You are on page 1of 14

Phylum Discussions:

Phylum

Porifera

Cnidaria

Mollusks

Annelids

Fishes

Amphibians

Body Plan

-Asymmetrical
-Choanocytes
are specialized
cells that used
flagella to move
a steady current
of water through
the sponge
-Water leaves
through the
osculum (large
hole on top of
the sponge)
-simple skeleton
made up of
spiny spicules
-moment
through sponge
provides simple
mechanism for
feeding,
respiration,
circulation, and
excretion

-radially
symmetry
-central mouth
surrounded by
numerous
tentacles that
extend
outward of
body
-life cycle that
includes two
differentlooking
stages: a
polyp and a
medusa
-polyp:
cylindrical
body with arm
like tentacles,
mouth points
outward
-medusa: has
a motile, bellshaped body
with the mouth
at the bottom
-has a body
wall that
surrounds an
internal space
called a
gastrovascular
cavity, where
digestion
takes place
-gastrodermis
is the inner
lining of the
gastrovascular
cavity
-epidermis is
outer layer of
cells
-the mesoglea
is the layer

-the
muscular
foot takes
many forms
including
flat
structures
for crawling
spade
structures
for
burrowing,
and
tentacles
for
capturing
prey
-the mantle
is a thin
layer of
tissue that
covers
most of the
mollusk's
body
-the shell is
made of
glands in
the mantle
that secrete
calcium
carbonate
-visceral
mass holds
the internal
organs

-annelids
derived
from Latin
word, little
ring
-body is
divided into
segments
and are
separated
by septa
(internal
walls
between
segments)
-some body
segments
can carry
more than
one pair of
eyes,
several
pairs of
antennae,
and other
sense
organs
-they have
true coelom
that is lined
with
mesoderm
flatworms
have no
coelom
roundworm
s have

-Fishes are
aquatic
vertebrates
that are
characteriz
ed by a pair
of
fins,scales,
and gills.
- Fish are
bilateral
and contain
a backbone
- Not only
do they
have
backbone
but they
also have
smaller
bones in
their fins

-lives in
water as
larva and on
land as an
adult
-breathes
with lungs as
an adult, has
moist skin
that contains
mucus
glands
-lacks scales
and claws
- evolved
several
adaptations
that helped
them live at
least part
time in water
-bones and
limbs and
limb girdles
became
stronger
(more
efficient
movement)
-lungs and
breathing
tubes allow
them to
breathe
-sternum,or
breastbone,
form a bony
shield to
support and
protect
internal
organs,
especially
lungs
-used to be
huge

Feeding

that lies
between two
tissues
(gastrodermis
and
epidermis)
-thin layer,
noncellular
membrane
thin thick,
jellylike
material that
contains cells

Filter feeders,
water pushes
particles

-Paralyze prey
and then pulls
they prey into
its
mouth(gastrov
ascular cavity)
-Food enters
and leaves
this same
place
-digests food
outside of
cells

pseudocoel
om that
forms
between
the
endoderm
and
mesoderm
-annelids
have tubewithin-atube
digestive
tract that
passes
food
through the
mouth to
the anus
-can be
herbivores,
carnivores,f
ilter
feeders,
detritivores,
or parasites
-slugs and
snails feed
through
tongueshaped
structure
known as
radula
-herbivores
use radula
to scrape
algae of
rocks
-carnivores
use the

-get their
food by a
pharynx , it
can hold 2
or more
sharp jaws
that are
used to
attack prey,
it is also
covered in
mucus
-worm
collects
food
particles by
extending
its pharynx
and
pressing it
against the
surrounding

-every
mode of
feeding:
carnivores,
herbivores,
parasites,
filter
feeders,
and detritus
feeders
-goes from
mouth to
esophagus
to the
stomach
(partially
broken
down) then
to fingerlike
pouches
called
pyloric ceca

-tadpoles
are filter
feeders or
herbivores
eating algae,
eat
constantly
-tadpoles
intestine are
filled with
food(breaks
down hard to
digest foods)
-turning into
adults,
feeding
apparatus
and
digestive
tract are
transformed
to strictly

radula to
drill through
shells and
tear up and
swallow
preys soft
tissue
-octopi use
sharp jaws
to eat prey
-also use
poisons
clams,oyste
rs, and
scallops are
filter
feeders
using
feathers on
them

sediments
-other
annelids
collect
nutrients by
filter
feeding ,
they fan
their tube
like burrows
and catch
food
particles in
a mucus
bag
-pharynx
pumps food
into
esophagus,
then it
moves to
the crop
where it is
stored, and
then
through the
gizzard,
where it is
ground into
smaller
pieces,
then food is
then
absorbed
farther
along in the
intestine

