1

Project Description
1.1 General
Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, Government of India has decided to take up the development of various National Highways stretches/Corridors under NHDP Phase III program in the country concerning upgrading of capacity, safety, riding quality etc. to international standards by four/ six-laning of highway stretches/ Corridors together with major Port connectivity. NHAI has been entrusted to implement the development projects for few selected stretches/ corridors either through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) basis or its own budgetary sources or loans from ADB, World Bank etc. The NHAI has accordingly taken up project preparation of certain stretches/ corridors of existing National Highways passing through various states of the country. The stretch of 111.73 km from Kuttipuram to Edapally of NH 17 in the state of Kerala is a part of the NHDP-III projects. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) will be the employer and executing agency for the consultancy services and the standards of output required from the appointed consultants are of international level both in terms of quality and adherence to the agreed time schedule. M/s Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA in joint venture (JV) with Wilbur Smith Associates Private Limited have been entrusted by NHAI the task of carrying out the Feasibility Studies and Environmental and Social Impact Assessment including preparation of Detailed Project Report for rehabilitation and upgrading to 4/6 lane divided highway. This report deals with essentially of Project Report for rehabilitation and upgrading of a stretch of 111.73 km on NH-17 in the state of Kerala to 4/6 lane divided highway.

1.2 Project Outline
The project essentially consists of conducting Feasibility Studies and Environmental and Social Impact Assessment including preparation of Detailed Project Report for rehabilitation and upgrading of a stretch of 111.73km on NH-17 in the state of Kerala to 4/6 lane divided highway. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of work since it is executed by PWD, NH Division.

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National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

1.3 Objective
The objectives of the present project covering the stretch of 111.73 km of NH-17 (Kuttipuram – Edapally ) in the state of Kerala include the following: To establish the technical, economical, environmental, social, and financial feasibility of the project and prepare detailed project reports for rehabilitation and upgrading of the existing 2-lane National Highway (NH) sections to 4-lane divided carriageway configuration. The viability of the project designed as a partially access controlled facility shall be established taking into account the requirements with regard to rehabilitation, upgrading and improvement based on highway design, pavement design, provision of service roads wherever necessary, type of intersections, underpasses/flyovers/ROB’s, rehabilitation and widening of existing and/or construction of new bridges and structures, road safety features, quantities of various items of works and cost estimates vis-à-vis the investment and financial return through toll and other revenue. The Detailed Project Report (DPR) would inter-alia include detailed highway design, design of pavement and overlay with options for flexible or rigid pavements, design of bridges and cross drainage structures, design of service roads, quantities of various items, detailed working drawings, detailed cost estimates, economic and financial viability analysis, environmental and social feasibility, environmental and social action plans as appropriate and documents required for tendering the project on commercial basis for international/Local competitive bidding. Detailed project preparation incorporating aspects of value engineering, quality audit and safety audit requirement in design and execution. Scope of Services The scope of services as per section 3 and 4 of the ToR, include the following: Collection of all secondary data & review of data and documents related to the project roads and project influence area. Detailed reconnaissance survey Inventory and condition surveys for existing road & pavement, cross drainage structures and bridges. Identification of possible improvement of the existing alignment, central widening/one side widening, by-pass, service roads, etc with alternatives and evaluation, shifting of utilities, trees to be felled and planted and land acquisition requirements on Strip Plan (Topo Maps/Satellite Images). Identification of problem areas, where widening may not physical/environmental/social constraints within the parameters of TOR. be possible for

Environmental and social studies and impact assessment including mitigation measures and resettlement studies. Traffic surveys, Toll Rate & Willingness to Pay Toll surveys & Axle Load surveys including demand forecasting for the next 30 years and assessment of Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) as well as Capacity Assessment based on IRC 64-2001 and compare the Highway Capacity Manual and RUCS. Topography survey, pavement investigations, material and geotechnical investigations.
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Detailed design of horizontal and vertical alignment including cross sections, pavement structure, intersections, cross drainage structures and bridges, flyovers, interchanges, railway over bridges, user oriented facility along the road (road side amenities), road and other appurtenances. Detailed project preparation incorporating value engineering, quality audit and safety audit requirement in design and implementation. Obtain all necessary clearance required for implementation of the project on the ground from the concerned agencies. The client shall provide the necessary supporting letters and any official fees as per the demand note issued by the concerned agencies from whom the clearances are being sought to enable implementation. Rate analysis of non-schedule items, detailed quantity takeoff, BOQ and cost estimates. Economic and financial analysis with financing options like BOT, Annuity, SPV etc. Preparation of separate documents for BOT as well as EPC contracts for each DPR assignments.

1.4 Approach
The Consultant’s approach to the project will be in accordance with the “Description of Services” given in the Contract Document, understanding of the project objectives and further discussions with the Client during progress of the project study. The main objective of this consultancy service comprise of the following:

1. The widening work shall be within the existing ROW avoiding land acquisition, and retaining the existing pavement, cross drainage structures and bridges as far as possible within the requirement of IRC/ MOSRT&H guidelines. 2. Evolve the most economical but sound proposals for the required roadwork and related bridge works. 3. Carry out engineering, economic, environmental and social feasibility studies of the proposed road improvements keeping in view the aspect of PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) and BOT / Annuity. 4. Incorporate International “best practices” including use of ‘state of the art’ and computer based survey and design techniques (e.g. GPS, Total Station Survey, computer aided designs (MX/MOSS/Equivalent, etc) for preparation of the technical proposal, development of designs, cost estimates, bid documents, etc. 5. Prepare preliminary designs of the agreed road and related bridge works as a basis for completing Environmental Assessment (EA) and Social Impact Assessments (SIA) of Project Affected Persons (PAP) as required, conforming to sound economic analysis. Also preparing land acquisition, social and environmental action plans such as Resettlement Action Plan (RAP), as appropriate.

