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sofeli qvemo maCxaani

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qvemo maCxaani siRnaRis municipalitetis

erT-erTi

qvemo maCxaani savaWro saxelos-

Zal-

Suqebulia maCxaanSi gamarTuli Te-

erToblivad ufro metad acocx-

eklesia, gaanadgures im sazogado

isurva mamapapeuli samyoflis samu-

mravladaa SemorCenili Zveli saxe-

mniS-

atraluri warmodgenebi. Znelia imis

lebs Tavdapirveli garemos aRqmas.

moRvaweTa da sasuliero pirTa sa-

damod datoveba. es is mniSvnelovani

losno-savaWro duqnebi. isini sof-

qsenoni

Tqma, Tu romel SenobaSi imarTebo-

flavebi, romlebic eklesiis ezoSi

istoriaa soflisa, romlis gacno-

lis mTavar quCas mTels sigrZeze

(saavadmyofo), afTiaqi, wignis maRa-

da, Tumca statiebis umravlesobaSi

tia,

wlebSia

iyvnen dakrZalulni. am yovelivem

bac saSualebas gvaZlevs, zustad

gasdevs.

qiziyelTa

ZirZveli

noebiT mdidari sofeli iyo. swored

isxmeviT

sofelia. rodidan xdeba igi qiziyis

es gaxda imis safuZveli, rom mecx-

vnelovani

kulturul-ekonomikuri

centri,

ramete saukunis miwuruls, 1895

saTqmelia,

erToblivi

ixsneba

araerTi

dawesebuleba:

sainteresoa kidev ramdenime staromlebic

1900-ian

wels, sofelSi arsdeba amierka-

zia, samkiTxvelo da ramdenime sa-

am warmodgenebis gamarTvis mizezad

dabeWdili. rogor egebebian qiziye-

Zirfesvianad Secvala soflis cx-

ganvsazRvroT SemorCenili arte-

Tumca mecxramete saukunis presis

vkasiaSi

saxe-

ganmanaTleblo dawesebuleba, sko-

dasaxelebulia Tanxis Segroveba,

lebi axal saukunes da rogori imedi

ovreba. duqnebi TandaTan ixure-

faqtebis mniSvneloba da xasiaTi.

mixedviT SegviZlia gavecnoT sof-

losno

daarsebis

la, romelic erT-erTi pirvelia

romelic Teatris mSeneblobas unda

da gegmebi aqvT. Tumca maTi molodi-

boda, xolo bazris sxva sofelSi

lis TiTqmis yoveldRiur cxovre-

aucilebloba da mniSvneloba far-

siRnaRis municipalitetSi, Tumca

moxmareboda. warmodgenebs eswre-

ni, samwuxarod, ar gamarTlda. bol-

gadatanam

bas. 1819-20 ww. periodul gamoce-

Todaa

imdroindeli

moswavleTa simravlis gamo parale-

ba mTeli qiziyis sazogadoeba. ukve

Sevikebis Semosvlis Semdeg mraval

mebSi qvemo maCxaanze daaxloebiT

sagazeTo gamocemebis mier. depos

lurad ixsneba ramdenime mosamzade-

1899 wels imarTeba sazeimo warmod-

ojaxs mouwia soflis datoveba, Se-

64-mde statia moviZieT. am wyaroe-

daarsebam da sawevro fulis gaCenam

beli jgufi.

gena Tbilisidan Camosuli stumre-

bidan kargad Cans, rom ukve mecx-

saSualeba misca qiziyelebs, maleve

1899 wels mTeli qiziyisTvis mniS-

bis TandaswrebiT Teatris axalgax-

ramete saukunis damdegidan sofeli

daearsebinaT ,,saxalxo banki. Seg-

vnelovani movlena iyo Teatris

qiziyis strategiuli da yvela mniS-

rovebuli erToblivi Tanxa mraval

mSeneblobis dasruleba. daaxloe-

vnelovani movlenis epicentri iyo.

sasikeTo saqmes xmardeboda.

