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Geronimo

WARM UP EXERCISE

Y is 2 greater than x

Marias age 3 years ago if she is m years old now

The sum of two consecutive odd numbers if the

smaller number is k

The length L is twice the width W

The value of a two digit number if the tens digit is x

and the units digit is y

The number c is two less than the product of a & b

WORD PROBLEMS

Translating word problems into algebraic

equations is a skill not easily acquired by students

in the higher elementary and lower secondary

school.

Formulating and manipulating algebraic

expressions require a level of abstraction which is

not easily attained by students.

The use of pictorial representations connects

better with the intuitive perception of students,

helping them understand relationships between

the quantities involved in the problem and leading

them to a strategy in solving it.

One of the pictorial models that are useful

in finding relationships between sets is the

Venn Diagram.

Having a visual model of the sets in

consideration provide an efficient way of

determining cardinalities of said sets.

Example 1

A grade six teacher asked her class of 42 students

when they studied for her class the previous

weekend. Their responses were as follows:

9 said they studied on Friday

18 said they studied on Saturday

30 said they studied on Sunday

3 said they studied on both Friday and Saturday

10 said they studied on both Saturday and Sunday

6 said they studied on both Friday and Sunday

2 said they studied on Friday, Saturday, and

Sunday

Example 1

Assuming that all 42 students responded and

answered honestly, answer the following

questions:

How many students studied on Sunday but

not on either Friday or Saturday?

How many students did all their studying on

one day?

How many students did not study at all for

this class last weekend?

Example 1

Friday

Saturday

2

2

4

8

2

16

Sunday

Example 1

Assuming that all 42 students responded and

answered honestly, answer the following questions:

How many students studied on Sunday but not on

either Friday or Saturday? 16

How many students did all their studying on one day? 25

How many students did not study at all for this class

last weekend? 2

Example 2

Half of all GORGS are GORPS.

Half of all GORPS are GOOPS.

There are 40 GORGS and 30 GOOPS.

No GORG is a GOOP.

How many GORPS are neither GOOPS

nor GORGS?

Example 2

Half of all GORGS are GORPS.

Half of all GORPS are GOOPS.

There are 40 GORGS and 30 GOOPS.

No GORG is a GOOP.

How many GORPS are neither GOOPS nor GORGS?

GORGS

10

GORPS

20

20

10

GOOPS

30

Example 3

Example 3

Example 4

On a balance scale, two spools and one

thimble balance 8 buttons.

Also, one spool balances one thimble and

one button. How many buttons will

balance one spool?

Also, one spool balances one thimble and one button. How many

buttons will balance one spool?

Block Model Method

word problems was developed locally years

ago by Hector Chee, a very experienced

Mathematics teacher, and has been widely

used in the teaching of math in primary

schools in Singapore.

Kids in Singapore are introduced to the

method from as young as Primary One (the

equivalent of Grade One).

Part-Whole Model

In this model, a whole is divided into two

or more parts.

When the parts are known, we can find

the whole by addition.

When the whole and one part are known,

we can find the unknown part by

subtraction.

Example 5

Donna spent PhP240 on a photo album.

When she spent 3/8 of her remaining

money on a novel; after which half of her

money was left.

How much did Donna spend on the novel?

What fraction of her money did Donna

spend on her photo album?

Example 5

Donna spent PhP240 on a photo album. When she

spent 3/8 of her remaining money on a novel; after

which half of her money was left.

240

Photo

Album

Novel

240

Money Left

120

Example 5

How much did Donna spend on the novel?

P360

What fraction of her money did Donna spend on her photo

album?

2/10 or 1/5

240

Photo

Album

Novel

240

Money Left

120

Example 6

There are 240 cows and goats on a farm.

Three-fifths of the goats is equal to 3/7 of the

cows.

Find the difference in the number of cows and

goats in a farm.

GOATS:

240

COWS:

difference

Example 6

Find the difference in the number of cows and

goats in a farm. 40

12

240

20

40

GOATS:

240

COWS:

difference

Comparison Model

In this model, two or more quantities are

compared.

If the two quantities are given, we can find

their difference or ratio.

If one quantity and either the difference or

ratio is given, we can find the other

quantity.

Example 7

JB, James and Joseph collected 242

soda cans for the school recycling

campaign.

James collected twice as many soda

cans as JB.

Joseph collected four times as many

soda cans as James.

How many more cans did Joseph collect

than JB?

Example 7

JB, James and Joseph collected 242 soda cans for the school

recycling campaign.

James collected twice as many soda cans as JB.

Joseph collected four times as many soda cans as James.

How many more cans did Joseph collect than JB?

JB:

James:

Joseph:

242

Example 7

11

242

154

22

JB:

James:

242

Joseph:

154

Example 8

Claire, Pam and Tanya have 500 stickers

among themselves.

Pam has 5 more stickers than Claire.

Tanya has thrice as many stickers as

Pam.

How many stickers has Tanya?

Example 8

Pam has 5 more stickers than Claire.

Tanya has thrice as many stickers as Pam.

How many stickers has Tanya?

C:

P:

T:

500

5

Example 8

5

500

20

480

96

C:

P:

T:

500

5

5

+ 15

303

Before-After Model

When a quantity or quantities change, a

comparison is made between the new

value(s) and the original value(s).

This is sometimes combined with the

comparison method in the more

complicated word problems.

Example 9

Mike and Sarah had a total of PhP540.

Mike spent PhP240. He now has three

times as much money as Sarah.

How much more money had Mike than

Sarah at first?

Example 9

Mike and Sarah had a total of PhP540.

Mike spent PhP240. He now has three times as much

money as Sarah.

How much more money had Mike than Sarah at first?

Before

After

Sarah:

Mike:

240

540

300

Example 9

4

300

75

Before

After

Sarah:

Mike:

240

540

300

390

Example 10

The number of pupils who passed a

mathematics test is 108 more than the

number of pupils who failed.

If 36 more pupils pass the test, the

number of passers will be 10 times the

number of failures.

Find the number of pupils who took the

test.

Example 10

The number of pupils who passed a mathematics test is 108

more than the number of pupils who failed.

If 36 more pupils pass the test, the number of passers will

be 10 times the number of failures.

Find the number of pupils who took the test.

Actual

Passed:

Failed:

3

6

3

6

108

If

Example 10

2

+2

3

6

+ 108

180

Actual

Passed:

Failed:

11

2

9

1

+ 9

If

3

6

4 108

6

1

3

566

220

180

20

Example 11

One third of a number is 13 less than one-half of that number. What is the

number?

6

+ 13 =

2x + 78 = 3x

x = 78

Example 11

One third of a number is 13 less than one-half of that number. What is the

number?

78

13

78

Acknowledgment

Special thanks to A/P Flordeliza Francisco

of Ateneo de Manila University for most of

the examples used in this presentation.

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