Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State

of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

CONTENTS

Sl. No. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6. 7. INTRODUCTION

Description

Page No. Es-1 to Es-11 1-1 to 1-3 2-1 to 2-63 3-1 to 3-36 4-1 to 4-26 5-1 to 5-13 6-1 to 6-9 7-1 to 7-4

PROJECT DESCRIPTION SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE TRAFFIC PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT RESETTLEMENT ACTION PLAN INCLUDING MAGNITUDE OF SOCIAL IMPACT COST ESTIMATE

Project Report 2-1

Project Description

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND National Highways Authority of India has decided to take up the development, maintenance and management of various National Highway corridors/sections under NHDP Phase-III Programme of 4/6 laning of 10,000 km on BOT basis where the intensity of traffic has increased significantly and there is requirement for augmentation of capacity for safe and efficient movement of traffic. The present project study is concerned with Kannur (km 148.00) – Kuttipuram (km 318.00) section of NH-17 in the State of Kerala. The project road has almost continuous ribbon development through out the project corridor. The existing road has configuration of two lane wide highway which is proposed to be upgraded to four-lane divided carriageway with paved shoulders partially access controlled highway.

1.2

CONSULTANCY SERVICES M/s Intercontinental Consultants & Technocrats Pvt. Ltd., A-8, Green Park, New Delhi, India was appointed as Consultants vide letter no NHAI/BOT/11012/58/13/2006/369 dated 30.03.2006 to carry out the Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report (DPR) for 4/6 laning of the section from Kannur (km 148.00) to Kuttipuram (km 318.00) of NH-17. This work has been assigned as Contract Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13. Location of the project road is depicted in Index Map placed as Fig. 1.1. The main objective of the consultancy services is to establish the technical, economical and financial viability of the project. The scope and principal objective of the consultancy services is contained in the Terms of Reference (TOR) of the consultancy services, which is a part of the contract agreement.

1.3

PROJECT DESCRIPTION NH-17 a British era road, originally named as West Coast Road takes off at Panaval (near Mumbai) and terminates at Edappally in Cochin. The highway passes through Goa, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Kuttipuram and finally terminates at Edapally (in Cochin) and joins NH-47. The highway was re-organised with its ‘zero’ chainage point at Mangalore. The Mangalore – Edapally section of the road was declared as NH in 1972 and alignment was subsequently modified in 1974. Section of NH-17 between Km 18.050 – 438.827 with a length of about 420 km falls in the state of Kerala. The road passes through Kasaragod (Km 50), Kannur (Km 148), Kozhikode (Km 245), Kuttipuram (km 318) and joins NH-47 at Edapally at Km 438.827. The Kannur – Kuttipuram section of the road falls mainly in the State of Kerala covering three districts of Kannur, Kozhikode and Mallapuram with 1.505 km falling in district Mahe of Pondicherry State.

1.3.1

Construction Packaging

Project Report 2-2

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The project as decided in consultation with NHAI is proposed to be taken up in two construction packages (i) Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00) and (ii) Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00). Preliminary Project Report has been prepared package wise. The stretch of project road as it passes through various districts is described hereunder. i) District Kannur (Kerala State) chainage Km 148.000 to Km 184.600 and Km 186.105 to km 187.600.

ii) District Mahe in Pondicherry state chainage Km 184.600 to Km 186.105 iii) District Kozhikode in Kerala state chainage Km 187.600 to Km 230.000

Project Report 2-3

Project Description

Index Map 1.1

Project Report 2-4

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

1.3.2

Present Status MOSRT&H is responsible for development and maintenance of NH-17, Kerala PWD (NH) is at present maintaining the stretch of the project road.

1.3.3

Salient Features Index map of the project road section is shown in Fig. 1.1. The National Highway, which is having continuous ribbon development on both sides is functioning as an urban road. Topography The project road corridor runs through plain and rolling terrain as tabulated below in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1: Terrain Classification
Sl. No. 1 2 1.3.4

Type of Terrain
Plain Rolling

Chainage (km) (km 148.00 to km 230.000)
km 148.00 to km 195.00 km 210.00 to km 230.00

km 195.00 to km 210.00

Existing Route (RoW) The exiting RoW between Kannur – Kozhikode varies widely at different locations, 11.00 m to 20.00 m in general and at some location in short stretches 30m to 40m at Edakkad (km 171.00) Vadakara (km 189.00 to km 199.00). The existing NH at Mahe town in Pondicherry has the narrowest RoW of 8m to 10m.

1.3.5

Existing Carriageway The project road in general has more than 7m carriageway with few reaches having 5m to 6m carriageway. Paved shoulders have been provided at several locations. Divided carriageway exists only in small stretches at some urban areas.

1.4

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN AND INCEPTION REPORT In accordance with para 10.2 of the TOR, the Quality Assurance Plan and the Inception Report were submitted vide ICT:451:3309 dated 12.04.2006 and 4445 dated 06.05.2006 respectively.

1.5

FUNDING OPTION This project is envisaged to be implemented on public private partnership (PPP) and viability on Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) will be examined in detailed.

1.6

UTILITIES Several utilities like electric lines telephone / OFC, water line existing with in the ROW

1.7
• • •

BYPASSES
Kannur bypass - km 148.000 to km 167.000 - 18.000 km long Thalassery – Mahe bypass, km 170.718 to km 187.000 - 18.000 km long Koilandy bypass- km 214.000 to km 225.000 - 11.000 km long

1.8

CONCLUSIONS The existing road will be improved to 4-lane configuration with service road on either side.

Project Report 2-5

Project Description

••• 2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2.1 PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA Kerala is the state situated at the southern most tip of India and is the most green part of Country. As regards climate is concerned the temperature ranges from 35°C to 21°C. The raining season lasts from June to October. June to July rains are heavy and quite continuous, where as August to October rains are comparatively lighter and intermittent. The Kerala State as per census of 2003 has quantum of 27,45,948 vehicles. The state is a economically / financially sound and up coming state having world’s attraction specially towards Tourism due to its scenenic beauty and IT also. The vehicular traffic movement is increasing fast. Consequently the highways are overloaded and the present system is not capable to sustain the traffic quantum. The statistics indicates (i) the road accidents are increasing day by day (ii) travel time is increasing (iii) vehicle maintenance cost per km run is increasing and (iv) Road side amenities are inadequate. The highway needs upgradation on priority. The Kerala state has only 1560 km length of National Highways against total length of 66590 km of National Highway network of the country. At present, there are 8 numbers National Highways in the state. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 2.2.1 NH-17 NH-47 NH-47 A NH-49 NH-202 NH-208 NH-212 NH-213 : : : : : : : : Thalapadi Walayer Kundanoor Bodimettu Kollam Kollam Kozhikode Palakkad – Edappally (Cochin) – Kaliyikkavila – Willingoton Island (only 6.1 km long NH) – Kundannoor – Kumily – Aryankavu – Muthanga – Kozhikode

The NH-47, NH-212 and Nh-213 directly contribute traffic on the project road NH-17. Historical Background of the Project Road NH-17 originally during British period, named as West Coast Road originates near Panvel (near Mumbai) and terminates at Edapally in Cochin. The highway passes through Goa, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Kuttipuram and finally terminates at Edapally and joins NH-47 as shown is Fig. 1.1.

NH-17 was re-organised with its ‘Zero’ chainage point at Mangalore. The Mangalore – Edapally section of the road was declared as NH in 1972 and alignment was subsequently modified in 1974. This section of NH-17 between km 18.050 to km 438.827 with a length of about 421 km falls in the State of Kerala. The road passes through Kasaragod (km 50), Kannur (Km 155), Kozhikode (Km 245), Kuttipuram (Km 318) and finally terminates and joins NH-47 at Edapally at km 438.827. The Kannur – Kuttipuram section of the road forms the stretch under the present project study and can be divided in three segments as district boundaries. The project road section falls under four districts Kannur, Mahe (Pondicherry), Kozhikode and Malappuram.
Project Report 2-6

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

2.2.2

Project Influence Area i) Internal with in the state The traffic is generated from the following with in the Project Corridor. a) The project road section falls under three districts of Kerala State – Kannur, Kozhikode and Mallapuram and fourth district of Pondicherry State Mahe sandwiched between District Kannur of Kerala State. The road has urban development in the shape of ribbon development almost along the entire length i.e. more than 80% of the total length. NH-17 serves as the major pivotal road, which carries the generated traffic from its surroundings to other parts of the Kerala State and rest of the country. b) Traffic from other Highways • National Highways - NH-212 and NH-213, NH-47
• •

State Highways Cochin Port

SH-38, SH-36, SH-34, SH-30, SH-28 and MDRS

- Cochin Port connectivity road intersecting NH-17 at km. 434.00.

ii) External from other states NHAI has developed the Golden Quadrilateral Corridor of NHDP connecting the four Metropolitan towns of Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, North-South and East West corridors. Salem – Kochi – Cherthalai -Thiruvananthapuram sections are under development as a spur to North South corridor. Development of NH-17 will attract more traffic from the region and will connect the Kerala State to Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra. NH-17 also connects these states to North south corridor at Salem through NH-47. 2.3 SALIENT FEATURES The reconnaissance of the project road section from Kannur to Kuttipuram was carried out during April 2006. Road and bridge inventory was done during April to June 2006. The project road starts from Valapattanam Bridge at km 148.000 North of Kannur town. The end point of project is at km 318.000 at Kuttipuram. Total Length is 170 kms. 2.3.1 Carriageway Width The road in general has two lanes carriageway with paved shoulders and total carriageway ranges between 7.00 m to 10.00 m wide in general. Detailed is given in Table 2.1. a) Undivided carriageway Table 2.1: Carriageway Width (Undivided) Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Chainage (km) 148.000 to 156.000 156.000 to 168.800 170.000 to 216.150 216.150 to 218.650 218.900 to 219.100 219.350 to 219.650 219.900 to 258.600 259.600 to 269.500 Configuration Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with out paved shoulders Two lane with out paved shoulders Two lane with out paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders
Project Report 2-7

Width (m) 7.00 to 8.80 6.00 to 8.35 5.10 to 10.00 7.10 to 7.60 7.20 to 7.60 7.20 6.00 to 11.50 6.90 to 8.50

Project Description

Sl. No. 9. 10.

Chainage (km) 270.200 to 290.800 292.600 to 318.000

Configuration Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders

Width (m) 7.00 to 9.90 7.15 to 13.40

Project Report 2-8

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

b) Divided Carriageway In the following reaches passing through urban/semi urban areas there is divided carriageway. Detailed is given in Table 2.2. Table 2.2: Carriageway Width (Divided) Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2.3.2 Location Chainage (Km) From 168.800 216.150 218.650 219.100 219.650 258.600 269.500 290.800 To 170.700 216.700 218.900 219.350 219.900 259.600 270.200 292.600 Carriageway Width (m) From 7.00 4.70 5.70 4.30 4.30 8.50 7.00 4.50 To 7.00 4.70 5.80 4.30 4.30 7.00 7.00 5.00 Centre Verge (m) 0.60 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.60 4.50 Shoulders (m) From 6.00 1.70 4.00 4.20 4.20 2.50 6.00 3.00 To 7.00 5.10 5.00 4.20 4.20 4.00 7.00 2.00

Shoulder Type and width

Existing road has earthen shoulders as well as paved shoulders. The earthen shoulders are in general 1 m wide except in a few reaches. Paved shoulders are not of uniform width ranging between 1.0 to 3.0 m. 2.3.3 Land Use
• • • •

Habitation close to the road almost along the entire length of the project corridor Religious structures Residential, commercial, institutional, Hospitals, markets etc. Agricultural having coconut plantation, paddy field in some reaches

2.3.4

River and Stream The project road crosses the following rivers and streams as given in Table2.3 below; Table 2.3: River and Streams on Project Road Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. Location Chainage (km) 149.000 172.000 174.000 175.000 203.500 233.000 248.000 24.000 (Kozhikode bypass) 282.000 319.000 Name of River Valapatnam Anjarakandi Dharmadam Eranjolipuzha Kuttiady Korappuzha Kallai (A Diversion of Arappuzha)
Arappuzha

Kadalundipuzha Bharatapuzha

Project Report 2-9

Project Description

2.3.5

Crust Thickness of Existing Road

For the purpose of investigation, the road is divided into sections of 5 km stretch except where the condition changes. The detailed pavement thickness in different stretches are given in Table 2.4. Table No. 2.4: Pavement Crust Thickness Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Chainage (km) 145+000 150+000 155+000 160+000 165+000 170+000 175+000 180+000 185+000 190+000 (New Road) R/S 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 195+000 (New Road) 200+000 205+000 210+000 215+000 220+000 225+000 230+000 235+000 240+000 245+000 250+000 255+000 260+000 L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S 200 140 210 250 160 270 210 160 170 180 160 170 170 80 70 170 90 100 80 100 90 90 180 180 70 290 320 290 430 230 340 210 330 260 280 240 270 260 195 160 110 465 Location of Pit R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S 160 120 140 420 BC + DBM (mm) 110 115 120 130 180 200 260 150 140 70 160 WBM (mm) 110 160 140 160 100 80 WMM (mm) G.S.B (mm) 160 150 150 Morrom Total (mm) (mm) 130 120 220 275 260 290 440 430 410 350 420

Project Report 2 - 10

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Sl. No. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Chainage (km) 265+000 270+000 275+000 280+000 285+000 290+000 295+000 300+000 305+000 310+000 315+000

Location of Pit R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S

BC + DBM (mm) 160 200 180 135 120 150 190 210 185 200 200

WBM (mm) 150 90 100 80 100 110 70 100 90 100

WMM (mm) -

G.S.B (mm) -

Morrom Total (mm) (mm) 310 290 280 215 220 260 260 210 285 290 300

Rutting The sub-grade of the road is quite strong and maintenance is good, there are not much of rutting signs except at a few, locations. Rutting is a longitudinal depression or groove in the wheel tracks. The ruts are usually of the width of a wheel path. Swerving from a rutted wheel path at high speed can be dangerous. The depth of rut is measured by keeping the straight edge placing transversely across the wheel tracks and using graduated measuring wedge. The mean value for the wheel tracks is worked out. The observed rutting depth and the details about the stretches affected by Rutting are analysed. 2.3.6 Pot Hole Potholes are bowl shaped holes of varying sizes in a surface layer or extended into base layer, caused by the localized disintegrations of the usually thin bituminous surfacing material. The area covering majority of Pot holes was measured along with numbers and area in every 200m and the percentage area was worked out. The high way has potholes only at location of excessive braking before bridges, accident-prone areas at km 307.00 etc. Fig 2.1 shows such location. 2.3.7 Raveling

Fig 2.1: Road Condition at Bridge Approach - km 148.000

Raveling is characterized by the progressive disintegration of the surface due to the failure of the binder to hold the materials together. Raveling was measured at every 500m. 2.3.8 Loss of Materials The thickness of the WBM on shoulder was checked at every 500m intervals to assess the loss of the material.
Project Report 2 - 11

Project Description

During field investigation it was observed that, materials along the shoulder was lost and require re-graveling to be done as early as possible as the extent of loss varies from 5 to 15 % 2.3.9 Cracking A common defect in bituminous surface is the formation of cracks. The area affected by cracking was measured by encircling and the extent of cracking was assessed visually at 200m intervals or the places of defects. 2.3.10 Undulations/Settlement Undulations and settlements in the road have observed only a sharp bends e.g. at km 306.000 and prior to changed built up areas. The road maintenance and traffic management is quite good. 2.3.11 Patching During field inspection, patching was observed on the entire project road. 2.3.12 Edge Breaking Irregular breakage of pavement edge was noticed in some portion of the road. 2.3.13 Edge Drop The edge drop is the vertical difference in levels between the edge of the carriageway and abutting shoulders. 2.3.14 Inventory of all Road Side Facilities The details of the road side amenities and facilities like school, dhabas, telephone booths, bus stop, hospital, hotel, repair shops etc. 2.4 ROAD MEASUREMENT DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (ROMDAS)
The roughness has been carried out for the whole length of the project road using Road Measurement Data Acquisition System (ROMDAS). The calibration of the ROMDAS has been done as per the procedure given in World Bank’s Technical Paper Number 46 (WTP-46). The surveys have covered two runs along the wheel paths for each lane and results have been expressed in the terms of IRI (m/km) and BI (mm/km) in tabular as well as graphical forms. In addition video survey has also been conducted for digitisation of whole project road to have a better in-house assessments and rectifications. 2.4.1 ROMDAS Road Measurement Data Acquisition System (ROMDAS) has been developed as a generic system for collecting a variety of information. The vehicle mounted equipment includes: an axle mounted device called Bump Integrator for the measurement of roughness; a Video camera and an IBM compatible notebook PC which interacts with the instrumentation to store recorded data. The video camera is used to record all pertinent information concerning the existing roadway and Right-ofWay (though, whenever necessary, this information may also be verified by physical inspection).

2.4.1.1

Road Roughness Surveys

The axle-mounted ROMDAS Survey Module is used to measure pavement roughness. This is an indication of the surface irregularities influencing the riding quality and is a major determinant of vehicle operating costs.

Project Report 2 - 12

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

ROMDAS works as a response type road roughness measuring system. The system has been calibrated by recording its response (RAW values) and comparing the same with that of a ROMDAS Z-250 Reference Profiler. ROMDAS Z-250 reference Profiler has been developed by Data Collection Ltd (DCL). The Calibration sections called standard sections have been divided into a number of smaller subsections of 100m lengths each. A total of 12 such “standard” points have been collected consisting of 400 lengths each. “Standard” sections vary from “very smooth” to “very poor” and at each section the Z250 has been run along the selected lane and roughness has been noted in terms of IRI (m/km).
ROMDAS vehicle has been run at Constant Speed of 32+2 km/hr on the “standard” section along the same selected lanes and ROMDAS response (RAW values) have been recorded. Using the software-NLREG the calibration equation has been developed between ROMDAS Response (RAW/km) and IRI (m/km). Calibration equation at 32km/hr:

Y = 1.468+0.00041*X

[R^2 = 0.98]

Where X is ROMDAS Response (RAW/km) and Y is IRI (m/km). IRI Roughness values have been converted into Bump Integrator Index (BI) by means of the equation given in HDM-III: BI = (312.5 x IRI) 1.124

Field data collected and analysed subsequently along each lane of the stretch have been expressed in terms of IRI (m/km) and BI (mm/km) and have been presented in both tabular and graphical forms in the following pages.
Limitations as Per MOSRT&H/World Bank The following guidelines for road roughness in terms of IRI (m/km) and BI (mm/km) for different surface types have been considered for assessing the road condition.

a) Recommended Roughness values (BI units) by MORT&H Circulation No. RW/NH33044/10/2000-S&R dated 22nd May 2000

Surface Type
Bituminous Concrete Premix Bituminous Carpet Surface Dressing

Good (mm/km) 2000-2500 2500-4500 4000-5000

Average (mm/km) 2500-3500 4500-5500 5000-6500

Poor (mm/km) 3500-4000 5500-6500 6500-7500

Very Poor (mm/km) >4000 >6500 >7500

As per World Bank Technical Publication No. 46 the minimum and maximum range of BI and IRI for new pavements is as follows, but the type of surface has not been mentioned. Minimum IRI (BI) in m/km (mm/km) 1.5 (1000)
Observations

New Pavements

Maximum IRI (BI) in m/km (mm/km) 3.4 (2500)

Based on the Roughness Measurement Studies the km-wise average roughness in IRI and BI Units of various lanes have been summarised in Table 2.5 (a) & 2.5 (b). The detailed 100mwise Roughness Measurement Studies have been given for project road main section and Kozhikode bypass.
Project Report 2 - 13

Project Description

Table 2.5 (a): Roughness Measurement Studies (km 148.000 - km 318.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram Chainage (km) 148-149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 3.51 2613.16 4.20 3200.37 3.27 2414.35 3.21 2363.74 2.93 2133.62 3.27 2411.63 3.14 2309.52 3.34 2469.51 2.97 2161.82 3.79 2846.88 4.00 3027.59 4.23 3221.78 3.17 2330.17 2.67 1921.79 2.67 1918.15 3.16 2322.72 2.84 2061.29 3.91 2947.51 5.39 4229.24 5.56 4379.31 4.91 3809.79 5.05 3929.08 6.59 5306.77 4.52 3467.85 4.77 3684.48 3.66 2739.05 3.55 2649.90 3.56 2654.02 5.12 3991.22 6.31 5050.76 5.87 4657.37 4.64 3577.76 3.98 3010.85 4.01 3032.82 4.24 3230.21 3.87 2919.36 3.79 2851.03 Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 3.15 2311.89 3.33 2462.52 3.59 2676.02 3.89 2938.20 3.24 2387.50 3.26 2400.93 3.01 2202.18 3.11 2282.96 2.97 2165.18 2.95 2149.40 2.98 2177.28 3.13 2294.46 3.46 2567.57 3.30 2438.55 3.71 2780.12 3.52 2624.82 2.77 2003.23 2.87 2082.53 2.94 2137.31 3.36 2492.09 3.53 2627.92 3.76 2827.75 3.75 2814.69 3.99 3018.23 2.68 1930.75 2.93 2130.46 2.48 1767.30 2.57 1844.55 2.55 1827.54 2.61 1872.84 2.69 1939.71 2.93 2131.22 2.77 2002.57 2.81 2031.93 3.65 2731.12 3.78 2839.31 5.65 4458.93 5.52 4344.09 5.34 4183.32 5.45 4281.32 4.97 3859.89 4.94 3834.84 5.75 4551.83 5.40 4240.46 7.31 5959.44 6.95 5633.11 6.06 4827.74 5.29 4147.79 5.70 4507.72 5.23 4096.10 3.36 2491.34 3.51 2615.20 3.06 2239.92 3.31 2444.91 3.60 2684.97 3.58 2669.49 3.45 2566.55 4.29 3278.88 3.42 2540.20 4.87 3795.48 4.21 3202.83 5.04 3930.10 3.25 2393.96 3.94 2985.86 4.00 3023.05 3.99 3016.95 3.80 2859.35 3.91 2946.08 3.83 2885.00 4.04 3057.60 3.80 2854.84 3.84 2887.10 3.15 2311.21 3.47 2581.12

Project Report 2 - 14

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Chainage (km) 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 3.55 2646.80 4.40 3364.66 3.85 2899.23 3.68 2754.92 3.84 2890.90 3.26 2404.49 3.44 2554.91 3.21 2362.38 2.87 2084.03 4.59 3534.46 6.17 4922.19 5.65 4465.84 3.04 2224.75 3.09 2261.52 4.33 3307.92 4.17 3174.07 4.18 3175.82 4.09 3106.50 4.61 3549.36 4.15 3155.15 3.99 3018.52 3.61 2694.26 2.76 1997.90 2.58 1851.96 2.77 2005.90 2.60 1861.87 2.55 1824.90 2.45 1747.92 2.47 1758.43 4.04 3057.24 3.75 2813.31 3.13 2300.38 2.75 1984.25 2.85 2066.64 2.87 2082.36 2.65 1902.24 3.03 2217.00 3.28 2423.88 2.64 1898.60

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 4.57 3512.83 4.06 3079.82 4.21 3207.74 4.30 3286.20 3.40 2516.95 3.62 2708.09 3.58 2670.18 3.63 2712.55 3.57 2666.74 3.71 2778.82 3.11 2278.41 3.18 2341.45 3.18 2339.66 3.31 2447.28 3.02 2209.25 3.12 2285.81 2.92 2121.21 2.89 2102.62 4.50 3457.94 4.55 3496.20 5.87 4656.27 6.02 4789.23 4.82 3732.62 5.24 4099.23 2.74 1979.93 2.89 2102.34 3.30 2440.55 3.19 2351.04 4.03 3053.40 4.18 3180.66 3.42 2536.09 3.80 2855.08 3.73 2801.55 3.95 2988.69 4.07 3085.88 4.08 3096.19 4.48 3434.24 4.54 3491.80 3.94 2977.77 4.05 3066.46 3.77 2829.57 3.88 2924.04 2.97 2165.85 3.29 2430.06 2.80 2024.90 2.78 2011.40 2.58 1849.98 2.58 1850.97 2.59 1853.28 2.68 1929.59 2.33 1649.12 2.46 1755.50 2.60 1865.84 2.58 1845.37 2.48 1765.65 2.47 1756.79 2.36 1676.21 2.42 1717.32 4.03 3052.00 4.03 3054.62 3.59 2681.18 3.67 2747.24 2.79 2015.23 2.96 2157.81 2.64 1898.26 2.69 1941.26 2.68 1928.76 2.76 1997.70 2.79 2018.23 2.83 2050.30 2.72 1961.30 2.68 1931.77 3.10 2269.28 3.06 2243.14 2.91 2115.51 3.10 2269.69 2.77 1999.57 2.70 1949.08

Project Report 2 - 15

Project Description

Chainage (km) 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 3.63 2711.13 3.04 2224.75 2.97 2161.82 2.63 1890.32 2.76 1996.90 2.66 1912.51 2.69 1935.73 3.00 2186.36 4.22 3211.60 4.25 3242.85 2.64 1896.94 2.77 2001.23 2.96 2157.79 3.31 2447.70 3.34 2473.61 2.78 2013.90 3.10 2275.03 3.00 2192.76 2.88 2090.06 2.92 2124.56 3.07 2249.70 3.01 2196.46 2.95 2151.75 3.15 2313.24 2.88 2095.08 2.92 2127.58 2.88 2092.74 2.73 1967.95 2.79 2019.90 3.05 2232.84 2.58 1848.33 2.75 1982.59 3.10 2272.66 3.18 2340.34 2.87 2087.71 2.82 2044.26 2.91 2119.20 2.66 1909.53 2.85 2068.65

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 3.45 2559.70 3.54 2635.42 2.73 1967.29 2.88 2096.02 2.86 2074.33 2.91 2118.08 2.57 1842.06 2.60 1866.19 2.74 1978.60 2.75 1987.75 2.65 1905.22 2.65 1908.87 2.61 1870.80 2.65 1903.26 2.91 2118.87 2.95 2152.61 3.53 2633.07 3.88 2922.33 4.53 3483.42 4.39 3363.14 3.40 2524.81 3.02 2210.88 2.67 1922.79 2.72 1962.01 2.68 1932.74 2.82 2045.27 3.25 2393.96 3.28 2420.83 3.00 2187.04 3.17 2330.32 2.79 2014.90 2.78 2014.40 2.86 2077.01 2.98 2176.02 2.87 2082.70 2.94 2137.73 3.10 2271.31 2.99 2180.68 2.98 2176.95 2.95 2150.76 3.02 2207.90 3.05 2228.80 2.80 2029.90 2.91 2113.18 4.53 3483.07 3.74 2817.41 3.14 2306.13 3.15 2309.69 2.83 2053.94 2.86 2074.51 2.73 1972.28 2.83 2049.93 2.79 2019.23 2.84 2055.98 2.91 2117.52 2.82 2042.74 2.83 2048.93 2.81 2034.41 2.70 1942.37 2.87 2087.60 2.80 2028.24 2.69 1938.28 2.82 2045.93 2.78 2014.26 2.54 1815.01 2.82 2043.84 2.80 2025.23 2.99 2182.79 2.72 1963.30 2.80 2025.51 2.88 2093.74 2.85 2069.00 2.69 1939.05 2.80 2029.12 2.77 2001.90 2.71 1955.71 2.75 1985.92 2.80 2027.28

Project Report 2 - 16

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Chainage (km) 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 3.11 2279.59 3.39 2510.96 2.89 2102.56 3.36 2490.21 3.40 2519.57 4.13 3135.92 3.45 2566.62 3.87 2914.50 3.29 2427.32 3.35 2478.48 3.24 2388.35 3.26 2400.81 3.44 2552.89 3.18 2341.28 3.39 2515.65 3.54 2639.74 3.29 2426.54 3.67 2745.49 3.94 2977.46 3.23 2378.22 3.47 2583.51 3.56 2657.07 3.36 2490.21 3.66 2736.39 3.22 2370.44 3.56 2657.86 3.66 2738.37 3.41 2528.58 3.08 2259.07 2.60 1867.18 2.73 1969.04 2.98 2174.49 2.72 1959.89 2.66 1913.09 2.85 2068.42 2.62 1884.62 2.93 2131.76 2.68 1929.06 2.69 1938.95

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 2.98 2174.11 3.04 2226.85 3.44 2551.71 3.41 2531.33 3.24 2384.06 3.06 2243.31 3.17 2333.90 3.27 2412.06 3.34 2474.96 3.37 2497.27 3.37 2496.08 3.75 2816.00 2.91 2113.70 3.18 2340.16 3.48 2586.65 3.67 2750.57 3.16 2323.80 3.22 2375.56 2.96 2159.08 3.16 2318.78 3.08 2258.68 3.16 2323.52 3.63 2713.87 3.44 2557.34 3.38 2506.26 3.41 2529.57 3.41 2525.84 3.29 2433.56 3.40 2521.53 3.40 2518.59 3.53 2628.72 3.54 2634.23 3.53 2632.26 3.41 2529.40 3.46 2567.02 3.56 2656.25 3.49 2594.51 3.72 2785.99 3.46 2571.33 3.34 2474.78 3.43 2543.48 3.45 2563.49 3.44 2554.46 3.50 2605.76 3.38 2503.13 3.37 2496.67 3.50 2607.08 3.58 2671.74 3.47 2578.79 3.34 2474.62 3.91 2949.55 3.74 2803.70 3.52 2620.85 3.59 2679.61 3.23 2381.34 3.32 2454.96 2.85 2064.97 2.97 2162.02 2.62 1878.55 2.61 1872.86 2.55 1821.39 2.64 1895.21 2.70 1948.47 2.84 2061.48 2.65 1901.32 2.68 1930.61 2.51 1793.82 2.59 1853.46 2.72 1965.23 2.79 2016.82 2.84 2063.44 2.73 1974.03 2.97 2168.33 2.95 2150.05 2.70 1949.23 2.69 1939.14 2.69 1937.05 2.69 1938.00

Project Report 2 - 17

Project Description

Chainage (km) 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 Average Max. Min.