-absorb
nutrients
from
digested
food
-intestine
completes
process of
digestion
and
nutrients
absorption
-any
undigested
nutrients is
exited
through the
anus

meat eating
structures,
and a short
intestine
-entirely
carnivores
-eat anything
they catch
-have long
sticky
tongues to
specialized
to capture
insects
-goes to
mouth to
esophagus
into stomach
and
continues to
small
intestine,
enzymes
and food are
absorbed
-tubes
connect the
intestine wit
organs like
the liver,
pancreas,
and
gallbladder
that secrete
substances
that aid in
digestion
-large
intestine
leads to
large
intestine

Resp/Cirl
excretion

-the end of
the large
intestine is
called a
cloaca,
where
eggs,urine,
wastes, and
sperm exit
-Rely on
movement of
water through
their bodies to
carry out body
functions
-Oxygen goes
in and diffuses
into the cells,
then carbon
dioxide diffuse
and are carried
away

-nutrients are
usually
transported
throughout the
body by
diffusion
-Cnidarians
respire and
eliminate the
cellular
metabolism by
diffusion
through their
body walls

typically
breathe
using gills
inside their
mantle
cavity.
When water
passes
through the
mantle
cavity,
oxygen and
carbon
dioxide
diffuse over
the surface
of the
animal's
gills.
Respire
with mantle
cavity that
is lined with
blood
vessels.
The oxygen
can diffuse
across the
surface
because it
is moist.
The
circulatory
system is
either open
or closed.
In open
circulatory

-closed
circulatory
system,
where
blood is
contained
within a
network of
blood
vessels
-blood
circulates
through two
major
vessels that
run through
dorsal and
ventral

Most fish
exchange
gases
through
gills located
on either
side of the
pharynx.
The gills
are made of
filaments.
Fish that
exchange
gases
through
their gills do
so by taking
in oxygenrich water
into their
mouth.
They take
the water
from their
gill
filaments
and after
push pooroxygen
water out
through
openings in
the side of
the
pharynx.
The gills
are hidden
beneath a

-gas
exchange
occurs
through
through the
skin as well
as gills
-lungs
replace gills
when
amphibian
becomes an
adult
-lungs are
reasonably
well
developed,
but not
salamanders
-lungless
salamanders
exchange
gases
through thin
lining of
mouth cavity
as well as
through skin
- circulatory
system
forms a
double loop
-first loop
carries
oxygen poor
blood from
the heart to
the lungs

system
blood is
pumped
through
vessels by
a simple
heart.
Oxygen
and carbon
dioxide are
exchanged
and back to
the heart.

protective
bony layer
called the
operculum.
They have
a closed
circulatory
system that
pumps
blood
around the
body in a
single loop
using the
heart. Heat
has four
parts such
as the sinus
venosus,
atrium,
ventricle,
and bulbus
arteriosus.
The sinus
venosus is
a thin
walled sac
that collects
that collects
blood from
the fishs
veins
before it
flows into
the atrium.
It then
enters the
ventricle.
Most fish
get rid of
waste
through the
form of
ammonia.
Some
waste goes
through the
gills and
into the
surrounding

and skin
back to heart
-second loop
transports
oxygen rich
blood from
the heart to
the rest of
the body and
oxygen poor
blood from
body back to
heart
-heart has
three
chambers:
left atrium,
right atrium,
and ventricle
-oxygen
poor blood
circulates
from the
body into
right atrium
-oxygen rich
blood from
lungs and
skin enters
left atrium
-atria
contracts,
pumping
blood out to
a single,
large blood
vessel that
divides and
branches off
into smaller
blood
vessels
-most
oxygen poor
blood goes
to the lungs,
and , most
oxygen rich
blood goes
to the rest of

Response

water.
Some other
waste is
moved from
the kidneys.

-no nervous
systems
-no response to
changes in
environment
-do protect
themselves with
toxins when
dangerous
predators are
around

-use sensory
cells to gain
information
from their
environment
-nerve net
allows
cnidarians to
detect stimuli
like touch of
foreign objects
-nerve net is
throughout the
body
-have a group
of sensory
cells that allow
for direction of
gravity called
statocysts
-eyespots
made to
detect light

-nervous
systems
vary
-usually
small
ganglia rear
mouth
-few nerve
cords
-sense
organs
-chemical
receptors
and
eyespots
-sexually by
external
fertilization