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

6. Conduct detailed engineering design of the proposed road and bridge works and prepare suitable number of bid documents required for tendering through International Competitive Bidding (ICB). 7. Provide reports and analysis suitable for meeting the standards and specifications laid down according to MOSRT&H, MOEF, CPWD, Government of India and ADB requirements on environmental and social assessments.

1.5 Project Road
The total project stretch(111.73 km) is located in the state of Kerala, an important state in the southern part of India between Latitudes of 750 55’ & 760 20’ and between Longitudes of 100 10’ 32” & 100 55’. The State is bounded by Karnataka in the North and East; by the Arabian Sea in the West and by Tamilnadu in the East and South. Kerala State comprises of 14 districts extending over an area of 38864 sq.km. The project stretch connects Kuttipuram( km 318+000) on Northern side and Edapally km 438+600 (Design Ch. Km 428+940) in the southern side and passing through Malapuram ,Thrissur and Ernakulam districts. It also leads to Mangalore, Goa and Mumbai from Kuttipuram, forming an important link connecting northern districts of Kerala which includes Kozhicode, Kannur, Kasargod and Wayanad. NH-17 links to southern districts of Kerala via. NH-47. Kerala State is an important tourist destination due to its beaches along its coast and generates heavy tourist volume throughout the year. It is an important and picturesque state in the southern part of India. It traverses generally through plain terrain (98%) and about 2% through rolling terrain. Mixed land use of residential and agricultural can be seen through out the project road corridor. It also passes through many villages and towns. The unique feature of Kerala is its wide spread residential development and ribbon development along the Highway Corridor. The entire Kerala state can be termed as semi-urban. The location of the project stretch is illustrated in Figure 1.1. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of work since it is executed by PWD, NH Division

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Figure 1.1: Location Map of Project Road

1.5.1

Terrain and Land Use

The project road starts from km 318+000 at Kuttipuram , runs parallel to coastal line and ends at Edapally at km 438+600 (Design Ch. Km 428+940) where it joins NH 47. For a small section between Kuttipuram and Ponnani the project road runs towards the coast, parallel to Bharatapuzha river. In general terrain is plain for a short length near Kuttipuram (km 320+000 to km 323+000) where it is rolling terrain. Land use along the alignment is mixed with residential, commercial and agricultural. Many religious structures also exist on the project corridor., (Plate 1.1 & 1.2)

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

 
Plate 1.1: Built-up Areas Plate 1.2: Agricultural Areas

 

1.5.2

Important Towns and Villages

The project road passes through nine major towns and many villages. The major towns along the project road are listed below in Table 1.1 Table 1.1 Major Towns along the project road Existing Chainage Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Name of Village Ponnani Chavakkad Vadanapally Triprayar Kaipamangalam Mathilakam Kodungallur Paravoor Edapally (km) 337+600 362+600 377+650 384+200 394+600 400+800 409+800 422+400 438+400 Design Chainage (km) 331+100 356+300 370+800 377+510 387+180 399+100 403+210 413+800 429+400

1.5.3

Carriage way and Formation

The existing road is an intermediate/two-lane carriageway of flexible pavement varying from 5.3 m to 7.5 m (except for a small stretch between Kuttipuram to Thavanur where the carriageway is having only single lane width). Gravel shoulder of 1.0 m to 2.0 m wide has been provided on either side for the entire length. The carriageway is generally in good condition with respect to the riding quality except for Kuttipuram – Ponnani section where the condition of the road is bad.

1.5.4

Pavement condition

Pavement condition is generally fair to poor throughout the corridor except for a few section where condition of pavement is good. The occurrence of alligator cracks, shrinkage cracks, raveling and rutting are observed for entire stretch. Patching is observed about 10% of the total section. From the condition survey data, a subjective rating in the form of Condition Index (CI) values has been calculated on the basis of various surface distress measurements. CI values have been arrived at by summing each distress value and suitably subtracting it from 100. The lesser the CI value, more prominent are the effects of various surface distresses.
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

1.5.5

Right of way

Existing right of way of 8m to 30m. ROW pillars are missing at many Places. Table 1.2: Details of existing ROW Existing Chainage (km) From 318.000 320.000 322.000 324.000 326.000 328.000 330.000 332.000 334.000 336.000 338.000 340.000 342.000 344.000 346.000 348.000 350.000 352.000 354.000 356.000 358.000 360.000 362.000 364.000 366.000 368.000 370.000 372.000 374.000 376.000 378.000 380.000 To 320.000 322.000 324.000 326.000 328.000 330.000 332.000 334.000 336.000 338.000 340.000 342.000 344.000 346.000 348.000 350.000 352.000 354.000 356.000 358.000 360.000 362.000 364.000 366.000 368.000 370.000 372.000 374.000 376.000 378.000 380.000 382.000 Length (m) 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Average ROW (m) Left 16.86 5.00 4.50 4.82 4.55 4.47 5.42 4.28 5.32 4.87 6.83 12.02 13.88 8.73 7.39 7.41 6.40 6.05 6.78 6.66 7.51 6.50 6.94 5.56 7.62 13.74 11.46 8.78 8.48 8.35 10.27 10.70 Right 20.23 5.91 4.43 4.41 4.37 4.29 5.98 4.41 5.29 4.51 7.90 17.70 10.73 7.30 8.49 7.62 5.76 5.67 6.89 7.35 7.42 6.54 7.36 5.44 6.16 11.21 9.91 8.07 8.11 10.60 9.67 11.40 Total 38.01 13.03 10.63 10.03 8.92 8.76 13.99 8.68 11.37 10.73 17.26 32.49 24.87 16.03 15.88 15.03 12.15 11.72 13.67 14.01 14.94 13.05 15.03 12.06 15.20 27.57 21.37 16.85 16.58 18.94 19.94 24.55