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 2.64 1899.42 2.48 1768.94 2.71 1951.89 3.33 2464.80 5.76 4558.66 2.98 2176.81 3.05 2233.16 3.14 2309.06 3.10 2274.56 3.14 2309.44 3.20 2358.38 3.26 2400.81 3.02 2207.28 3.04 2222.73 4.48 3433.96 3.50 6.59 2.45 2612.15 5306.77 1747.92

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 2.84 2062.67 2.74 1981.05 2.64 1897.90 2.56 1833.42 3.10 2273.40 2.90 2112.65 4.67 3605.87 4.00 3035.34 4.35 3323.51 5.05 3941.09 2.78 2012.55 2.88 2094.68 3.19 2343.22 3.12 2288.19 3.07 2249.40 3.11 2279.23 3.23 2380.95 3.17 2327.75 3.18 2337.01 3.16 2323.23 3.35 2476.13 3.28 2417.26 3.23 2381.73 3.24 2391.27 2.86 2078.39 2.94 2142.83 3.07 2246.69 3.05 2234.71 4.17 3168.44 4.32 3301.20 3.35 7.31 2.33 2489.85 5959.44 1649.12 3.42 6.95 2.42 2551.00 5633.11 1717.32

Project Report 2 - 18

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Roughness Measurement Studies (km 148.000 - km 208.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 151 153 155 157 159 161 163 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 181 183 185 187 189 191 193 195 197 199 201 203 205 148-149 207

IRI-(m/km)

Chainage-(km)

Project Report 2- 13

Project Description

Roughness Measurement Studies (km 209.000 - km 269.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram
5 5 4 4

IRI-(m/km)

3 3 2 2 1 1 0 209 211 213 215 217 219 221 223 225 227 229 231 233 235 237 239 241 243 245 247 249 251 253 255 257 259 261 263 266 268

Chainage-(km)

Project Report 2- 14

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Roughness Measurement Studies (km 270.000 - km 318.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram

6

5

IRI-(m/km)

4

3

2

1

0 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318

Chainage-(km)

Project Report 2- 15

Project Description

Table 2.5 (b): Roughness Measurement Studies (Kozhikode Bypass) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram First Run Chainage (km) IRI (m/km) per km 2.67 2.45 2.51 2.72 2.64 2.60 2.62 2.50 3.25 3.09 2.56 2.51 2.72 2.68 3.25 2.45 BI (mm/km) per km 1923.45 1741.03 1788.67 1963.96 1896.28 1863.86 1881.05 1786.69 2393.96 2264.22 1831.50 1788.67 1961.97 1929.64 2393.96 1741.03 Second Run IRI (m/km) per km 2.74 2.69 2.48 2.70 2.71 2.52 2.55 2.46 3.11 3.19 2.65 2.56 2.63 2.69 3.19 2.46 BI (mm/km) per km 1975.27 1935.40 1768.61 1945.69 1956.98 1803.15 1828.53 1755.80 2281.45 2348.81 1905.55 1833.48 1891.31 1940.77 2348.81 1755.80 Average of both runs IRI (m/km) per km 2.70 2.57 2.49 2.71 2.68 2.56 2.59 2.48 3.18 3.14 2.60 2.53 2.68 2.69 3.18 2.48 BI (mm/km) per km 1949.36 1838.21 1778.64 1954.83 1926.63 1833.50 1854.79 1771.25 2337.70 2306.52 1868.52 1811.07 1926.64 1935.20 2337.70 1771.25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Average Max. Min.

Roughness Measurement Studies (Kozhikode Bypass) Direction: Kozhikode Bypass

4 3 3 IRI-(m/km) 2 2 1 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0-1 Chainage-(km) 13

(xvi)

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

2.4.2

Deflection Survey Methodology Benkelman Beam Deflection (BBD) Test
BBD Test has been done as per the requirements stipulated in TOR and in accordance with guidelines given in IRC: 81 – 1997. For measuring pavement deflection, the CGRA procedure, which is based on testing under static load, was adopted. Results of BBD test are summarised in Table 2.6.

Table 2.6: Summary of Pavement Condition Survey Chainage (km) From 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 148.00 149.00 150.00 151.00 152.00 153.00 154.00 155.00 156.00 157.00 158.00 159.00 160.00 161.00 162.00 163.00 164.00 165.00 166.00 167.00 168.00 169.00 170.00 171.00 172.00 173.00 174.00 175.00 176.00 To 149.00 150.00 151.00 152.00 153.00 154.00 155.00 156.00 157.00 158.00 159.00 160.00 161.00 162.00 163.00 164.00 165.00 166.00 167.00 168.00 169.00 170.00 171.00 172.00 173.00 174.00 175.00 176.00 177.00 Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 0.965 0.986 0.932 1.021 1.020 0.958 0.883 0.959 1.092 0.840 0.913 1.029 0.910 0.979 0.912 0.659 0.932 1.009 1.154 1.406 1.366 0.969 0.756 1.175 1.299 1.516 2.340 2.442 1.513
(xvii)

S. No.

Right 1.005 0.838 0.850 0.932 0.869 0.866 0.883 0.874 0.898 0.876 0.976 1.184 1.089 1.029 1.074 0.766 0.965 1.355 1.139 0.891 1.289 1.182 1.337 1.033 0.991 1.100 0.995 1.890 1.599

Maximum 1.005 0.986 0.932 1.021 1.020 0.958 0.883 0.959 1.092 0.876 0.976 1.184 1.089 1.029 1.074 0.766 0.965 1.355 1.154 1.406 1.366 1.182 1.337 1.175 1.299 1.516 2.340 2.442 1.599

Average Deflection 0.985 0.912 0.891 0.977 0.944 0.912 0.883 0.916 0.995 0.858 0.945 1.106 0.999 1.004 0.993 0.713 0.949 1.182 1.146 1.148 1.328 1.076 1.046 1.104 1.145 1.308 1.667 2.166 1.556

Project Description

S. No. From 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Chainage (km) To 178.00 179.00 180.00 181.00 182.00 183.00 184.00 185.00 186.00 187.00 188.00 189.00 190.00 191.00 192.00 193.00 194.00 195.00 196.00 197.00 198.00 199.00 200.00 201.00 202.00 203.00 204.00 205.00 206.00 207.00 208.00 209.00 210.00 211.00 212.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 0.933 0.835 0.930 0.822 0.820 1.282 0.866 2.063 0.666 1.219 1.531 1.401 1.394 1.538 1.418 0.939 0.958 1.395 0.996 1.286 0.975 1.670 1.337 1.432 1.936 1.736 1.139 0.877 0.926 1.051 0.855 0.540 0.913 1.229 1.135
(xviii)

Right 1.276 0.863 0.977 1.076 1.180 0.816 1.152 0.832 0.669 1.316 0.668 1.301 1.406 1.426 1.286 1.141 0.691 0.984 1.168 0.916 1.192 0.867 1.435 1.091 2.085 1.213 1.005 1.488 1.178 0.972 0.798 0.895 0.940 1.015 1.051

Maximum 1.276 0.863 0.977 1.076 1.180 1.282 1.152 2.063 0.669 1.316 1.531 1.401 1.406 1.538 1.418 1.141 0.958 1.395 1.168 1.286 1.192 1.670 1.435 1.432 2.085 1.736 1.139 1.488 1.178 1.051 0.855 0.895 0.940 1.229 1.135

Average Deflection 1.104 0.849 0.954 0.949 1.000 1.049 1.009 1.448 0.668 1.267 1.100 1.351 1.400 1.482 1.352 1.040 0.825 1.189 1.082 1.101 1.083 1.269 1.386 1.262 2.010 1.475 1.072 1.182 1.052 1.012 0.826 0.717 0.927 1.122 1.093

177.00 178.00 179.00 180.00 181.00 182.00 183.00 184.00 185.00 186.00 187.00 188.00 189.00 190.00 191.00 192.00 193.00 194.00 195.00 196.00 197.00 198.00 199.00 200.00 201.00 202.00 203.00 204.00 205.00 206.00 207.00 208.00 209.00 210.00 211.00

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

S. No. From 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

Chainage (km) To 213.00 214.00 215.00 216.00 217.00 218.00 219.00 220.00 221.00 222.00 223.00 224.00 225.00 226.00 227.00 228.00 229.00 230.00 231.00 232.00 233.00 234.00 235.00 236.00 237.00 238.00 239.00 240.00 241.00 242.00 243.00 244.00 245.00 246.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 0.952 1.675 1.392 1.247 1.341 1.224 1.438 1.371 1.050 0.900 1.027 1.185 1.477 2.519 1.872 2.037 1.220 1.020 1.136 1.186 1.349 1.333 1.952 1.881 1.549 1.699 1.682 1.293 1.692 1.160 0.963 1.037 1.504 1.105
(xix)

Right 1.121 1.172 1.446 2.342 1.622 1.470 2.150 1.451 1.238 1.181 1.803 1.270 1.058 1.468 1.387 1.132 1.249 1.111 0.853 0.725 1.135 1.820 1.365 1.272 1.102 1.036 1.923 1.346 1.456 1.812 1.422 1.364 1.038 1.478

Maximum 1.121 1.675 1.446 2.342 1.622 1.470 2.150 1.451 1.238 1.181 1.803 1.270 1.477 2.519 1.872 2.037 1.249 1.111 1.136 1.186 1.349 1.820 1.952 1.881 1.549 1.699 1.923 1.346 1.692 1.812 1.422 1.364 1.504 1.478

Average Deflection 1.036 1.424 1.419 1.794 1.481 1.347 1.794 1.411 1.144 1.041 1.415 1.227 1.267 1.994 1.630 1.584 1.234 1.065 0.994 0.956 1.242 1.576 1.658 1.576 1.326 1.367 1.802 1.319 1.574 1.486 1.193 1.201 1.271 1.193

212.00 213.00 214.00 215.00 216.00 217.00 218.00 219.00 220.00 221.00 222.00 223.00 224.00 225.00 226.00 227.00 228.00 229.00 230.00 231.00 232.00 233.00 234.00 235.00 236.00 237.00 238.00 239.00 240.00 241.00 242.00 243.00 244.00 245.00

Project Description

S. No. From 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133

Chainage (km) To 247.00 248.00 249.00 250.00 251.00 252.00 253.00 254.00 255.00 256.00 257.00 258.00 259.00 260.00 261.00 262.00 263.00 264.00 265.00 266.00 267.00 268.00 269.00 270.00 271.00 272.00 273.00 274.00 275.00 276.00 277.00 278.00 279.00 280.00 281.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 1.282 1.282 1.154 1.201 1.749 1.792 1.318 3.418 0.836 0.953 1.813 1.452 0.815 1.139 0.714 0.975 0.975 0.855 0.972 1.117 1.015 1.044 0.974 1.275 1.052 1.072 1.050 0.939 1.061 0.995 1.088 1.023 1.062 0.691 0.821
(xx)

Right 1.390 1.118 0.992 1.036 0.880 1.220 1.601 1.142 0.761 0.896 1.191 1.291 1.199 0.882 0.856 0.883 0.883 0.875 0.848 1.370 0.996 1.021 0.782 1.383 0.821 1.576 1.029 1.117 0.866 0.658 1.156 0.801 1.032 1.125 1.059

Maximum 1.390 1.282 1.154 1.201 1.749 1.792 1.601 3.418 0.836 0.953 1.813 1.452 1.199 1.139 0.856 0.975 0.975 0.875 0.972 1.370 1.015 1.044 0.974 1.383 1.052 1.576 1.050 1.117 1.061 0.995 1.156 1.023 1.062 1.125 1.059

Average Deflection 1.336 1.200 1.073 1.119 1.315 1.506 1.460 2.280 0.799 0.925 1.502 1.372 1.007 1.011 0.785 0.929 0.929 0.865 0.910 1.244 1.005 1.033 0.878 1.329 0.936 1.324 1.039 1.028 0.963 0.826 1.122 0.912 1.047 0.908 0.940

246.00 247.00 248.00 249.00 250.00 251.00 252.00 253.00 254.00 255.00 256.00 257.00 258.00 259.00 260.00 261.00 262.00 263.00 264.00 265.00 266.00 267.00 268.00 269.00 270.00 271.00 272.00 273.00 274.00 275.00 276.00 277.00 278.00 279.00 280.00

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

S. No. From 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167

Chainage (km) To 282.00 283.00 284.00 285.00 286.00 287.00 288.00 289.00 290.00 291.00 292.00 293.00 294.00 295.00 296.00 297.00 298.00 299.00 300.00 301.00 302.00 303.00 304.00 305.00 306.00 307.00 308.00 309.00 310.00 311.00 312.00 313.00 314.00 315.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 1.504 1.243 0.920 0.928 1.061 1.170 0.968 1.101 1.029 0.802 0.895 0.809 0.511 0.845 0.537 0.494 0.835 0.717 1.094 0.557 0.414 0.721 0.775 0.744 0.565 1.057 0.916 0.598 0.448 1.521 0.729 1.080 1.170 0.467
(xxi)

Right 0.956 0.989 1.168 0.806 1.160 1.035 0.661 1.020 1.046 1.118 0.794 0.502 0.658 0.585 0.804 0.950 1.053 0.784 1.239 0.679 0.784 0.674 0.947 0.985 0.943 1.053 0.919 0.647 0.729 1.371 1.228 0.779 0.854 0.446

Maximum 1.504 1.243 1.168 0.928 1.160 1.170 0.968 1.101 1.046 1.118 0.895 0.809 0.658 0.845 0.804 0.950 1.053 0.784 1.239 0.679 0.784 0.721 0.947 0.985 0.943 1.057 0.919 0.647 0.729 1.521 1.228 1.080 1.170 0.467

Average Deflection 1.230 1.116 1.044 0.867 1.111 1.103 0.814 1.060 1.038 0.960 0.844 0.656 0.584 0.715 0.670 0.722 0.944 0.750 1.167 0.618 0.599 0.698 0.861 0.865 0.754 1.055 0.918 0.623 0.589 1.446 0.978 0.929 1.012 0.456

281.00 282.00 283.00 284.00 285.00 286.00 287.00 288.00 289.00 290.00 291.00 292.00 293.00 294.00 295.00 296.00 297.00 298.00 299.00 300.00 301.00 302.00 303.00 304.00 305.00 306.00 307.00 308.00 309.00 310.00 311.00 312.00 313.00 314.00

Project Description

S. No. From 168 169 170 171

Chainage (km) To 316.00 317.00 318.00 319.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 0.767 0.739 1.660 0.823 Right 0.322 0.688 1.361 0.420 Maximum 0.767 0.739 1.660 0.823

Average Deflection 0.544 0.713 1.511 0.621

315.00 316.00 317.00 318.00

Delineation of Homogenous Sections For analysis and design of pavements, project roads was divided into sections which can be considered homogeneous with respect to traffic, terrain, pavement condition, existing pavement crust, subgrade soil and BBD. Cumulative difference approach (CDA), as described in AASHTO guide for pavement design (1993), was used for delineating homogenous sections w.r.t. BBD. Homogenous sections as per BBD results are tabulated in Table 2.7 below
Table 2.7: Homogeneous Section

Sl. No

From (km) 148.000 164.000 173.000 179.000 182.000 206.000 215.000 257.000

To (km) 164.000 173.000 179.000 182.000 206.000 215.000 257.000 319.000 Total Length

Length 16 9 6 3 24 9 42 62 171

2.5

RAILWAY CROSSINGS 9 nos. railway crossings on the project road are presented in Table 2.8 Table 2.8: List of Railway Crossing Kannur to Kuttipuram Section Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Name of ROB Kannur Kannur Muzhuppilangari Chorode Nantai Bazar Chengottukavo Vengnam Chainage (km) 161.600 166.700 171.200 196.300 214.500 224.000 231.300 Present Status Level Crossing Level Crossing ROB Under construction ROB ROB Under construction ROB ROB Under construction
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No. of lanes 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Sl. No. 8. 9. 2.6

Name of ROB Vengali Kuttipuram

Chainage (km) 237.500 317.500 ROB ROB

Present Status

No. of lanes 2 2

SUBGRADE AND MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS

2.6.1 SUB-GRADE CHARACTERISTICS
This section describes the field and laboratory investigations to determine the sub-grade characteristics beneath existing pavement and also to characterize the foundation soils in the project corridor, in the existing ROW, proposed ROW and bypasses.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS
The objective of material investigations is to locate potential sources of borrow soils, sand, gravel and rock quarries with in the project vicinity, and to examine the engineering properties of the materials.
The Survey and Investigations of subgrade soil and highway construction materials were taken-up to identify strength characteristics of existing subgrade soil and suitability of the other available materials of construction for embankment, subgrade, sub-base, base and top layers (bituminous/concrete) of road pavement. The other object of the study is to determine the engineering properties of: Subgrade soil of the existing road pavement Borrow areas material such as soil for use in the embankment and subgrade Quarries for locating suitable stone aggregates for use in Wet Mix Macadam (WMM), Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM), Bituminous Concrete (BC) and Cement Concrete works Sand for use in bituminous mixes and cement concrete works Sources of Water for construction The investigation comprised of visiting the site, discussions with the local PWD officers, collection of samples and testing the samples in the field as well main laboratory. The tests included checking field density of the sub-grade, field moisture content, thickness of pavement and DCP (Dynamic Cone Penetration) test as per TRRL (UK) Road No. 8 to correlate the result of penetration (mm) per blow with the field CBR. Collection of sub-grade soil and construction material samples for the following laboratory tests. Sieve Analysis Atterberg Limits Modified Proctor Compaction test Laboratory CBR and Swell Percentage. 2.7 COLLECTION OF SAMPLES Samples of soil/construction materials were collected from subgrade of existing road, borrow areas, stone metal / sand quarries and water source. The following procedure was followed: i) ii) iii) Sub grade soil samples from existing road. Soil samples from borrow areas Stone metal samples crushers/quarries from : : : One sample for every 5 km along the project road was collected. One sample from the middle of each borrow area was collected. Samples of various sizes of each source of material from respective crushers.
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Project Description

iv) v) 2.8

Fine Aggregates Water sample

: :

One sample from each respective source. One from each source (Pond/boring water/well /river)

TESTS AND TESTING PROCEDURES Test and testing procedures adopted for various field and laboratory tests are given below. Soils Water Content Determination Sieve Analysis Atterberg Limits Laboratory Compaction Test(Modified Proctor Test) CBR at 3 energy levels Aggregates Sieve Analysis Flakiness and Elongation Index Specific Gravity and Water Absorption Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) Soundness by Sodium Sulphate / Magnesium Sulphate Water Ph Value, Chlorides, Sulphate (SO3), Acidity, Alkalinity, Organic, Inorganic impurities Field Tests Field Density of Subgrade Field moisture content of subgrade DCP (Dynamic Cone Penetration Test) IS:2720 (Part 28) IS:2720 (Part 2) As per TRRL (U.K.) Road Note No. 8 MORST&H Specification Clause 1010, IS:456 : : : : : IS 383 – 1997 IS 2386 (Part – 1) IS 2386 (Part – 3) IS 2386 (Part – 4) IS 2386 (Part – 5) : : : : : IS 2720 (Part – 2) IS 2720 (Part – 4) IS 2720 (Part – 5) IS 2720 (Part – 8) IS 2720 (Part – 16)

ISC (Indian Soil Classification System) IS 1498-1970 has been adopted for classifying soil into various groups. 2.9 INVESTIGATION OF SUBGRADE SOIL For Feasibility study, test pits were dug and field tests done at 5 km intervals (staggered). A total of 37 samples were collected along the project road and soil samples from these pits were tested in Laboratory established by the consultant Intercontinental consultants & technocrats Pvt. Ltd. at Calicut. A detailed investigation with three samples for each homogenous section or three samples for each soil type encountered along the project road (whichever is more) shall be done and reported in the Detailed Project Report. The size of test pit was 60 cm x 60 cm and depth extending up to subgrade level. The following field tests were conducted in each pit. Visual identification of soil Field density of the sub-grade with sand replacement method/core cutter Field moisture content Dynamic Cone Penetration test (DCP) of sub-grade extending up to about 80 cm depth Checking total thickness of the pavement
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

After performing the test in each pit, about 40 kg of soil sample was collected in a gunny bag. The identification mark and location of the sample were recorded and sent to the laboratory, established at site for conducting the following tests Particle size analysis Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Modified AASHTO Compaction test California Bearing Ratio test (CBR) in unsoaked and 4 days soaked conditions at three energy levels corresponding to 10, 35 & 65 blows of heavy compaction rammer. The test data Table 2.9 shows that all the 37 nos. of sample are coarse grained in nature and belongs to GW-GM, GM, GC, SM & SC category as per IS soil Classification System (IS: 1498-1970). Fine fraction (passing 75 micron) varies from 8.0% to 41.1%. The Plasticity Index varies from NP to 12.4%. Laboratory Maximum Dry Density varies from 1.96 gm/cc to 2.18 gm/cc and Optimum Moisture Content is in the range of 7.4% to 13.3%. The CBR of the subgrade was determined for un-soaked and 4 days soaked conditions for three energy levels corresponding to 10, 35 & 65 blows of heavy compaction rammer. CBR of soil samples at 97% of Laboratory Maximum Dry Density was interpolated from the curve drawn between degree of compaction and CBR. It will be seen from the results that CBR value at 97% of Laboratory Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content varies from 9.4% to 22.4% for soaked condition and from 18% to 41% for un soaked condition. The field-test results of subgrade soil at 5 km interval along the project road is presented in Table 2.9. The degree of compaction of the subgrade varies from 88.5% to 94.5% of Laboratory Maximum Density and field moisture content is in the range 2.3% to 15.8%. DCP equipment as recommended by TRRL (U.K) vide Road Note No. 8 comprising 60º cone with a base diameter of 20 mm and 8 kg hammer dropping from a height of 575 mm was used for the DCP test. Number of blows and corresponding values of penetration in mm were recorded to a depth of about 826 mm. The DCP values (mm/blow) were then interpreted to insitu CBR by using the following TRRL equation: Log10 CBR = 2.48 – 1.057 log10 DCP (Penetration rate in mm/blow) It will be seen from the results that there is vast variation in the CBR value of sub-grade soil ranging from 10.80 to as high as 22.

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Project Description

Table 2.9

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

2.10

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION

The materials commonly used in highway construction comprise of soil, gravel, hard stone metal, sand, cement, steel, bitumen and water. It is therefore very essential to identify the potential source of these materials near the project site so as to economize on the cost of construction besides early completion of the project. Borrow Area Soil Extensive survey was conducted to locate the potential source of borrow area soil required for the construction of embankment and subgrade. As many as 16 borrow areas located on both sides along the project road were identified. The locations, lead, ownership and quantity of borrow soil available are given in Table2.10. The distance of these borrow areas from the road site vary from 100 m to 15.0 km as shown in the borrow areas Lead Chart placed in Fig. 2.2. The laboratory tests results of all the 16 samples are reported in Table 2.11. Summaries of the Laboratory results of samples are as follows. All the 16 samples are coarse grained in nature and falls in GC, SM, SM-SC & SC group as per IS: Soil Classification System) with fine fraction (passing 75 micron) varying from 10.5% to 48.3% and Plasticity Index varying from NP to 13.8%. Laboratory Maximum Dry Density varies from 1.87 gm/cc to 2.04 gm/cc and Optimum Moisture Content is in the range of 9.6% to 14.2%. Its soaked CBR at 97% Laboratory Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content is in the range 10.6% to 18.0%. All the borrow areas are suitable for construction purposes. Survey of Stone Quarry Extensive survey was conducted to locate the availability of stone metal near the project site. As a results of local enquiries and discussion with the local PWD officials, stone metal quarries were identified. Table 2.12 and Table 2.13 give list of stone metal Quarries and stone metal crushers. The location details and approximate quantity of material available are given in Fig. 2.3. Samples from different quarries have been collected from their respective crushers. One bag of each size of aggregate including stone dust has been collected from each of the crusher. The following Laboratory tests were conducted on Stone quarries samples. Sieve Analysis Specific Gravity Water Absorption Aggregate Impact value Combined Flakiness & Elongation Indices Soundness The results of the above tests are presented in Table 2.14 It can be seen from the results that stone metal from all the quarries is having AIV varying from 18.7% to 35.6%, specific gravity varies from 2.64 to 2.83 with water absorption from 0.5% to 0.8% and combined Flakiness and Elongation indices in the range of 21.7 to 44.8. The value of combined flakiness & elongation is exceeding the specified limit of 30%(MORST&H specification) in some stone samples. The sample limit can be achieved with in the specified limit by adjusting the crushing system. The value of soundness is varying from 2.8% to 3.4%.

