Ieee3dghdfg
0 Up votes0 Down votes
4 views6 pagesDescription:
dfghdddfghg fdghgdfghhfg fhgfgghfhhff hhfhfdhf dhfhffhfhhf hhhhggg ghghdfhhg hhhhhghghg gfghhghhhg fdhhghghg
Date uploaded
Oct 02, 2015
Copyright
© © All Rights Reserved
Available Formats
PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
Did you find this document useful?
Description:
dfghdddfghg fdghgdfghhfg fhgfgghfhhff hhfhfdhf dhfhffhfhhf hhhhggg ghghdfhhg hhhhhghghg gfghhghhhg fdhhghghg
Copyright:
© All Rights Reserved
Available Formats
Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
Ieee3dghdfg
Description:
dfghdddfghg fdghgdfghhfg fhgfgghfhhff hhfhfdhf dhfhffhfhhf hhhhggg ghghdfhhg hhhhhghghg gfghhghhhg fdhhghghg
Copyright:
© All Rights Reserved
Available Formats
Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
This material may be protected by Copyright law (Title 17 U.S. Code)
A HIGHPOWERFACTOR BUCK CONVERTER
Hisahito ENDO, Takashi YAMASHITA, and Toshiyuki SUGIURA
NIT Interdiscipl inary Research Laboratories
391, Hidoricho, Musastinoshi, Tokyo 180 Japan
Telephone +81 422 59 4016
Pacsin
Abstract: A hishpoverfactor buck converter is
proposed. The converter is composed of rectifier
diodes, a snall input capacitor and a buck con~
verter. It supplies low output voltages and uses
low voltage seniconductor devices and ceramic
capacitors. Two operation modes exist in the
converter; discontinuous and continuous inductor
current modes, Analysis and experinentation show
that the converter’s pover factor is over 0.9 in
discontinuous sode by constant duty ratio opere~
tion. Horeover, it is clarified that » poxer factor
decreases to about 0.7 in continuous mode by con
stant duty ratio operation, and it can be improved
to over 0.9 by a new input current control systen.
1, 1nrRODUCTION
After the bridge rectifier, a capacitorinput
filter is used to derive DC voltage from an AC con
nercial power source. With this filter, hovever,
the input line current pulsates. The pulsating cur
rent increases the reactive power and input current
haraonics, To reduce then, a high power factor
technique is desired.
One wey to increase the power factor is to
insert @ large input inductor(1)(2]. But this is
undesirable as the inductor would increase the size
of the rectifier circuit, since the time constant
of the inductor and the capacitor must be large.
Recently, an ACDC converter has been studied
as a highpoverfactor preregulator circuit, The
nost general power stage circuit of the converter
is a boost converter(3][4](5]. The boost converter
has an advantage in that continuous inductor cur
rent which is equal to the input current can be
controlled to shape a sinusoidal wavefora and
therefore achieve a unity pover factor. Yet,
evitable disadvantages exist, that is, the output
voltage must be higher than the input voltage and a
high voltage switch and diode are required. Fur
‘thermore, @ high voltage transforser and semicon~
ductor devices aust be used for the attached DCDC
converter to supply low output voltege.
je #81 422 59 2172
In this work, @ buck converter is used in a
power stage of a highpoverfactor converter. Since
‘the buck converter supplies low output voltages, it
can use lox voltage semiconductor devices and a
ceranic capacitor as an output capacitor, instead
of a finite lifetine electrolytic capacitor. this
converter features highspeed switching for @ snall
size, and high reliability. However, the input cur~
rent doesn’t appeer when an input voltage is lover
than an output voltage. This is the nain reason why
the buck converter has not been used for high
poverfactor converters.
This paper proves that the buck converter can
Improve the poxer factor sufficiently and presents
@ new input current control systen.
2, AGDC CIRCUITS
Figure 1 shows a capacitorfiltered rectifier
and ACDC highpoverfactor converters.
In the capacitorfiltered rectifier, the in
put current bursts into bulk capacitor Cy ina
brief tine (seo Fig.2 (a)). This burst current
causes & very low pover factor.
For the highpoverfactor boost converter,
several Input current waveshaping methods are
proposed, These nethods each result in an input
current vavefora similar to the input voltage
vaveforn, and thus the power factor is unity
provided the input current ripple at the switching
frequency is negligible.
‘The highpowerfactor buck converter has
fullbridge rectifier diodes like the other tvo
circuits. But the input. capacitor Ci can be small
enough to filter input current 1 (since switch
current is’ is chopped) while the input voltage
is higher then the output voltage. This is because
the switching frequency is sufficiently higher than
the Input AC comercial frequency. The buck con~
verter operates under to inductor current nodes:
discontinuous mode and continuous mode, In the fol
lowing section, the pover factor of the buck con~
verter is analyzed in both modes,
0780306953/92 $3,00 © 1992 IEEE7

(a) Capacitorfiltered rectifier
iy
(b) Highpoverfactor boost cor
L—
verter
Qa
iy
iv
sie
(©) Highpower:
factor buck converter
Fig.1 ACDC circuits
3, POWER FACTOR ANALYSIS
1 Asaumption
This analysis assunes the following.