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Existing Chainage (km) From 382.000 384.000 386.000 388.000 390.000 392.000 394.000 396.000 398.000 400.000 402.000 404.000 406.000 408.000 410.000 412.000 414.000 416.000 418.000 420.000 422.000 424.000 426.000 428.000 430.000 432.000 434.000 436.000 To 384.000 386.000 388.000 390.000 392.000 394.000 396.000 398.000 400.000 402.000 404.000 406.000 408.000 410.000 412.000 414.000 416.000 418.000 420.000 422.000 424.000 426.000 428.000 430.000 432.000 434.000 436.000 438.600

Length (m) 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

Average ROW (m) Left 12.01 9.04 10.04 7.49 9.15 8.73 9.08 8.30 7.09 7.27 6.49 7.32 6.18 6.26 5.61 13.17 7.09 3.86 5.64 4.79 4.83 5.62 5.11 6.45 12.85 16.24 9.53 11.15 Right 11.20 9.51 8.77 7.74 7.93 8.38 7.18 8.21 6.78 6.44 8.05 6.51 6.04 6.50 5.58 13.87 6.82 3.88 4.90 4.73 4.34 5.53 4.44 6.33 12.40 11.92 10.50 4.74 Total 25.54 20.22 20.73 16.85 18.73 19.32 18.17 18.99 15.82 14.50 14.78 13.83 12.82 13.59 11.29 29.08 13.09 7.74 10.77 9.52 9.44 11.14 9.55 13.03 29.73 21.39 20.33 16.09

1.5.6

Horizontal and Vertical Geometry

Horizontal geometry of NH-17 is inferior mainly at seven stretches at km 320+000 - km 323+000, km 377+000 - km 378+000, km 385+000 – km 393+000, km 404+000 – km 411+000, km 414+500 – km 424+000, km 426+000 – km 428+000 and km 435+000 – km 438+600. Geometric deficiencies at these stretches are due to the presence of number of reverse curves and single curves having insufficient radius and lack of sight distance due to the buildings and compound walls projecting on to the road. Presence of these stretches makes travel on NH17 unsafe, particularly due to the movement of over speeding of buses. There are 62 curves
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

having design speed below the required standard. Some of those curves are shown in Plates 1.3 to 1.6. Vertical geometry of the entire length of the project is found satisfactory except for a small stretch of km 320+000 – km 323+000 but this has no significance on the improvement proposal because of the Ponnani bypass.

 
Plate 1.3: Sharp Curve at km 377+700 Plate 1.4: Sharp Curve at km 389+900

 

Plate 1.5 :Sharp Curve at km 396+800

Plate 1.6: Sharp Curve at km 432+200

1.5.7

Drainage Condition

The project road falls on heavy rainfall area with average annual rain fall more than 1500mm The existing drainage condition along the project road is fair to poor. Details of drains available are given in Table 1-3

Table 1.3 Summary of Details of Existing Drains Sl No 1 2 3 4 Type of Drain Lined Drain Earthern Drain Stone Masonry Built-up Drain Length (m) 30.8 1.4 0.8 3 Width (m) 0.3-0.5 0.3-0.75 0.75-1 0.75

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Plate 1.7: Built up Drain

Plate 1.8: Lined Drain

1.5.8

Intersections

There are 17 numbers of major junctions and 33 other important junctions present on the project road. In addition to this, a large number minor crossroads are present along the project corridor which leads to intermediate villages. Plate 1.9 to 1.12 shows some of the intersections along the project road

 

 

 

 

 

Plate 1.9: Kuttipuram Junction at km 318+050

Plate 1.10: Chamravattom Junction km 334+800

   

 

     

Plate 1.11: Ponnani Bypass End Junction at km 340+600

Plate 1.12: Chavakkad Junction at 363+200

  1.5.9 Utilities

The major utilities along the corridor are

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

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• •

OFC cables of BSNL, Reliance Telephone cables, Cables of Bharathi Cellular Ltd, Cables of Asianet Satellite Communications etc Water Supply pipe lines of Kerala Water Authority, Government of Kerala Electric posts, overhead cables, transformers etc

Utilities are laid continuously through the entire length of corridors. Relocation of these utilities are a major issue.

1.5.10 Bridges and Cross Drainage Structures
There are 15 Bridges and 124 culverts along the project stretch. Table 1.4 : Bridges and Culverts along the Project Stretch Particulars NH 17 (Existing Road) NH 17 (Existing Road Falling Within Project Stretch) Existing 5 3 91 189 Number of Bridges & Culverts along Bypasses/Realignment Proposed 4 4 82

Major bridges Minor bridges Culverts

8 7 124

Total number of Structures to be widened/constructed

  1.5.11 Structures of Religious / Archeological Importance
Many religious structures are seen on either side of the project road. Kodungallur temple, Cheraman mosque etc are major among them (Plate 1.13 & 1.14). The alignment at these locations has to be carefully decided with minimum disturbance. Guruvayur temple, a major religious centre in South India, is only 2 km away from the project corridor (near Chavakkad.