-well
developed
nervous
system
-has a brain
and several
nerve cords
-have
adaptations
for
detecting
stimuli:
sensory
tentacles,
chemical
receptors,
statocysts
help detect
gravity, and
two or more
pairs of
eyes

the body
-some
mixing or
rich and
poor blood
-kidneys that
filter wastes
from blood
-urines
travels
through
tubes called
ureters into
cloaca
urine can be
passed
directly from
outside, or it
may be
temporarily
stored in a
small urinary
bladder just
above
cloaca

-nervous systems
-same
around
brain
the brain
as fish
-several
-well
parts to
developed
nervous
nervous and
system
sensory
-olfactory
system
bulbs are
-have big
used for
eyes that
sense of
can move
smell
around
olfaction
-have
-cerebrum
nictitating
processes
membrane
sense of
that keeps
smell
the eye from
-medulla
drying out
oblongata
and healthy
controls
-the
functions of tympanic
many
membranes
internal
(eardrums)
organs
are located
-most
on both sides

fishes that
are active
in daylight
sense
colors
-sense
gentle
current and
vibrations

of the head
-frogs have a
lateral line
system, this
detects water
movement

Reproduction

-sexually or
asexually
a single sponge
produces eggs
and sperm
-eggs are
fertilized inside
them called
internal
fertilization
-sperm is
released and
then carried by
water currents
into another
sponge that
soon turns into
larva

-sexually or
asexually
-during asexal
reproductiom
they groe a
bump abd
then it comes
off as a new
organism
-during sexual
reproduction
they use
external
fertilization in
water
-release
sperm and
egg into water

-reproduce
in many
ways
-reproduce
sexually by
external
fertilization
-they
release
enormous
numbers of
eggs and
sperm into
open water
-eggs
fertilized in
water and
develop
and into
freeswimming
larvae
-some
mollusk
shave
fertilization
inside the
body
-a couple of
mollusks
are
hermaphro
dites

-sexually
-each one
is either
male or
female
earthworms
and
leeches are
hermaphro
dites
-rarely
fertilize own
eggs
-clitellum,
specialized
segments,
secretes a
mucus ring
into which
eggs and
sperm are
released
-fertilization
takes place
in its ring
-ring slips
off body
into a
cocoon

-reproduce
sexully
-externally
and
internally
depending
on fish
-lay eggs
-eggs that
hatch out of
moms
body are
ovoviviparo
us
- eggs stay
in moms
body are
viviparous

-have to lay
eggs in
water
because
they will dry
out on land
-male
squeezes
the female
and in
response the
female
releases up
to 200 egs
that the male
will then
fertilize
-the eggs
are sticky
and jelly,
they attach
to
underwater
plants
-then they
form into
embryos that
will turn into
tadpoles that
will then be
a from

Germ Layer

Absent

Two

yes

three

three

three

Cephalization

Absent

Absent

yes

yes

-embryo

Coelom

Absent

Absent

three

yes

Early
Development

Absent

Absent

yes, very
small
conservatio
n of nerves
in head

yes

yes

yes

Ecology of Sponges:
Sponges have many different shapes and lots of them are large. They make good
habitats for other organisms. Some sponges are green because organisms live in their tissue.
The organisms give the sponge food, shelter, and oxygen. These two have a huge relation with
each other so they can both survive and make great coral reefs. Most sponges are attached to
the sea floor, but close to the surface so they can get enough sunlight so photosynthesis can
happen. Also they have spicules that look like antennae. This is an adaptation that will help
photosynthesis and let them live in many different habitats.

Ecology of Coral:
Coral are distributed by temperature, water depth, and light intensity. Hard coral require high
level of light, and the light is necessary for the corals because they rely on mutualistic
relationships with algae that capture solar energy, recycle nutrients, and help corals lay down
their calcium carbonate skeletons. Symbionts provide much as 60 percent of energy corals
need, which allows coral reefs to live in water with nutrients. Coral reefs are suffering from
human activity from chemical fertilizers, insecticides,and industrial pollution that can poison the
coral reefs or be susceptible to other threats. Many small fish live in coral reefs, and if they lose
their home they can die. High temperatures from coral bleaching can usually kill the algae that
usually live in the tissues of the coral making it become a ghostly white skeleton by leaving
behind transparent cells. Scientist think that rising ocean temperatures cause by global warming
may be contributing to this problem, soon coral reefs could be in serious danger.
Ecology of Mollusks:
They play many different roles. They feed on things and it helps clean up. Mollusks also are a
host to other smaller algae. They are growing all the time. Their filter feeding helps them make
the water quality better for other animals. Mollusks can soon maybe help prevent cancer.

Ecology of Annelids:
These small animals help our society greatly. They have been known to help since ancient
Greece. Their tunneling through the earth make pockets for the oxygen that helps plants and
bacteria. They also bring other minerals that are deep in the soil to the surface. Earthworms are
also an important diet to birds, moles, skunks, snakes, and toads. worms are also found in
trashy places so they can help the soil go back to the way it was.

