as FOB (fecal occult blood)

Occult Blood

Ova and Parasites


Viral Culture

most often performed on stool specimens; detects the presence of and identifies
type of parasitic infection; abbreviated as O&P
detects the presence of and identifies the type of viral infection

URINALYSIS
Urinalysis is a routine screening procedure to detect disorders and infection of the
kidney and detect metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and liver disease. A
routine urinalysis exam consists of physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of
the urine.
TESTS COMMONLY PERFORMED IN THE URINALYSIS SECTION
Physical Exam of
Urine
Chemical Exam of
Urine (dipstick)
Microscopic Exam of
Urine

evaluates the color and clarity of the urine


most frequently used dipsticks determine the levels of specific gravity, pH,
glucose, ketones, protein, blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrate, and leukocytes
identifies and quantitates the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells,
epithelial cells, casts, bacteria, yeast, parasites, and crystals

ANATOMIC AND SURGICAL PATHOLOGY


Histology
This section of the laboratory processes and stains samples of tissues from biopsy,
autopsy, and surgery procedures. The prepared slides of specimens are referred to a
pathologist for microscopic examination. Malignancy, infection, inflammation, and other
disease processes are identified from the microscopic examination.

Cytology
The cytology section of the laboratory processes body fluids and tissues using a specific
method called the Papanicolaou test or Pap smear. The microscopic evaluation of
cells processed by the Pap smear technique is useful in the early detection of cancer.

USE OF LABORATORY TESTS IN DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT


SKELETAL SYSTEM
Disorders: arthritis, bursitis, gout, osteomyelitis, osteocondritis, osteoporosis, rickets,
tumors
Diagnostic Tests: alkaline phosphatase, calcium, complete blood count (CBC),
erythrocyte sedimentation rate, phosphorus, synovial fluid analysis, uric acid,
vitamin D, biopsy
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Disorders: atrophy, muscular dystrophy, myalgia, tendinitis
Diagnostic Tests: autoimmune antibodies, creatine phosphokinase (CK), CK
isoenzymes, lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase (LD), myoglobin, biopsy
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Disorders: cervical cancer, infertility, ovarian cancer, ovarian cyst, prostate cancer,
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), uterine cancer
Diagnostic Tests: acid phosphatase, estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), luteinizing hormone (LH), microbiologic cultures,
Pap smear, rapid plasma reagin (RPR), testosterone, viral tissue studies, VDRL, FTA,
biopsy
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Disorders: appendicitis, cholecystitis, colitis, diverticulosis, gastritis, gastroenteritis,
hepatitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis, ulcer, cancer, tumors, malabsorption syndromes
Diagnostic Tests: amylase, bilirubin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carotene,
cholesterol, complete blood count (CBC), glucose, lipase, occult blood, ova and
parasitology (O & P), triglycerides, vitamin B12, folate, fecal fat, biopsy

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Disorders:
pituitary disorders: dwarfism, acromegaly, gigantism, diabetes insipidus, tumor
thyroid disorders: congenital hypothyroidism, cretinism, goiter, hyperthyroidism,
hypothyroidism, myxedema, tumor
parathyroidism: hypersecretion, hyposecretion, tumor
adrenal disorders: Addisons disease, aldosteronism, Cushings syndrome, tumor
pancreatic disorders: diabetes mellitus type I and type II, hyperinsulinism,
hypoglycemia, tumor
Diagnostic Tests: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), aldosterone, antidiuretic
hormone (ADH), cortisol, erythropoietin, glucagon, glucose tolerance test (GTT), growth
hormone (GH), insulin level, renin, serotonin, thyroid studies (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating
hormone {TSH}), biopsy
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Disorders: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), encephalitis, epilepsy, hydrocephalus,
meningitis, multiple sclerosis, neuralgia, Parkinsons disease, shingles, tumor
Diagnostic Tests: acetylcholine receptor antibody, CSF analysis (cell count, glucose,
protein, culture), cholinesterase, drug levels, biopsy
URINARY SYSTEM
Disorders: renal failure, nephritis, uremia, kidney stones, cystitis, urinary tract infection,
tumor
Diagnostic Tests: albumin, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, creatinine
clearance, electrolytes, osmolality, urinalysis, urine culture and sensitivity, biopsy
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (SKIN, HAIR, NAILS)
Disorders: acne, cancer, dermatitis, fungal infections, herpes, impetigo, keloid,
pediculosis, pruritis, psoriasis
Diagnostic Tests: biopsy, skin scrapings for culture, tissue cultures, microbiology
cultures
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Disorders: upper respiratory infection, tonsillitis, asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis,
emphysema, pleurisy, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, tuberculosis, respiratory distress
syndrome, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinitis, tumor