Plate 1.13 : Cheraman Mosque at 410+570

Plate 1.14: Kodungallur temple at 408+550

1.5.12 Existing facilities
The list of existing facilities along the project road are listed in Table 1.5 and Table 1.6 Table 1.5 :List of Existing facilities
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

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Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6

facilities Bus stops Petrol pump Truck lay bay Toll plaza Rest Area Service Road 20 (LHS) 17(Bothsides) 24 Nil

Nos

3(km 369+125, km 411+900, km 430+800) Nil 1. km 408+200 to km 408+400 Service road of 7.1 m on RHS, 1.2m median separating carriageway and service road 2. km 408+400 to km 408+600 Service road of 6.7m.

Table 1.6: Location of Petrol Pump SL No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 420+450 423+000 427+600 435+400 407+860 408+800 415+700 420+280 420+425 408+800 395+635 397+550 404+830 388+600 394+950 383+450 384+300 384+750 363+200 373+975 376+800 378+200 LHS(km) 336+000 340+200 359+210 RHS(km)

1.5.13 Other Features Properly planned, wayside amenities are non-existent on the project stretch. Reasonable bus and truck traffic are observed along the project road. A detailed study has been conducted for various amenities like rest areas, parking buses, bus shelters, lay-byes for sick vehicles and other user related facilities.

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

1.6 Improvement Proposals
• Detailed analysis of the deficiencies and the suggested improvements are discussed in detail in later Chapters. A brief description of the proposed improvements in given below.

1.6.1 Bypasses
• The necessity of bypass is considered at many places. The feasibility and viability of these has been assessed after collecting and analyzing the field data. The built up areas with crowded commercial activities with immediate demand for bypasses are at Ponnani, Chavakkad, Vadanapally, Trpirayar-Valappad, Chendrappinni, Moonnupeedika, Mathilakam Section 1 and 2, Kodungallur, Paravur, Edapally-Manjumelkkavala.. Summary of the proposed bypasses is listed in Table 1.7.

Table 1.7: Summary of Proposed Bypasses Name of bypass Existing Chainage (km) Start Chainage 319+450 363+200 377+000 383+850 390+000 395+300 398+700 405+500 407+700 414+450 435+000 End Chainage 340+350 365+400 380+200 387+200 391+900 397+250 403+000 406+060 411+800 426+160 438+600 Design Chainage (km) Start Chainage 319+060 356+300 370+200 377+310 383+280 388+350 391+850 398+750 401+100 406+890 425+300 End Chainage 333+715 358+800 373+600 380+510 385+230 390+490 396+335 399+220 404+135 417+400 428+620 Length

Ponnani Chavakkad Vadanapally Trpirayar-Valappad Chendrappinni Moonnupeedika Mathilakam Section 1 Mathilakam Section 2 Kodungallur Paravur, EdapallyManjumelkkavala

14.655 2.45 3.5 3.2 1.95 2.14 4.485 0.47 3.035 10.51 3.32

1.6.2 Widening Proposals
Based on traffic considerations, geometric standards and existing site conditions it is proposed to widen the project road into a 4 lane carriageway of the following configuration. • • • • • • • • • Median : 4.5m/1.2m Median Shyaway : 0.25m Shyaway at divider : 0.25m Main Carriageway in each direction : 7m ( 2 x 3.5m Lane) Service Road: 5.5m or 7m Paved Shoulder : 1.5m Earthen Shoulder : 2.0m Earthen Drain of suitable dimension Proposed ROW: 45m

Typical Cross Sections The Consultants have proposed a ROW of 45m based on settlement pattern, Land-use, Nature of Built-up and Socially sensitive structures. Widening scheme for the proposed project road are arrived based on, • • Lane requirement based on traffic capacity analysis Requirement of service roads along built-up areas
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Proposed widening / Cross section types are represented below in Table 1.8 respectively. Table 1.8: Proposed Widening Type / CSExisting Road Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Bypass Sl. No

Concentric widening without Service Road(median 2m)-1A Eccentric widening without Service Road ( median 2m)-1B New Four lane without Service Road (median 2m)-1C Concentric widening with Service Road (median 2m)-2A Eccentric widening with 7m Service Road(median 2m)-2B New Four lane with 7m Service Road on both side(median 2m)-2C New Four lane with 7m Service Road on LHS (median 2m)-2D Underpass Approach with 4.5 median with 5.5m Slip Road-3B Underpass Approach at 318+090 with 5.5m Slip Road-3C
Widening Type/ CS

14430.00 15820.00 6290.00 6080.00 7380.00 4690.00 1590.00 650.00 680.00
Length in m

1 2 3 4 5

RHS widening without Service Road in bypass (median 4.5m)-1D New Four lane in bypass(4.5 m median)-1E New Four lane with 7m Service Road in bypass(4.5 m median )-2E Underpass Approach with 4.5m median and 5.5m Slip Road-3A ROB Approach (3D)

2255.00 22225.00 14635.00 8925.00 610.00

1.6.3 Pavement Design
Pavement is designed based on MOSRTH/IRC standards. A Design life of 15 years is adopted for Flexible Pavement. Based on traffic analysis it is proposed to have design traffic as follows: Table 1.9: Design Traffic for main carriage waySections Design Traffic (MSA)

Section I: From km 317+710 To km 357+250 (From km 318+000 To km 363+000) Section II: From km 357+250 To km 402+940 (From km 363+000 To km 407+000) Section III: From km 402+940 To km 428+620 (From km 407+000 To km 438+600) For Service roads- 10.0 msa is adopted. Design of Flexible Pavement

20 35 45

Proposed pavement composition for pavement for the project road, as per IRC: 37 are given below in Table 1.10.