The duty ratlo D of the main switch Q Is
constant,
»
2) The output voltage Vs is constant,
3) The input current i, is an average of switch
current 44’.
4) The input voltage during one switching
period is constant,
5) Switch @ and diode Ds are ideal.
6) There are no parasitic elements in the cir~
cuit.
2 Discontinuous inductor current_node
Input and output voltages and inductor cur
rent are shown in Pig.3 for a half cycle of input
AC (connercial). The current appears when the in
put voltage is higher than the output voltege. The
start tine t. and end tine t, are described as
Ve
vi
Lin w
(2)
where Vi is a peak value of an input voltage and
Ts is the AC connercial cycle, An inductor current
1072
(a) Capacitorfiltered rectifier
(0) Highpoverfactor boost converter
(c) Highpoverfector buck converter
Fig.2 Haveforns of input voltage and current
waveforn in one switching period is shoxn In Fig.4.
If the switch Q turns on at time t, the inductor
current peak ie is given by
Visino tV.)DT,
~ L B
where Ts is a switching period. The discontinuous
node is realized when the inductor current reaches
zero during switch off interval
Therefore, the discontinuous condition is ob
tained as
(3)
(p)T.> (4)
Then,
Vs
Dev (8)The input current iy
averaged inductor current.
D:
is equal to the ontine
i (s)
Substituting 9, (3) into a. (8), 4 is derived as
(Wisinw tVoD*Ts
20 A
‘This equation means that the input current 4, is
ilar to
2)
Visine tV.,
and is close to a sinusoidal vavefore if V. is
low.
Figure 5 shows calculated input current
waveforms. The operating conditions and paraneter
are Visld1 V, V,=40 ¥, w=100% rad/sec, Te=20
msec, Ts=2 sec and L=30 wi, Calculations and
experinentations in this paper basically use these
conditions and paraneters unless they are specified
in figures. In this calculation, the discontinuous
node condition is
D<0. 284,
ig.3 Haveforas of input and output voltage
and inductor current
!DTs
«nm!
Pig.4 Inductor current wavefora
in one svitching period
1073
cad
ot Cred)
Fig.5 Calculated input current waveforms
in discontinuous sode
The power factor is defined as
Pp
ae (8)
Paks
Vie
where P is the active pover, and Viros and Tires
are the RMS values of input voltage and Input cur
rents respectively, P and. Tina are ennlneed as
t
[veninn sa
f
7
Viper.
"40
Lae de
zine
2V.VVIVE
mvt
)
2 ig
Jagewys)
~SYAVEVE  (0)
mvt .
These equetions show that P and Tim are
directly proportional to the square of the duty
ratio and inversely proportional to the inductance
value, respectively.
Gonbining Bqs.(8). (9) and (10), the power
factor of the buck converter is obtained as
2aVi—a*
=
Jirseeo( Baa) Saline
ay
where @ is the ratio of input voltage to output
voltage V./Vi. It should be noted that the pover
eine
a
PPSfactor is affected by only one paraneter, a. Bx
perimental end theoretical results are plotted in
Pig. 6, which shovs that a pover factor over 0.9 can
be achieved for a<0.6, whereas it decreases
abruptly for 0.8. This result means thet high
power factor can be obtained at low output
voltages. Hovever, © large active pover can not be
obtained at lov output voltage. This is because ac~
tive pover is directly proportional to the squere
of the duty ratio, and the duty ratio is limited by
the discontinuous node condition (Bq. (5)):
L
ool —S
ost Vi=60¥
Output current : 0.1 A constant
eof
+ tienen bata
oat [—eatcuuaren ata
VEO
Fig.6 Power factor in discontinuous mode
Figure 7 shows the relationship between ac
tive power and output voltage. This figure indi
cates that the available active power changes
widely according to the output voltage. The waxinun
active pover Pes: can be obtained at
0.58
under any condition. This is explained as follows.
ros Bq. (5). ‘the maxinua value of D is V./
vs
Thus, considering
p=¥ (12)
Vi
and substituting Bq. (12) into Bq. (9), the following
equation is obtained.
OPLaViTs(, 24, sav *)
seein ssite a a)
Substituting
op
Sieo co)
into Bq. (13) yields the condition that a is nearly
equal to 0.88. When @ is 0.58, the power factor is
0,914.
