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CHAPTER 2 SLIDES 1-41

Covers pgs.
53-65

HISTORY OF MIND
Ancient Conceptions About Mind
Plato correctly placed mind in the brain.
However, his student Aristotle believed
that mind was in the heart.
Today we believe mind and brain are faces of
the same coin. Everything that is psychological
is simultaneously biological.
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HISTORY OF MIND
Phrenology

Bettman/ Corbis

In 1800, Franz Gall
suggested that bumps
of the skull represented
mental abilities. His
theory, though
incorrect, nevertheless
proposed that different
mental abilities were
modular.

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NEURAL COMMUNICATION
The body’s information system is built from
billions of interconnected cells called neurons.

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NEURAL COMMUNICATION
We are a biopsychosocial system.
Cellular Level
(Interconnected
Neurons)

Ethnic Level
(Culture)

Organ Level
(Brain)

Group Level
(Family)

System Level
(Information
Processing)

Individual Level
(Human Being)

Community Level
(Society)

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NEURAL COMMUNICATION
Neurobiologists and other investigators
understand that humans and animals operate
similarly when processing information.

Note the similarities in the above brain regions, which are all
engaged in information processing.
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NEURON
A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many
different parts.

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PARTS OF A NEURON
Cell Body: Life support center of the neuron.
Dendrites: Branching extensions at the cell body.
Receive messages from other neurons.

Axon: Long single extension of a neuron, covered
with myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath to insulate and
speed up messages through neurons.
Terminal Branches of axon: Branched endings of
an axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
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ACTION POTENTIAL
A neural impulse. A
brief electrical charge
that travels down an
axon and is generated
by the movement of
positively charged
atoms in and out of
channels in the axon’s
membrane.

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DEPOLARIZATION &
HYPERPOLARIZATION
Depolarization: Depolarization occurs
when positive ions enter the neuron,
making it more prone to firing an action
potential. Hyperpolarization occurs when
negative ions enter the neuron, making it
less prone to firing an action potential.

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THRESHOLD
Threshold: Each neuron receives
depolarizing and hyperpolarizing currents
from many neurons. When the
depolarizing current (positive ions) minus
the hyperpolarizing current (negative ions)
exceed minimum intensity (threshold) the
neuron fires an action potential.

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REFRACTORY PERIOD &
PUMPS
Refractory Period: After a neuron fires an
action potential it pauses for a short
period to recharge itself to fire again.

Sodium-Potassium Pumps: Sodiumpotassium pumps pump positive ions out
from the inside of the neuron, making
them ready for another action potential.

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ACTION POTENTIAL
PROPERTIES
All-or-None Response: When the
depolarizing current exceeds the
threshold, a neuron will fire. If the
depolarizing current fails to exceed the
threshold, a neuron will not fire.
Intensity of an action potential remains the
same throughout the length of the axon.

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SYNAPSE
Synapse [SIN-aps] a junction between the
axon tip of the sending neuron and the
dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.

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NEUROTRANSMITTERS
Neurotransmitters
(chemicals) released
from the sending
neuron travel across
the synapse and bind
to receptor sites on
the receiving neuron,
thereby influencing it
to generate an action
potential.
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REUPTAKE
Neurotransmitters
in the synapse are
reabsorbed into the
sending neurons
through the process
of reuptake. This
process applies the
brakes on
neurotransmitter
action.
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ENDORPHINS – LEGALLY BLONDE
WAT C H V I D E O T H E N G O O V E R H A N D O U T