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Project Description

Table 2.10

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Fig 2.2

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Project Description

Table 2.11

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Figure 2.3

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Project Description

Table 2.12

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Table 2.12

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Project Description

Table 2.13

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Table 2.13

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Project Description

Table 2.13

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Table 2.14

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Project Description

Table 2.15

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Sand Sand can be obtained from the river details given below: DETAILS OF RIVER SAND 1 River Name Village Dist Quantity K.M. Moidoapalam River Sand Marapilangdi Kannur 3000X200X2.0m=1200000m3 172+200

2 Name of the River Village Dist Quantity K.M.

Chalapara River Sand Chalapara Malappuram 5000X100X2.0m=1000000m3

3 Name of the River Village Dist Quantity K.M. Sieve Analysis Fineness Modulus Deleterious material percent

Bharthapuzha River Sand Kuttipuram Kuttipuram 3000X500X2m=3000000m3 319+000

Location chart of sand source is shown in Fig 2.4. The following tests have been conducted in the laboratory:

The results are enclosed in Table 2.15. It will be seen from the results all the sample falls in Zone II. The fineness modulus varies from 2.59 to 2.71. The sand from all sources is recommended for use in DBM, BC and cement concrete works. The deleterious material percent is below 4 percent. Water Water samples were collected from four sources. One from river water, one from pond, one from boring and one from well, as detailed below. SOURCES OF WATER 1 River water Name of ther river K.M. Village 2 Pond Water Name of the pond Village K.M. Koyilandi Pond Koyilandi 218+800 R/S
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Bharatha Puzha River 319+000 Kuttipuram

Project Description

Lead from Size

50 m. to NH-17 Length-200m. Birth -200m. Depth-5m.

3 Borings Water Depth CH. Dist 4 Well Water K.M. Quantity 280+000 L/S Depth-50 Ft. Birth-8 Ft. Lead NH-17 to 100 m. The following tests were conducted in the laboratory: Ph Value Acidity Alkalinity Chlorides CL Sulphate SO4 Organic and Inorganic The laboratory results of the above tests are tabulated in Table 2.16. From the results of the test data, it will be seen that water sample from well (Ch.280+000) left side is falling beyond the specified limit in terms of acidity. Rest of the samples are recommended for use in construction. Cement Ordinary Portland cement of grade 43 and 53, manufactured by various manufacturers are locally available. Portland Pozzolona Cement (Fly ash based) is also available locally. The material approved by DGSD can be procured directly from the local market. Structural Steel High strength deformed bars manufactured by various steel manufacturing companies confirming to IS 1786 are available with few stockiest. Majority of the retailers are selling re-rolled steel bars. Bitumen Bitumen is proposed to be brought from Kochi Refinery and Mangalore Refinery. 300 Ft. 245+000 L/S, Lead - 1Km. Calicut

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Fig 2.4

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Project Description

Table 2.16

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

RIGHT OF WAY (ROW) The exiting RoW between Kannur – Kuttipuram varies widely at different locations, which is 11.00 m to 20.00 m in general and >30m to even 40m at some location in short stretches. Mahe town in Pondicherry records the narrowest RoW of 8 to 10m and 30m and above at near Edakkad (km 171.00) Vadakara (km 189.00 to 199.00). For the existing road widening to 4-lanes land as per actual requirement at site is proposed to be acquired. The project corridor passes through a heavily built up ribbon development the widening of the road will cause acquisition of large nos. structures and demolitions considering the scenario of State of Kerala the RoW for proposed project road has been proposed as 45m. It is proposed to acquire additional land for bus bays, Truck lay bys, Trauma Centre, Highway Petrol Police Centre, Toll Plazas PIU offices / residences etc. 2.11.1 Land Acquisition There are 3 bypasses on that project road in Construction Package-I. Two bypasses at Thalassery & Mahe, Koilandy towns have already been proposed by Kerala PWD and alignment approved by MOSRT&H, land acquisition for these 2 bypasses is at different stages of progress. The position regarding requirement of additional land along the Project road to make-up 45m ROW is given below: i) Existing Alignment Land acquisition along existing alignment to make up 45m land width-86.50 Hectares. ii) Kannur Bypass The land acquisition for Kannur bypass is to be done afresh. As there are built up structures all along ROW=45m has been proposed to affect minimum demolition of structures as per policy of NHAI in Kerala State. Land Acquisition is proposed for 45m-land width. From km 148.00 to km 167.000 for the bypass which is on the left of existing road. Total land requirement for the bypass is 76.95 hectares. iii) Thalassery & Mahe Bypass Position of land acquisition along this bypass ie km 171.00 to km 187.00 for acquiring 45m land width is as follows: From km 0.000 to km 9.742 land has been acquired and the land in balance of stretch is under acquisition. The MOSRT&H approved alignment has been followed in the project study. Total land required 81.14 Hector, land acquired – 44.10 Hector, land to be acquired – 37.04 Hector. iv) Koilandy Bypass Position of land acquisition along this bypass ie km 214.00 to km 225 for 45m land width as follows: The stretch of this bypass is as good as the existing road, the stretch is full of built up structures. MOSRT&H has approved alignment for RoW=30m, but the Consultants propose RoW of 45m along the alignment approved by MOSRT&H except with modification of the alignment at km 214.000 due to a Mosque and due to the approach of the ROB at km 214.200, which came up after the approval of alignment of the bypass. Land Required 45m ROW- 49.50 Hector. 2.12 ROAD GEOMETRY 2.12.1 General The design standards have been given in the Volume-II Design Report. The design of the road geometry for this project is based on the following general principles. • A uniform application of design standards for any area is essential from the viewpoint of road safety and the smooth flow of traffic. The selection of optimum design standards reduces the possibility of early obsolescence of the facility, which can be brought about by any inadequacy in the original standards.

2.11

Faulty geometric standards, after construction, are frequently difficult to rectify at a later date and they are always costly and create big inconvenience to the road user while rectification. Both horizontal and vertical geometry should be accorded due importance at the initial design stage itself and selected standards should not be compromised without the most careful deliberation. The design should thus be consistent within any area and the standards proposed for the different elements should be compatible with one another. It is sometimes necessary to reduce the selected design speed for economic reasons but any abrupt changes in the design speed must be avoided.
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Project Description

The selected design should minimize the total transportation cost, including initial construction costs, costs for the maintenance of the facility and the costs borne by the road users. Safety should form an integral part of the design elements. “Ruling” standards will be followed as a matter of routine. “Limiting/Exceptional” standards will be followed only where serious restrictions are imposed by technical or economic considerations.

• •

2.12.2 Design Speed Choice of design speed depends on the function of the road and the terrain conditions. It is the basic parameter, which determines all other geometric design features. The ruling design speed for this project is proposed as 100 km/hr for plain terrain and 80km/hr for rolling terrain, 50 km/hr for hilly terrain & these speeds are generally used to determine the various geometric design features. Where site conditions or economic considerations do not permit the use of the ruling design speed, the design speed will be reduced in consultation with the client. The minimum design speed for National Highways in plain terrain is 80 km/hr and in rolling terrain 65 km/hr as stipulated in IRC:73-1980. Hill stretches are almost avoided and redesigned. If changes in the design speed prove unavoidable, such changes are introduced gradually by means of successive sections of increasing/decreasing design speed so that road users become progressively conditioned to the changes. At unavoidable locations substandard curves have been provided with reduced speed to save sensitive buildings / areas. Speed limit signboards will be installed at these locations. The need for warning signs has also been considered wherever reductions in design speed are unavoidable. The design speed with respect to terrain is given in Table 2.17. Table 2.17: Terrain Classification Sl. No. 1 2 Type of Terrain Plain Rolling Chainage (km 148.00 to km 230.000)
km 148.00 to km 195.00, km 210.00 to km 230.00

Design Speed kmph 100 80

km 195.00 to km 210.00,

2.12.3 Horizontal Alignment The horizontal design has been undertaken by use of design software MX Road. The left side carriageway is being designed along left median edge (LME) and right side carriageway is being designed along right median edge (RME) The horizontal curves for this project are designed in accordance with the requirements stipulated in IRC:38:1988 (Design Table for Horizontal curves for Highways) and each curve consists of a circular arc with spiral transitions between the arc and the straights. The spiral transitions ensure that vehicles progress smoothly from the straight to the circular curve or between curves of different band or radius. The transition curves also facilitate the gradual application of superelevation and any widening of the carriageway, which may be required for the horizontal curves. 2.12.4 Vertical Alignment Parabolic vertical curves have been provided at all changes in grade except where the change is 0.5 % or less. The minimum length of vertical curve for different ruling design speeds adopted in the project road are presented in given Table 2.18 below: Table 2.18: Minimum length of vertical Curves Design speed (km/hr.) 100 Vertical curves provided for grade change (%) excluding 0.5
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Minimum length (m) 60

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Design speed (km/hr.) 80 65 50 40

Vertical curves provided for grade change (%) excluding 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

Minimum length (m) 50 40 30 20

The following parameters are adopted for gradients:
• •

ruling gradient limiting gradient

3.0% (1 in 33) 5.0% (1 in 20)

In special situations such as isolated over-bridges or sections of the road carrying a large volume of slow moving traffic, a flatter gradient of 2% will be adopted. The limiting gradient has been adopted only where the adoption of gentler gradients would result in excessive cost. 2.12.5 Typical Cross Sections The consultants have proposed 4 types of representative typical cross sections with variations appropriate to fit at different locations on project road. The different typical cross sections are presented in Table 2.19 and depicted in Fig 2.5 to 2.8. Table 2.19: Typical Cross Sections Proposed on the Project Road

Typical X-section Designation

R O W ( m )

Configur ation

Location

TCS -1

4 5

4-lane – with Service Roads

Entire project road except change over to bridges and stretches of bypasses having habitation requiring service roads (Fig 2.5) Unavoidable Situation

TCS -2

2 4

4-lane – without Service Roads

km 196.78 to km 196.90 (Fig 2.6) Change over to bridges and some stretches of bypasses having no habitation not requiring service roads (Fig 2.7) Existing road and all bypasses (Fig 2.8)

TCS -3

4 5

4-lane - With out Service Roads

TCS -4
2.12.6 Pavement Design

4 5

Under pass / Fly over approach with service roads.

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Project Description

The project primarily envisages strengthening of the existing sub-standard two-lane carriageway and widening it to standard four lanes for augmenting capacity and significantly extending the service life of the project road. It will be built as a partially access controlled divided 4-lane carriageway with 1.5m paved and 1.0m earthen shoulder along with raised median with drainage arrangements. For the additional carriageway, options of both flexible and rigid types of pavements have been studied and finally flexible type of pavement is adopted. The pavement has been designed for 70 msa. The service roads have been designed as flexible pavements for 5 msa. Design The new pavement has been designed as per IRC:37:2001 based on traffic load in terms of msa, and CBR value of subgrade. The strengthening of the existing pavement is governed by BBD studies as per IRC:81.

Pavement Works The pavement works for implementing the above proposals will mainly consist of: Strengthening of the existing two-lane carriageway. Construction of additional two-lane carriageway for widening it to four lanes. Construction of new flexible pavement along the existing two-lane to make it standard two-lane carriageway Construction of new four-lane carriageways for proposed Bypasses and realignment. The pavements for the above works will be built to appropriate designs as described hereunder. Factors Affecting Pavement Design The principal factors that will govern the design of pavements including overlays for strengthening the existing carriageway are:
• • • •

Traffic loads that the pavement has to withstand during its design life Condition of the existing pavement Strength and other engineering characteristics of the subgrade soil Climate

Traffic The detailed traffic surveys for the project road were conducted by the consultants in May-June 2006.

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Fig 2.5 cross section (Auto cadd)

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Project Description

Fig 2.6 cross section (Auto cadd)

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Fig 2.7 cross section (Auto cadd)

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Project Description

Fig 2.8 cross section (Auto cadd)

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Design Life
As per the notification issued by the NHAI vide their letter No. NHAI/PH-II/NHDP/ADB/GM(NS)-I dated April 19, 2004, the flexible pavement for the project road has been designed for Fifteen (15) years design life.

Design Traffic Based on the projection of traffic and the Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) of various types of commercial vehicles, Cumulative standard Axles (CSA) during the period of design life have been computed. Though total cumulative Standard Axle loads during 15 years design life works out to 40 to 60 msa however as per NHAI instructions 70msa has been adopted for design service roads have been designed for 5 msa. Condition of the Existing Pavement Detailed pavement investigations including condition surveys by (a) visual inspection, (b) examination of pavement composition by excavating test pits at regular intervals and testing the properties of the existing subgrade soil (c) instrumental measurements of the condition indicators like pavement roughness and its structural strength as indicated by Benkelman Beam Deflection (BBD) are carried out to determine the extent and nature of pavement distress of the existing carriageway. Visual Inspection
A detailed inspection of the project road was carried out to record and inventorize various features including the pavement distress, condition of shoulders, drainage, embankment heights, etc.

Pavement Composition The pavement composition details of the existing pavement were obtained from the examination of test pits excavated at regular interval along the project road. The details are given in the report on Material Investigations. A summary of overlay composition proposed on the project road in different reaches is given in Table 2.20. Table 2.20: Overlay Composition
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Chainage (Km) From 148.000 164.000 173.000 179.000 182.000 206.000 215.000 257.000 To 164.000 173.000 179.000 182.000 206.000 215.000 257.000 319.000 Design Traffic 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 Overlay Proposed BC (mm) 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 DBM (mm) 75 125 125 75 125 75 125 75 PCC – BM (mm) 50 Avg. 50 Avg. 50 Avg. 50 Avg. 50 Avg. 50 Avg. 50 Avg. 50 Avg.

Design of Flexible Overlay Design Methods IRC: 81–1997 guidelines for strengthening of flexible pavements using Benkelman Beam Deflection (BBD) technique was used to design bituminous overlay.
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Project Description

Design Input Design Traffic The design traffic adopted for the project road as given above. Overlay Composition Profile Correction Course (PCC) Average 50mm thick BM course has been proposed for camber profile corrections (PCC). Pre Overlay Treatment Before constructing overlays, appropriate pre-overlay repair work of patching, leveling, sealing of cracks, etc. will have to be carried out for the existing pavement. Construction of New Flexible Pavement New flexible pavements will be provided for additional 2-lane to make it 4-lane, proposed bypasses and for construction of new approaches for bridges. Design Method The flexible pavement has been designed as per IRC: 37-2001 design guidelines. Design Input Design Traffic The design traffic adopted for the project road as given above. Sub-grade CBR CBR value of 10 % has been adopted for pavement design. Of existing stretches and CBR of 8% for bypasses. Pavement Composition Existing Road Using the design method described above, the composition of the pavement for new construction for stretches on existing road is given Table 2.21. Bypass CBR of existing soil on bypasses is given in Table 2.21, ranges between 8.60 to 12.20%. Design CBR has been adopted as 8%. Table 2.21: Minimum CBR Values for Bypasses Sl. No. 1 2 Name of Bypasses Kannur Thalassery & Mahe
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CBR (%) 9.20 12.20

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Sl. No. 3

Name of Bypasses Koilandy

CBR (%) 10.60

For design purposes 8% CBR and 70msa has been adopted. Pavement composition as per IRC: 372001 works out to GSB = 200mm, WMM = 250mm, DBM = 130mm and BC = 40mm New Flexible pavement details are given in Table 2.22. Table 2.22: Pavement Composition for New Flexible Pavement
Section (km) 148 – 164 164 – 173 173 – 179 179 - 182 182 - 206 206 - 215 215 - 230 By passes

BC (mm)
40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

DBM (mm)
125 125 125 125 125 125 125 130

WMM (mm)
250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250

GSB (mm)
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

Total Thickness
615 615 615 615 615 615 615 620

Flexible Pavement for Service Roads The service roads have been provided at locations of the project road where it passes through urban areas, change over etc. Crust details of flexible pavement proposed to be constructed for the service roads are given in Table 2.23. Design traffic adopted for service roads is 5 msa. Table 2.23: Flexible Pavement for Service Roads
Pavement Layer (Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) Dense Graded Bituminous Macadam (DBM) / (BM)* Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) Granular Sub-base (GSB) Total Thickness * Thickness (mm) (5 msa) 25 50 / 70* 250 200 525

If BM is used it will be 70mm thick layer instead of 50mm DBM. 70mm BM is costlier than 50mm DBM hence 50mm DBM has been proposed in the project

Shoulders It is proposed to have 1.5m paved shoulders through out the project road. 1.0m earthen shoulder will be provided in areas beyond urban areas where there is no service road. 2.13 CULVERTS
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Project Description

2.13.1 Culverts Proposed for Cross Drainages

The highway has Presently good cross drainage system. The maintenance is in general good and there is no flooding or overtopping on the road surface during heavy rains. There are total no. 368 existing culverts on the complete project road. The breakup of culverts to be extended and new proposed culverts is given below. 1. Total Culverts on existing road 177 nos. 41 nos. 142 nos.

2. Culverts retained and proposed for extension

3. New Culverts on existing road and proposed bypasses 4. H.P. Culverts on junctions 183 nos.
Thus total no. of culverts in Package-I are 41+325=366 nos. 2.14 BRIDGE AND STRUCTURES

2.14.1 Inventory and Condition Survey of Existing Bridges Inventory of bridges having length above 6m have been carried out. Summary is given in the following Table 2.24. Table 2.24: Inventory and Condition Survey of Existing Bridges NH No. 17 No. of Major Bridges (≥60 m) 6
No. of Minor Bridges (<60m)

Section
Km. 148.00 to km. 230.00

No. of ROB’s 2

No. of Underpass 1

Total 14

5

Table 2.25 gives the location, length, structure types of these bridges. This table also indicates the bridges that are affected on account of the reach being bypassed and those which are retained. In all 10 out of the existing 14 bridges fall in the reaches affected by bypasses. Table 2.26 gives the details of the 4 existing retained bridges and additional bridge proposed for widening the road to 4 lanes. Table 2.27 gives details of 10 bridges proposed on 3 bypasses. Table 2.25: Details of Existing Bridges Sl. No. Location (in km) Name of Bridge Total length (F/F of Dirt Wall) (m) Major Bridge 1 148+250 Valapattanam Bridge Moidoo Steel Bridge Dharmadam Bridge Koduvally Bridge Mahe Bridge Murat Bridge Chovva Bridge Nadal Bridge Pettipalam 420.77 RCC box girder (Intermediate spans) & RCC solid slab (End spans) Steel truss with RCC deck RCC T beam & slab (Steel girder for span P1-P2) RCC T beam & slab RCC T beam & slab RCC Bow String with slab RCC T beam & slab RCC T beam & slab RCC solid slab Bypassed Type of Superstructure Remark

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

172+180 173+900 174+910 184+600 203+510 160+300 166+100 181+800

157.60 82.00 61.20 117.00 136.40 Minor Bridge 17.00 27.30 12.60
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Bypassed Bypassed

Bypassed Bypassed New 4-Lane Bridge provided Bypassed Bypassed Bypassed

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Sl. No. 10 11 ROB’ s 12 13

Location (in km) 200+270 201+785

Name of Bridge Karimpanapalam Paloli Bridge

Total length (F/F of Dirt Wall) (m) 11.10 7.70

Type of Superstructure RCC box cell RCC solid slab

Remark Retained Reconstruction

197+400 224+200

Chorode ROB Koilandy ROB -

25.65 392.50 -

PSC T beam & slab Viaduct: RCC box girder ROB: PSC box girder RCC solid slab

New Construction New Construction -

Underpass 14 196+897 Table 2.26 Bridge

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Project Description

Table 2.27 Propose bridge

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The Project Corridor is completely built-up with ribbon development on both sides of the road. No. of roads viz- NHs, State Highways, MDR, as well as other roads like ODR and local roads intersect the project road. Upgradation of the project road to 4 lane divided highway standards requires to make it at least partially access controlled. In order to facilitate smooth movement of through traffic local traffic is proposed to be aggregated by providing service roads on both sides in complete length. For facilitating cross movement of traffic 18 nos. underpasses, 2 nos. flyovers and one overpass have been provided in Package-I alongwith suitable traffic circulation measures. Grade separators / underpasses are provided at main road intersections. Two types of underpass are provided on the project road (i) Vehicular underpass and (ii) Pedestrian underpasses. Pedestrian underpasses. are provided as pedestrian cum light vehicle underpasses having size 12m x 3.5m. Grade separators (Flyovers) have been provided on junctions with National Highway and other important roads. Of the 18 nos. underpasses 15 nos. are vehicle underpasses of 12m x 5m size and 3 nos. are pedestrian cum Light Vehicle underpasses Table 2.28 shows locations of these vehicular underpasses of 6m x 3.5m size and Table 2.29 shows location of Pedestrian cum Light Vehicle underpasses. These Pedestrian underpasses will be utilized by cattles also These will be of 6m (wide) x 3.5m vertical clearance size and will be having footpath and ramps as that in vehicular underpass. It is necessary to provide this facility for avoiding long distance cross movements of light vehicles. In Kerala specially on the project road the scenario is totally different than other sites as the project corridor is completely built-up. One underpass at km 190.650 has been retained and widened as per requirements. Table 2.28: Locations of Vehicle Underpasses (New) Size Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Location Chainage (km) 154.003 156.979 161.230 163.070 169.970 179.140 182.200 188.200 193.370 209.940 212.320 215.200 219.680 222.750 225.785 Width (m) Vertical Clearance (m) 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 12.0 x 5.0 Deck Level (m) Remarks

8.800 34.309 13.000 12.820 10.745 8.300 22.500 17.000 16.370 10.500 12.200 6.800 6.800 6.800 6.800

Table 2.29: Locations of Pedestrian cum Light Vehicle Underpass Size Sl. No. Location Chainage (km) Width (m) Vertical Clearance (m)
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Deck Level (m)

Remarks

Project Description

1 2 3

174.350 196.894 205.515

6.0 x 3.50 6.0 x 3.50 6.0 x 3.50

6.400 Existing 15.700

2.14.2 Grade Separators (Flyovers) Six grade separators have been proposed, on entire project road and 2 nos. grade separators are proposed as below for Package-I for 2 nos. major road crossings. Turning movement survey justifies provision of flyovers at these locations. Table 2.30 gives the locations of grade separators. Table 2.30 Grade Separator (Flyovers) Size Sl. No. 1 2 2.14.3 Overpass One overpass has been proposed at km 152.182. The overpass will accommodate 2 x 2 lanes of the National Highway with paved shoulder and service roads. Sl. No. 1 2.14.4 ROB There are 3 total ROBs on the design projected corridor from (km 148.00 to km 318.00), out of these one new 4-lane ROB and one additional two lane ROB is provided in Package-I (km 148.00 to km 230.00) as detailed in Table 2.31. Table 2.31: ROB Size Sl. No. 1 2 Location Chainage (km) 187.100 197.100 Width (m) Vertical Clearance (m) 5.5 5.5 Configuration Remarks Location Chainage (km) 150.182 Size Vertical Clearance (m) 45 x 5.50 Deck Level (m) 10.175 Remarks Overpass Chainage (km) Width (m) Vertical Clearance (m) 46 x 5.50 46 x 5.50 Deck Level (m) 17.550 10.600 Remarks

195.850 200.120

State Highway State Highway

4-lane Additional 2 lane

New ROB Existing

2.15
2.15.1 Road Safety Audit General

TRAFFIC SAFETY MEASURES

A traffic accident is defined as any vehicle accident on a public highway (i.e., originating on, termination on or involving a vehicle partially on the highway). These accidents therefore include collisions between vehicles and animals, vehicles and pedestrians, or vehicles and fixed obstacles. Single vehicle accidents, in which one vehicle alone (and no other road user) was involved, are included. All fatality and injury; includes pedestrians,
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

motorcyclists and bicyclists unless otherwise noted. (Source: International Injury & Fatality Statistics) It has been estimated that at least 500,000 people die in road accidents in developing countries each year. This represents 70% of those killed on the roads throughout the world. According to statistical analysis, about 1 person dies in every 2400 of the country will suffer injury or death in road accident each year. In India 1% of the worlds vehicle population exists but 6% of the worlds reported traffic accidents occur. Owing to the likely under reporting of accidents, the real situation may be probably worse. In the near future, in higher income countries, road traffic accidents are already among the top ten leading causes of disease burden in 1998 as measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) In less developed countries, road traffic accidents were the most significant cause of injuries, ranking eleventh among the most important causes of lost years of healthy life. According to a World Health Organization/World Band report “The Global Burdens of Disease” deaths from non-communicable diseases are expected to climb from 28.1 million a year in 1990 to 49.7 million by 2020 – an increase in absolute numbers of 77%. Traffic accidents are the main cause of this rise. Road traffic injuries are expected to take third place in the rank order of disease burden by the year 2020. (Source: International Injury & Fatality Statistics) Road Traffic Accidents War Self inflicted injuries Violence
19 17 16 9
Road Traff ic Accident s