From discontinuous sode analysis, an a of
around 0.58 can produce @ high power factor of
about 0.9 and a comparatively large active pover by
simple constantduty ratio operation,
1074
So 6000 do 120" 140160 TT 200
ve ov)
Fig.7 Active pover and output voltage
3.9 Continuous inductor current_node
continuous inductor current node is
required for converter operation if a higher pover
factor over 0.9 and a larger active pover are
necessary,
Concerning inductor current #2, the following
two differential equations are given for the on in
terval and off interval of the main switch Q.
On interval:
dict
sina t~ 16
Git Ly.sinotV (15)
oft interval:
fisy, (1s)
at
Conbining these equations by state space averaging,
the averaged inductor current 2, is derived as
DVioswt Vat
Gye eee «a7)
where I, is the initial inductor current, The in
ductor current becones continuous when
(1s)
At t=te %. equals d6/2. Thus, I. is given by
re DVioee ts, Vat GD)TLV, (19)
Conbining &qs.(17) and (19) yields
Fue DY Mens tees t)
c OL.
(2)
The tine ty when the inductor current becones dis
continuous is obtained froa the folloving to equa
tions.QDV.Ts
Ss (a)
DVicosw t+V.0 t —Vesin SF —VDIVIHVe
0. (2)
Since these equations are nonlinear equetions, te
can not be solved algebraically, By nuserical
analysis, the input current i, and the power fac
tor are calculated as in Figs.8 and 9. The input
current i, becomes extrenely large in the con
tinuous node es D increases, This indicates that
higher pover can be obtained in this mode than in
the discontinuous ode,
The power factor characteristics are very
complicated and D has an iaportant influence on
thea. The power factor is roughly constant vhen a
snall conpared with D, but changes drastically
near the boundary condition D=a because the con
tinuous period is short and the input current peak
near w t=n/2 is very high. As a whole, if the
duty ratio remains constent, the power factor in
the continuous mode is lover than in the discon
tinuous node.
30
72 ®
ot Crad)
Fig.8 Calculated input current vavefora
in continuous
ode
8
02a os
oa To
Fig.9 Calculated power factor in continuous rode
To improve the ‘pover factor in the continuous
node, therefore, the duty ratio control based on
sensing Input current is nesded. Figure 10 shows
the basic schenatic of an input current sensing
buck converter. The reference vaveforn of the input
current is generated by substracting and aultiply
ing the input voltage and output voltage. Since the
reference voltage is similar to
Visino tVe
‘the input current vavefors is controlled like it is
In the discontinuous node. The power factor is,
therefore, same as Eq. (10). 8xperinental and
theoretical results of the poxer factor are plotted
in Fig. Me
INeUT CURRENT Sense
 y
{mucneTen] +_[ireararon
Fig.10 Input current sensing buck converter
14
og}
Vi=20 ¥
Output current : 0.05 A constant
MEASURED DATA
= CALCULATED DATA
02088 ET
Fig.11 Power factor of en input current
sensing buck converter
4. CONCLUSIONS
The power factor of an ACDC buck converter
is analyzed in the discontinuous and continuous in~
ductor current modes. The folloving summarizes in
portant result
1075(1) In order to operate the converter in the
discontinuous mode, the duty ratio D must
be snaller than the ratio of input voltage to
output voltage a (= V/V.)
The pover factor in the
is detersined only by @
when a <0.6.
In the discontinuous node, the naxinun active
pover can be obtained at a@¥0.68 and it
decreases as a approaches zero and 1.
In the continuous mode, a larger active pover
can be obtained, but the power factor is lover
than in the discontinuous mode for constant
duty ratio operation.
‘The pover factor in the continuous mode can be
improved to be the sane as in the discon
tinuous node by input current control.
Theoretical predictions are verified by ex
por inentat ion.
@ discontinuous mode
and it is over 0.9
@
w
@
(6)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank Dr. Katsuichi
YOTSUOTO for his many valuable comments and Hr.
Yoji MASUDA for his help with the measurenents,
1076
a
ie)
(3)
ul
(5)
REFERENCES
$.B,Dewan, “Optimun Input and Output Filter
for a SinglePhase Rectifier Pover Supply,
18EB ‘Trans. Ind. Appl, vol. TAIT, no.3,
pp. 282288, 1981.
A.R.Prasad, P.D.Ziogas and S.Manias, “A Novel
Passive Kaveshaping Method For SinglePhase
Diode Rectifier,” I88E Trans. Ind. Electron. ,
vol. 37, no.3, pp. 621530, 1990.
R.keller and @.Baker, “Unity
Line Switching Power Supplies,
Record, 1984, pp. 932339
R.Maweano and R.Neidorff, “Improving Input
Pover Factor  A Nev Active Control Simplifies
the Task," in Proceedings of the 19th Interna~
‘over Factor OFF
in IBBB INTBLEC
tional PCIN Conference, 1989.
Chou, R.B.Ridley and P.C.Lee, “Design and
Analysis of a fiysteretic Boost Power Factor
Correction Circuit,” in IEEE PESC Record, 1990,
pp. 800807.
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.