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Endorphins
The word endorphin was coined from “endogenous morphine” and refers to the brain’s natural painkillers
(opiates). After Candace Pert and Solomon Snyder identified “opiate receptors” in brain areas linked with pain,
the race to identify the brain’s natural painkillers was on. The discovery of the endorphins grew out of the curiosity of two British pharmacologists, Hans
Kosterlitz and John Hughes, who in 1975 isolated a substance from the brains of pigs that had the same actions as morphine; they named it enkephalin.
Subsequently, other brain opioids were discovered. The group as a whole was named endorphins, and research has now indicated that these natural
opiates are produced by the brain, the pituitary gland, and other tissues in response to pain, stress, and even vigorous exercise. While pain is necessary to
warn us of danger to our physical well-being, constant intense pain would eventually incapacitate us, and so endorphins help our bodies to control the
degree of pain. Studies of laboratory rats have demonstrated that not only shock but even its anticipation can produce an increase in brain endorphins.
For example, when rats were placed in a chamber where they had been shocked a week earlier, the level of the brain’s natural opiates immediately
increased.
Other investigators have shown that psychological stress also triggers the production of endorphins. In one study, pain was induced by a shock to the
subject’s foot. The degree of pain was not determined by measuring the reflex actions of the leg muscles, a test that has proved reliable in other studies.
The experimenters, instead, induced stress by sounding a warning signal 2 minutes before a shock might or might not be delivered. The subjects were
tested under three conditions. Some were given an injection of a painkiller, such as morphine; a second group was given an injection of naloxone (a drug
that suppresses endorphin activity in the brain); and a third group was given nothing at all.
Initial pain sensitivity was identical in all three conditions. Results showed that with repeated stress, pain sensitivity decreased in both the no-injection and
painkiller-injection conditions. This suggested that the subjects in the no-injection group had indeed produced natural opiates. Proof of this came from the
fact that men and women who received the endorphin suppressor actually showed more sensitivity to pain and stress as testing proceeded.
As noted in the text, strenuous exercise also triggers the release of endorphins. Studies of seasoned runners, for example, show that during a long,
difficult workout the nervous system can dip into its endorphin reserve and not only block pain messages but also produce the so-called runner’s high.
Perhaps of greatest interest to students will be some applications of this research. The endorphin system can be brought into
action by neurostimulation therapy. In this pain-reducing technique, wires are pasted to the skin near an injury, and a slight
electric current is delivered through electrodes. Low-frequency, high-intensity impulses stimulate endorphin release. Olympic
athletes have used this method to ease various aches and pains. Steve Maslek reportedly played much of his final year of high
school basketball with a battery-powered neurostimulator under his uniform (he later played for the University of Pittsburgh).
The device helped the 6-foot-8-inch center participate despite a stress fracture in his backbone.

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More recently, Donovan McNabb, quarterback for the Philadelphia Eagles, threw four touchdown passes while playing with a broken ankle.

E N D O R P H I N S : T H E B R A I N ' S N AT U R A L M O R P H I N E
THE MIND, 2ND ED., MODULE 5: ENDORPHINS: THE BRAIN’S
N AT U R A L M O R P H I N E

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HOW NEUROTRANSMITTERS
INFLUENCE US?

Serotonin pathways are
involved with mood
regulation.

From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989
University of California Press

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DOPAMINE PATHWAYS

Dopamine pathways
are involved with
diseases such as
schizophrenia and
Parkinson’s disease.
From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989
University of California Press

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NEUROTRANSMITTERS

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LOCK & KEY MECHANISM
Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the
receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism.

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AGONISTS

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ANTAGONISTS

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DRUGS AND NEUROTRANSMITTERS
 Drugs’ impact on the body
has helped scientists
discover
neurotransmitters,
neuropeptides (e.g. amino
acids such as endorphins)
and neuromodulators that
can increase or decrease
the activity of certain
neurotransmitters
 How do drugs work?
 Agonists mimic or prevent
reuptake (1, 3)
 Antagonists block
neurotransmission (2)

PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
 Botulism
 Blocks release of ACh at
the neuromuscular
junction, causing paralysis
 “Botox” is botulism toxin
used to prevent facial
muscles from making
wrinkles

 Curare – found in vines in
S. America; used as
poison
 Can stun or kill prey
quickly
 Blocks ACh receptors
causing paralysis