Due to the variations observed in the characteristic deflection values along the project road, different compositions of pavement layers have been designed for overlay as shown in the Table 1.10 as per IRC - 81.
Table 1.10: Flexible Pavement Design for Overlay and New Construction
Sections Design Recommended Pavement Composition in mm
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

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Traffic (MSA)

For Strengthening & Widening Overlay Existing Road on Widening Portion of Existing Road

For New Construction New 2/4 Lane Road New Service Road (If required)

Section I: From km 317+710 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC 40 BC km 357+250 + 85 DBM + 85 DBM + 50 BM 20 + 85 DBM (From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + PCC 318+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB 363+000) Section II: From km 357+250 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC 40 BC km 402+940 + 95 DBM + 95 DBM + 50 BM 35 + 95 DBM (From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + PCC 363+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB 407+000) Section III: From km 402+940 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC 40 BC km 428+620 + 105 DBM + 105 DBM + 50 BM 45 + 105 DBM (From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + PCC 407+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB 438+600) Remarks: Overlay thickness on existing road is suitably modified to match with widening thickness to avoid vertical joints in DBM layer. GSB- Granular Sub-base is provided over subgrade soil of CBR > 10%. 500 mm Subgrade of CBR > 10% is provided wherever the existing Subgrade soil CBR is < 10%. Pavement Composition is designed for 15 years life. However WMM & GSB layers are designed for 20 years life.

1.6.4 Service Roads
Service roads are envisaged in congested towns / villages locations to segregate the slow moving local traffic from the high-speed highway traffic. This will also cater to the need of the local pedestrians and vehicles to travel without hindering the high-speed traffic along the highway. However heavily built-up locations where land acquisition will be a serious social issue are excluded from providing with service roads. In view of social aspects and density of population of Kerala, the entire built-up needs to be provided with service road. But when considering the economy of the project, proposal of service roads are restricted to unavoidable locations. Table 1.11 shows the location identified for the provision of service roads along the project road.

Table 1.11 :Proposed Service Road Locations  
Existing Chainage (Km) Sl. No. From To Design Chainage (Km) From To

Side (LHS/RHS /Both)

Length (km)

Width (m)

1 2 3 4 5 6

318400 342000 342600 344460 349200 352200

318800 342300 343000 345400 350400 353090

318+440 335+570 336+100 338+100 342+740 345+770

318+670 335+900 336+600 338+930 343+940 346+690
1. 15

Both Both Both Both Both LHS

230 330 500 830 1200 920

7 7 7 7 7 7

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

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Existing Chainage (Km) Sl. No. From To

Design Chainage (Km) From To

Side (LHS/RHS /Both)

Length (km)

Width (m)

7 353090 8 353390 9 354060 10 357000 11 359800 12 376400 13 382600 14 388600 15 16 17 407700 18 413100 19 414450 20 21 22 427000 23 427200 24 427700 25 432000 Total Length

353390 354060 354200 357600 363200 377000 383850 389920 392150 411800 414450 427000 427200 427700 431000 434200

346+690 346+990 347+660 350+610 353+420 369+670 375+930 382+010 383+900 385+060 401+000 406+450 406+900 410+650 417+160 418+220 418+420 418+920 423+370

346+990 347+660 347+800 351+210 356+370 370+580 377+520 383+290 384+280 385+340 404+020 406+900 410+580 416+250 418+220 418+420 418+920 422+100 424+500

Both LHS Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both RHS Both Both

300 670 140 600 2950 910 1590 1280 380 280 3020 450 3680 5600 1060 200 500 3180 1130 61670

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Slip Roads are proposed along with vehicular underpass . The Table 1.12 below gives the locations of  slip roads.  Table 1.12: Proposed Slip Road  
Existing chainage Sl No From To Design chainage From To Both/LHS/RHS Side Length (m) Width (m)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Bypass Bypass 362740 Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass 412490 412910 413160 425145 Bypass 433930

Bypass Bypass 363520 Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass 412910 413160 413305 425960 Bypass 433858

321920 330010 356370 370585 377520 379060 384280 388595 392585 405640 406060 406310 416345 425630 428370

322700 330800 357150 371365 378300 379840 385060 389385 393375 406060 406310 406455 417160 428200 428442

Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both RHS Both Both Both Both

780 790 780 780 780 780 780 790 790 420 250 145 815 2570 72

5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5

1.6.5 Geometric Improvements

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

The IRC design standards have been followed, keeping the TOR in mind, while formulating the highway design standards for the project. The Project stretch of NH-17 in Kerala traverses through plain and rolling terrains. Hence, IRC guidelines (IRC 73, 1980) “Geometric Design Standards for Rural (Non-urban) Highways” have been used for formulating the design standards. The design speeds to be adopted for various categories of road are as follows: • • • Ruling design speed of 100 kmph and minimum speed of 80 kmph for the NH-17 in plain terrain. Design speed of 60 kmph for entrance/ exist slip roads; Design speed of 40 kmph for service and other roads.