1990 9 16 17 19
14 12 8 3 10 15 20 25 30

2020 3 8 12 14

Violence Self inflict ed injuries War

1990 2020 35

0

5

Projected change is in the ranking of the 15 leading cause of death and disease (DALYs) world wide, 1990 – 2020 (Source WHO) “The Global Burden of Disease”. Direct, simple comparisons of the relative safety between India and other countries of the world are difficult owing to several factors. • Differing levels of the quality of accident data recorded. • Different definitions of the types of accidents which are to be reported and • Availability of standard measures and data reflecting exposure of road users and risk. In the rural areas, reported road accidents cluster along the National and State Highways. The National Highways, which represent les than 2% of the total road system account for about one fourth of the total road fatalities occurring in India. Here the most serious road accidents tend to involve either an overtaking man oeuvre or a loss of control at a bend or Bridge, or a combination of both these factors. Poor driver behavior is certainly a strong contribution to such road accidents and better education and training of both drivers and pedestrians is much needed. Further, it is unfortunate that it is the most productive age group (15-30 years) that is most involved in road traffic accidents. However, Engineers and planners can certainly contribute greatly to improving road safety by adopting proven techniques for safety management. For example, they can help to prevent road accidents by introducing a Standard Road Safety Audit Procedure for all new or rehabilitation road schemes. In order to focus the attention of central and local road authorities on road safety, many industrialized countries have made the improvement of road safety a statutory duty. Under such legislation, each level of local authority, which acts as a road authority is required to undertake road safety activities on its road network. This often includes the collection of accident data, accident analysis, the definition of Black spots and the design of remedial measures. In recent years, mandatory “Road Safety Audits” have also been added
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Project Description

to the list of responsibilities. Road safety audit is a formal procedure for assessing accident potential and safety performance in the provision of new road schemes, the improvement and the rehabilitation of existing roads and in the maintenance of existing roads. They should be an integral part of highway planning, design, construction and maintenance. The road safety audit process requires an objective approach to the assessment of accident risk. A team, which is independent of the design team should undertake the safety audit. The principal method of ensuring this objectivity is through the independent assessment of schemes by persons unconnected with the original design. Accordingly the team should have specialist expertise in the fields of road safety engineering, accident investigation and prevention. Road safety audit has investigation and prevention. Road safety audit has been undertaken in the UK since 1990 and the practice has been adopted elsewhere in the world, notably New Zealand, Australia and Denmark. There exists, therefore, a wealth of experience in its operation and in the benefits that it can bring. Whilst the potential benefits from safety audits are difficult to quantify, both due to the uncertainty of estimating the number of accidents that would have occurred had there been no audit, and the lack of control data to make comparison with un audited schemes, evidence from overseas countries is accumulating which suggests that the benefits can be high. Nevertheless, safety audit should form part of a broader road safety strategy, with priorities set within an overall programme of highway schemes. To be fully effective, the process requires commitment amongst politicians, both in central and state government, top management and line managers in any road commissioning, design or construction organization together with awareness of the role and benefits of safety audit. Whatever the defined legal responsibilities, in India and elsewhere road authorities are implicitly responsible for the safe operation of the roads they design or rehabilitate and for improving safety on existing roads. They should thus apply safety principles in the provision, improvement and maintenance of roads as a means of accident prevention through road safety audits. There is often insufficient money to cover routine and periodic maintenance to road safety and related matters are usually low on the list of priorities. This is despite road safety improvements being cost effective with very high savings (in reduced accidents) being achieved, which are many times the cost of countermeasures implemented. Hence the improvement of known hazards should form part of every road authority’s annual programme. For example, the use of road signs and markings to canalise traffic through complex junctions, or to provide safe waiting areas for turning vehicles, can often result in substantial reductions in accidents. Yet, because of a lack of funds and poor maintenance capability, known hazardous locations are often left untreated and remain the cause of accidents. Drivers are often presented with misleading information or no advance warning, sight lines may be inadequate, pedestrians may not be catered for, and accidents may occur because of a driver’s inability to cope with the particular combination of circumstances and environment. By identifying and eliminating the features, which make sites hazardous, engineers can improve road safety. This often means reducing the complexity of a junction or enabling maneuvers to be made in stages. Reducing the number of decisions drivers must make at any one time simplifies the driving task and helps drivers to progress in safety and comfort with a minimum of conflict with other road users. Despite increasing car ownership, public transport is and will continue to be a key component of people’s mobility in fulfilling their needs for work, social and recreational travel. Public transport provides an efficient use of road space and, by the correct planning of transport and people’s activities, the number of road accidents can be reduced and the overall safety and efficiency of the road network increased. However, when accidents with buses do occur they often incur many causalities, and the common perception is probably that there have been too many bus accidents in recent years, as they tend to make media headlines. Bus driver behaviour is not exemplary with much speeding and frequent lane changing. In congested conditions, public transport accessibility could be greatly improved through the use of segregated bus lanes, which would improve safety by reducing the need for speeding and reduce the frequent lane changing seen. Bus stops are also the source of many accident problems and the careful design of waiting areas for both passengers and buses can greatly improve safety in both urban and rural areas. Currently there is insufficient consideration given to the needs of the more ‘Vulnerable Road Users’ (VRUs) by drivers, planners or designers of the road network. These VRUs include pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

and moped riders, auto-rickshaws, those riding or driving animals or with animal driven carts. Driver behaviour towards those in smaller vehicles or on foot can generally be described as aggressive. Although some segregated crossings are provided, facilities for pedestrians are still far from adequate, with few canalising devices or traffic islands to break up the traffic flows and provide a safe refuge for pedestrians to cross several streams of traffic. VRUs make up a substantial proportion of road accidents in urban areas and probably a high proportion in rural areas where under reporting of accidents is considered to be most prevalent. Planning has a profound effect upon the level of road safety and can have a major impact upon pedestrian accidents in particular. Sensitive planning of residential areas and highway networks can ensure that through traffic is rerouted to more suitable roads and that the right sort of environment is created for the road users likely to use each type of road. Geometric design normally seeks to ensure uniformity of alignment and maximum levels of safety and comfort for drivers using the road, within given economic constraints. Compromises are inevitable to achieve an acceptable solution and not all objectives can be fully met. Often, however, it is possible markedly to improve road safety characteristics at little or not extra cost, provided the road safety implications of design features are considered at the design stage. Safety should be assessed by consideration of appropriate checklists or audits of the design stage. Keeping in view all these factors the road safety audits have been done in this study by ICT team comprising road safety specialist, road design engineer and traffic engineer with safety audit experience. 2.15.2 Procedure of Safety Audits Road safety audit is as a formal examination of an existing or future road or traffic project, or any project, which interacts with road users, in which an independent, qualified examiner looks at the projects accident potential and safety performance. The basis for road safety audits is the systematic application of safety principles. Specific aims are:

To minimize the risk of accidents occurring on the scheme, and to minimize the severity of accident that do occur; To minimize the risk of accidents occurring on adjacent roads as a result of a scheme, i.e. to avoid creating accidents elsewhere on the network: To recognize the importance of safety in highway design to meet the needs and perceptions of all types of road user: and to achieve a balance between needs where they may be in conflict; To reduce the long term costs of a scheme, bearing in mind that unsafe designs may be expensive or even impossible to correct at a later stage; and To improve the awareness of safe design practices by all involved in the planning, design, construction and maintenance of roads.

The objective was to undertake a road safety audit at final design stage for the project road to identify locations of potential safety hazard and to suggest appropriate measures to enhance safety along the road. In this study safety audits have been done in the following three stages
• • •

Feasibility Stage Preliminary Design Stage Detailed Design Stage A set of drawings showing the horizontal and vertical alignment. Typical cross section drawings. A set of detail cross-section drawings. A set of drawings showing typical intersection layouts and design layouts at particular junctions. Traffic flow and composition (including non motorized vehicles) The design report All the junctions have been designed and improved as per IRC requirement.
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The following background information was made available for the Road Safety Audit
• • • • • • •

Project Description

Masting Flooring has been proposed along the incoming of side of traffic on the main highway in a length of safe stopping sight distance. Mastic flooring treatment has been proposed for preventions of undue eroding of pavement wearing surface due to frequent braking of the vehicles at the junction point. The NH project corridor is an urban road in the street lighting has been provided the urban stretches. At junctions special lighting arrangements such as in high mast light at grade separator junction has been proposed to provide proper visibility to the traffic during night hours.

2.16

UTILITY SHIFTING The project road passes through continuous built-up area. Provision for utilities has made along and across the highway.
• •

2.16.1 Ducts Proposed for Utilities

Longitudinal ducts are proposed on outer side parallel to the storm water drains Transverse ducts for crossing the utilities has been proposed with 1000 dia NP-4 pipes at an interval of 5 km c/c maximum or less as required.

Pipe culverts for utilities (Water supply)
1000mm dia NP-4 pipe culverts have been provided for crossing of water mains. Ducts for Electric & Telephone Cable A set of 3 nos. 200mm dia pipes has been proposed at an interval of 1.0 km in urban areas or as per requirements for crossing electrical and telephone cable 2.16.2 Utility Relocation In widening and improvement proposal of the project road the following electric and telephone installations are being affected which need to be shifted. Package Chainage (km) Electric poles Affected I km 148.000 to 230.00 Transformers Affected I km 148.000 to 230.00 High-tension Towers Affected I Km 148.000 to 230.00 Telephone Poles Affected I Km 148.000 to 230.00 548 556 1104 1 8 9 59 50 109 1347 1089 2436 Left side Right side Total

Water Taps Affected
I Km 148.000 to 230.00 18 ••• 15 33

3. SOCIAL ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA

3.1

GENERAL

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The objective of this chapter is to describe the socio-economic context in which the proposed road upgradation project is being implemented and carry out the qualitative analysis of the socio-economic impacts of the project in this context. In order to estimate the demand for the upgraded facility and to carry out the economic analysis of the project a good amount of economic data is needed. This data will especially be useful in establishing traffic growth rates for forecasting future traffic. Data on past trends of growth of Net State Domestic Product (NSDP), population, motor vehicle population, agricultural production, industrial production etc. can be particularly useful. The relevant data is compiled in this chapter. 3.2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Kannur – Kuttipuram section of the road forms the stretch under the present project study and can be divided in three segments as district boundaries. The project road section falls under three districts of Kerala: Kannur, Kozhikode and Malappuram and a length of 1.505 km falls under Mahe of Pondicherry state. NH-17 originally, during British period, known as West Coast Road originates near Panvel (near Mumbai) and terminates at Edappally in Cochin. The highway passes through Goa, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Kuttipuram and finally terminates at Edapally and joins NH-47. NH-17 was re-organised with its ‘zero’ chainage point at Mangalore. The Mangalore – Edapally section of the road was declared as NH in 1972 and alignment was subsequently modified in 1974. Section of NH-17 between km 18.050 to km 438.827 with a length of about 420 km falls in the State of Kerala. The road passes through Kasaragod (km 50), Kannur (Km 155), Kozhikode (Km 245), Kuttipuram (Km 318) and finally terminates and joins NH-47 at Edapally at km 438.827. 3.3. PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA Internal with in the state The traffic is generated from the following with in the Project Corridor. a) The project road section falls under three districts – Kannur, Kozhikode and Mallapuram. The road has urban development in the shape of ribbon development almost along the entire length NH-17 serves as the major pivotal road which carries the generated traffic to other parts of the Kerala State and rest of the country. b) Traffic from other Highways National Highways - NH-212 and NH-213, NH-47 State Highways - SH-38, SH-36, SH-34, SH-30, SH-28 and MDRS Cochin Port ii) External from other states NHAI has already developed the Golden Quadrilateral corridor of NHDP connecting the four Metropolitan towns of Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, North - South and East - West corridors. Salem – Kochi – Cherthalai -Thiruvanthapuram sections are under development as a spur to North South corridor. Development of NH-17 will attract more traffic from the region and will connect the Kerala State to Karnataka Goa, Maharashtra. NH-17 also connects these states to North south corridor at Salem through NH-47. LAND USE AND TERRAIN Habitation close to the road almost along the entire length of the project corridor Religious structures Residential, commercial, institutional, Hospitals, markets etc. Agricultural having coconut plantation, paddy field in some reaches The project road corridor runs through plain and rolling terrain in general except few small stretches of hilly terrain as detailed below 3.5 3.5.1 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Population The population of the State as per 2001 Census was 31.8 million, which is 3.11 percent to that of the country. Rural population amounted to about 72.56 per cent. Schedule castes and
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i)

3.4

Project Description

schedule tribes amounted to 10.96 per cent in the State. Table 3.1 presents the comparative demographic profile of the state including the three districts of the project influence area. Table 3.1: District wise Population Population 2001 Sl. No. Districts Persons 1203342 2412365 786627 2878498 3629640 2617072 2975440 3098378 1128605 1952901 2105349 1231577 2584118 3234707 31838619 Males 587763 1154144 393397 1398674 1759479 1265794 1422047 1535881 566405 964433 1012572 588035 1248616 1571424 15468664 Females 615579 1258221 393230 1479824 1870161 1351278 1553393 1562497 562200 988468 1092777 643542 1335502 1663283 16369955 Percentage Decadal Growth Rate 1991 – 2001 12.30 7.13 17.04 9.87 17.22 9.86 8.70 9.09 6.96 6.76 5.21 3.72 7.33 9.78 9.42 Sex Ratio (Females per 1,000 males) 2001 1047 1090 1000 1058 1063 1068 1092 1017 999 1025 1079 1094 1070 1058 1058 Population Density (per sq. km) 2001 604 813 369 1228 1022 584 981 1050 252 722 1496 574 1038 1476 819

Kasaragod Kannur Wayanand Kozhikode Malappuram Palakkad Thrissur Eranakulam Iddukki Kottayam Alappuzha Pathanamthitta Kollam Thiruvananthapuram KERALA 3.5.2

Population Growth and Urbanization Population of Kerala increased from 135 lakhs in 1951 to 291 lakhs in 1991 and to 318 lakhs in 2001, and its share in the country’s population is about 3.1 per cent. Urban population was about 7.7 million in 1991 and about 8.3 million in 2001 which constitutes about 25.96 per cent of the total population. The decadal growth of Urban population was 7.64 per cent during 1991 – 2001. Table 3.2 shows the population growth trends and urban population in Kerala. TABLE 3.2: POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS AND URBAN POPULATION OF KERALA Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Total Population 13,549,118 16,903,75 21,347,357 25,453,680 29,098,518 31,841,374 Decadal growth Rate 22.82 24.76 26.69 19.24 14.32 9.42 Urban population 1,825,832 2,554,141 3,466,449 4,471,275 7,680,294 8,267,135 Urban Population as percentage to total population 13.48 15.11 16.24 18.74 26.39 25.96

3.6

LAND USE Data on land use pattern of Kerala is given in Table 3.3. Out of the total geographical area of 38.8 lakh ha., net sown area is about 57 per cent. Forest occupies around
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

28 per cent area. The area under cultivable waste, which was 63771 hac. In 2001-02 increased to 7.5 lakh hac. in 2002-03, which is about 1.9 percent. Table 3.3: Land Use Pattern in Kerala Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Classification of Land Total Geograhpical Area Forest Land put to non agricultural uses Barren and uncultivated land Permanent pastures &Grazing land Land under miscellaneous tree crops Cultivable waste Fallow other than current fallow Current fallow Net area sown Area sown more than once Total cropped area Cropping intensity 2000-01 ha / % age 38,85,497 10,81,509 (27.8) 3,81,873 (9.8) 29,318 (0.8) 164 (0.0) 15,409 (0.4) 59,257 (1.5) 33,988 (0.9) 77,853 (2.0) 22,061,26 (56.8) 8,15,556 (21.0) 30,21,682 (77.8) 137 (0.0) 2001-02 ha / % age 38,85,497 10,81,509 (27.8) 3,92,352 (10.1) 29,728 (0.8) 233 (0.0) 13,613 (0.4) 63,771 (1.6) 34,331 (0.9) 79,270 (2.0) 21,90,690 (56.4) 8,01,562 (20.6) 29,92,252 (77.0) 137 (0.0) 2002-03 ha / % age 38,85,497 10,81,509 (27.8) 3,76,751 (9.7) 29,778 (0.8) 451 (0.0) 5,186 (0.1) 75,010 (1.9) 41,762 (1.1) 70,498 (1.8) 22,04,552 (56.7) 8,23,671 (21.2) 30,28,223 (77.9) 137 (0.0)

Source : Directorate of Economics and Statistics

3.7

STATE’S ECONOMY The State income i.e. Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) at current prices, is Rs 7893313 Lakhs in 2003-04, higher by 11.07 per cent than that of 2002-03. During 2003-04 the NSDP for primary sector registered a growth of 0.38 per cent, which is very low whereas the secondary and tertiary sectors registered a growth of 12.42 per cent and 13.91 per cent respectively. Details of NSDP are given in Table 3.4. Table: 3. 4 Sector wise NSDP of Kerala (Rs. In Lakhs) Year Primary Secondary Tertiary Total

At Constant (1993-04) Prices 2002-03 2003-04 % Change At Current Prices 2002-03 2003-04 Percentage change 3.7.1 13,13,672 13,18,667 0.38 15,89,161 1,78,639 12.42 42,035,15 47,88,107 13.91 71,063,68 78,93,313 11.07 6,94,743 6,79,101 -2.25 7,23,416 7,67,474 6.09 22,85,540 25,27,124 10.57 37,036,99 39,736,99 7.29

Sectoral Composition of State Income The sectoral composition of the State Income has undergone considerable changes during 1993-94 to 200304. Over these more than 10 years, the share of primary sector has declined from 32.23 per cent in 1993-94 to
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Project Description

17.09 per cent in 2003-04 and that of secondary sector marginally declined from 20.32 per cent to 19.31 per cent. Share of tertiary sector has however increased from 47.45 per cent to 63.60 per cent during the same period. The share of Primary Sector has registered a negative annual growth of 2.25 per cent in 2003-04. Table 3.6 (a & b) and Fig. 3.4 shows the sectoral composition of State Income and trend line of NSDP growth. 3.7.2 The Per Capita Income The per capita State Income at constant (1993-94) prices increased by 6.32 per cent in 2003-04 over 2002-03 and at current prices it increased by 10.07 per cent. Details of per capita income are given in Table 3.5. Table 3.5: Per Capita Income Year 2002-03 2003-04 Percentage change 3.7.3 Growth Trends-State Income The compound annual growth rate of State income at constant (1993-94) prices during the decade from 199394 to 2003-04 was 5.24 per cent. During this period the Per capita Income grew by an annual growth rate of 4.31 per cent. The sectoral growth rates during this period for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors were – 1.23, 4.71 and 8.36 per cent respectively. At constant (1993-94) prices 11,389 12,109 6.32 At Current prices 21,853 24,053 10.07

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Table 3.6 (a)

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Project Description

Table 3.6 (b)

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Fig 3.4
NSDP at Current Price (Year 1993 - 94)
NSDP at Constant Price (Year 1993 - 94) 32% 48%

32% 48%

20%

20%

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

NSDP at Current Price (Year 2003 - 04) 17%

NSDP at Constant Price (Year 2003 - 04)
17%

60%

23%

19% 64%

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Growth of NSDP (Constant and Current Prices) Gross State Domestic Product

8000000 6000000 4000000 2000000 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year

Constant Prices

Current Prices

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Project Description

3.8

WORK PARTICIPATION RATIO The Table 3.7 gives the distribution of working population by economic sectors in Kerala. The total work force as per census 2001 in the State is 10.29 million, comprising full time or “main workers” (8.2 million 32.3 per cent of the total population) and marginal workers (2.05) million. The work participation rate (percent of total workers to total population) is 32.3. The project influence area accounted for 2.6 million workers, 25 per cent of total workers in the state. Table 3.7: Total Population, total Workers (Main + Marginal) and Non Workers for, Kerala Percent-age Working Population 32.3 50.4 15.3 32.6 50.2 15.9 31.6 50.8 13.5 Females 15.9 15.3 16.9 15.9 13 13.5 Marginal Workers

Persons Males /Females

Main Workers

Total Population

Total Workers

Kerala Persons Total Males Females Persons Rural Males Females Persons Urban Males Females 31,838,619 10,291,258 82,36,741 20,54,517 21,547,361 15,468,664 77,90,522 64,79,350 13,11,172 16,369,955 25,00,736 17,57,391 23,571,484 11450785 12120699 8,266,925 40,17,879 42,49,256 7675096 5750087 1925009 5996288 4689974 1306314 7,43,345 1678808 1060113 618695 3,75,709 2,51,059 1,24,650 76,78,142 13,869,219 15896388 5700698 10195690 56,50,973 19,77,444 36,73,529

26,16,162 22,40,453 20,40,435 17,89,376 5,75,727 4,51,077

Source: Economic Survey 2003-04 Work participation rate at the country level was 39.3 per cent in 2001. In case of the State, participation increased from 31.4 per cent in 1991 to 32.3 percent in 2001, an increase of 0.9 per cent. Table 3.8 gives the work participation rates for the country and the project State. Table 3.8: Work Participation Rates (%) (WPR) in the state Year 1991 2001 Rural 1991 2001 Urban 1991 2001 3.8.1 Persons 37.5 39.3 40 42 30.2 32.2 India Male 51.6 51.9 52.5 52.4 48.9 50.9 Females 22.3 25.7 26.7 31 9.2 11.6 Persons 31.4 32.3 32.1 32.6 29.6 31.6 Kerala Male 47.6 50.4 47.9 50.2 46.8 50.8

Economic Classification of Workers The percentage distribution of total workers (2001 census) by broad economic classification (4 categories) is presented in the Table 3.9. Table 3.9: Percentage Distribution of Total Workers by Broad Economic Classification
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NonWorkers

Area

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Classification of Workers Cultivators Agricultural labour Household Industries Others Total Total Workers 3.9 AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES

Kerala 7.19 16.07 3.54 73.19 100 10291258

Kerala’s economy is predominantly agrarian in nature. A unique feature of the State is the predominance of cash crops as Kerala is a major producer of coconut, rubber, pepper, cardamom, ginger, cocoa, cashew, areca nuts, coffee and tea. Table 3.10 gives the growth of agriculture income in Kerala. It is clear from the Table that agricultural income contributes to about 13.72 per cent of the total state income in the year 2002-03. The Table also shows that the proportion of income from the agricultural sector is declining from 1993-94 onward. Table 3.10: Contribution of Agricultural sector to the State income in Kerala (at 1993-1994 prices) Years 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-02 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 Agricultural Income* Percentage Change Percentage contribution to (Rs. In Crores) over previous year State income 6,256 6,897 6,947 7,115 6,777 6,900 7,017 5,448 5,365 5,068 10.25 0.72 2.42 -4.75 1.81 1.70 -22.36 -1.52 -5.54 26.23 26.62 25.78 25.39 23.67 22.52 21.45 16.23 15.38 13.72

* Includes Livestock sector Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics

3.9.1

Agricultural Production Kerala is a major producer of coconut, rubber, pepper, cardamom, ginger, cocoa, cashew, areca nuts, coffee and tea. Table 3.11 shows that Kerala contributes to about 91 per cent in the production of Rubber, and in the production of Cardamom its contribution is about 72 per cent. Cardamom registered a negative growth of about 22.67 per cent in 2002-03 over the year 2001-02. Table 3.11: Production of Principal Crops 2001-02 Crops (MT) Percentage contribution to India's production 7.74 22.19 2002-03 Percentage contribution Growth Kerala Rate to India's production 8,26,200 65,800 2,75,275 64,425
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India

Kerala

Tea Coffee

8,54,000 3,00,600

66,090 66,690

7.96 23.40

-0.44 -3.40

Project Description

Rubber

6,31,400 5,80,350 8,380

91.91 73.74

6,49,435 5,94,917 9,000 6,480

91.61 72.00

2.51 -22.67

Cardamom 11,365 Fisheries

Source: UPSAI, Rubber Board and Directorate of Economics & Statistics

Kerala has a 590 km. long coastal belt, coupled with a wide network of inland water bodies. The area of the continental shelf of the state is around 40,000 sq. kms. There are 222 fishing villages in the marine and 113 fishing villages in the inland sector. In 1999-2000 the projected population in Kerala is 10.50 lakh (8.09 lakh marine and 2.41 lakh inland). The total fish production is 6.68 lakh tones in 1999-2000, consisting of 5.94 marine and 0.74 inland. Fish production increased from 3.75 lakh tones in 1988-99 to 5.94 lakh tones in 1999-2000. Minerals Several valuable minerals occur in many parts of the State. The beach sands in Kollam are rich in heavy minerals like Monozite, Limenite, Rutile, Zircon and Silimanite, China Clay or Kaolin, suitable for the manufacture of porecelain is found in many parts of the State. 3.10 INDUSTRY Table 3.12 presents the growth of industries in Kerala. The employment in factories has not increased in proportion to the increase in the number of factories. On an average employment per factory works out to be 23.5 persons per factory. TABLE 3.12: REGISTERED WORKING FACTORIES AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE STATE (1990-2002) Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 * Revised, (p) Provisional 3.10.2 Small Scale Industries Small-scale industries play an important role in the industrial sector of Kerala. In 2002-03 Kerala has 2.70 lakhs small-scale sector units employing about 12.16 lakhs persons and production worth Rs. 14083.72 crores at current prices. Table 3.13 gives the performance of small-scale sector in Kerala. Table 3.13 Performance of Small Scale Sector All India Year 1998-1999 Kerala No. of Factories 12,448 13,255 14,608 15,132 15,305 15,331 16,434 17,336 17,719 18,504 18,544 18,544 18,602 Employment 3,55,550 3,68,738 3,75,736 3,88,758 3,90,260 3,75,148 4,05,067 4,28,840 4,43,841 4,36,476 4,38,750 4,36,410 4,37,340 3.10.1 Medium and Large Scale Industries

Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Thiruvananthapuram

Production Production (at current Employment (at current Employment Units Units (in lakhs) prices) (in lakhs) (in lakhs) prices) (in lakhs) Rs. Crores Rs. Crores 30.80 5,20,650 171.58
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2.00

8604.42

9.81

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003

32.12 33.70 34.64 35.72*

5,72,887 6,39,024 6,90,522 7,60,844*

178.50 185.64 192.23 200*

2.20 2.40 2.58 2.70

9770.65 10998.25 12214.38 14083.72

10.54 11.14 11.73 12.16

*(Estimated)
Sources : India 2003-Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, GOI, SIDBI, Directorate of Industries and Commerce.