biT aTi wliT adre gamocemebSi ga-

danamdvilebiT

Zneli

pirveli
depo,

savaWro

romlis

gaSuqebuli

sofel qvemo maCxaanis kulturis


resursebis megzuri mTTvisaa, visac

ra SemogvrCa dRes? uwinares

sayovelTaod cnobili turistuli

yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia soflis ar-

adgilebis garda, siRnaRis munici-

datova saxelosno-savaWro duqne-

qiteqturuli

ganaSe-

palitetSi sxva ramis monaxulebac

bi. TiTqmis ufunqciod darCenili

nianeba. igi dayofilia ramdenime ub-

surs: soflebis, sacxovrebeli sax-

ficulTa momxreebs daxvreta xvdaT

sofeli marto darCa. mosaxleobas

nad, meoce saukunis meore naxevris

lebis, saxl-muzeumebis da sxva.

wilad. Tu aRmosavleT saqarTvelo-

upirebdnen kidec gadasaxlebas -

axalmSenebloba soflis bolosaa

snil SenobaSi. sofelSi aRmoCnda

Si iSviaTi iyo eklesia-monastrebis

xornabujisaken karg miwebs sTava-

gatanili,

Zveli foto, sadac Teatris mSene-

ngreva, es maCxanelTaTvis ganaCe-

zobdnen, magram mravali mcdelo-

uwodeben. garda qiziyuri tradici-

blobaa asaxuli. foto da statiebi

nad iqca: daangries soflis Zveli

bis miuxedavad arcerTma ojaxma ar

uli sacxovrisisa, qvemo maCxaanSi

mTlianad

ufunqciod

urbanuli

romelsac

axalubans

yeneboda. yovel maTgans xis Wvirulornamentiani aivani hqonda. mocemul nagebobas yvelaze kargad aqvs
Semonaxuli duqnebis Tavdapirveli
saxe.

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nadiraSvilebis saxli

nadiraSvilebis sagvareulo saxli XIX

saxli soflis dasawyisSi mdebareobs,

saukunis meore naxevarSia aSenebu-

tibaanidan

li da savaraudod, sofelSi yvelaze

(mflobeli meri asaniSvili) or-

Zveli saero nagebobaa. igi ekuTvnoda

sarTuliani Senoba, tradiciulad,

dimitri maCxanelis (nadiraSvilis)

aguriTa da riyis qviTaa nagebi. kar-

gaixsna Teatri. axda sazogadoebis


didi xnis ocneba da maTma garjam nayofi gamoiRo. Senobis asaSeneblad
Tanxa didxans grovdeboda adgilobrivTa mier: imarTeboda speqtaklebi, romlebsac qiziyis yvela soflidan

eswrebodnen

mayureblebi.

pirveli speqtakli al. cagarelis


xanuma iyo. adgilobriv mosaxleo-

basTan erTad warmodgenas Tbilisidan mowveuli stumrebic eswrebodnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom sandro
axmeteli, romelic qvemo maCxaanTan
axlos, sofel anagaSi daibada, Tavis pirvel speqtaklebs swored qvemo
maCxaanSi marTavda.
Teatris Senoba TiTqmis ucvleladaa
Semonaxuli XX s-is dasawyisis inventariT skamebiT, dekoraciebiT. parteri da iarusi 200-mde mayurebels
itevs.
Teatri sofel qvemo maCxaanis centrSi mdebareobs.

fore mosuliSvilis
saxl-muzeumi

fore mosuliSvili (1916-1944) daibada sofel qvemo maCxaanSi. lagodexis


sasoflo-sameurneo teqnikumis damTavrebis Semdeg gaiwvies wiTel armiaSi (1939 w.).1941 wels mZimed daWrili
fore germanelebs tyved Cauvarda
da poloneTSi, simkacriT ganTqmul
kruSinos tyveTa banakSi gadaiyva
nes, 1943 wels ki safrangeTSi. 1944
wels italiaSi, qalaq strezaSi aRmoCnda sxva tyveebTan erTad. aqedan
man moaxerxa Tavis daxsna da italiel
partizanebs SeuerTda. 1944 w., germanelebTan Setakebis dros, mters

iyo im didi aRmSeneblobisa da sazo-

XIX s-Si qiziyis gamorCeuli sazogado

gadoebrivi

romelic

moRvawea. igi eweoda agreTve liter-

XIX s. bolos qvemo maCxaanSi mimdin-

aturul saqmianobas, werda leqsebsa

areobda. saxlis pirveli sarTuli

da publicistur werilebs, romlebic

mTlianad marans ukavia, romelic

imdroindel periodul gamocemebSia

gamorCeulia Tavisi arqauli arqite-

dabeWdili. mis saxels ukavSirdeba

qturuli iersaxiT, fasadze gviani

bevri mniSvnelovani saqmis Taosnoba:

Sua saukuneebis sakulto arqiteq-

Teatris, savaWro deposa Tu afTiaq-

turisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli aguris

is gaxsna sofel qvemo maCxaanSi. misi

wyobiT gamoyvanili ornamentebiT.

Zegli (Sesrulebulia 1980 w.) dgas

interieri Seisruli TaRebiTaa da-

soflis centrSi mis mierve 1895 wlis

nawevrebuli, amave formis TaRiTaa

23 Tebervals daarsebuli savaWro

dagvirgvinebuli

depos gverdiT.

moZraobisa,

buxaric.

meore

mdebareobs, (mflobeli yajriSvili

Ta TqmiT, X s. ganekuTvneba. radgan

giga) romelsac mniSvnelovani adgi-

taZari Zneladmisadgomi iyo, gvi-

li ukavia tradiciuli saxlebis sim-

an Sua saukuneebSi sofelSi augiaT

ravlesa da mravalferovnebaSi. mi-

RvTismSoblis miZinebis saxelobis

uxedavad imisa, rom mocemuli saxli

sxva eklesia, amitom sameklesian bazi-

`cnobis furceli~). aRsaniSnavia, rom

meoce saukunis Sua xanebSia agebuli,

likas dRes xSirad wminda nikolozis

uqme dReebSi soflis mosaxleobisaT-

misi arqiteqtori imeorebs tradi-

saxelobiTac moixsenieben, samxreTis

vis samkiTxveloSi imarTeboda sagan-

ciul formebs aSenebs riyis qviTa

eklesiis saxelis mixedviT.

manaTleblo leqciebi medicinisa da

da aguriT da amasTanave, or mxares

higienis Sesaxeb. soflis centrSi, Te-

ukeTebs rikulebian aivans. fasadebis

atris mimdebared SemorCenilia qsen-

amgvari gadawyveta erTob organul

onis ramdenadme saxecvlili Senoba.

da originalur suraTs iZleva.

aanSi ixsneba qsenonic (saavadmyofo).

(nadiraSvili)

kucias. dimitri maCxaneli ki moTave

1899 wels qvemo maCxaanSi sazeimod

Tad gamosaxuli, romelic, mkvlevar-

erToblivi ZalisxmeviT qvemo maCx-

dimitri maCxaneli

sarTuli anfiladuri tipisaa, yov-

es pirveli SemTxvevaa ara marto saqa-

el oTaxSi moxvedra mTel fasadze

rTvelosTvis, aramed mTel imdroin-

gaSlili SuSabandidanaa SesaZlebe-

del kavkasiaSic. sabWoTa periodSi

li, gasaTbobad aqac buxaria gamar-

aq gaixsna soflis univermaRi, ramac

Tuli. aqvea Tanadrouli TaxCebi da

mTlianad Secvala Zveli Senobis ar-

ganjinebi. sayuradReboa, rom marani

qiteqturuli iersaxe. dRes aq gan-

ufro Zveli unda iyos, vidre saxlis

Tavsebulia depos gaxsnisa da isto-

meore sarTuli.

riis mauwyebeli sainformacio dafa.

imdroindeli

presa

aqtiurad

ex-

maureba am faqts (`iveria~, `droeba~,

romlebic aguriTaa naSeni. skolisa


da Teatris SenobasTan erTad, qsenonis Zveli nageboba erTiani, Tavdapirveli urbanuli ganaSenianebis
saintereso saxes gviqmnis. dRes aq
soflis sakrebuloa ganTavsebuli.