Improvements to horizontal Geometry The horizontal geometric design has been carried out using Highway Software Packages complying with the IRC / MORT&H requirements. There are 63 curves which does not satisfy the design speed 100 kmph. So geometric improvements are proposed at these curves . Improvements to Vertical Geometry Vertical geometry of the entire length of the project is found satisfactory except for a small stretch of km 320+000 – km 323+000 but this has no significance on the improvement proposal because of the Ponnani bypass.

1.6.6 Improvement of Intersections
23 major junctions and 33 minor junctions are proposed for improvements in the project stretch. 15 Vehicular Underpasses, are included in the improvement proposals which allow safe movement of cross road traffic. The lists of r junctions proposed for improvements are given in Table 1.13 Table 1.13: Details of Improvement of Intersections
Existing Chainage (km) Design Chainage (km)

Sl. No.

Road Leads To

Junction

Proposed Improvements

Major Junctions

1 2 3 4 5 6

318+090 319+440 Ponnani bypass Ponnani bypass 340+160 365+590

318+090 319+060 330+400 332+420 333+715 358+800

Kuttipuram Ponnani Start Bypass

3 legged 3 legged 5 legged 4 legged 3 legged 3 legged

Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

Edappal,Ponnan i Ponnani Kolimpadi Ponnani End – Bypass

Chavakkad Bypass End Vadanappilly Realignment Start

7

376+930

370+200

3 legged

At grade Junction

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No.

Existing Chainage (km)

Design Chainage (km)

Road Leads To

Junction

Proposed Improvements

8

380+270

373+600

Vadanappilly Realignment End Triprayar Realignment Start Triprayar Realignment Ends Chendrapinni Realignment Start Chendrapinni Realignment Ends Moonnupeedika Bypass start Moonnupeedika Bypass Ends Mathilakam-1 Bypass Start Mathilakam-1 Bypass Ends Mathilakam-2 Bypass Ends Kodungallur Bypass Start Kodungallur Bypass End Paravur Start Bypass

3 legged

At grade Junction

9

380+980

377+310

3 legged

At grade Junction

10

387+100

380+510

3 legged

At grade Junction

11

389+885

383+285

3 legged

At grade Junction

12

392+040

385+230

3 legged

At grade Junction

13

395+170

388+350

3 legged

At grade Junction

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

397+250 398+610 403+030 406+020 407+970 411+780 414+410 Paravur Bypass 426+170

390+490 391+850 396+335 399+220 401+100 404+135 406+890 411+400 417+400

3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular underpass At grade Junction

Ernakulam,Parav ur Paravur ends Bypass

23

438+670

428+940

Ernakulam City 438.800 Aluva

4 legged

Grade separator

Minor Junctions Ponnani Bypass Ponnani Bypass Crossing Vehicular Underpass

1

322+310

4 legged

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No.

Existing Chainage (km)

Design Chainage (km)

Road Leads To

Junction

Proposed Improvements

2 3 4 5 6

343+240 352+900 358+190 358+730 363+110

336+840 346+470 351+800 352+340 356+760

Kadavanadu Kunnamkulam, Beach Aviyoor,Beach Mallad,Beach Chavakkadu Pulikkakadavu, Benglamkadav u Pulikkakadavu, Mangalamkad avu Market,Polakkal Manappad, Pokkancheri Vadanappally – Thrissur Road Triprayar Thrissur Road Valappad Village Road Murinathode Beach Kattoor, Kazhibram Chandrappinni – Village Road Mathilakm Bypass start Pallivalavu Tippu Sulthan Road Iringalakkuda, -

3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass

7

370+640

363+850

3 legged

At grade Junction

8 9 10

371+570 372+640 375+280 Vadanapall y Bypass TriprayarValappad Bypass TriprayarValappad Bypass 387+950 389+110 Chendrapin ni Bypass 405+420 Mathilakam I Bypass -

364+840 365+910 368+540

4 legged 3 legged 3 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction

11

370+975

4 legged

12

377+910

4 legged –

13 14 15

379+450 381+350 382+510

4 legged 3 legged 4 legged

16 17

384+670 398+750

4 legged 3legged

18 19

392+980 393+280

4 legged 4 legged

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No.

Existing Chainage (km)

Design Chainage (km)

Road Leads To

Junction

Proposed Improvements

20

413+560 Paravur Bypass

406+060

Moothakunnam Chungam, Bypass Crossing Karianthuruth, Kachanikode temple Koorikuzhi, Kottuvallikavu temple Koonammavu Hospital Aluva Olanad, Devaswom padam Puthenpalli, Varapuzha Mannamthuruth i, Varapuzha Njattuvetty ferry, Naduvilppadi Eloor, Cheranelloor Chitoor road Bypass Cross Edappally Cross Road -

3 legged

Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass

21

416+755

4 legged

22

426+450

417+680

4 legged

At grade Junction

23 24 25

427+080 427+350 427+820

418+300 418+590 419+020

4 legged 3 legged 3 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

26 27

429+200 430+020

420+400 421+220

4 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction

28

430+560

421+760

4 legged

At grade Junction

29 30 31 32 33

431+380 431+800 433+535 Paravur Bypass Edapally Bypass

422+580 423+000 424+735 426+020 426+620

4 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass

1.6.7 Underpass
Underpasses is proposed at 15 locations for segregating local traffic and through traffic thus reducing the congestion at the intersection. Table 1.14: Proposal for Underpasses

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No

Existing Chainage (Km)

Design Chainage (Km)