3.11

EMPLOYMENT
Table 3. 14: Employment (Public & Private Sectors) in Kerala State

Table 3.14 gives the number of persons employed in the State

Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Growth Rate Source: Directorate of Employment 3.12 TRANSPORT NETWORK

No. of Persons Employed (in '000 ) in state of Kerala 1,186 1,210 1,226 1,242 1,214 1,220 0.57

Transport Network in Kerala consists of, 1.38 lakh kms. of roads, 1148 kms of railways, 1687 kms. of inland waterways and 111 Statute miles of airways and 17 ports. These are the basic infrastructure facility for the development of the state economy. 3.12.1 National Highways The National Highway network in Kerala is 1524 km. This is only 2.6 per cent of the total National Highways in the country. There are eight National Highways in the state. Details are given in Table. 3.15. Table 3.15: National Highways in Kerala NH No. 17 212 213 47 47A 49 208 NH Portion in Kerala Thalapadi - Edappally (Panavel - Edappally) Kozhikode - Muthanga (Kozhikode - Mysore) Palakkad - Kozhikode Walayar - Kaliyakkavila (Salem - Kanyakumari) Kundannoor - Willington Island Bodimettu - Kundannoor (Kochi-Madurai) Kollam – Aryankavu (Kollam - Thirumangalam) Length Single Double Four (kms) lane (km) lane (km) lane (km) 421 117 125 417 6 168 81
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396 117 125 168 81

25 381 6 -

36

-

Project Description

NH No. 220

NH Portion in Kerala Kollam - Kumily (Kollam - Teni) Total Length

Length Single Double Four (kms) lane (km) lane (km) lane (km) 189 1524 189 1076 412 36

Road Network The road network of Kerala extended over 1.38 lakh km is about 4.2 per cent of that in the country. National Highways in the state constitute only 2.6 per cent of the total 58112 kms of national highways in the country. Total road length in Kerala during 2002-03, increased to 138196 kms from 125835 kms in the previous year, registering an increase of 9.82 per cent. The roads maintained by Panchayats increased by 3.73 per cent during 2002-03. The road density in Kerala is 3.56 kms per sq.kms, which is far above the all India average of 0.91 km and is a reflection of the unique settlement pattern in the state. In relation to population, for every one lakh population in Kerala, there are 434 kms of road against a corresponding value of 299 kms at national level. The length of roads maintained by different agencies is given in Table 3.16. Table 3.16 Agency-wise Distribution of Road Length Name of Department Panchayat PWD (Roads & Bridges) Municipalities Corporation Forest Irrigation PWD (NH) Others (Railway, KSEB) Total Length (km) 95,516 21,467 7,697 5,853 3,771 1,930 1,524 438 1,38,196 Percentage 69.12 15.53 5.57 4.24 2.73 1.40 1.10 0.31 100

3.12.2 Bus Transport Services Road Transport is the dominant mode of transport for moving goods and passenger traffic. Road transport act as the feeder service to the rail traffic, air traffic and Port & harbours. The vehicle density in the State is very high compared to many other States in India. Road Transport Industry is dominated by private service providers. The road freight services are wholly owned and operated by the private sector. Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is the largest single public sector undertaking, which carries out transport operation in the State. The State owned KSRTC has only 14.71 per cent of the total number of stage carriages in the State. The passenger transport operation in Kerala is mainly carried out by private operators. There are 29,249 buses in the State as on 3/2003 including private buses. The number of schedules operated as on 3/2003 has increased from 3576 to 3651 in 2002-03. The corporation operated its bus services to a length of 4124.44 lakh kms as against 4148.15 lakh kms in the previous year with a marginal decrease of 0.59 per cent. About 11306.79 lakh passengers travelled in the KSRTC buses during 2002-03 as against 11087.16 lakh passengers in the previous year. The average km run by a bus in a day was 365 km during the period. 3.12.3 Railways The railway network runs multi-gauge operations extending over 1148 kms in Kerala of which 94.14 kms is meter gauge. The railway operations in the State are controlled by the Thiruvananthapuram, Palghat and Madurai Divisions of Southern Railway. The entire railway route length of the State is spread along 13 railway routes of which highest number of railway stations (92) is in Thiruvananthapuram – Walayar route. The route length has remained stagnant in the State for a number of years.
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

3.12.4 Air Transport Passenger Traffic Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode and Kochi are the three airports in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi were declared as international airports. Kochi international airport is a venture of state government. Air transport plays a major role in the development of tourism, both domestic and international. During 2002-03, 31481 flights (15324 domestic and 16157 international) were operated from all the three airports as against 28247 (15136 domestic and 13111 international) in 2001-02. There was an increase in the number of 2317116 passengers (742724 domestic and 1574392 international) were carried during the reporting period from the three airports as against 2303817 (824652 domestic and 1479165 international) passengers in the previous year showing a marginal increase of 0.58 per cent. Cargo Traffic Kerala State Industrial Enterprises Ltd. runs two air cargo complexes at Thiruvananthapuram and Calicut Airports. The company is the official export house for promotion of export house for promotion of exports as recognized by Government of India. The Company also acts as the virtual office of Agricultural and Processes Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, for the Kerala State. The details of quantity/value of cargo exported and imported during 2002-03. 3.12.5 Inland Water Transport Inland Waterways in Kerala stretches to a length of 1687 kms corresponding to 11.6 percentage of a total of 14544 kms in the country. The major stretch of canal in the State is the West Coast Canal connecting Hosdurg in the north and Thiruvananthapuram (Poorvar) in the south, having a length of 560 kms. Agencies engaged in the development of inland waterways, which is quite important in the State are: • • • Coastal shipping and Navigation Department State Water Transport Department Kerala Shipping and Inland Navigation Corporation (KSINC), Kochi.

State Water Transport Department (SWTD) renders water transport services in the waterlogged areas of the state. The services are running at a loss. KSINC offer its services in transportation of cargo and passengers through Inland Water of Kerala and is making operational profits for the last 7 years. The water transport service in this district is operated by KSWRC and also by private agencies. 3.13 TOURISM Kerala is known as God’s own country and is endowed with most attractive wildlife sanctuaries, Kovalam Sea Resort, Padmanabaswamy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram, Subarimala temple of Lord Ayyappa in Pathanamthitta district. Thiruvananthapuram the capital city is an abode of temples, mosques and churches etc. Backwater tourism is also fast growing in the state. The state is famous for Kathakali center, Kalamandalam in Thrissur district. Kerala recorded 100 percent growth in international visitor’s arrivals in the last five years. It received 2,33,000 international visitors during 2002. Domestic tourists in Kerala increased to 626 million in 2002. The number of foreign tourist arrival to Kerala has grown from 182,000 in 1997 to 2,33,000 in 2002. Table 3.17 gives the growth of tourism in Kerala. Table 3.17: Growth of Tourist Traffic in Kerala (1990-98) Domestic Tourist (‘000) Year No. 1990 1991 1992 1993 867 949 994 1027 Foreign Tourists Share of Kerala (‘000) (%) in Indian % variation India Kerala Tourist Market over the year + 36.62 + 9.52 + 4.76 + 3.33 1330 1236 1435 1443 66 69 91 95
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Earning (Rs. crore) 26.99 28.28 59.75 105.72

4.97 5.61 6.32 6.6

Project Description

Domestic Tourist (‘000) Year No. 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 1285 3916 4403 4953 4482 4888 5011 5240 5568

Foreign Tourists Share of Kerala (‘000) (%) in Indian % variation India Kerala Tourist Market over the year 25.03 204.87 12.45 12.5 (-) 9.52 9.06 2.52 4.57 6.26 1562 2124 2289 2374 2359 2482 2649 2537 2362 105 143 177 182 190 202 210 209 233 6.69 6.73 7.73 7.68 8.05 8.14 7.93 8.24 9.86

Earning (Rs. crore) 106.11 158.76 196.38 227.33 302.08 416.07 525.30 535.00 705.67

Project Influence Area

(PIA)
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

3.14

ECONOMIC FEATURES OF THE PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA (PIA) Industrial developments are negligible in all the project districts, even though they have a high potential for industries based on marine, coconut and rubber resources. Industries based on the marine products have flourished in the coastal areas of all the districts. Rubber, copra, coconut oil, vegetables, rice, pepper etc. are the important products. An analysis of the socio-economic conditions of the people in the project influence area reveals that the majority of the population is engaged for their livelihoods in the agrarian and fisheries sectors. NRIs contributions also have a countable part in project districts economy. THE GULF EMIGRATES IN KERALA’S ECONOMY The global price hike of petroleum in 1973 and the consequent earnings of large revenue had accelerated a process of industrialization and social change in the west Asian region, had accelerated process of industrialization and social change necessitating the services of a large no of foreign workers. As a result, workers from Kerala began to immigrate to the Gulf countries The emigration, which started with a few thousand per year during the mid- 1970s, assumed a larger proportion during the 1980s and the 1990s. The inflow of large amounts of Gulf remittance and spending has resulted in unprecedented economic changes since the mid-1970s in the poor and industrially under-developed economy of Kerala. The impact of Gulf migration is not uniform through out Kerala. The impact is substantial in those areas or districts where the rate of migration is high. A group of researchers at the Center for Development Studies, based in Thiruvananthapuram, has estimated that the migration rate, that is, emigrants per 100 households is 21% for the whole of Kerala. This indicates that from every five households in Kerala, at least one person has migrated to the Gulf. A major impact of emigration in the labour front is the reduction of unemployment. Another change that occurred in the labour market due to the Gulf opportunities was the introduction of vocational education and training for skills, most notably computer skills. As a majority of the migrant households were poor, the migration has helped to reduce poverty levels in Kerala. The flow of remittance has also led to the generation of more savings in an underdeveloped economy like that of Kerala. On the negative side, the inflow of remittances has pushed up prices of land in urban and rural areas. Thus the inflow of a large amount of remittance and its spending has resulted in unprecedented economic changes in the state. However, the recent development in the Gulf has led to an unprecedented return of emigrants to the state. The fall in oil prices, the recent reversionary tendencies in the Gulf countries, the stringent restrictions imposed on migrant labour in 1996 by Saudi Arabia and Baharin in 1997 and stiff competition from migrants from other counties have resulted in the return of a large number of emigrants. It is estimated that the total number of returnees from the gulf was 107,000 in 1996, and 79,000 in 1998. This has been reflected in the economy of the state, which also began to experience severe recession. According to various estimates, more than 300,000 emigrant workers returned to Kerala from the West Asian countries between 1996 and 1998. This unprecedented return of emigrants and a dip in the flow of remittance have created a severe economic recession in the state.

3.15

INTRODUCTION TO KANNUR, KOZHIKODE, MALAPPURAM DISTRICTS AND MAHE REGION – THE PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA The project road traversing through three districts Kannur, Kozhikode and Malappuram in the state of Kerala and Mahe region of Pondicherry state. The physical and socio-economic profile of the project-affected districts will be illustrated independently in the following section. Kannur The Physical Features and District Profile
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3.15.1 Location and Area of the project affected Districts

Project Description

Kannur district, one of the 14 districts of Kerala, came into existence as an unit on first January 1957, when the Malabar district and Kasaragod taluk were reconstituted into three revenue Kannur, Kozhikode and Palakkad. The is the district headquarters, and gives name. The old name 'Cannanore' is the of the Malayalum name Kannur. is bounded by Kasaragod district to the Kozhikode district to the south. In the is bounded by the Western Ghats forms the border with Karnataka state, Kodagu and Chamarajanagar. The to the west.

in

the state administrative erstwhile of Madras State districts, viz; town of Kannur the district its anglicised form Kannur district north and east the district range, which in its districts of Arabian Sea lies

Kannur district is known as the land of looms and lores, because of the number of looms functioning in the district and festivals held in temples. The district is a major centre of Theyyam, a ritual dance of northern Kerala, and small shrines known as Kayus associated with the Theyyam dot the district. 3.15.2 Area and Location Kannur district lies between latitudes 11040' to 12048' North and longitudes 74052' to 76007' East. The district is bound by the Western Ghats in the East (Coorg district of Karnataka State), Kozhikode and Wayanad districts, in the South, Arabian Sea in the West and in the north the northern most district of Kerala, Kasaragode. 3.15.3 Distance from Major Cities Distance to major Cities from Kannur Kozhikode-92km, Ernakulam-310km, Thiruvananthapuram-505km, Mangalore-150km, Mumbai-1215km, Mysore (direct)-185km, Bangalore-324km. Bangalore: by taxi its 6 hrs drive, by bus its 8 hrs journey, Calicut: by taxi its 2.30 hrs drive, by bus its 3 hrs, by train its 2 hrs. Mangalore: by taxi its 3.30 hrs drive, by bus its 4 hrs, by train its 3.30 hrs. Nearest Airport: Calicut: 115km South Mangalore: 170km North Major Railway Station on Shornur -Mangalore line accessible to Goa and Mumbai through Konkan railway. 3.15.4 Climate and Rainfall The district has humid climate with an oppressive hot season from March to the end of May. This is followed by the Southwest monsoon, which continues till the end of September. October and November form the postmonsoon or retreating monsoon season. The Northeast monsoon, which follows, extends up to the end of February, although the rain generally ceases after December. During the months of April and May, the mean daily maximum temperature is about 350 Celsius. Temperature is low in December and January - about 200 Celsius. On certain days the night temperature may go down to 160 Celsius. The annual average rainfall is 3438 mm and more than 80 per cent of it occurs during the period of South West monsoon. The rainfall during July is very heavy and the district receives 68 per cent of the annual rainfall during this season. 3.15.5 Communication Network The West Coast road from Mahe to Talapady is the backbone of the road system in Kannur district. This is part of the National Highway(NH). Thalassery – Kodagu road and the Thalassery – Mysore road are the other important roads. The airports at Mangalore in Karnataka and Kozhikode are about 125 killometers away from Kannur. Thalassery, Kannur and Azhikkal are the minor ports in the district. Kannur is an ancient port. The nearest all(lxxviii)

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

weather sea port is Mangalore, presently in Karnataka State. The inland water transport system connecting Perumba and Taliparamba was constructed in 1766 by the Ali Raja of Kannur. This 3.8 km long canal is known as the Sultan's Canal. The west flowing rivers are used for navigation. The Kuppam river has 244 km of navigable length; Valappattanam, 55 km and Anjarakandi, 23 km. The nearest airport is Kozhikode. 3.15.6 Major Crops and their Production Majority of the population of the district are dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood. The main crops grown in the district are paddy, coconut, pepper, cashew, tapioca, arecanut and plantation crops like rubber. Paddy occupies the largest area among annual crops. Under the high yielding variety programme, substantial increase in paddy production has been achieved, even though the percentage of area sown under paddy is decreasing year after year, due to conversion of paddy fields to other purposes. The average yield of paddy is recorded as 2146 kg. per hectare. Next to paddy, coconut is the most important crop in the district. Coconut is extensively grown throughout the district. An important cash crop grown in the district is cashewnut. The district plays a unique role in its cultivation and production. The vast stretches of suitable waste lands with low fertility status extends scope for expansion of cashew cultivation and its allied industries. Among spices, pepper occupies an important place. Pepper is mostly grown as an intercrop with coconut, arecanut and various fruit trees. In the hilly areas of the district, the inter-cultivation is done with rubber and cashew. Rubber is the most important industrial cash crop among the plantation crops. About 55% of the rubber cultivation of Kannur district is in Taliparamba taluk, followed by Thalassery and Kannur taluks. The yield of rubber per hectare varies from 2000 kg to 4000 kg. 3.15.7 Minerals and Industries The district is endowed with rich deposits of clay of which various types are mined at many places for potteries, tiles and ceramic industries. The most important areas where clay has been found are Pattuvam, Korom, Perumba and Karivellore. Good quality kaolin occurs below the laterite capping around Pilathara and Thaliparamba. China clay is found in abundance in Thaliparamba and Kannur taluks of Kannur district. These resources are not fully utilized in the district. Laterite is quarried for bricks throughout the district on a small scale to meet the local demand. Extensive quarrying is done in Kambil, Kalyassery and Cheruthazham area. Thin horizons of lignite are noted in the cliff sections at Kannur coast, Pazhayangadi and Meenkunnu. Beach sands containing ilmenites, monazite, Zircon, and thorianite occur along the coast, especially to the south of Valapattanam river mouth and near Azhikode. Other minerals discovered recently are sillimanite near Chandirukunnu, graphite near Payyavur, Manakadavu and Minor bands of iron ore near Cherukunnu Railway Station. Many occurrences of bauxite deposits have been brought to light in the district at Madayi, Korom, Payyavur and Pattuam near Thaliparamba. They may find use in the manufacture of refractories and cement, as they are not of high grade. Limeshells used for the manufacture of white cement and for industrial purposes are found in the backwaters of Eranholi river, Dharmadampuzha, and Anjarakandi river around Thalassery and Dharmadam as well as Valapattanam river in the east of Azhikkal ferry. Nevertheless, Kannur is an industrially backward district in the State. There are only one major and five mini industrial estates in the district. Keltron Complex, Mangattuparamba and Western India Plywood's, Valappattanam are the two major industries. The Western India Plywoods is one of the biggest wood based industrial complexes in South East Asia. The district has 12 medium-scale industries, most of which are either cotton textile or plywood manufacturing. Textiles, beedi and coir are the important traditional industries in the district. About one lakh people depend on the textile industry for livelihood. The textile industry accounts for 40% of all Small Scale Industrial (SSI) units in the district. The beedi industry provides employment to about 50,000 people. Famous beedi cooperative ‘Dinesh Beedi’ is in Kannur district. The coir industry which uses traditional technology provides employment to about 11,000 workers. There are 6934 small scale industrial units in the district. The district has 202 sick units which is about 9.3% of the sick units of the state. Only 4828 units are working now. 162 industrial societies and four power loom societies are also functioning here. Kannur, Thalassery, Payyannur, Taliparamba and Edakkad have been identified as growth centers, having potential for industrial development.
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Project Description

3.15.8 Fishery Fishery plays an important role in this district. There are 31 fish landing centers in the district, of which Tellicherry, Kannur, Mattool, Madai, Cheruvathur, Kanhangad, Kasaragod and Manjeshwar are major centers. Mopla Bay and Valapattanam are the two fishing harbours in the district. The annual production of fish comes to 81000 tons. Of these the average production of oil sardines, prawns and mackerels come to 16630, 14120 and 11650 tons respectively. 3.15.9 Places of Interest The tourism potential for Kannur district is high. The St. Angelos Fort in the Kannur Cantonment, which was constructed in 1505, is a symbol of Portuguese architecture and attracts plenty of tourists. The Thalassery Fort is an important tourist centre. Kannur beach and Ezhimala are known for scenic beauty. Places of historic importance, like the house of Gundert, who composed the first Malayalm- English Dictionary and the mosque at Madayi constructed in 1124, using marble brought from Mecca attract many tourists. The tourist places in Kannur district are briefed below

Pazhassi Gardens & Dam 37 kms. East of Kannur near Mattannur the reservoir offers scenic vistas. One can cruise D.T.P.C. boats often crossing small islands riverine birds. The recently built Gardens & is an added attraction. The Buddha’s Pazhassi, sculptures of Pazhassi King are to visit. Dharmadam Island Beside the Muzhappilangad beach 100 meters offshore lays the Dharmadam Island surrounded by rivers and sea. A conjunction of beach & island it is a matter of walk during lowtide. Being a Buddhist stronghold it was earlier known as Dharmapattanam. Arakkal Palace It’s about 2 kms from Kannur Town, steeped in History; it was the Beebi (Queen) of Arakkal, Kerala’s only Muslim Royal family that controlled parts of the coast and even Lakshadweep. Fort St. Angelo Don Francisco D. Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India, build the fort in 1505 AD. The fort had a chequered history. It changed hands to the Douche, then to the Ali Raja of Arakkal and finally to the British. The barracks, the magazine, cannons and the ruins of a chapel are all standing testimony history on the shores of the sea. Fort St. Angelo is a protected monument under the archaeological survey of India. Thalassery Fort The British arrived in Thalassery in 1683 and erected a goods shed there. They shifted their commercial capital to Thalassery from Kozhikkode, following obstruction from the Dutch. In 1700, the British built the Thalassery Fort on a small hill called Tiruvellapadkunnu and in 1708, it was strengthened by increasing its height and with bastions. The fort is square structure built of laterite and is distinguished by its massive ventilated walls and strong flanking bastions. It was here that Raider captain was imprisoned. The famous St. John's Anglican Church is behind this fort. Ezhimala The Ezhimala Mountain and beach lie at the northern boundary of Kannur. Rare medical herbs (Ramayana) with mythological significance grow on the strange seven-peaked range that is Ezhimala around 50 Kms. from here. There is an old tower of great antiquity here: the Mount Deli lighthouse. It’s maintained by the Navy as Naval Academy and is a restricted area. The beach sand is of a different texture and the sea is bluer than in other areas. At the Ettikulam bay one could enjoy watching dolphins. Madayi Mosque
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Pazhassi dam & down the river in inhabited by only Amusement park mountain at interesting places

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

This is a beautiful ancient mosque originally built in 1124 AD by Malic Iben Dinar, a Muslim preacher. It is believed that its founder, who came to India to spread the word of the prophet, has brought a block of white marble in the mosque from Mecca. Near by is dilapidated fort built by Tippu Sultan: the ruler of Mysore. Aralam wild life sanctuary A tranquil mega sanctuary on the slopes of the Western Ghats covered with tropical and semi evergreen forests. Herds of deer, elephants, boar and bisons are quite common. Leopards, jungle cats, various type squirrels and rare species of birds have been found here. Around 160 species of birds have been found here. Certain species of birds, which are considered extinct, have also been found here. It is 35 kms from Thalassery Railway station. Muzhappilangad Beach (15.km from Kannur and 8 K.M from Thalasseri) Black rocks protect this long; clean beach from the currents of the deep, making it’s shallow waters a swimmer's paradise. Perhaps this is Kerala’s only drive- in beach. Where you can drive entire length of 4 kms. Snake Park at Parassinikkadaya The Snake Park at Parassinikkadavu is situating 18 kms away from Kannur town. It is one of the known snake parks in the country. The park is dedicated to the preservation and conservation of snakes, most of which are becoming extinct gradually. There is a large collection of poisonous and non-poisonous snakes. Mopilla Bay Moppila Bay is a natural fishing harbour, lying near Fort St. Angelos. A sea wall projecting from the fort separates the rough sea and inland water. The bay was famous during the Kolathiris' regime as a commercial harbour that linked Kolathunadu with Lakshadweep and foreign countries, in imports. Today, Mopilla bay has turned into a modernised fishing harbour, developed under the Indo-Norwegian Pact. 3.16 3.16.1 KOZHIKODE The Physical Features and District Profile traditional capital Kozhicode, was days gone by. historic sites, culture and a much sought districts of and Malappuram west. The town the district district in Kerala.

Kozhicode, formerly called Calicut was the of Northern Kerala under the Samuthiri ruler. the most important region of Malabar in the Today, ancient monuments, serene beaches, wildlife sanctuaries, rivers, hills, a unique warm, friendly ambience make Kozhicode a after destination. The district bounded by the Kannur to the north, Wayanad to the east, to the south, and by the Arabian Sea in the of Kozhikode formerly known as Calicut, is headquarters. This is the third-most advanced It is 38.25% urbanized. 3.16.2 Area and Location Kozhikode district is situated between north and 11° 50’ and east longitudes 75° 30' and 76° 08'.

latitudes 11° 08’

Topographically the district has three distinct regions - the dandy coastal belt, the rocky highlands formed by the hilly portion of the Western Ghats and laterite midland. Of the total area of 2344 sq. km, the sandy coastal belt is 362.85 sq. km., lateritic midlands 1343.50 sq.km., and rocky highlands 637.65 sq.km. The district has a coastal length of about 80 kms. 3.16.3 Climate and Rainfall The district has a humid climate with a very hot season extending from March to May. The most important rainy season is during the South West Monsoon, which sets in the first week of June and extends up to September. The North-East Monsoon extends from the second half of October through November. The average annual rainfall is 3266 mm. During December to march, practically no rain is received and from October onwards the temperature gradually increase to reach the maximum in May, which is the hottest month of the year. The maximum temperature in the month of May comes to 360 C. The highest maximum temperature recorded at Kozhikode
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Project Description

was 39.40 C during 1975 and lowest temperature was 140 C recorded on 26th December 1975. Humidity is very high in the coastal region. 3.16.4 Communication Network Kozhikode district is well connected with the state as well as the National Highways. Three National Highways, NH-17, NH-212 and NH-213 pass through the district. The district has been possessing 198.703 kms of State highways and 379.957 kms of Major District roads as on 01.04.2000, (PWD) as shown in the following table Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 Roads in the District State Highways Major District Roads Other District Roads Village Roads Total Length 3.16.5 Agriculture and Major Crops Kozhikode district has a rich heritage in agriculture, as it was a port city famous for pepper & species trade. Agriculture plays a major role in the district economy. The total geographical area of the district is 2,33,330 hectares in which the net area sown is 1,63,932 hectares. The crops like coconut; paddy, banana, tubers and other spices and tree crops are cultivated in 8 major soil series such as Thikkoti series (18400 Ha), Nanminda series (1,20,000 Ha), Kakkodi series (4,500 Ha), Thiruvambady series (43,700 Ha) Kunnamangalam series (6,500 Ha), Adivaram series, Menmala series (16,800 Ha) and Periya series (9,000 Ha) The area, Table 3.18 production & productivity of important crops is given in the following Length (in Kms) 198.703 379.957 606.088 203.180 1387.928

Table: 3.18: Area, Production and Productivity of Important Crops Crop Paddy Coconut Nuts/palm/year Pepper Ginger Turmeric Banana Cashew Rubber Cocoa Arecanut Tapioca Area (Ha) 8,749 1,22,838 15,962 390 486 1,143 4,371 17,349 472 8,986 3,335 Production 10,593 Mts. 9,250 lakh nuts 2,746 Mts 1,402 Mts 1,042 Mts 16,588 Mts 2,781 Mts 19,490 Mts 137 Mts 2,473 Million nuts 79,620 Mts. Productivity 1.2 Mt/Ha 43 17 Mt/Ha 3.6 Mt/Ha 2.2 Mt/Ha 14.51 Mt/Ha 0.63 Mt/Ha 1.12 Mt/Ha 29 Mt/Ha 27 Mt/Ha 23.8 Mt/Ha

3.16.6 Minerals and Industries Kozhikode district is rich in Gold and Iron ore deposits. Kozhikode district represents one of the industrially advanced areas of the state, with many small-scale industries flourishing from early days. With the close of the 19th century, a number of large-scale concerns sprang up in the district. Some of the more important large & medium scale industries are textiles, rayon grade pulp, soap & cosmetics, oil, wheat flour, steel products, tiles, sea food processing, allopathic medicines, etc.
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The timber industry has great influence on the economy of this district. A feature of this industry is the concentration of units in & around Kallai. A large number of sawmills are located here. The finished timber goods are marketed locally & are also exported. As a corollary to the establishment of saw mills, furniture making has also sprung up in the district. There are 1031 registered forest based industrial units. All these units are concentrated at Kallai, Cheruvannur & Feroke. The tile industry is another major industry. The tile factories are mostly concentrated at Feroke-Cheruvannur area, which is rich in quality clay deposits. The tiles from Kozhikode are famous all over the country & command an export market. There has also been diversification in this industry with the production of ceramics, pottery, crockery, stoneware pipes & insulation materials. Among other important industries, mention may be made about textiles, plywood, splints & veneers, coir, printing & publishing, general engineering, automobiles & oil. 3.16.7 Fishery District blessed with a coastline of 71kms. from Chaliyar to Azhiyoor, the district of Kozhikode offers enormous natural resources for the development of fisheries. The district is abundant in brackish water area & therefore, there is good scope for shrimp farming. Fishing is the main occupation of a large number of people in the coastal belt. The fishing industry makes a sizeable contribution to the economy of the district. The number of active fishermen in the district is around 20,000. The major fish landing centres are Beypore, Vellayil, Puthiyappa, Koyilandy, Vadakara & Chombala & the average annual landing is estimated to about 1 lakh metric tones. There are about 614 registered mechanized boats & 2,657 motorized country crafts, in this district. 3.16.8 Places of interest Kozhikode offers you many places of tourist interest. Tusharagiri (50 km from Kozhikode) Tusharagiri is located near Vythiri in Wayanad and is famous for its trekking tracks. Trekkers start early morning from the second waterfall and climb uphill through the pristine, dense evergreen forests populated with exotic birds and wildlife to reach Vythiri by evening. Mananchira Square A new attraction in the heart of the city, Mananthe sublimation of the concept of a planned modern maidan, adjacent to Manachira has been converted with beautiful trees and plants, artificial hill, shrubs, open air theatre and above all a musical fountain. No tourists seeking leisure and relief from the mad rush shelter here. Mananchira Made and managed by the Kozhikode. Kirtads (7 km from Kozhikode) This unique museum houses the tools and devices used by the ancient tribal communities of Kerala, a good library with books on Anthropology and Sociology is and added attraction. Beypore (10 km south of Kozhikode) Located at the mouth of the Chaliyar River, Beypore, one of the prominent ports and fishing harbours of ancient Kerala was an important trade and maritime centre. Ancient Beypore was much sought after by merchants from Western Asia, for its shipbuilding industry. The boat-building yard here, famous for the construction of the Uru (the Arabian trading vessel), boasts a tradition of almost 1500 years. Pazhassirajah Museum Situated 5 km from Kozhikode. Here exhibits of copies of ancient mural paintings, antique bronzes, old coins and models of temples and megalithic monuments are seen. The next door to the museum is the Art Gallery and Krishna Museum, which has an excellent collection of paintings by Indian artists and wood and ivory carvings. Open from 9.30 am - 12.30 pm, 2.30 pm - 5.30 pm, closed on Mondays. Kappad (16 km from Kozhikode) chira-maidan, is city. The historic into an arcadia sculpture, an doubt, locals and outside, find corporation of

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Project Description

This is the historic beach where the 1st European-Vasco da Gama landed on the 27th of May 1498. A monument on the beach commemorates this historic event. The rock-studded beach is locally known as Kappakadavu. An interesting feature of the landscape is the sprawling rock that protrudes into the sea. 3.16.9 Malappuram The Physical Features and District Profile Bounded by the Nilgiris hills on Arabian Sea on the west, the Malappuram literally the land remarkable for its unique natural among the undulating hills and rivers that flow to reach the seacoast, the land conceals a eventful history. Home to the movement and the mappila were questioned the British Malappuram was the military the Zamorins of Kozhikode since the East and the district of atop the hills, is beauty. Perched the meandering coconut-fringed unique and khilafath revolts, which authority in India, headquarters of ancient times.