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erTi kilometriTaa dacilebuli da

10

12

aSenda.

igi,

erT-erTi pirveli iyo mTel qiziySi.


mis mSeneblobas exmianeba imdroindeli presa. am nagebobas Cvenamde ar

melic sabWoTa reJimis damyarebisas

vili). misi arqiteqtura arqauli

daangries. aRsaniSnavia, rom am ekle-

formebiT gamoirCeva. orsarTuliani

siaSi msaxurobdnen sasuliero pire-

nagebobis pirvel sarTulze, tradi-

bi, romlebic aqtiur sazogadoebriv

ciulad, marania gamarTuli, meoreze

saqmianobasac eweodnen. maTi Taosno-

ki sacxovrebeli oTaxebi. sayur-

biT warmarTuli saqmeebis, magaliT-

savaWro-saxelosno

adReboa misi aguris wriuli svetebi

ad, mTel qiziySi pirveli wignis maRa-

duqani

da xis rikulebiani moajiri, romel-

ziis gaxsnis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs XIX

savaWro-saxelosno duqanTagan erT-

Ta elementebis SexamebiTac iqmneba

s-Ois. presa.

erTi soflis Zvel ubanSi fanianSi,

maRali mxatvruli gemovnebis fasadi.

bisagan gamorCeulia arqiteqturuli

ba,sadac dResac skolaa ganTavsebuli, saukunes iTvlis. amave ezoSi dgas


1903 wels agebuli samsarTuliani Senoba, romelic, gadmocemiT, erT-erT
SeZlebul adgilobrivs ekuTvnoda,

lebeli ganTavsda. nageboba amJamad


dazianebuli da ufunqcioa, Tumca
saintereso arqiteqturuli iersaxisaa. SemorCenilia keramikis buxrebi da aivnis Wviruli CuqurTmis detalebi.

daTa monasteria ganTavsebuli.

savaWro duqani

Znelia moiZebnos savaWro-saxelosno

gavsad, aqac orsarTuliania, magram

duqnebiT mdidari meore iseTi sofe-

gacilebiT didi. horizontalurad

li, rogoric qvemo maCxaania. adgilo-

wagrZelebuli

pirvel

brivTa gadmocemiT, aq aTeulobiT

nagebobis

miyolebiT

duqani yofila, sadac SeiZleboda mo-

oTxi marani da duqania ganTavsebu-

saxleobisaTvis saWiro yovelgvari

meore msoflio omSi

li aguris farTo TaRebiTa da TaxCe-

produqtisa Tu nivTis yidva. swored

daRupulTa memoriali

biT, qvevrebiTa da sawnaxliT. yovel

es gaxda imis safuZveli, rom 1895

soflis centrSi mdebareobs meore

maTgans damoukidebeli Sesasvleli

wels sofelSi arsdeba amierkavkasi-

msoflio omSi daRupulTa memoria-

aqvs. maT Tavze ki TiTo sacxovrebeli

aSi pirveli savaWro saxelosno depo,

li (kompleqsi). igi 1980 wels roland

oTaxia, erTmaneTisagan izolirebu-

Semdeg ki ,,saxalxo banki.

SanSaSvilis mieraa Sesrulebuli. qu-

li. aq TiTqmis yvelaferi Tavdapir-

Cis aqeT-iqiT, or monumentur kedel-

veli saxiTaa SemorCenili, kibe, kare-

nilia

ze gaSlilia bareliefiT Sesrulebu-

bi, xelnakeTi anjamebi da saketebi,

duqnebis arqiteqturuli saxe Semde-

li sabrZolo scenebi da mgloviare

Wviruli aivnis nawili da sxv.

gia: orsarTuliani Senobis pirveli

dedis mrgvali qandakeba.

am SenobaSi jaliaSvilebis ojaxi cx-

sarTuli farTo TaRebiTaa gaxsni-

memoriali soflis centralur quCa-

ovrobs.

li, sadac daxlebi iyo ganTavsebuli,

erTmaneTis

ramdenime wlis win Zveli eklesiis


sanacvlod axali aigo. aq amJamad de-

iersaxiT: Senoba, danarCenebis ms-

sarTulze

Semdgom ki, represiebisas, mas CamoerTva qoneba da iq teqnikuri saswav-

mTavar quCazea SemorCenili. igi sxve-

mouRwevia, Tumca SemorCenili Seno-

qvemo maCxaanis centrSi mdebareobda

bareobs (mflobeli gela jaliaS-

sarTulze. aq SesaZlebelia misi meamavdroulad,

wminda sameba

wminda samebis saxelobis eklesia, ro-

saxlidan SemorCenil marnian pirvel

wels

saxli fanianSi

gzamkvleviT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva

saxli fanianSi mTavar quCaze mde-

bareobs da ganTavsebulia fores

naxva.