Opening Size

Usage

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

318+090 Bypass Bypass 363+110 Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass 413+560 Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass

318+090 322+310 330+400 356+760 370+975 377+910 379+450 384+670 388+990 392+980 406+060 411+400 416+755 426+020 426+620

1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m

Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass

1.6.8 Flyover
Flyover is proposed at km 438+600 (Design ch. 428+940) where project road meets NH-47.The Details of proposed flyover is given in Table 1.15 below. Table 1.15: Proposal for Flyover
Sl. No Existing Chainage (Km) Design Chainage (Km) Span Foundation

1

438+600

428+940

5 x 35+1 x46+5x35-Second Tier 10 x 35+1 x46+10x35-Third Tier 10 x 21+1x 38+1x15-Arm

Pile

1.6.9 ROB
A two lane ROB construction is in progress at km 437+700 (Design ch. 427+545) at Edappalli where the project road encounter with a level crossing. An additional 12m wide ROB is proposed at this location. Details of proposed ROB are given in Table 1.16 below Table 1.16: Details of Proposed ROB
Sl. No Existing Chainage (Km) Design Chainage (Km) Span Foundation

1

437+700

427+545

13 x 21.6+ 1 x 7.85+ 30+1 x 7.85+13 x 21.6

Pile

1.6.10 Bridges and Cross Drainage Structures
The proposal for Bridges & Cross Drainage structures during widening and improvement is given in Table 1.17 & 1.18 respectively. All new structures are proposed with 3 lane configuration
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India 1. 21

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram - Edapally in the state of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Table 1.17: Widening/Improvement proposal for Bridges
Sl. No Existing Chainage (Km) Design Chainage (Km) Proposed Scheme Span Arrangement Type of Super structure Type of Substructure Abutment Pier Type of Foundation

BRIDGES – Existing NH17 falling in Project stretch

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

319+030 342+300 369+520 382+400 412+180 412+800 413+750 430+300 431+000

318+820 336+000 362+890 375+670 404+860 405+450 406+210 421+465 422+730

New Four lane Additional lane Additional lane Additional lane Additional lane Additional lane Additional lane Additional lane Additional lane Two Two Two Two Two Two Two Two

11x 32.5 1 x 16 .5+ 7 x 24.5 + 1 x 16.5 12 x 26.5 1 x 7.1 1 x 31.7 + 7 x 32.3 + 1 x 31.7 1 x 32.73 + 9 x 33.3 + 1 x 32.75 1 x 24 1 x 16.0 4 x 20 + 5 x 30+3 x 50+ 1x 83 + 1x 120+1 x 83+ 3 x 50+5 x 30+3 x 20 3 x 18 1x20 + 1x30 + 1x20 1 x 18 1 x 18

PSC I girder PSC I girder PSC I girder RCC Slab PSC I girder PSC I girder RCC T-beam RCC T-beam PSC box +RCC box + RCC voided slab

RCC Solid RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC

RCC Rect. RCC Rect. RCC Rect. RCC circular RCC circular -

Circular Pier Pile Well Open Well Well Well Well Well

BRIDGES – Bypasses

10 11 12 13

14+470-Ponnani 1+145Chavakkad 1+428 - Paravoor 1+716 - Paravoor

333+200Ponnani 357+740Chavakkad 407+215 Paravoor 407+770 Paravoor

New Four lane New Four lane New Four lane New Four lane

RCC T-beam RCC/PSC beam RCC T-beam RCC T-beam

RCC RCC Solid RCC RCC

RCC circular RCC circular -

Pile Pile Pile Pile

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram - Edapally in the state of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No

Existing Chainage (Km)

Design Chainage (Km)

Proposed Scheme

Span Arrangement

Type of Super structure

Type of Substructure Abutment Pier

Type of Foundation

14 15 16

2+244 - Paravoor 4+564 - Paravoor 9+080 Paravoor

408+085 Paravoor 410+620 Paravoor 416+300 Paravoor

-

New Four lane New Four lane New Four lane

1 x 18 3 x 25 3 x 30

RCC T-beam PSC I girder PSC I girder

RCC RCC RCC Solid

RCC Rect. RCC circular

Pile Pile Pile

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Table 1.18: Culvert Proposal Particulars NH 17 (Existing Road) Culverts 124 NH 17 (Existing culverts Falling Within Project Stretch) Existing 91 173 Total number of Structures to be widened/constructed Number of Culverts along Bypasses/Realignment Proposed 82

Table1.19: List of Culverts proposed for improvements Sl no CD No. Exisitng Chianage Design Chianage Size of Opening Type of Structure Proposal

  1 2 3 4

  318/1 318/2 319/1 319/2

  317+795 317+885 318+065 318+895

  317+795 317+885 318+065 318+515

Exisitng Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Ponnani

  Pipe Pipe pipe Pipe

  Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

320/1 320/2 320/3 320/4 321/1 321/2 321/3 322/1 323/1 323/2 324/1 324/2 324/3

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

319+090 319+468 319+510 319+825 320+020 320+510 320+910 321+602 322+612 322+935 323+238 323+535 323+910

Single cell 2x1.5 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x 1.5 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x1.5 Pipe 1X1.2 Single cell 2x3 Single cell 2x3 Single cell4x3 Single cell 4x3

Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Pipe Box Box Box Box

Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening

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Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

Sl no

CD No.