The hill country also contributed much to the cultural artistic traditions of the state. The mosques and temples of the land are known for their spectacular festivals. The land of great poets and writers, political and religious leaders, the district has carved a unique place of its own in the history of Kerala. Malappuram district was formed on 16th of June 1969. The Nilgiris of Tamil Nadu in the east, Arabian sea in the west, Kozhikode and Wayanad districts in the north and Palakkad and Thrissur districts in the South. The district has a geographical area of 3550 Sq.Kms, which is 9.13 per cent of the total area of the state and having 3 rd ranks in the state. 3.16.10 Area and Location The location of Malappuram district is 75° to 77° east longitude and 10°-to 12°-north latitude, in the geographical map. Like most of the other districts of the state, Malappuram too consists of three natural divisions, lowland, midland and highland. The low land stretches along the seacoast, the midland in the center and the highland region towards the east and northeastern parts. The topography of the district is highly undulating; starting from the hilltops covered with thick forests on the east along the Nilgiris. It gradually slopes down to the valleys and the small hills, before finally ending on the sandy flat of luxuriant coconut groves in the west. The district has a geographical area of 3550 sq. km, with 3 rd rank, which is 9.13 per cent of the total area of the state. 3.16.11 Climate and Rainfall The district has more or less the same climatic conditions prevalent else-where the state, viz, dry season from December to February, hot season from March to May, the South West Monsoon from October to November. The South West Monsoon is usually very heavy and nearly 75 per cent of the annual rains are received during this season. The climate is generally hot and humid; the range of temperature varying between 300C and 200C. The average annual rainfall is 290mm. 3.16.12 Communication Network The Calicut Airport, one of the most beautifully designed airports in India, is at Karippur, 26 Kms, away from Malappuram and 28 Kms. away from Kozhikode. It has a runway of 9377 feet with night landing facilities. Total 140 flight services are there i.e., 70 arrivals and 70 departures. Hajj flight services were started on 15th Jan 2002, and now the airport stands on the forefront of the internationally acclaimed airports in the world. Two Railway lines, namely Mangalore-Madras and Nilambur-Shornur are passing through the district, Vallikkunnu, Parappanangadi, Tanur, Tirur, Tirunnavaya and Kuttippuram (from north to South) are the railway stations in this line. Tirur is an important station. Nilambur-Shornur railway line passes through the eastern parts of the district. Nilambur, Vaniyambalam, Thuvur, Melattur, Pattikkad, Angadipuram and Cherukara are the railway stations.
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The District has a good road network. The National Highway-17 enters at Idimuzhikkal in the north and runs through Calicut University, Kottakkal, Valancherry, Kuttipuram, Thavanur, Ponnani, Puduponnani, Veliyancode ends at Kadikkad, having a length of 82 Kms. The road proceeds to Thrissur district in the South. The National Highway 213 enters at Iykarappadi near Ramanattukara and pass through Kondotty, Malappuram, Perinthalmanna and ends at Karinkallathani having a length of 68 Kms. Important State Highways like Calicut-Nilambur-Gudalur road, Thrissur-Kuttippuram, Palakkad - Perinthalmanna, Perumbilavu – Pattambi – Perinthalmanna - Nilambur road, Koilandi – Thamarasseri - Edavanna passes through the district. Total 208.178 kms of state highway and 1220.202 kms of major district roads, 102.000 kms of other district roads and 160 kms of rural roads, provides sufficient interlink age of places. The Chaliyar, Kadalundipuzha, Bharathapuzha rivers and their tributaries, necessitating the construction of a number of road bridges for smooth commutation, apportion the district. Kuttippuram bridge, Thutha bridge and Pulamanthole bridge across Bharathapuzha river; bridges at Kottakadavu, Parakkadav, Thayyilakadav, Panampuzha, Koomankallu, Nooradi, Kottilangadi, Aanakkayam, Melattur, Kalikavu, Olipram Kadavu, Koomankallu, Kuzhipram Kadavu and Panakkadu bridges across Kadalundi river; and bridges at Areekode, Edavanna, Mampad, Vadapuram, Myladi, Karimpuzha, Koorad, kattadikadavu, Cherupuzha, Kadungallur and Poonkudi across the Chaliyar river and its tributaries; and bridges at Edakulam, Thalakadathur, Tirur, Unniyal Mangattiri, Ettirikkadavu across Tirur river; Thanur bridge across T.N Canal facilitate the road traffic. Bus Services are available to all centres and rural areas in the district. Nearly hundred schedules are operated by K.S.R.T.C in main routes besides 300 long route buses passing through the district. Total 18806 vehicles have been registered under the Motor Vehicle Department in the district during the year 2000-02. There are 155149 small and heavy vehicles in the district as on 31st March 2001. 3.16.13 Agriculture and Major Crops Agriculture is the mainstay of the population, involving 75 per cent of the people, directly or indirectly. The main crops raised are Paddy, Coconut, Tapioca, Areca nut, Cashew nut, Banana, Rubber, Pulses, Ginger, Pepper and Betel vine. Here, 2.08 lakh hectares of land are available for agriculture. The vast majority of the peasants are small landholders. 2.36 lakh hectares are holding below one hectare. Only 16,107 hectares of holdings are above 2 hectares in area. Paddy has lost predominance among crops during the last two decades. Now coconut tops with a total area of one lakh hectares. The annual coconut production stands at 569 million nuts. Paddy is cultivated in 31098 hectares with an annual production of 53443 tonnes. Cashew is raised in a total area of 10761 hectares with annual production of 4968 tonnes. Rubber, a main cash crop in the district, has got coverage of 26305 hectares. Annual production is below 1,800 tonnes. An important cash crop is areca nut. It covers an area of 14883 hectares, with an average annual production of 2868 million nuts. Tapioca is cultivated in 8226 hectares with annual production of 2.41 lakh tonnes. Banana (8389 hectares) vegetables (5313 hectares) Pulse (493 hectares) Sweet Potato (272 hectares) Oil seeds (752 hectors) Hill produces (1720 hectors) Betel vine (448 hectares) show the crop diversity. For research and extension services in Agriculture, Technology and to produce and provide planting materials to the farmers, a network of institutions function in the district. The seed garden complex at Munderi, 27 Kms. from Nilambur, is said to be the biggest farm in entire Asia. The District Agricultural farm in Chungathara, State seed farms at Thavanur, Anakkayam and Chokkad Coconut Nursery and anti-parasite breeding stations at Parappanangadi are also functioning. A Cashew Research and Development Center at Aanakkayam and an Agriculture Technology College at Thavanur are functioning under the Kerala Agricultural University. At Malappuram there is a soil-testing laboratory. One principal Agricultural Officer, 6 deputy Directors of Agriculture, 14 Block Level Assistant Directors and 99 Panchayath level Agriculture Officers are there. 3.16.14 Minerals and Industries Malappuram district is not rich in mineral wealth. Laterite stone is found abundantly in the midland areas. It is exploited economically for construction work and hundreds of quarries cutting laterite stone known as Vettukallu are in operation, giving employment to thousands. It was Dr. Francis Buchanan, a Scottish scholar who named the porous rock Laterite based on the Latin term Laterites, meaning brick stone. He conducted his studies in and around Angadipuram in 1800 A.D. Deposits of lime shells are found in the coastal belt, mainly in ponnani and Kadalundi nagaram. The coastal sands of ponnani and Veliyancode contain heavy minerals like limonite and monosite. China clay, the
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Project Description

principal raw material for porcelain industry, is found abundantly in many parts of district. Iron-ore, as Magentite-Quartizite is found in Nilambur, Vaniyambalm, Kalikavu and Chembrassery. Karuvarakkundu in the district derived its name from iron-ore cutting and blacksmithy, which flourished in the district from very ancient time. Nilambur region of the district, forms part of the hidden Wayanad Goldfields Placer gold; Main zones for auriferous gravels are in Nilambur valley, namely Pandippuzha-Chiyarpuzha zone and PunnapuzhaMaruthappuzha zone. As on 31-03-2001 there are 11334 small industrial units with permanent registration. Out of them 21.21 per cent are agro-based and 22.94 per cent are textile based. These units have a total investment of Rs. 176 cores and they provide employment directly to 45200 people. Average investment per unit is Rs. 1.55 lakhs. There are about 696 women’s industrial units and about Rs.1 core is spent annually for various industrial promotion schemes like investment subsidy, interest subsidy, self-employment assistance, etc. in the district. There are 25 medium industries of which only 11 are working which provide direct employment to 2,300 people. These units have a total capital investment of Rs. 46 cores. Among the medium undertakings, 3 are spinning mills. There is one major industrial Estate (16 Industries and 8 mini industrial estate in the District – 51 working units.) About 1,000 persons were assisted under PMRY scheme every year of self-employment scheme. Preliminary steps for establishing an industrial growth centre in 250 acres bear panakkad, has been completed. Kinfra Food Park and IT Park are coming up at Kakkancherry. A rubber based common facility centre and industrial estate established at payyanad at a cost of Rs. 1 crore is fast growing. The estate is in an area of 15.03 acres, in which 32 plots have been given to entrepreneurs for rubber-based units. 17 units are working. A single window counter functions at the District Industries Centre, to mitigate problems faced by new entrepreneurs. Besides the District Industries Centre at Malappuram, 4 Taluck industries offices 14 block extension offices are functioning. 3.16.15 Fishery The district has 70 Kms. of Seacoast. It stretches from Kadalundi nagaram in the north to Palappetty in the South. The Coastal belt is in Vallikkunnu, Parappanangadi, Tanur, Tanalur, Vettom, Purathur, Veliyancode, Perumpadappu Panchayats and Ponnani Municipality. Main fishing Centres are Ponnani, Koottayi, Parappanangadi and Tanur. High sea fish catching operations with mechanized boats are centred in Ponnani and Parappanangadi. Ponnani is a major fisheries port with about 350 mechanized boats. Rs. 30 crore port development project has been started in Ponnani and will be completed soon. There are fisheries guide lights, at Ponnani and Tanur to help night fishing. Matsyafed (Govt. Department for Helping Fishermen) has started a prawn hatchery at Veliyancode, Ponnani Taluk in 1995 which can produce 30 million prawn seeds of tiger prawn and giant fresh water prawn annually. A residential high school, exclusively for children of fishermen is there at Tanur under the Fisheries Department. Fisheries department and Matsyafed have been undertaking fishermen welfare programs. The Deputy director of fisheries is at Ponnani and the district officer of Matsyafed is at Tirur. There are schemes to provide fishing equipments, houses, latrines and other amenities to fishermen, there are education assistance, insurance schemes, and financial assistance during off-season, etc. for the benefit of fishermen. A Fish Farmer Development Agency to promote inland fishing is also functioning. 3.16.16 Places of interest Malappuram district, with its rich natural beauty and historic past has its own tourist attractions. Padinharekara Beach: Close to Ponnani and at the end point of the Tipu Sulthan road. It offers a breath taking view of the confluence of the river Bharathapuzha and Tirur puzha with the Arabian Sea. Kadampuzha: In Melmuri village of Tirur taluk is situated 3 Km north of Vettichira on NH-17 connecting Calicut and Trissur and is famous for its Bhagavathi temple said to have been set up by Jagadguru Sankaracharya.
Thirunavaya: This ancient and famous temple on the banks of the Bharathapuzha dedicated to Lord Shiva was the traditional venue of the ritual of Mamankam an enactment of traditional martial arts by suicide squades. Mumburam: Muslim shrine and receptacle for dead bodies of the Thangals (the religious leaders of the malabar muslims) situated in A. R. Nagar village; is a major pilgrimage center of Muslims.
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Valiya Juma Masjid Malappuram: This is an important pilgrim centre of the Muslims of Kerala. The four-day

annual festival at the mosque (nercha) is celebrated in April. Adjoining the mosque is the mausoleum of the Malappuram shaheeds (martys) whose brave exploits have been immortalised in the Mappila ballads.
Pazhayangadi Mosque, Kondotti (18km east of Manjeri, On the way to Malappuram): The three day long Valia Nercha feat at this 500-year-old Muslim pilgrim centre, celebrated in February/March, is a local cultural event. Kottakunnu: One can see trace of an old fort at the base of the cantonment Hill. The fort was the first to be built by the Zamorins of Kozhikode. Nearby are the Vettakkorumakan Temple and the Siva temple with the famous murals of Malabar. DTPC has plans to develop Kottakunnu in to an attractive park and the District Sports Council to establish a stadium nearby. There is a beautiful helipad at Kottakunnu. Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary: Located 19kms from Kozhikode and 7kms from Beypore port, the sanctuary that is

spread over a cluster of islands covers an area surrounded by hillocks where the Kadalundipuzha flows in to the Arabian Sea. Over a 100 varieties of native birds and over 60 varieties of migratory birds flock here.
Manjeri: The headquarters of Ernad Taluk, a place rich in history, and a witness to the vicissitudes of the Malabar rebellion and the independence struggle; also home to the renowned Kunnathmbalam, and the Karikkad Subramania temple; now an important administrative and commercial center as well. Adyanpara: Adyanpara lies in Kurumbalangode village of Nilambur taluk and is famous for its waterfalls and

the splendour of its wooded jungles. 3.17 DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS: KANNUR, KOZHIKODE AND MALAPPURAM DISTRICTS The demographic profiles with socio-economic characteristics of all the three affected districts are described in the following section. 3.17.1 Population The total population of Kerala stood at 3,18,38,619 as per Census of India 2001. The project influenced district Kannur and Kozhikode accounts for 7.58 % and 9.04% of the total population of the state respectively, while population of Malappuram accounts for 11.40% of the total population of the state. The detail of population of project influenced districts and state are given in the Table 3.19 Table 3.19: Distribution of Population (2001) in Project Influence District Sl. No 1. 2. 3. 4. Project affected State / Districts KERALA Kannur Kozhikode Malappuram Population Male 15468664 1154144 1398674 1759479 Female 16369955 1258221 1479824 1870161 Total 31838619 2412365 2878498 3629640

Source: Census of India, 2001

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Project Description

3.17.2 Population Density Density of population of Kerala has increased significantly in the last one decade and this also gets reflected in the population density data of all the affected districts. It can be traced from the 1991 figures that the population density of the all the districts was considerably higher than the state figure. Thus, the figures have also shown an increasing trend in the last one-decade and the population density of all the three districts are much higher than the state data in 2001.The details are summarized in Table 3.20. Table 3.20: Density of Population Population Density Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 Project affected State / Districts 1991 Kerala Kannur Kozhikode Malappuram 749 759 1118 872 2001 819 813 1228 1022

Source: Census of India, 2001 3.17.3 Decadal Growth Rate of Population The decadal growth rate of Kerala has decreased since the last census in 1991. Similarly the growth rate of the affected districts also shows a significantly decreasing trend. The state has registered a growth rate of 14.32 % in 1991 census whereas it has decreased to 9.425 in the 2001 census. The decadal growth rate of population in the affected districts during 1991-2001 is given in the Table 3.21 Table 3.21: Decadal Growth Rate of Population Decadal growth rate Sl. No 1. 2. 3. 4. State/Union territory/District 1981-1991 Kerala Kannur Kozhikode Malappuram 14.32 16.63 16.69 28.87 1991-2001 9.42 7.13 9.87 17.22

Source: Census of India, 2001 3.17.4 Sex Ratio and Gender Gap in Project Influence Area The sex ratio (i.e., the number of females per thousand males) in the state is very high, even higher that the national level sex ratio. In 1991 census the number of female was 1036 per thousand male and this has even increased to 1058 per thousand male in 2001 census. The sex ratio of Kannur and Malappuram district even exceeds the sex ratio of the state (1090 and 1063 respectively) whereas the Kozhikode districts matches the figure of the state. The sex ratio and gender gap is given in Table 3.22. Table 3.22: Sex Ratio in the Project Influenced Area Sl. No 1. State/Union territory/District KERALA Sex Ratio 1991 1036
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2001 1058

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

2. 3. 4.

Kannur Kozhikode Malappuram

1049 1027 1053

1090 1058 1063

Source: Census of India, 2001 3.17.5 SC/ST Population The percentage of SC/ST population in comparison to total population of Kerala as of 1st March 2001 is described in the results of the Census of India 2001. The detail of SC/ST population of project influenced district and state are given in Table 3.23 Table 3.23: Distribution of Population (2001) in Project Influence District Schedule Caste State Category Male Total Kerala Rural Urban Total Kannur Rural Urban Total Kozhikode Rural Urban Total Malappuram Rural Urban Female Total Male 180169 173267 6902 9793 9501 292 2924 2652 272 5996 5867 129 Female 184020 176752 7268 10176 9916 260 3016 2761 255 6271 6176 95 Total 364189 350019 14170 19969 19417 552 5940 5413 527 12267 12043 224 1525114 1598827 3123941 1247537 1306188 2553725 277577 48275 25693 22582 98386 69531 28855 140535 128114 12421 292639 50716 26749 23967 102597 72081 30516 144907 132087 12820 570216 98991 52442 46549 200983 141612 59371 285442 260201 25241 Schedule Tribe

Source: Census of India, 2001 3.17.6 Literacy Rate in Project Influence Area The Literacy rate of the state is very high (90.9%). The data also shows that the female literacy rate (87.7%) is also at par with the literacy rate of the male (94.2%). The same trend is shown in the literacy level of the affected districts. The details of literacy are shown in the Table 3.24. Further, the number of literates and the illiterates are shown in Table 3.25. Table 3.24: Literacy Rate in the Project Influence Area State/Union territory/District KERALA Kannur Kozhikode Malappuram LITERACY RATE IN PERCENTAGE Males 94.2 96.1 96.1 93.2
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Females 87.7 89.4 88.6 86.3

Total 90.9 92.6 92.2 89.6

Project Description

Source: Census of India, 2001 Table 3.25: Number of Literates and Illiterates in the State and the Affected Districts
State Category Male Total Kerala Rural Urban Total Kannur Rural Urban Total Kozhikode Rural Urban Total Malappuram Rural Urban 12753602 9357640 3395962 971065 481194 489871 1174611 723429 451182 1373688 1236428 137260 Literate Female 12732086 9295729 3436357 1000338 477220 523118 1160831 707812 453019 1380821 1241432 139389 Total 25485688 18653369 6832319 1971403 958414 1012989 2335442 1431241 904201 2754509 2477860 276649 Male 2715012 2093642 621370 181752 97350 84402 224747 140203 84544 380888 345366 35522 Illiterate Female 3640674 2827438 813236 255801 140294 115507 318942 206530 112412 490074 446075 43999 Total 6355686 4921080 1434606 437553 237644 199909 543689 346733 196956 870962 791441 79521

3.17.7 Work Forces in the Project Area The number of work forces in different categories in the project-affected districts in comparison to state is summarized in Table 3.26. Table 3.26: Number of Workers in the Project Affected Area
Population Total Population Marginal Workers Category Total Workers Main Workers NonWorkers 21557487 7702969 13854518 15903339 5718895 10184444 5654148 1984074 3670074 1641759 577226 1064533 789941 282164 507777

State

Persons Males Total Females Persons Males Rural Females Persons Males Kerala Urban Females Persons Males Total Females Persons Males Kannur Rural Females

31841374 15468614 16372760 23574449 11451282 12123167 8266925 4017332 4249593 2408956 1152817 1256139 1196058 578544 617514

10283887 7765645 2518242 7671110 5732387 1938723 2612777 2033258 579519 767197 575591 191606 406117 296380 109737
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8236973 6460693 1776280 5998150 4677067 1321083 2238823 1783626 455197 626876 493877 132999 313219 243920 69299

2046914 1304952 741962 1672960 1055320 617640 373954 249632 124322 140321 81714 58607 92898 52460 40438

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Population

Total Population

Marginal Workers

Category

Total Workers

Main Workers

Persons Males Urban Females Persons Males Total Females Persons Males Rural Females Persons Males Kozhikode Urban Females Persons Males Total Females Persons Males Rural Females Persons Males Malappuram Urban Females

1212898 574273 638625 2879131 1399358 1479773 1777974 863632 914342 1101157 535726 565431 3625471 1754576 1870895 3269301 1581794 1687507 356170 172782 183388

361080 279211 81869 802900 680944 121956 486748 409032 77716 316152 271912 44240 874476 750343 124133 787763 675275 112488 86713 75068 11645

313657 249957 63700 630836 550274 80562 361859 315877 45982 268977 234397 34580 691848 611558 80290 618942 547407 71535 72906 64151 8755

47423 29254 18169 172064 130670 41394 124889 93155 31734 47175 37515 9660 182628 138785 43843 168821 127868 40953 13807 10917 2890

851818 295062 556756 2076231 718414 1357817 1291226 454600 836626 785005 263814 521191 2750995 1004233 1746762 2481538 906519 1575019 269457 97714 171743

Source: Census of India, 2001

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NonWorkers

State

Project Description

3.17.8

Distribution of Work Force

The number of working population in different Sector is summarized in the Table 3.27. The majority of working population is engaged as agricultural Labourers in complete project districts and state. The cultivators are concentrated in the rural areas. Table 3.27: Distribution of Work Force
Agricultural labourers Cultivators Population

Household Industry Workers 369667 191637 178030 275387 136471 138916 94280 55166 39114 19243 10767 8476 7417 3840 3577 11826 6927 4899 15734 10800 4934 9539 6166 3373 6195 4634 1561 17612 12666 4946 16045 11522 4523 1567 1144 423

Category

Total Workers

Total

Rural

Kerala

Urban

Total

Rural

Kannur

Urban

Total

Rural

Kozhikode

Urban

Total

Rural

Malappuram

Urban

Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females

10283887 7765645 2518242 7671110 5732387 1938723 2612777 2033258 579519 767197 575591 191606 406117 296380 109737 361080 279211 81869 802900 680944 121956 486748 409032 77716 316152 271912 44240 874476 750343 124133 787763 675275 112488 86713 75068 11645

724155 602038 122117 693986 577726 116260 30169 24312 5857 45924 33476 12448 40923 30255 10668 5001 3221 1780 27889 23876 4013 25651 21948 3703 2238 1928 310 57388 51352 6036 55272 49391 5881 2116 1961 155

1620851 1078354 542497 1507081 1003265 503816 113770 75089 38681 101681 59470 42211 78024 45986 32038 23657 13484 10173 66066 52990 13076 58442 46229 12213 7624 6761 863 155747 121589 34158 148663 115836 32827 7084 5753 1331

7569214 5893616 1675598 5194656 4014925 1179731 2374558 1878691 495867 600349 471878 128471 279753 216299 63454 320596 255579 65017 693211 593278 99933 393116 334689 58427 300095 258589 41506 643729 564736 78993 567783 498526 69257 75946 66210 9736

Source: Census of India, 2001 Human Environment 3.18 MAHE REGION 3.18.1 Location and Geographical Features:
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Other Workers

State/ Districts

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The location of Mahe region is between 11o 42' & 11o 43' North and between 75o 31' & 75o 33' East latitude, in the geographical map. Mahe is a tiny point in the geographical map of Kerala, the million earner for the distant Pondicherry Government, 630 kms away from Pondicherry. In this former small French town, which covers an area of 9 Sq. kms, over 36,000 inhabitants live in peace. This petit French town is situated on the West Coast of Indian Peninsula, just between Kannur and Kozhikode districts, 24 kilometers from Kannur, 64 kilometers from Kozhikode in Kerala state and is a busy trade centre. This region is entirely rain-fed and is covered by typical red laterite soil of Malabar. There is no forest area in the region. Mahe is bounded on the southwest by the Arabian Sea, on the north by river Ponniyar (Moolakadavu) and on the other sides by a stretch of calcareous hills of medium height, which are linked to the ghats by a series of wooded hillocks. Mahe and Ponniyar (Moolakadavu) are the main rivers of the region. The River Mahe forms the northern boundary of Mahe town separating it from the enclaves of kallayi and naluthara on the north.The region, at present comprises of 1 taluk and equal number of Community Development Blocks. It has 4 towns, and there is no village in this region. 3.18.2 Languages Main languages spoken in the region Tamil and Telugu 3.18.3 Transport And Communication Mahe is well connected by road with all the major towns in Kerala & Tamilnadu State. The distance from Pondicherry to Mahe by Road is 650 Kms and travel time is 13 to 15 hrs. Mahe is 64 Kms from Calicut (Kozhicode) of Kerala state. Public Transport: Many town buses are in operation in this region. Many buses with registration of Pondicherry union territory, Kerala and Tamilnadu state are plying in this region and Long distance buses operated by Pondicherry Goverment, Tamilnadu government and Kerala Government (KSRTC) pass through this place. Government owned bus services like Pondicherry Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) also run long distance bus services between Mahe and Pondicherry. Local Transport: City bus services are available to all places of tourist interest. Tourist taxis and autorickshaws are also available here. Airport: Nearest Airport is situated in malappuram district of Kerala State, which is 26.5 kms from Calicut (Kozhicode) city in Kerala State and 90 Kms from Mahe. The distance between Mahe and Calicut by road is 64 Kms only. Flights are being operated from Calicut (Kozhikode) to the Gulf countries. 3.18.4 Tourist Places Marianne Marianne is an imaginary character like Bharath Matha. It was established by the French to mark the 100th anniversary of the French revolution in 1789. The history of Mahe begins here. Literally, statue of Marianne is one of the proudest symbols of French revolution. The slogan Liberty, Equality and Fraternity are enshrined on the statue, in French. It was from here that the freedom struggle of Mahe gathered momentum. When the freedom struggle of Mahe was at its peak, it was smashed out and thrown into the sea. Then as repentance they took it out again from the sea and erected it on the pathar which is now a well maintained park in the name of great poet Tagore. On every July 14th the French Nationals in Mahe assemble under this status and salute it with great pride. For the people of Mahe, Marrianne is not just a symbol of French, but part and parcel of their own life. Government House Fine examples of french architecture built by the French in 1855. The Head Quarters office of Mahe Administration is housed in it. A walk along the mini forest at the backside of the Government House will take you to the most beautiful viewpoint in Mahe. The Arabian Sea, the coastline with golden sand, the greenish Mayyazhi Puzha, coconut grooves fully hiding the houses, the emerald Dharmadam Island - all this and more can be seen from this point. are Malayalam,

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Project Description

There is a tall flag mast and a Lighthouse, which serves as guide for the ships, merchants and Navy, which anchor of the coast. You may also see the remnants of a fort constructed by the French. One could also enjoy the true grandam of sunset. Mahe Boat House, Manjakkal Mahe boathouse is located about one and half Kms (1½) away from the Government House on the Mahe River. Speedboats, Pedal boats and Kayak boats are available. 3.19 DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES As a bounded place by Kerala state Mahe region enjoying all the social and demographical standers which Kerala has been possessing; so that its demographic profile is very similar to Kerala state but because of the administrative matters the density of population is quit high to comparing with Kerala demographic features illustrating in Table: 3.28 Table 3.28: Demographic Features
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 7 8 10 11 Features Area (km2) Total Population Population density per km2 Sex Ratio Literacy Male Literacy Female Scheduled Cast Population Scheduled Tribe Population Kerala 38,863 3,18,38,619 819 1058 94.2% 87.8% 9.8% 1.1% 19,969 5,940 12,267 Kannur 2,966 2,412,365 813 1,090 96.13 89.40 Kozhikode 2,344 2,878,498 1,228 1,058 Malappuram 3,550 3,629,640 1,022 1,063 93.25% 86.26% Mahe 9 36,823 4091 1147 85.19% 84.47% 0.33% Nil

Source: Official Web site of Mahe .