 Antipsychotic medications
 Block dopamine receptors
 Reduces schizophrenic
hallucinations

 Caf feine
 Increases the release of
excitatory neurotransmitters
by blocking the inhibitory
neurotransmitter adenosine

 Cocaine
 Prevents reuptake of
dopamine
 Leads to heightened arousal
of entire nervous system

THIS IS WHY MARIJUANA IS A PROBLEM
To understand how marijuana affects the brain, you need to
know about the parts of the brain that are affected by THC.
Here are the basics:
Neurons are the cells that process information in the brain.
Chemicals called neurotransmitters allow neurons to
communicate with each other.
Neurotransmitters fill the gap, or synapse, between two
neurons and bind to protein receptors, which allow various
functions in the brain and body to be turned on and off.
Some neurons have thousands of receptors that are specific
to particular neurotransmitters.
Foreign chemicals, like THC, can mimic or block actions of
neurotransmitters and interfere with normal functions.
Your brain has groups of cannabinoid receptors concentrated
in several different places (see picture). These cannabinoid
receptors can affect the following mental and physical activities:
Short-term memory
Coordination
Learning
Problem-solving
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THIS IS WHY MARIJUANA IS A PROBLEM
Cannabinoid receptors are activated by a neurotransmitter called anandamide.
Like THC, anandamide is a cannabinoid, but one that your body makes. THC
mimics the actions of anandamide, meaning that THC binds with cannabinoid
receptors and activates neurons, which causes adverse effects on the mind and
body.

High concentrations of cannabinoid receptors exist in the hippocampus,
cerebellum and basal ganglia. The hippocampus sits within the temporal lobe
and is important for short-term memory.
When the THC binds with the cannabinoid receptors inside the hippocampus, it
interferes with the recollection of recent events. THC also affects coordination,
which the cerebellum controls. The basal ganglia direct unconscious muscle
movements, which is another reason why motor coordination is impaired when
under the influence of marijuana.
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(PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS - 5 MINUTES
IN) -

A L T E R E D S TAT E S

CRASH COURSE PSYCHOLOGY #10 – DEALS WITH OBJECTIVE 6 A LITTLE BIT)

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

Central
Nervous
System
(CNS)

Peripheral
Nervous
System
(PNS)

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Nervous System: Consists of all the nerve
cells. It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical
communication system.
Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and
spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the
sensory and motor neurons that connect the
central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of
the body.
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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

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KINDS OF NEURONS
Sensory Neurons carry incoming information from
the sense receptors to the CNS. Motor Neurons
carry outgoing information from the CNS to
muscles and glands. Interneurons connect the two
neurons.

Interneuron Neuron
(Unipolar)

Sensory Neuron
(Bipolar)

Motor Neuron
(Multipolar)

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KINDS OF GLIAL CELLS

Astrocytes provide
nutrition to neurons.
Oligodendrocytes
and Schwann cells
insulate neurons as
myelin.
Astrocytes
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PERIPHERAL NERVOUS
SYSTEM
Somatic Nervous System: The division of the
peripheral nervous system that controls the
body’s skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System: Part of the PNS
that controls the glands and other muscles.

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THE NERVES
Nerves consist of neural “cables” containing
many axons. They are part of the peripheral
nervous system and connect muscles, glands,
and sense organs to the central nervous
system.

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AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
(ANS)
Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of
the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing
its energy in stressful situations.

Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division
of the ANS that calms the body, conserving
its energy.

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AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
(ANS)
Sympathetic NS
“Arouses”
(fight-or-flight)
Parasympathetic NS
“Calms”
(rest and digest)

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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
The Spinal Cord and Reflexes

Simple Reflex

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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
The Brain and Neural Networks
Interconnected neurons form networks in the
brain. Theses networks are complex and modify
with growth and experience.

Complex Neural Network

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