bodbisxevis RvTismSoblis
saxelobis eklesia

mdebareobs.

saxl-muzeumi soflis centrSi mde-

pirveli skola qvemo maCxaanSi 1884

gamorCeulia.

gram qvemo maCxaanidan daaxloebiT

1970

morialuri nivTebisa da werilebis

lis Zvel nagebobaTa Soris erT-erTi

Teatridan ramdenime wuTis savalze

mamacobisTvis daajildova.

pirveli skola

qiteqturul saxes imeorebs da sofe-

saxli soflis centralur quCaze

w. italiis mTavrobam is ,,mxedruli

odSi gavrcelebul tradiciul ar-

eklesia bodbisxevSi mdebareobs, ma-

ikla maT Tvalwin, riTac sicocxle


TanamebrZolebs.

buxaria datanebuli. marani am peri-

sainteresoa misi gverdiTi fasadebi,

danebebas sikvdili arCia da Tavi mo


SeunarCuna

saxli fanianSi

saxli soflis Zvel ubanSi fanianSi

dawesebulebebTan erTad, qiziyelTa

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duqanTa naxevari dResac SemorCesoflis

mTavar

quCaze.

ze, fore mosuliSvilis saxl-muze-

meore sarTulze ki an saxelosno iyo

umis gverdiT mdebareobs.

gamarTuli, an sacxovreblad gamoi-

obieqtebis gverdiT, misi naxvac xelmisawvdomi da mosaxerxebelia.


taZari SemaRlebul ferdobze mdebareobs da sameklesian bazilikas
warmoadgens. Sua, ZiriTadi eklesia
RvTismSoblis miZinebis saxelobisaa,
samxreTis navSi wminda nikolozis
eklesiaa, CrdiloeTiT ki _ wminda

sofel qvemo maCxaanis kulturis resursebis megzuri gamocemulia saTemo


ganviTarebis centris mier, proeqtis
saTemo iniciativebis mxardaWera kaxeTis regionSi farglebSi, organizacia
puri msoflios (BfdW) mxardaWeriT.
soflis kulturis resursebis pirveladi aRwera ganxorcielda organizaciebis
- kulturuli memkvidreobis arasamTavrobo monitoringi da samoqalaqo iniciativa erToblivi proeqtis aqtiuri
axalgazrdoba - daculi kulturuli memkvidreoba farglebSi, 2013- 2014 wels.

man sofeli samjer gadaarCina egze-

maCxaanis Teatri

romlis kedelSic farTo TaxCebi da

megzuris Sedgenaze muSaobdnen:


koncefcia - ana margvelaSvili,
qeTevan gogoberiSvili (CDC);

iT pirovnebad SemorCa. gadmocemiT,

gad aris SemorCenili Zveli marani,

qsenoni

XIX s. miwuruls, sxva mniSvnelovan

mexsierebas igi yovelmxriv dadeb-

mxridan.

teqstebi da fotomasala: diana kakaSvili


da Tamar sixaruliZe (kulturuli
memkvidreobis arasamTavrobo
monitoringi)

soflis boqauli iyo. adgilobrivTa

Semosasvleli

dizaini: marTa TabukaSvili

Zmas basiko nadiraSvils, romelic

saxli soflis dasawyisSi

megzuris mizania erTi soflis magaliTze


warmoaCinos, Tu ramdenad mdidaria saqarTvelos municipalitetebi kulturis
resursebis mxriv da xeli Seuwyos aRniSnuli resursebis ganviTarebaze msjelobis dawyebas.

barbaresi. taZari X s. TariRdeba, magram ganirCeva ramdenime samSeneblo


fena. savaraudod, pirvandeli nageboba ufro adreuli periodisa unda
yofiliyo. aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis fasadebze ori nusxanarevi
asomTavruli warweraa jvrebTan er-

sofel qvemo maCxaanis


kulturis resursebi
megzuri