3.19.1 Agriculture Population Since this region is adjacent to Kerala on the Malabar Coast; the region is covered by typical red laterite soil of Malabar. Paddy is cultivated only in a few Patches. The number of crops raised is three. Two of which are of short duration and one of long duration. Tapioca, banana, arecanut, pepper, coconut, etc. are grown in this region widely. The extent of wetland is limited and is entirely rain fed. Animal Husbandry Prior to merger, there was no regular system of dealing with livestock services. However, after merger, livestock services in this sector had been established by the administration. The diseases mainly prevalent among the goats in Mahe are Mastitis (wet gangrene), retained placenta etc. Bovine and canine are the same as in other regions. Fowl-pox cocceidiosis, paralysis etc., are prevalent here. The non-communicable diseases are dyspepsia, enteritis, bronchitis, bloat, urinary calculi, etc. The veterinary units attend to these effectively. An artificial insemination centre and poultry farm also exists here to cater to the needs of the livestock. There are no lands suitable for fodder cultivation in this region. Riverbeds are generally used as grazing centers. Cattle shows are conducted annually and this provides incentive for those who rear good quality cattle. 3.20 CONCLUSIONS Proposed project road will directly serve about 7.9 million people out of which about 72 per cent is rural population and 11.63 per cent schedule caste and schedule tribes of the total population. Since, a significant proportion of the population is rural in the project influence area and belongs to lower
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

strata of the society up-gradation of project road is going to have significant socio-economic implications on the growth and development of the region. The upgraded road will facilitate smooth movement of men and material and reduce the overall transportation cost on the corridor. Besides this it will help in spreading the impact of economic development from one particular district to other districts of the area.

•••

5. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION Good surface connectivity is important for all developing countries to ensure a reasonable rate of economic growth as well as to bring down the existing imbalance in the stages of economic development amongst different regions of the vast country like India. The need for faster growth in the economic and social sectors has propelled the Government of India to invest liberally in infrastructure development program and strengthening the road network of the country has got a focus. There is a realization that improved connectivity goes a long way in integrating the markets in the country and providing a level playing field for the manufacturers and producers located in different regions. The present project covers the stretch of the NH 17 between Kannur and Kuttipuram. The project road starts off at km148.000 in Kannur district and terminates at Kuttipuram (km 318.00) in the district of Mallapuram. It traverses through four districts like Kannur, Mahe, Kozhikode and Mallapuram. Mahe is in Pondicherry while the other three districts are in Kerala. The noteworthy feature of the project road is the fact that this dates back to the colonial days. The project road has been divided into two Packages Package-I (km 148.000 to km 230.000) Package-II (km 230.000 to km 318.000) The environment clearance is done by the competent authority for the entire project not as per construction packages and therefore the environmental study has been described for the entire project. 5.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT The project starts off from Valapattanam bridge at 148.000km in Kannur district and after traversing through the districts of Mahe, Kozhikode, terminates at Kuttipuram in the district of Mallapuram. The project passes through the settlements of Kannur, Edakkad, Thalassery, Mahe, Vadakara, Koilandy, Thiruvangoor, Kozhikode, Feroke, Rananthkara, Irumpu Chola, Kottakkal, Vattapara, Valancherry and Kuttipuram. The existing right of way varies between 8.70m and 40.30m. the road in general has 2-lane carriageways with paved shoulders as well as earthen shoulder and the total carriageway ranges between 5.00m and 10m. The road has nine railway crossings of which 4 have ROBs and 3 others are under construction. Other two crossings have level crossing. In the improvement proposal of these 9 level crossing, 7 nos. are being avoided and one crossing is added. The two existing ones have ROBs and parallel ROBs are needed. The additional crossing will require a 4 lane ROBs. The project road has 25 existing bridges of which 10 are major. 368 culverts dot the existing alignment. Improvement proposals of the existing 2-lane road have the following features: Strengthening of the existing 2-lane carriageway Construction of two additional lane carriageway Construction of new flexible pavement along the existing 2-lane carriageway Construction of new 4-lane carriages for bypasses and realigned stretches Provision of service roads and medians Construction of 2-additional lane bridges by the side of the existing bridges Construction of 18 new bridges on the proposed bypasses
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Project Description

95 culverts have been proposed to be retained and extended; 262 new culverts will be constructed on the stretches of the bypasses and existing road stretches on entire project road and 315 nos. H. P. culverts have been provided on junctions. To avoid congested settlements 6 bypasses have been proposed and these are Kannur, Thalassery-Mahe, Koilandy, Kozhikode, Kottakkal, and Valanchery Road side amenities like bus shelters. Trauma and first-aid centers, food plazas and break journey points have been provided 10 pedestrian underpasses and 25 pedestrian cum vehicular underpasses will be put in place with facilities for use by physically handicapped persons and one overpass. 5.3 METHODOLOGY Environmental Impact Assessment is the process in which environmental factors are integrated into the project planning and decision-making so as to achieve ecologically sustainable development. Best practice EIA tries to identify environmental risks, lessens conflict by community participation, and minimizes adverse environmental effects. This has to consider all environmental parameters that are likely to be impacted by a project. Such parameters may be bio-physical, socio-economical or cultural. The entire exercise goes through the stages of screening, scoping, baseline survey, analysis of alternatives, identification and assessment of impacts. Suggesting mitigation measures for mitigation of adverse impacts at different stages of the project like the design phase, construction phase and the operation phase through development of EMP is also a part of this process. The EMP also recommends enhancement measures in specific areas. The Environmental Monitoring Program has been developed to monitor implementation of mitigation measures on ground and provides detailed time schedule and duration of monitoring measures. A budget also has been developed to take care of the costs of mitigation, enhancement and monitoring of environmental parameters.

The consultation process established for the project has employed a range of formal and informal consultative tools including interview survey, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), on-site consultation and meetings. The enactment of the participation and consultations with the stakeholders was done at various levels throughout the project preparation stage. District Level consultation was carried out involving the officers of the Forest Department, Agriculture Department, the State Pollution Control Board, Irrigation and Waterways Department etc Village level consultations were held in rural, suburban and urban areas along the corridor of impact of the project road to inform people about the purpose and preliminary design of the project. Such consultations provided a means to get the opinion of the people and their issues of concern. Village/local level consultations were held at different locations. The consultation sessions have been proposed to be continued during the implementation and monitoring stages of the project.
5.4 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The proposed rehabilitation and up gradation of the NH17 between km 180.00 at Kannur and km318.00 at Kuttipuram has the following features: The land acquisition along the existing alignment and 6 proposed bypasses is substantial. Small stretches of the road pass through municipalities and rural areas included in CRZII and CRZ III in the notification on Coastal Regulation Zones of Kerala The construction of bridges on rivers and backwaters may impact some mangrove vegetation along such water bodies In this context, the project will require environment clearance from the MOEF, GOI. The procedure will involve conduction of public hearing by the State Pollution Control Board of the State Government of Kerala. The road being located in the coastal region of the state, the State Pollution Control Board may like to have a CRZ clearance report from the Coastal Management Authority of the State. This Authority will require a CRZ status report from one of their approved agencies for issue of the clearance as applied for by the Proponent. Tree felling will require the prior approval of the Department of Forests. Prior to grant of such permission a joint verification of trees between the proponent organization and the Department of
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Forests is a requirement. Compensatory plantation has to be undertaken as per proposal drawn up by the State Forest Department. 5.5 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

5.5.1 Physical Resources Rainfall The region receives rainfall during the southwest monsoon that sets in the first week of June and extends till September. The North-East monsoon prevails during the period of mid-October to November. Kannur, Kozhikode districts receive annual average rainfall of 3438mm and 3266mm; Mahe and Mallapuram receive annual rainfall of 3387 mm and 2900mm respectively. Temperature The region has an oppressive hot season extending between March and May. The mean daily maximum temperature is about 35 degree Celsius. A low temperature of about 20 degree Celsius prevail for some days during the months of December and January. Humidity Humidity in the study area is generally high. The relative humidity varies between 77% to 94% in Kannur and 73% to 94% in Kozhikode. During the drier period of December-March the relative humidity varies between 70% and 75%. Windspeed Wind direction changes from North-East in the hours of the morning to west in the afternoon. During the South-West monsoon between June and September the wind blows predominantly in the southwest. Average wind speed in Kannur varies between 2.1 km and 3.3 km per hour. Topography The topography of the entire section of the project corridor is open, plain in general and rolling in stretches. The sandy coastal lowlands are comparatively narrow. Geology, Rocks and Soil Geological rock formations include a variety ranging from the Archeans to the recent. Archeans occupy the midland and highland regions of the district having representations of rock-types like charnockites, and hornblende- biotite gneiss. laterite, alluvium, lime shells, lignified woods etc cover the remaining portion of the coastal area. Soils in the area of influence are represented by redsoil, coastal alluvial soil, riverine alluvial soil, acidic saline soil and black soil. Water resources The project corridor is rich in water resources. Rivers, backwaters, canals and other water bodies occur in the project corridor.5 major rivers include the Valapattanam river, the Kattampally, Koyar, Parapuzzah and Bharatpuzzah. Morad backwaters also come in the corridor. 12 irrigation canals are present along the road. Other streams coming along the project include Anjarkandi, Dharmadam, Eranjolipuzah, Kuttiary , Kallai, Arapuzah and Kadalundipuzah. All these rivers and streams originate from the western slopes of the Western Ghats and flow westwards into the Arabian Sea. Water Quality Six locations have been selected for monitoring of water quality and these include locations for both surface and ground water. Surface water locations include river waters and backwaters. People
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Project Description

consulted generally did not have any complaints about water quality. But they were not sure about the quality of backwaters. Air Quality Air quality will be monitored at six selected locations in the complete section packages-I & II. The monitoring stations are to be representative of rural, commercial and residential areas. People consulted felt that that air quality along the road stretch is generally good. Noise quality Six locations have been fixed for noise level monitoring and these included samples from residential, rural and commercial areas. People perceive that noise quality has problems in settlement and commercial areas particularly during the hours of the day. 5.5.2 Ecological Resources Flora The major ecological component in the project corridor is represented by the roadside vegetation all along the stretch varying in densities and composition. The girth class distribution also indicates that there is considerable difference in distribution of age classes. These are primarily broad-leaved species and include Cocos nucifera, Areca catechu, Anacardium occidentale, Acacia auriculiformes, Tamarindus indica, Cassia spp., Delonix regia,Terminalia catappa, Azadirachta indica, Swietenia spp. Artocarpus integrifolia etc. This vegetation not only provides shade but also provide fruits, flowers, fuelwood and small timber for the roadside communities. The corridor along the proposed bypasses has a much larger number of trees most of which are fruitbearing and these include Cocos nucifera, Areca catechu, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Mangifera indica. Some mangrove vegetation occurs along the banks of backwaters and major rivers. Mangrove vegetation has representation of species like Avicennia spp., Sonneratia spp. and Rhizophora spp. The Institute of Ocean Management has identified some ecologically important mangrove areas in Kannur of these three such areas at Dharmadam- Edakkad, Dharmadam Puzha& Anjrakandipuzah and Valapattanam estuary come within the indirect area area of influence. These mangrove vegetation have species like Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata, Excoecaria agallocha, Acrostichum aureum, Acanthus illicifolius and Cerebra manghas. The aquatic flora of the different water bodies in the project area of influence is represented by a variety of floating, emergent, marginal and submerged vegetation. Phytoplanktons are represented by blue green algae, green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates etc. Some reserved forests/ vested forests of Kannur Forest Division will fall in the indirect area of influence of the project. Fauna Fish resources of the variety of water bodies constitute the major fauna of the project area of influence. The Arabian sea, brackish water bodies and fresh water rivers have distinct assemblages of fishes. Fish fauna of the backwaters and fresh water include Oil sardines, Sole, Silverbellies, Catfish, Seer, Mackaeral, Pomphret, Ribbonfish, Skates, Whalebait, Chirocentrus, prawns etc. Some of the dominant fishes recorde in the mangrove areas are of Mugil cephalus, Mugil cunn parsia, Lates calcarifer, Chanos chanos Etroplus suratensis, Tachysurs spp. etc. Common wetland birds and birds of the rural, semi-urban and urban areas are also components of the faunal assemblage. Snakes, rodents, frogs , mongooses, civets etc are also found along the project corridor.
5.5.3 Cultural, Historical and Archaeological Resources

Some important historical and archaeological resources occur in the project area of influence. These include Arakkal Museum in Kannur town, Kunhalli Maraikkar Memorial near km 203.00 located 3 km away from the project road. Kappad beach in Kozhikode. It has a memorial erected to mark the landing of Vasco-de-gama in 1498. Kadampuzzah temple located 2km away
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

from the project road near km 302.70 is an important cultural resource for the local community. Thalassery Fort is located 150 metres away from the existing alignment at Thalassery town.

Approximately 83 religious structures like temples, mosques and churches come along the project road. 5.6 PUBLIC CONSULTATION The importance of early communication with the stakeholders during environmental assessment can hardly be overemphasized. The stakeholders can provide pools of information into the process, regarding concerns to be recognized, considered or to be reflected. In this context, public consultation was carried out during the study period as an integral part of environmental assessment process to assess the people’s reaction to the proposed project, and to solicit views of stakeholders, which could be incorporated in the project design. Such consultation was also intended to generate a sense of belonging and involvement amongst the stakeholders.
Public consultation revealed that the communities use the road extensively for a variety of purpose. So local people in the immediate neighborhood have an interest in widening of the road but they had some reservation in case this results in excessive dislocation of people and properties.. One of the major decisions taken from consultations was to avoid some congested settlements by bypasses. Other issues like compensation, drainage problem, safety, impact on roadside vegetation, compensatory plantations and impact water bodies etc. raised by people during consultations have been taken into consideration while devising mitigation measures. 5.7 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES There has been a conscious decision to stick to the existing alignment wherever possible causing minimal social concern while undertaking the proposed rehabilitation and upgradation work. To reduce damages to roadside vegetation and to keep down the level of dislocation of people and properties the option of concentric and eccentric widening was exercised all along the alignment. Six bypasses have been proposed to avoid congested settlements and areas prone to accidents. The proposed bypasses have been aligned involving minimal dislocation of assets and properties. Analysis of alternatives for the existing alignment has been carried out qualitatively for scenarios ‘With the project’ and ‘Without the project’. Analysis of alternatives has also been done for bypasses. 5.8 5.8.1 ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Land and Physiography The road stretch passes through an open, plain and rolling topography. The land acquisition also has been kept at minimum on the existing alignment Substantial land acquisition is involved in six bypasses. There will be no high embankments except at bridge approach locations. The borrow pits will be restored before decommissioning. The identified quarries will however be poorer in resources after meeting the requirement of aggregates and broken metals of different specification. Thus there will be only low level impact on land and physiograhy. Whatever be the level of impact, such impacts will be permanent and irreversible. 5.8.2 Climate No major impact on any of the climatic parameters is anticipated. There may however be minor temperature changes in stretches wherefrom dense roadside vegetation will get removed. This will be local and felt by people living close by, pedestrians and slow-moving traffic using these stretches. The removal of a very large number of trees from the areas through which the bypasses have been aligned will also impact microclimate. This impact will be mid-term, and reversible. 5.8.3 Air, and Noise Quality Air quality will surely be impacted during the pre-construction and the construction phase. SPM and RPM will be a major concern particularly in areas of congested settlements and busy junctions. This is likely to worsen during the construction phase and this is attributable to operation of the construction machinery and the vehicular traffic. Some congested towns have been bypassed. These locations will get relief from high noise level. Some sensitive receptors will require to be protected from disturbing noise level through provision of temporary improvised sound barriers or permanent sound barriers. Impacts of air pollution along most of the stretch of the proposed road will be moderate to low because the project road traverses a region close to
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Project Description

the sea. Air quality and noise quality are likely to improve during the initial years of commissioning of the road because of larger paved surfaces and smoother riding quality resulting in less fuel consumption of the vehicular traffic. This amelioration may however be negated over the years through neglect of road maintenance and rise in traffic density. Noise level attenuation may also be achieved through successful establishment of compensatory plantation along the project corridor over a much larger area in a few years after decommissioning. 5.8.4 Water Resources The project corridor is rich in water resources. A number of bridges have also has been proposed bypasses. Additional two-lane bridges have been proposed along the existing bridges The road drainage through construction of appropriately designed cross-drainage structures and lined longitudinal drains Will be put in place to take care of storm water. The turbidity of water bodies in some stretches may be affected though the increased sedimentation/siltation arising out of loosened soil because of tree removal, clearing/grubbing of vegetation in construction camps, stockyards etc. Careless disposal of wastes for construction camps may also add to the pollutant load of such water bodies. Release of construction materials like cement concrete, paints etc may have significant local impact on water bodies where construction will be taken up. This impact on aquatic flora and fauna can be attributed to increased alkalinity, turbidity and addition of heavy metals. Accidental spills of petroleum products and other hazardous wastes may also impact the water bodies adversely. Depending upon the causative factor, such impacts will be low to high. Temporally and spatially the impacts will largely be local and short term. All such impacts shall be reversible. 5.8.5 Flora and Fauna The road stretch has strip plantation all along the stretch. In stretches of existing alignment, the roadside plantation is of varying density such plantations have a reasonable mix of a variety of species. Trees of different girth classes will be impacted by the project execution. Approximately 6031 trees will be impacted through widening along the existing alignment. The construction of proposed 6 bypasses will impact a large number of trees. A rapid enumeration of trees indicated that approximately 74628 trees are likely to be impacted. This is perceived as loss by the roadside communities and a great loss by the communities coming along the bypasses. The removal of roadside vegetation may impact some climatic parameters at micro level as brought out earlier. The communities feel that usufructs like fruits, fuelwood, small timber will also cease to flow to the beneficiaries. The slow moving traffic and pedestrians will miss the comforting shade particularly during summer. The common birds using this vegetation for perching and nesting will have to look for new areas. But such impacts will be felt almost all along the stretch. Temporally and directionally such impacts will be midterm and reversible. Water resources are rich in flora and fauna. Phytoplanktons, zooplanktons and fish resources may be impacted adversely through increased turbidity and alkalinity as described earlier. Spatially, temporally and directionally such impacts will be local, short term and reversible. 5.8.6 Archaeological, Historical and Cultural Resources No archaeological or historical resources will be impacted. Out of 83 religious structures located in the immediate corridor of impact, 52 religious structures are likely to get impacted. 5.9 MITIGATION MEASURES Mitigation measures suggested against specific environmental impacts are presented below in a tabular form for different stages like the design, construction and the operation. Design Phase Measures – General Impacts Land Acquisition Mitigation Measures
RoW has been kept minimum as 45 m along the existing road and at Bypasses. 195.55 ha of land will be acquired for widening along the existing alignment and 179.70ha of land will be required for 6 bypasses To avoid displacement, six bypasses have been proposed at Kannur, Thalassery-Mahe, Koilandy, Kozhikode, Kottakkal, Valanchery.
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Major Displacement

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Impacts Removal of Trees

Mitigation Measures
Alignment design considered to reduce the number of trees to be impacted through adoption of appropriate widening options.

Impact on public utilities Some public utilities like drinking water wells will be impacted. All such utilities shall be shifted in consultation e.g. community wells etc.
with the communities before the starting of construction work.

Impact on Cultural Sites

Widening along the existing alignment has been finalized considering minimum damage to religious structures of different communities Vehicular and pedestrian underpasses provided; proper signposts for people have been included in the design. Service roads have been provided in congested locations. Medians will be provided to segregate traffic Locations selected considering minimum loss of productive land and feasibility of restoration to productive use. Provision of by-pass will save congested settlement at Kannur, Thallessery-Mahe, Kozhikode, Kottakal-Edarkode and Valanchery. This will give relief from increased levels of pollutants; such location will get respite from disturbing noise level; sensitive receptors will be provided with noise barriers in the form of green belt or walls. Lined drains and adequate number cross-drainage structures proposed on the existing alignment and proposed bypasses to prevent water-logging and flooding.

Access Restriction

Borrow pits Air and noise quality

Drainage

Construction Phase: Land Environment Impacts Soil Erosion Loss of topsoil Mitigation Measures
Proper planning for slope stabilization, topsoil storage, plantation and turfing on slopes.

Arable lands will be avoided for earth borrowing. If needed, topsoil will be separated and stockpiled after excavation for reuse in restoration of borrow pits and median plantations
Excavation from pre-selected locations. After excavation, the borrow pits will be dressed to match with the surround. In specific cases borrow pits can be excavated in consultation with local people to use those pits as water harvesting points or surface storages for pisci-culture. Some borrow-pits could be enhanced as rural recreation sites in consultation with communities

Borrowing of fill materials

Disposal of Construction Controlled and organized dumping of construction waste. Only pre-selected locations conforming to local environmental waste
regulations will be used.

Disposal of human waste Specific landfill sites will be identified to manage solid waste generated from habitation of construction workers. by construction workers. Construction Phase : Air & Noise Pollution Control

Impact
Generation of Dust
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Measures Water will be sprayed during construction phase, in earth

Project Description

Impact

Measures handling sites, asphalt mixing sites and other excavation areas for suppression of dust.

Dust emission from piles of excavated material should also be controlled by spraying water on the piles.
Special care should be taken when working near schools and medical facilities.

Dust emission is a high-risk problem in the stone crushing activities. Workers are exposed to high level of dust pollution. It will be responsibility of the project proponent to ensure that stone crushers supplying materials for this project implement air pollution control and workers are provided with masks. Stone crushing units should meet the requirements under Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986. Gaseous Pollution
Vehicles and machineries will be regularly maintained to conform to the emission standards stipulated under Environment (Protection), Rules 1986.

Asphalt mixing sites should be located at least 500 m away from residential areas. Workers working in asphalt mixing and subsequent application of asphalt mix on road surface are exposed to high level of carcinogenic emission. These workers should be provided with masks and it will be responsibility of the supervising officers that the workers use the masks. Noise Noise levels of machineries used shall conform to relevant standards prescribed in Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986.
Workers shall not be exposed to noise level more than permitted for industrial premises, i.e. 90 dBA (Leq) for 8 hours. Workers exposed to high noise level should use ear plugs.

Construction work generating noise pollution near the health facilities and residential areas should be stopped during night. Noise attenuation measures e.g. planting of trees, noise attenuation structures to be erected as required. Construction Phase: Protection of Water Resources Impacts Siltation into water bodies Mitigation Measures
Cofferdams or similar measures will be implemented during construction on backwaters/ other water bodies. Steep and erodible slopes will be vegetated to prevent erosion that causes siltation. No solid waste will be dumped near the water bodies or rivers.

Flooding due to siltation of Excavated earth, and other construction materials should drainage channel be stored at safe distance to prevent washing out of such materials Water use for construction Water sources would be selected so that local availability is not affected. Local water bodies, tube wells, wells will not be used. Borehole by contractors will be done with permission from State Ground Water Board. River water also will be used for construction purposes.

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Impacts Contamination wastes

Mitigation Measures from All practical measures will be taken to prevent any uncontrolled effluent discharge from construction workers camps and storages to water sources. The campsites will be provided with proper drainage and connected to local disposal system wherever possible.

Contamination from fuel Vehicle maintenance will be carried out in a confined and wastes area, away from water sources, and it will be ensured that used oil or lubricants are not disposed to watercourses. Sanitation and Water use Construction camp will be organised in a planned manner. in Construction Camps Workers shall be provided proper sanitation facilities including toilets. Camps will have water supply facilities like tube wells or from other sources so that local water sources are not affected. Construction Phase: Tree Loss IMPACTS
Loss of Trees

MITIGATION MEASURES
Trees will be removed only in phases depending on the requirement of the construction. Trees identified as snags will be protected if not unavoidable. Fruit bearing trees will be removed only after mature fruits have been harvested by the beneficiaries. As per the guidelines of the State Govt. the number of trees planted will be ten times of the trees removed and these will be raised in the form of strip and block plantations depending on the availability of lands within the project corridor. The compensatory plantation plan shall be drawn up in consultation with the State Forest Department. For tree removal from the lands acquired for construction of the bypasses 2 trees will be planted for each tree removed. Speciesmix of such plantations will be decided in consultation with the communities. Some flowering and fruit trees good for attracting birds will also be used in such plantations. A mechanism of usufruct sharing with identified beneficiaries will be built in to ensure protection of the compensatory plantation proposed along the project corridor.

