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Flor

Ramirez
APES Blk.
2
The Rock Cycle/ Weathering
1. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic compound with a unique

chemical structure and physical properties. A rock is a solid, stony mass


composed of a combination of minerals or other organic compounds. For
example, quartz and feldspars are minerals, but when formed together, they
make a rock, granite.
2. Igneous rocks are formed through the cooling and solidification of magma
or lava.
3. The difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks are that
intrusive igneous rocks form when magma rises and cools in underground
places. However, extrusive igneous rocks form when magma cools above the
Earths surface. The rocks that would be considered intrusive would be Granite,
Gabbro, and Diorite. Intrusive rocks can be characterized by their large crystal
size and the processes of which the magma cools is much slower for intrusive
rocks rather than extrusive rocks
4. Extrusive rocks are rocks that cooled above ground so they cool quickly
and do not form crystals, examples of igneous rocks include obsidian, basalt, and
rhyolite.
5. Foliated rocks are rocks with repetitive layering. Some of the rocks we
identified like gneiss and slate became foliated by extreme heat and pressure
that forced them into flattened layers.
6. Some of the non-foliated rocks we identified include quartzite and marble.
These rocks are non-foliated because heat caused them to form and not the
pressure that creates layers in rocks. These rocks are not banded due to lack of
layers. Minerals in these rocks, even if they are dominant, dont show any visible
alignment.
7. Metamorphic rocks are formed when sedimentary, igneous, or even other
metamorphic rocks undergo high temperature and pressure. This creates
profound physical and chemical changes to the rock formed.
8. Sedimentary rocks are formed over long periods of time when sediments
such as gravel, mud, or pebbles are cemented together or are compacted. They
often have distinctive layering.
9. Shale, sandstone, and conglomerate are the rocks considered clastic
sedimentary because they are formed from other grains after they go through
weathering and erosion.
10. Sediments in the clastic rock become solid rock when a mineral called
cement holds it together. Cement forms when seawater or groundwater travel
through the empty spaces between sediment.

Flor
Ramirez
APES Blk.
2

11. Limestone, halite, and coquina would be considered chemical


sedimentary. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed by precipitation of minerals
from water, which is when dissolved minerals come out of water.
12. Coal and limestone are considered organic sedimentary rocks. They are
formed from the accumulation of plant or animal debris.
13. The rock cycle explains the formation of igneous, metamorphic, and
sedimentary rocks by showing what occurs in between a rocks original formation
and the rock itself. The arrows in between show each process.