Ecology of fish:
Fish spend most of their life in the ocean and move to fresh water to breed. Fish that do this are
called anadromous. They live about four years in the ocean and then migrate back to their place
of birth. This migration can take months. They can tell if they are home by their sense of smell.
Another breed of fish is catadromous. They are the opposite of anadromous. They move from
freshwater to ocean water ocean water for breeding. The eggs in the ocean are carried by by
the water and then when they hatch they find their way to fresh water.

Ecology of Amphibians:
They have no feathers or fur so they make a good meal for other animals. Amphibians have
some things though that keep them from being eaten. Some have bright colored skin, skin that
blend in, or bad tasting toxins ooze from their pores. All of these things give warning to other
animals that are about to eat them. Recently the amphibian population has declined. Scientists
are not sure why, but some of the spices are almost extinct. Some of the reasons they think it
might be is decreasing habitat, depletion of the ozone layer, acid rain,water pollution, fungal
infections, introduced aquatic predators, and an increasing human population. Scientists are
starting volunteer efforts to help them.

Class comparisons: Mollusks


There are three classes of the mollusks family, they include Gastropods, Cephalopods,
Bivalves. Gastropods include pond snails, land slugs, sea butterflies, sea hares, limpets, and
nudibranchs. many gastropods have shells that they slide into when they feel threatened, and
they use a hard disc on there foot to seal the opening to the shell. Other gastropods that dont
have shells hide from predators and when threatened can squirt ink. Many brightly colored

nudibranchs contain deadly chemicals that can cause death to their victims. Cephalopods
include octopi, squids, cuttlefishes, and nautiluses. Cephalopods have eight or more tentacles
that have suction disks to hold their prey. Some Cephalopods such as nautiluses have up to 90
tentacles that don't have as many suction disks but have a mucus-like coating on them. Most
modern Cephalopods only have small internal shells or no shells at all. The only current
cephalopod with external shells are nautiluses, they use this shell to control water depth by
regulating the amount of gas in the shell. Bivalves include clams, oysters, mussels, and
scallops, all of these organisms like to stay in one place for an extended period of time. Clams
like to burrow in mud or sand, whereas mussels use sticky threads to attach themselves to
rocks. Scallops however like to move around and can move rapidly by flapping their shen
threatened by a predator. water is circulated through the body cavities of the bivalves by the
cilia. these water is used by the animal to find food particles that are picked out by mucus on the
cilia. They also can find food particles in sand or mud by using muscular extensions of there
mouth and then the waste is expelled out of the mantle cavity.
Class comparison: Annelids
The three classes of annelids are oligochaetes, leeches, and polychaetes. Oligochaetes are
annelids that usually only have a few setae and they live in soil or freshwater. Leeches are
external parasites that suck blood and body fluids from their host. They like to inhabit tropical
areas. Leeches are carnivores so they only leech onto other organisms with their powerful
suckers that are at both ends of their bodies. Polychaetes are marine annelids that have
paddlelike, paired appendages tipped with setae. Like to inhabit cracks and crevices in coral
reefs, mud, sand, and open water sometimes. These three classes are very different in that they
inhabit different areas, some feed off different things, and have different appearances. The
leeches inhabit a host or a tropical area, the polychaetes live in water or near water, and the
oligochaetes live in dirts or fresh water. Leeches are carnivorous, polychaetes and oligochaetes
are herbivores. Those are a few of the significant differences in the class below the annelid
phylum.
Class Comparison: Fishes
The classes of fishes are Jawless, Sharks, Bony. Jawless fish have no true teeth or jaws and
their skeletons are made of fibers and cartilage. They have no vertebrae and they are separated
into 2 subclasses. Chondrichthyes contain sharks, rays, skates, and a few other uncommon
fishes. These are the entirely cartilage with toothlike scales covering skin. Bony fish have
skeletons made of calcified tissue, also known as bone. Almost all bony fish are in group called
ray-finned fishes. They are in this group because of their slender bony spines and that connect
to the fins. They differ because two are full cartilage and one is bony. Two of them have jaws
and one doesnt. They are all the same yet they differ in small ways that make many different
niches.
Class comparison: Amphibians
There are three classes Urodela, Anura, and Apoda. Urodela have long bodies and tails, most
have have 4 legs and they are carnivores. The adults in moist woods or water
Fish Resp, Circ, and Excr