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM-continued
Diagnostic Tests: alkaline phosphatase, arterial blood gases (ABG), complete blood
count (CBC), drug levels, electrolytes, microbiology cultures and sensitivity,
pleuracentensis (cell count, glucose, protein, culture), skin tests, biopsy
CARDIAC SYSTEM
Disorders: angina pectoris, aortic stenosis, bacterial endocarditis, congestive heart
failure (CHF), myocardial infarction (MI)
Diagnostic Tests: arterial blood gases (ABG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST),
cholesterol, creatine kinase (CK) and CK isoenzymes, electrocardiograph (ECG), lactic
dehydrogenase (LD), potassium, triglycerides, lipid ratios, B-type natriuretic peptide
(BNP)
VASCULAR SYSTEM
Disorders: aneurysm, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary embolism, embolus,
hemorrhoids, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), varicose veins
Diagnostic Tests: disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) screen, lipoproteins,
protime (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), triglycerides
HEMATOPOIETIC/HEMOSTATIC SYSTEMS
Disorders: anemia, leukemia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, polycythemia, thrombocytosis,
thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders (hemophilia, von Willebrands disease)
Diagnostic Tests: bone marrow aspiration and examination, complete blood count
(CBC), white blood cell differential, eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate,
ferritin, hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin (HGB), indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW), iron,
total iron binding capacity (TIBC), hemoglobin electrophoresis, coagulation factor
assays, activated clotting time (ACT), bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT),
activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrin degradation products, bone marrow
biopsy, flow cytometry
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Disorders: lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, Hodgkins
disease, lymphosarcoma, lymphoma
Diagnostic Tests: biopsy, complete blood count (CBC), mononucleosis tests, culture
and sensitivity, bone marrow biopsy, flow cytometry

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References
Lab Tests Online. www.labtestsonline.org
Directory of Services and Interpretative Guide. Laboratory Corporation of America.
www.labcorp.com
The Physicians Guide to Laboratory Test Selection and Interpretation. www.arup.com
TEST QUESTIONS
Common Laboratory Tests #1221108
Directions:
Before taking this test, read the instructions on how to correctly complete the answer
sheets. If taking the test online, log in to your User Account on the NCCT website
www.ncctinc.com.
Select the response that best completes each sentence or answers each question
from the information presented in the module.
If you are having difficulty answering a question, go to www.ncctinc.com and select
Forms/Documents. Then select CE Updates and Revisions to see if course content
and/or a test questions have been revised. If you do not have access to the internet,
call Customer Service at 800-875-4404.
1. What percentage of treatment decisions are reportedly based on laboratory test
results?
a.
b.
c.
d.

10-20%
30-40%
50-60%
60-70%

2. Which one of the following tests is a nonspecific test for inflammatory disorders?
a.
b.
c.
d.

complete blood count


red cell distribution width
sedimentation rate
thrombin time

3. Which one of the following tests determines the type and quantity of hemoglobins
present in blood?
a.
b.
c.
d.

hemoglobin electrophoresis
hemoglobin and hematocrit
mean corpuscular hemoglobin
red blood count

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4. A white blood cell (WBC) differential determines the __________.


a.
b.
c.
d.

blood clotting abilities of the white blood cells


bone marrow production of the white blood cells
number of white blood cells in the blood
percentage and type of white blood cells in the blood

5. Which one of the following tests monitors Coumadin therapy?


a.
b.
c.
d.

activated partial thromboplastin time


bleeding time
prothrombin time
thrombin time

6. Which one of the following tests monitors heparin therapy?


a.
b.
c.
d.

activated partial thromboplastin time


bleeding time
prothrombin time
thrombin time

7. Which one of the following tests monitors platelet function?


a.
b.
c.
d.

platelet aggregation
platelet count
prothrombin time
potassium

8. The tests included in electrolyte testing are __________.


a.
b.
c.
d.