Construction Phase: Fauna IMPACTS Loss of habitat for avifauna MITIGATION MEASURES Compensatory Plantation programme will be taken up. Species–mix will provide for flowering and fruit trees. Sediment flow will be kept at minimum level through a mix of management measures during construction near water bodies or construction of bridges in water environment. There is no conservation site in the project corridor. The local wild fauna include snakes, frogs, rodents etc. Water bodies hold some resident wetland birds. Water bodies both fresh and brackish water have rich fishery resources. The construction camps have to be located away from this site and awareness development camps will be organized with the local stakeholders to ensure that there is no hunting of wetland birds or unauthorized fishing in water bodies.

Impact on Wildlife

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Project Description

Construction Phase: Safety Measures IMPACTS Information to Public MITIGATION MEASURES Signs will be posted on road before commencement of construction informing public and travelers about the work program and safety provisions. Safe and convenient passage for vehicles, pedestrians and livestock to and from the side roads and property across the road will be arranged during construction work through of a proper traffic management plan for sections where work will be in progress. Contractor will arrange all safety measures for workers as per Factories Act All workers employed on mixing asphaltic material, cement, lime mortars, concrete etc., will be provided with protective footwear and protective goggles. For crusher workers masks will be provided. The contractor has to ensure supply of appropriate personnel protective equipment taking into account the nature of work and the worksite The Contractor shall at all times organize dissemination of information in advance and obtain such permission as is required from all Government Authorities, public bodies as necessary under the regulatory framework in force. Construction Phase: Workers’ Camps Issue Location Construction Measures Workers’ camps will be located away from water bodies, schools, and residential areas. Camp will be constructed with proper accommodation facilities, should look aesthetically good as this will be a roadside feature during construction period Contractor will arrange for potable water supply for the workers so that local water sources are not disturbed. Bore well for the camp will be suitable for this region. Workers’ camp will be provided with proper sanitation facilities, toilets with septic tank and soak pits. Wastewater from domestic uses, solid wastes will be disposed of without violating environmental norms. The measures will be site specific. Crèche, first aid etc as required under Factories Act

Restriction to Access

Occupational Safety for Construction Workers Occupational Safety for Asphalt plant workers and Crusher plant.

Use of Explosive

Water

Sanitation Waste management

Other amenities

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Operation Phase : Mitigation Measures IMPACTS Dust MITIGATION MEASURES Bad road maintenance of road gives rise to dust pollution. Road maintenance standards shall be prescribed to keep dust production and dispersion at acceptable level All vehicles should be checked for “Pollution Under Control” certificates and occasional spot testing of emission from vehicles will be carried out with the assistance of the local administration.. Bringing in of stringent pollution norms and improvement of fuel quality in future years will help in reduced gaseous pollution Noise level for different automobiles have been prescribed in Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986. Signs will be posted to restrict blowing of horns in front of sensitive locations. With the establishment of strip plantations along the project corridor the noise level will get attenuated along the project corridor. Surface runoff from the road will not be disposed directly in the water bodies used by people for bathing etc. This will also not be disposed directly into any watercourse with good water quality. In absence of any designated conservation area in the project corridor there are hardly any chance of loss of wildlife through collisions with the speeding traffic. However there will be some loss through casualties of local wild fauna like the snakes, frogs, rodents, civets etc. There will be proper signages to make the moving traffic aware of this. With the decrease in turbidity and alkalinity primary productivity of water bodies will recover leading to restoration of aquatic floral and fish resources resources. . Tree plantations will be monitored for a period of three years after planting. All casualties during the first year of creation will have to be replanted up during the second year. Safety signs should be kept always clean and updated. Pedestrian and vehicular underpasses, parking bays will be maintained properly and kept free from encroachments. Safety signposts, edge markers installed will require proper upkeep. Bus Stops/ Bus shelters and other facilities like food plazas, trauma centers etc will require to be properly manned and maintained to keep them usable through out the project cycle and these will be required to be kept free from defacement and damages.

Gaseous Pollution

Noise

Surface runoff

Wild Life

Flora

Safety

Public amenities

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Project Description

5.10

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is the means to ensure that the environmental quality of the zone does not get adversely impacted beyond acceptable level due to the construction and operation of the project. The plan lays down measures for three distinct phases - (a) design phase (b) construction phase and (c) the operational phase. This plan suggests mitigation measures against all identified impacts. Environmental management matrix provides detailed management measures for specified anticipated impacts and defines responsibilities of each participating organization. Mitigation and management measures have been detailed out for impacts on water bodies, roadside vegetation, water /air/sound quality, road safety, drainage as well as sanitation of labour camps.
Environmental enhancement considers additional provisions and specifies enhancement of water bodies, and establishment of quality compensatory plantation all along the project corridor.

5.11

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN

Environmental Monitoring Plan ensures that the environmental mitigation measures and enhancement programme are properly implemented and the responsibility for implementation is clearly demarcated.

Monitoring of environmental quality during construction and during operation reflects the success of implementation of the mitigation measures. Monitoring will be conducted by the project authority with the help of an independent monitoring organisation. Monitoring parameters, locations and frequency for air, water, noise quality have been suggested. Monitoring of survival rates of plantations also has been suggested.

A budgetary estimate of Rs. 916.44 lacs for environmental management activities has been presented for the entire project corridor from km 148.00 to km 318.00. The project has been divided in two Construction Package (i) Package-I from (km. 148.00 to km 230.00) and Package-II form (km. 230.00 to km 318.00). The Package I & II will be having Rs. 441.80 lakhs and Rs. 474.60 lakhs cost of estimate respectively. This includes cost of mitigation measures, enhancement and monitoring. Environmental mitigation measures which are part of engineering activities such as slope stabilization, sediment / silt control, provision of cross-drainage etc. have not been included in this estimate.

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6. RESETTLEMENT ACTION PLAN INCLUDING MAGNITUDE OF SOCIAL IMPACT
6.1 INTRODUCTION
The Resettlement Action Plan is a follow up on the social impact assessment that was carried out to determine the magnitude of the potential and actual impacts due to widening of the existing 2-lane road to 4-lane road and to ensure that adequate social safeguards are in place to mitigate the adverse impacts on the project affected population. This exercise has been based on the Government of India guidelines on implementation of the National Policy on Resettlement as well of the World Bank and ADB policy on Involuntary Resettlement, as required in the project TOR. The project road, a section of NH-17 starts from Kannur (km 148.000) and ends at Kuttipuram (km 318.00) in the State of Kerala and Pondicherry. The project road NH-35 starts at km 0.000 (Junction of NH 35 & NH 34) and terminates at km 59.700 (about 300m before India/ Bangladesh border). The National Highway (NH) 35 connecting Barasat (District Capital of North 24 Parganas) to Petrapole (India/ Bangladesh Border, recently declared as land port by the West Bengal State Govt.) is one of the important road passes through northern part of the district connecting many towns and villages. The total length of the project road is about 60 170.00 km including length of proposed bypasses. However the proposed road traverses through the district land boundary of Kannur, Kozhikode and Mallapuram in the state of Kerala and Mahe in the state of Pondicherry. The project corridor has been divided in two Construction Packages (i) km 148.00 to km 230.00 and (ii) km 230.00 to km 318.00.
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The RAP describes census and socio-economic facts of the affected properties and PAPs, assessment of the potential impacts, efforts to minimize adverse social impacts, land acquisition requirements, R&R budget, organizational set-up and implementation schedule as well as grievance redress and monitoring and evaluation of the R&R activities.

6.2

CENSUS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY RESULTS The number of structures likely to be affected throughout the project road section including in areas of bypasses are N = 2411 As many as 6603 PAPs among 2217 households are to be impacted (Package-I =1148) and Package-II = 1069. The affected male/female population is likely 52.9% (N=3493) and 47.1% (N=3110) respectively The average household size is 3 Affected properties are largely residential (53.8%), commercial (37.4%), government (4.4%), religious (3.1%), community (0.5%), other private (0.4%) and residential-cum-commercial (0.4%) A majority of structures are of pucca type construction (71.2%) followed by semi-pucca (23.7%) and kutcha (5.1%). Approx 18.9% households belong to vulnerable category; a majority belongs to BPL (10.7%), WHH (3.2%), ST (3.1%), SC (1.7%) and PHH (0.2%). 75.4% households have opted for housing/shop for housing/shop loss but 13.4% households have preferred cash in against their housing loss, cash for land (5.7%) and land for land (5.5%). Only 41.9% households are willing to shift voluntarily, if they are given full payment of compensation. The land to be acquired is approx 390.86 hectares for entire (i) Under Package-I = 250 Hectares and (ii) Under Package-II = 141 Hectare. project corridor

The R&R budget worked out to be as follows Consultant Package-I = 381 crores and Consultant Package-II = 315 crores. The baseline socio-economic data shows that the living standard of the people is quite reasonable. Women’s role in activities related to outdoor is reasonably low as evident from the socio-economic data. People are migrating for employment in Gulf countries.

6.3

MEASURES TO MINIMISE DISPLACEMENT
According to the three broad categories mentioned above, a joint decision among the engineering, environmental and social impact teams was taken to avoid land take from religious places, such as, mosques, temples, graveyard, madarsa etc, and also congested market areas (which would save both displacement and livelihoods as well as excessive costs) and avoid splitting agricultural fields as far as possible.

6.3.1 Public Consultation
Public consultations, discussed in the concerned chapter, created another avenue for minimising negative social impacts. The purpose of these consultations was to obtain the views and suggestions of the potentially affected persons on the road design and its potential impacts on the affected people. The affected persons were consulted as “focus groups”, such as a group of affected residents and a group of affected shop owners. These are also interest groups. These interest groups very often came up with alternative suggestions on the alignments. All attempts have been made to accommodate their views and suggestions within the technical feasibility.

6.3.2 Analysis of Alternatives and New Alignment
The guiding principle with regard to the congested areas has been to limit the road upgrading activities within the available corridor. Where minimising the negative impacts has not been feasible, namely in town Kannur, Mahe, Koilandy, Kozhikode, Kottakkal and Valancherry, bypasses have been proposed at these places. The purpose of bypasses is to minimize the displacement of the people as well as to enhance better connectivity free from congestion.

6.3.3 Entitlement Framework
Through the proposed R&R entitlement policy and framework (“The Policy”), the project is committed to ensure that the livelihoods of project-affected persons are at least restored to pre-project levels, with the opportunity to improve on
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Project Description

living standards where possible. The policy addresses the following adverse impacts associated with road construction and upgrading activities: Loss of land and other privately-owned assets Adverse impacts on subsistence/livelihood or income-earning capacity Collective adverse impacts on groups (e.g., through the loss of business resources and assets) To mitigate unforeseen effects on roadside communities and promote general upliftment, rehabilitation and support measures will be extended to include households of the defined vulnerable social categories who may be adversely affected by road construction. Entitlements have been developed according to the NHAI Guidelines on Implementation of the NPRR. Entitlements for land losses are in the form of cash compensation. Every effort needs to be made to provide land-based options to households whose production levels are severely affected by land acquisition. This will primarily be achieved through local consultative forums to assist with the identification of suitable privately owned cultivated land in the vicinity for purchasing by the affected households.

6.4

MINIMIZED DISPLACMENT
Much of the roadside land beyond the existing right of way and along the proposed bypasses areas are under private ownership resulting heavy impact on people because of land acquisition. However, the magnitude of the displacement in the project is expected to be extremely less due to the proposed bypasses as indicated in the below table. Therefore, bypasses have been proposed to avoid difficulties, in which built up properties have been reduced considerably in a large number. The detailed particulars of the built up properties before input of social integration and after integration of social input are summarized in the following the below Table 6.1. Table 6.1: Properties Saved After Integration of Social Input Sl. No. 1 2 Particulars Properties 5462 2411
Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

Before Integration of Social Input
After Integration of Social Input (Proposed bypasses at Kannur, Mahe, Koilandy, Kozhikode, Kottakkal and Valancherry)

1.36.5

PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION

The public consultations were carried out simultaneously with the household survey. Local important people in the villages were met for possible dates and places of meeting and the issues were indicated to them. On the appointed date and time the Consultants carried out the consultations in the affected areas, including focus group discussions with truck drivers, shopkeepers and auto drivers and women at a number of places. The consulted people were already aware of the project and of the possibility of the loss of their land and other assets. The major concerns of the consulted people related to the issues of adequate land and housing compensation, safety precautionary measures including specifically women and school going children, religious places should be avoided, service lane, employment of local people during civil work, wayside amenities and mosques, temple, madarsa, graveyard falling within PROW may be protected, land compensation to be determined at the local market price, livelihood rehabilitation measures for business and agriculture land losers, transparent and people friendly R&R mechanism, GRC system should be highly sound, housing affected households may be provided with housing that should be established by NHAI, bus sheds are required to be established along all the proposed bypass area, drainage system should be highly modernized, private tree cutting should be authorized by the owners itselfthemselves, local labour are required to be employed by the contractor, compensation should include the cost of standing crop if the possession of land is being taken before harvesting, children parks, bus sheds, and parking and pedestrian facilities should be incorporated in the road design including pedestrian lane and mode of payment to be made in the mode of cashincluding etc. However it is explained in chapter-5 of the RAP. 6.6 POLICY FOR LAND ACQUISITION The legal procedures for land acquisition in this project will be followed as per the National Highways Act (NH Act), 1956.

6.7

ENTITLEMENT MATRIX
The basic features of the proposed policy framework are the following: Compensation for the loss of land, or replacement land Cash assistance to all PAFs @ Rs.10000 Other, advisorial assistance.
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

The proposed entitlement framework for this project is presented in the following Table 6.2.

Table 6.2: Proposed Entitlement Framework Land Acquisition
Impacts and Assistance Criteria Vulnerable

Inside Right of Way
Vulnerable Non Vulnerable

Non Vulnerable

Corridor of Impact: Loss of Land, other Assets and Income – Support given to Families 1 Consultation, counselling regarding alternatives, and assistance in identifying new resettlement zones and opportunities Compensation for land/assets at replacement cost plus allowances for fees or other charges Advance notice to harvest nonperennial crops, or compensation for lost standing crops Compensation for perennial crops and trees, price evaluated by valuer Compensation for structures or other non-land assets Right to salvage materials from existing structures R&R Assistance

2

3

4

5 6 7 6.8

√ √ √

√ √ √

√ √ √

√ √

R&R BUDGET The R&R budget has been estimated as part of the overall project cost. This includes tentative cost of asset acquisition, administrative expenses, NGO involvement, and monitoring and evaluation. The cost estimate as discussed in this chapter is only indicative and may change depending upon the starting date of the project. The NHAI guidelines recommend that the compensation for the lost land and structures be paid through the competent authority. In case of non-titleholder PAFs, a government-approved valuer will carry out the valuation of the affected structures. For structures valuation, the concerned government department may be requested to assess the value. However consultants have collected the replacement cost of structures and other losses and mitigating measures have been suggested accordingly. These are budgeted and organized under the heading of Compensation, Assistance, Support, and Other Activities. The estimated budget for social and R&R, including land acquisition is Rs.589 Crore approximately. Component-wise itemised indicative budge for entire project corridor is indicated in the following Table 6.3. Budget requirements for construction Package-I&II are indicated in Table 6.3(a) and Table 6.3(a).

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Project Description

Table 6.3: R&R Budge (Complete Project Corridor km 148.00 to km 318.00)

U
Sl. No.

Item

Quantity (m)

Unit Rate (Rs)

Amou n t ( R s )

A i ii iii iv v vi vii

Land Compensation Along existing road Kannur Bypass Thalassery-Mahe Bypass Koilandy Bypass Kozhikode Bypass Kottakkal Bypass Valancherry Bypass Sub-Total Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m 1945200 769500 370400 495000 0 135000 193500 1935.5 741 741 998 886 741 741 3764973504 570199500 274466400 494010000 0 100035000 143383500 5347067904

3908600

B i ii iii iv

Structure Compensation Pucca Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m lm 318739 46427 19009 124 4454 3091 1500 800 1419663506 143505857 28513500 99200 1591782063

Semi-pucca
Kutcha Boundary Wall Sub-Total

C i

Assistance R&R Assistance Sub-Total PAF 2217 10,000 22170000 22170000

D i ii iii

Support for Project Implementation ID cards Updating Census Data NGO for RAP Implementation Sub-Total PAF Lumpsum Lumpsum 2217 200 443400 100000 100000 643400

E i ii

Other Activities HIV/AIDS Awareness M&E Consultants Sub-Total GRAND TOTAL (A+B+C+D+E) Approximately Lumpsum Lumpsum 200000 200000 400000 6962063367

Rs.696 Crore

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

Table 6.3(a): R&R Budge (Package I - km 148.00 to km 230.00)

U
Sl. No.

Amou n t
Quantity (m) Unit Rate (Rs)

Item

( R s )

A i ii iii iv

Land Compensation Along existing road Kannur Bypass Thalassery-Mahe Bypass Koilandy Bypass Sub-Total Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m 865030 769500 370400 495000 1935.5 741 741 998 1674265565 570199500 274466400 494010000 3012941465

2499930

B i ii iii iv

Structure Compensation Pucca Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m lm 156502 24033 9840 64 4454 3091 1500 800 697059908 74286003 14760000 51200 786157111

Semi-pucca
Kutcha Boundary Wall Sub-Total

C i

Assistance R&R Assistance Sub-Total PAF 1148 10,000 11480000 11480000

D i ii iii

Support for Project Implementation ID cards Updating Census Data NGO for RAP Implementation Sub-Total PAF Lumpsum Lumpsum 1148 200 229600 50000 50000 329600

E i ii

Other Activities HIV/AIDS Awareness M&E Consultants Sub-Total GRAND TOTAL (A+B+C+D+E) Say Lumpsum Lumpsum 100000 100000 200000 3811108176

381 Crores

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Project Description

Table 6.3(b): R&R Budge (Package II km 230.00 to km 318.00) Amou n t ( R s )

U
Sl. No.

Item

Quantity (m)

Unit Rate (Rs)

A i ii iii iv

Land Compensation Along existing road Kozhikode Bypass Kottakkal Bypass Valancherry Bypass Sub-Total Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m 1080170 0 135000 193500 1935.5 886 741 741 2090669035 0 100035000 143383500 2334087535

1408670

B i ii iii iv

Structure Compensation Pucca Sq.m Sq.m Sq.m lm 162237 22394 9169 60 4454 3091 1500 800 722603598 69219854 13753500 48000 805624952

Semi-pucca
Kutcha Boundary Wall Sub-Total

C i

Assistance R&R Assistance Sub-Total PAF 1069 10,000 10690000 10690000

D i ii iii

Support for Project Implementation ID cards Updating Census Data NGO for RAP Implementation Sub-Total PAF Lumpsum Lumpsum 1069 200 213800 50000 50000 313800

E i ii

Other Activities HIV/AIDS Awareness M&E Consultants Sub-Total GRAND TOTAL (A+B+C+D+E) Approximately Lumpsum Lumpsum 100000 100000 200000 3151016287

315 Crores

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

6.9

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT AND PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
The RAP has proposed institutional arrangement as per the NHAI guidelines. The Administrator or Project Director is at the helm of affairs and his staff at the PIU has been proposed to carry out the activities. The ground level R&R activities will be carried out by temporarily hired NGOs. These expenses have been costed in the budget. It is anticipated that the R&R component of the project will be implemented over a period of one year. The implementation of the RAP consists of five major stages: Deployment and training of identified NHAI staff and NGO Issuing of legal notification for land acquisition and the cut-off date Verification of EPs and estimating their type and level of losses Preparing a list of EPs for relocation Relocation and rehabilitation of EPs. In addition, monitoring and evaluation will also form a part of the R&R implementation strategy. The NHAI officials at the PIU and district levels will function in supervisory roles for the R&R activities. At the project road level the NGO selected and recruited for the purpose will carry out the actual implementation.

6.10

GRIEVANCE REDRESS
The project has provisions for redress of grievance of disputes arising out of land acquisition, compensation and assistance to the project affected and displaced persons, families and groups. It is proposed that a Grievance Redress Committee will be formed at the District level, which is expected to resolve the grievances of the entitled persons within a stipulated time frame.

6.11

MONITORING AND EVALUATION
The purpose of the monitoring and evaluation is to see that the project has achieved its objective that the affected persons have been able to maintain their pre-project livelihood status. The RAP contains indicators for achievement of the objectives under the resettlement programme. Two levels of monitoring have been suggested in the RAP, viz. internal and external.

6.11.1 Internal Monitoring
Internal monitoring refers to monitoring activities that will be carried out by the NHAI. It is essentially compliance monitoring, designed to compare on a monthly basis the tasks completed with those called for under the RAP.

6.11.2 External Monitoring
This refers to the involvement of a third party, preferably an NGO with similar experience in resettlement and rehabilitation or other social development programme that will be procured by the NHAI to evaluate the implementation of the RAP. The internal monitoring of the R&R activities will be carried by the PIU of the NHAI on regular basis. The external exercise will include a mid-term and end-term evaluation of the activities. The range of activities that will need to be monitored include: Land acquisition and transfer procedures Disbursement of compensation and assistance Construction of replacement buildings by the displaced families Rehabilitation of displaced families and business enterprises Rehabilitation of income levels.

6.12

DISCLOSURE OF RESETTLEMENT ACTION PLAN
As per requirements of the NHAI and the World Bank (The World Bank Policy on Disclosure of Information, 2002), after approval from the competent authority, the draft RAP will be disclosed to the public in the affected zone (project corridor of impact). For the purpose of the disclosure, the Executive Summary of the draft RAP will be translated into the local language and displayed in the affected zone. To ensure effective disclosure, the executive summary will be prominently displayed at the following places in the affected zone: Municipal offices Village Panchayat level offices Block level offices
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Project Description

Other public places at the district level. On the expiry of 30 days from the date of disclosure of the draft, the final RAP will be prepared.

•••
7. COST ESTIMATE

7.1

GENERAL

This chapter provides for preliminary cost estimate for rehabilitation and upgrading of NH 17 from km 148.00 to 230.00, Package I of the project road in the State of Kerala. The following by passes are proposed:
Kannur Town Bypass This by pass is newly proposed as the existing road passes through Kannur town through built up areas and there is obstruction to free movement of traffic. Thalassery – Mahe Bypass This by pass has already been proposed between km 170/718 to 187/674 (length of by pass 17.0km) Koilandy Bypass- (km 214.00 to km 225) The ROW available for the main road is 30.00 m. It is proposed to provide 45.00 m ROW for the main road as well as for by passes. 7.2 METHODOLOGY

The following procedure has been adopted for estimation:
Computation of unit rates of the principal work items based on State Schedule of rates for the year 2006. For bitumen, cement and steel current market rates have been adopted. The elements of labour, material and machinery have been adopted from the Standard Data Book of the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways. Dividing the road length into widening options consisting of side widening, concentric widening and by passes and working out quantities of 1 km length of each type of road length from typical cross sections. Computation of preliminary cost from preliminary quantities and unit rates Computation of estimated cost of bridges from per meter rates worked out from preliminary GADs. Computation of per sq m of deck area cost for RCC slab and box culverts from their standard drawings. The cost of HP culverts has been worked out on the basis of their per m length cost. Estimation of cost of Resettlement and Rehabilitation, utility relocation and environment mitigation measures on their preliminary assessment basis. Estimation of provision of contingencies, supervision charges and agency charges as percentage of total cost. Estimation of total preliminary project cost. 7.3 UNIT RATES The unit rates are based on the labour rates as per State Schedule of Rates for the year 2006. Borrow areas have been identified along the road for borrow area soil and average lead has been worked out. Similarly stone quarries have been identified and average lead has been worked out. For aggregate the rates have been worked out from State Schedule of Rates after adding the cartage cost at State Schedule of Rates. The rates for hire charges for machinery have been taken from Standard Data Book with 25% provision for escalation. 7.4 CONSTRUCTION QUANTITIES
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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-I (Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00)

For preliminary estimate all the quantities have been worked out manually from preliminary drawings.
7.5 PAVEMENT DESIGN OPTIONS

For pavement design flexible pavement is proposed to be provided. However, rigid pavement will be provided for toll plaza area
7.6 BRIDGES

The provision for bridges is as under:
Package I Major bridges 6 No (1 No on main road and 5 No on by passes) Minor bridges 7 No (2 No on main road + 5 No on by passes) R.O.B 1 No. (Additional 2 lanes) 1 No. (New 4 lanes)

Under passes for vehicular traffic 15 No Under passes for pedestrian and light traffic 3 No. Flyovers 2 No. Cost of bridges, flyovers and Underpasses etc. for Package-I = Rs. 1399.65 million Provision has also been made for repair and rehabilitation of the existing bridges to be retained at an estimated cost of Rs 6.30 million. 7.7 CULVERTS

Provision has been made for widening the existing culverts, which are in good shape. New culverts are proposed on by passes and the existing roads wherever required. New culverts have also been proposed on major and minor junctions. The no of culverts provided for reconstruction and widening are as under:
Widening of slab culverts on the existing road New construction of culverts on by passes Construction of HP culverts on junctions 183 No 41 No 107 No Reconstruction of slab culverts on the main road 35 No

The total cost of culverts works out to Rs 373.3 0 million 7.8 DRAINAGE AND PROTECTION WORKS

Lined drains are proposed to be constructed in the urban areas and unlined drains are proposed to be constructed in the rural areas. Drainage chutes with pitching will be provided for embankment height more than 6m heights where RE walls have not been provided. Metallic crash barriers are proposed for height more than 3 m. Reinforced earth/ retaining walls will be provided where necessary.
7.9 JUNCTIONS

There are 10 No major junctions besides minor junctions. Provision for improvement of these junctions has been made in the estimate.
7.10 SERVICE ROADS

Service roads have been proposed on either side in most of the length of the road.
7.11 TRAFFIC SAFETY FEATURES, ROAD FURNITURE AND ROAD MARKINGS
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Project Description

Provision has been made for traffic safety features, road furniture and road markings on per km basis based on the experience on similar other roads. 7.12 MISCELLANEOUS

Provision has been made for the following items under this sub head:
Toll Plaza including weigh station 1 No Truck Parking Areas 1 No Way side amenities Bus Bays including passenger shelters 10 No Providing and maintaining Wireless Communication System/Mobile Phones Relocation of utilities Environmental Costs R&R cost including land acquisition costs Providing traffic safety measures like barricading during construction 7.13 MAINTENANCE DURING CONSTRUCTION

The existing road will be maintained during construction for running the traffic smoothly. Provision for maintenance of existing road has been made under this sub head.
7.14 CONTINGENCIES AND SUPERVISION COSTS The following provision has been made under this sub head: Contingencies Supervision Costs Administrative charges 1% 7.15 PROJECT COST 3% 6%

The cost of widening and strengthening the existing National High way including cost of by passes works out as under:
Estimated cost including provision for contingencies, supervision and Administrative cost is Rs. 13454.28 million. Based on these costs the cost per km works out to Rs. 164.1 million per km. The cost of Civil Works works out to Rs. 8346.493 million. Based on these costs the cost of Civil works per km works out to Rs. 101.80 million for flexible pavement. Details of Abstract of cost is given in Table 7.1.

•••

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