Fishes are aquatic vertebrates that are characterized by paired fins, scales, and gills.
Fish are bilateral and contain a backbone, but not only do they have backbone but they also
have smaller bones in their fins. Every mode of feeding includes: carnivores, herbivores,
parasites, filter feeders, and detritus feeders.They eat from it going from the mouth to
esophagus to the stomach.Then (partially broken down) it goes to fingerlike pouches called
pyloric ceca.Then it absorbs nutrients from digested food. Goes through the intestine and
completes the process of digestion and the nutrients absorbs any undigested nutrients exited
through the anus. Most fish exchange gases through gills located on either side of the pharynx.
The gills are made of filaments. Fish that exchange gases through their gills do so by taking in
oxygen-rich water into their mouth. They take the water from their gill filaments and after push
poor-oxygen water out through openings in the side of the pharynx. The gills are hidden
beneath a protective bony layer called the operculum. They have a closed circulatory system
that pumps blood around the body in a single loop using the heart. Heat has four parts such as
the sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, and bulbus arteriosus. The sinus venosus is a thin walled
sac that collects that collects blood from the fishs veins before it flows into the atrium. It then
enters the ventricle. Most fish get rid of waste through the form of ammonia. Some waste goes
through the gills and into the surrounding water. Some other waste is moved from the
kidneys.They respond by their nervous systems around the brain. There are several parts to
nervous system; olfactory bulbs are used for sense of smell.Cerebrum processes sense of smell
and controls functions of many internal organs. Most fishes that are active in daylight sense
colors and sense gentle current and vibrations. They reproduce sexully,externally and internally
depending on fish,they lay eggs and the eggs that hatch out of moms body are ovoviviparous,
eggs stay in moms body are viviparous.

Chordates VS Inverts:
Inverts and Chordates are different in many ways but they are also similar in many ways.
In these three paragraphs we will be explaining how they are different. Chordates are animals
that have at least one stage of its life have a dorsal, hollow nerve cord. Some of the chordates
have vertebrates while the earliest versions of chordates do not have a vertebrate. While
invertebrates have no bones or vertebrates. Chordates evolved new adaptations and
appearances such as jaws and paired appendages. Also the amazing chordates have rapid
diversification of species as they adapt to new conditions. Today vertebrates make up 96% of all
chordates living today. Also over 50,000 species in the world are chordates. The six living
groups of chordates are the invertebrates chordates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
mammals. The largest group of chordates are the fishes and they take the crown for the largest
chordates by a wide margin. Adaptive radiations sometimes produce species that are similar in
appearance and behavior, even though they are not closely related.
The chordates are a truly complex creature and have many interesting things that we are
finding out new every single day. These complex creatures control their body temperature by

three ways, one by a source of heat for the body, two by a way to conserve that heat, and three
a method of eliminating excess heat when necessary. Vertebrates can be classified in two
groups endotherms and ectotherms. Ectotherms must use the sun or another heat source to
heat up their bodies while endotherms can control its body temperature from within its body.
Chordates explore vast land for most of the food they devour. They feed in very
complicated ways. Some chordates are filter feeders while other chordates such as vertebrates
have skulls and teeth adapted for feeding a much wider variety of foods ranging from insects to
large mammals and from leaves and fruit to seeds. Digestive systems of vertebrates have
organs that are well adapted for different feeding habits. An aquatic chordate uses it gills for
breathing or respiration. land vertebrates like mammals and others use lungs. But there are
some super special species that break many rules like several species of fish such as
lungfishes have both gills and lungs. Most chordates rely on kidneys to excrete with other
organs composed of small filtering tubes that remove waste from the blood. The first chordates
have short, tubelike hearts with a single pump. Vetebrates have a double looped circulatory
system. The skeletal and muscular systems make it possible to control their movement.
Nonvertebrates have relatively simple nervous systems while vertebrates are very complex.
The Chordates are
Perch dissection questions:
1: The perch was shaped very thin and with a big body, but small effective fins. The fins were
shaped specially to cut through the water and same with the thin shape.
2: To get rid of certain materials or organisms that arent wanted in the fishs system.
3: Caudal fin: Used for propelling
Dorsal fin: Used for balance
Pectoral and Pelvic fin: Used for steering
4: Sharp, rough, and hard. Towards the back and so they provide protection without increasing
their water drag.
5: 2 sets of 2. They are only used to smell not to breath.
6: They are very feather like with tough gill rakers so it can get what it wants and remove what it
doesnt very easily.
7: A line on the top of the fish thats very distinct. Allows to detect vibrations from predators and
prey.
1:The fish can grow without any interruptions.
2: The perch has so many more eggs because it lays them outside of the body that doesnt
need to keep any space for young.
3: To help it float or sink.
4: To give the fish some light where there is none.