calcium, carbon dioxide, potassium, sodium


carbon dioxide, chloride, potassium, sodium
carbon dioxide, chloride, phosphorus, sodium
carbon dioxide, potassium, lithium, sodium

9. Which one of the following laboratory tests is used to detect pancreatic


disorders?
a.
b.
c.
d.

bilirubin
creatinine
lipase
uric acid

10. Decreased levels of __________ can indicate malnutrition.


a.
b.
c.
d.

acid phosphatase
albumin
cholesterol
creatinine
13

11. Which of these laboratory tests can be used to identify liver disorders?
a.
b.
c.
d.

alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ammonia, amylase, bilirubin


ammonia, bilirubin, c-reactive protein (CRP) , gamma glutamyl transferase
(GGT)
alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ammonia, bilirubin, gamma glutamyl
transferase (GGT)
gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), phosphorus, protein, total protein

12. An indirect antihumanglobulin test is the same as a/an __________.


a.
b.
c.
d.

ABO type
antibody screen
direct Coombs
Rh type

13. Which tests are performed prior to a blood transfusion?


a.
b.
c.
d.

ABO, Rh, antibody screen, compatibility


ABO, Rh, direct antihuman globulin, compatibility
Antibody screen, compatibility, direct antihuman globulin
Antibody identification, compatibility

14. Which test is used to confirm a diagnosis of syphilis?


a.
b.
c.
d.

antinuclear antibody
fluorescent treponemal antibody
IgE, IgG, IgM levels
rapid plasma reagin

15. Which one of the following is a screening test for infectious mononucleosis?
a.
b.
c.
b.

antinuclear antibodies
cold agglutinins
Monospot
polymerase chain reaction

16. Which one of the following is NOT a test for syphilis?


a.
b.
c.
d.

FTA
RA
RPR
VDRL

14

17. Which one of the following tests can be used to detect autoantibodies against
nuclear antigens?
a.
b.
c.
d.

ANA
ASO
CH 50
CMV

18. Which one of the following tests can be used to detect a current or past
infection with German measles?
a.
b.
c.
d.
19.

ASO titer
EBV antibodies
HSV antibodies
rubella titer

A blood culture can detect ________.


a.
b.
c.
d.

bacteria, yeasts, viruses


bacteria, parasites, viruses
fungi
ova and parasites

20. Occult blood tests can be performed on __________ specimens.


a.
b.
c.
d.

blood and stool


blood and gastric
gastric and stool
sputum and stool

21. In addition to identifying bacteria, a culture and sensitivity provides information


on __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.

antibiotics useful for treating the identified bacteria


allergic reactions the patient may have to an antibiotic
autoantibodies the patient has against an antibiotic
what antibiotics the patient is currently taking

22. Ova and parasite tests are most often performed on __________ specimens.
a.
b.
c.
d.

blood
gastric
sputum
stool

15

23. Which one of the four substances below CAN NOT be found in urine using a
dipstick?
a.
b.
c.
d.

blood
glucose
potassium
specific gravity

24. Which of the tests below can be useful in diagnosing and treating skeletal system
disorders?
a.
b.
c.
d.

alkaline phosphatase, human chorionic gonadotropin, myoglobin


amylase, bilirubin, sedimentation rate
bleeding time, culture and sensitivity, uric acid
calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D

25. Amylase, lipase, and vitamin B12 can be useful in diagnosing _________
disorders.
a.
b.
c.
d.

cardiac system
digestive system
reproductive system
urinary system

26. Which one of the following is an endocrine system disorder?


a.
b.
c.
d.

Addisons disease
Hodgkins disease
Parkinsons disease
von Willebrands disease

27. Which one of the following is a nervous system disorder?


a.
b.
c.
d.

Addisons disease
Hodgkins disease
Parkinsons disease
von Willebrands disease

28. Which one of the following is a vascular system disorder?


a.
b.
c.
d.

aortic stenosis
deep vein thrombosis
hemophilia
lymphoma

16

29. Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and electrolytes can be useful in
diagnosing __________ disorders.
a.
b.
c.
d.

endocrine system
hematopoietic system
nervous system
urinary system

30. Biopsies, skin scrapings, and tissue cultures can be useful in diagnosing
__________ disorders.
a.
b.
c.
d.

lymphatic system
muscular system
integumentary system
vascular systems

*End of Test*

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