U.S.

History

Jason Saba

CHAPTER 25: “Mobilizing for Defense” _____________________________________________________ _
Section 1: Mobilizing for Defense
One Americans Story: [no longer added] Americans Join the War Effort Japan attacked Pearl Harbor  U.S. joined WWII Selective Service and the GI Selective Service System expanded the draft to include 10 million more men Millions volunteered Eight weeks basic training Expanding the Military General George Marshall: the Army Chief of Staff General pushed for formation of Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC): women volunteers would serve in noncombat positions – passed by Congress  future WAC; equal benefits/ jobs Recruiting and Discrimination Black man fighting a yellow man for protection of a white man = unfair b/c no democracy at home + lynching’s Dramatic Contributions Mexican Americans, Asian Americans, Blacks, and others all joined the armed forces/ military/air forces A Production Miracle War  end of automobile production for private use The Industrial Response Car factories converted to war production factories Shipyards and defense yards expanded Workers in war industries: 6 million in 1941; 18 million in 1943 Employers reluctant about female employees  Employers later want more women than men b/c pay is cheaper A. Philip Randolph: leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Cat Porters who protested discrimination both in the military and in industry  persuaded FDR to pass equal participation of all workers in defense industries Mobilization of Scientists FDR creates the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort OSRD creates atomic bomb b/c of Einstein The Manhattan Project: the code name for research work that extended across the country

The Federal Government Takes Control Notes taken from, The Americans, by McDougal Littel

Office of Price Administration (OPA): fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods + Congress increased income taxes Less money to buy food = buying war bonds War Production Board: ensured that the armed forces and war industries received the resources they needed to win the war; decided on peacetime or wartime production – collected materials needed for war rationing: establishing fixed allotment of goods; houses received coupons to bargain goods

Notes taken from, The Americans, by McDougal Littel

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