Exisitng Chianage

Design Chianage

Size of Opening

Type of Structure

Proposal

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

325/1 325/2 326/1 326/2 327/1 328/1 328/2 329/1 329/2 330/1 330/2 330/3 331/1 331/2 331/3 332/1 332/2 332/3 333/1 333/2 334/2 334/3

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

324+360 324+713 325+030 325+380 326+675 327+080 327+500 328+000 328+410 329+000 329+410 329+730 330+420 330+565 330+805 331+161 331+410 331+707 332+244 332+430 333+350 333+533

Single cell 4x3 Single cell 5x2.8 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 1.5x 1.5 Single cell1.5x 2 Single cell 1.5x 2 Single cell 1.5x 2 Single cell 1.5x 2 Single cell 1.5x 2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Single cell 2x2 Pipe 1X1.2 Single cell 1.5x 2 Existing

Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Pipe Box

Widening Widening Widening Widening Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening Widening New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction Widening

40 41 42

334/4 337/2 337/3

340+420 342+640 342+665

333+970 336+210 336+235

Single cell 1.5x1.5 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2

Box Pipe Pipe

Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.

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Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

Sl no

CD No.

Exisitng Chianage

Design Chianage

Size of Opening

Type of Structure

Proposal

43 44 45 46

337/4 345/1 353/1 355/1

342+690 350+905 358+728 361+208

336+260 344+325 352+348 354+838

Pipe 1X1.2 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell1.5x1.5 Chavakkadu

Pipe Box Box Box

Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

357/1 358/1 358/2 358/4 358/5 359/1 359/2 359/3 359/4 359/5

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

356+930 357+410 357+488 357+820 357+965 358+108 358+360 358+450 358+520 358+580

Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 2X1.2 Pipe 2X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 2X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Existing

Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Box Box Box Box

New construction New construction New construction New construction New construction New construction New construction New construction New construction New construction

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

359/6 361/1 362/1 362/2 362/3 363/1 363/2 364/1 366/1

365+610 367+625 367+810 368+045 368+150 368+905 369+390 370+360 372+505

358+920 360+835 361+020 361+255 361+360 362+115 362+600 363+625 365+770

Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Vadanappilly

Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box Box

Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.

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Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

Sl no

CD No.

Exisitng Chianage

Design Chianage

Size of Opening

Type of Structure

Proposal

66 67 68 69

371/1 372/1 373/1 374/1

bypass bypass bypass bypass

370+550 371+110 372+700 373+410

Single cell 1.5x1.5 Pipe 1X1.2 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Existing

Box Pipe Box Box

New Construction New Construction New Construction New construction

70 71

375/1 375/2

380+705 380+778

374+035 374+108

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Triprayar

Box Box

Reconstruction Reconstruction

72 73

380/1 380/2

bypass bypass

379+000 379+600

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Pipe 1X1.2 Existing

Box Pipe

New Construction New Construction

74 75

382/1 383/1

387+922 389+045

381+332 382+455

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Chendrappinni

Box Box

Reconstruction Reconstruction

76 77 78 79 80

384/1 384/2 385/1 385/2 385/3

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

383+422 383+845 384+240 384+752 384+915

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 2x1.5 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Existing

Box Box Box Pipe pipe

New construction New construction New construction New construction New Construction

81 82 83 84

386/1 386/2 387/1 388/1

392+410 392+750 393+355 394+085

385+600 385+940 386+545 387+275

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Moonnupeedika

Box Box Box Box

Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

85

389/1

bypass

388+195

Single Cell 1.5x1.5

Box

New construction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.

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Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

Sl no

CD No.

Exisitng Chianage

Design Chianage

Size of Opening

Type of Structure

Proposal

86

391/1

bypass

390+682

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Mathilakam 1

Box

Reconstruction

87 88 89 90 91 92 93

393/1 393/2 393/3 395/1 395/2 396/1 396/2

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

392+520 392+645 392+940 394+495 394+535 395+180 395+550

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Existing

Box Pipe Pipe Box Box Box Box

New construction New construction New construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New construction

94 95 96 97

397/1 398/1 398/2 399/1

403+420 403+810 404+082 405+390

396+740 397+130 397+402 398+710

Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Twin Cell 3.0x2.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Mathilakam 2

Box Box Box Box

Widening Reconstruction Widening Reconstruction

98

400/1

bypass

399+015

Pipe 1X1.2 Existing

Pipe

New Construction

99 100 101

400/2 401/1 401/2

406+450 406+885 407+280

399+880 400+315 400+710

Single Cell 3x2 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Kodungallur

Box Box Box

Widening Reconstruction Reconstruction

102 103 104

402/1 404/1 404/2

bypass bypass bypass

401+900 403+120 403+580

Single Cell 3.5x2 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Existing

Box Box Box

New Construction New Construction New Construction

105

406/2

413+290

405+770

Pipe 1X1.2

Pipe

Reconstruction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.

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Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

Sl no

CD No.

Exisitng Chianage

Design Chianage

Size of Opening

Type of Structure

Proposal

106 107 108

406/3 407/2 407/3

413+505 413+965 413+700

405+985 406+515 406+780

Pipe 1X1.2 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Paravoor

Pipe Box Box

Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130

407/4 408/1 408/3 408/5 409/2 409/3 409/4 409/5 410/1 410/2 410/3 410/4 410/5 410/6 410/7 410/8 411/1 411/2 411/3 411/4 411/5 411/7

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

406+950 407+150 407+480 407+820 408+305 408+435 408+745 408+800 409+000 409+390 409+500 409+605 409+715 409+770 409+815 409+960 410+070 410+115 410+180 410+225 410+400 410+865

Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 5x1.2 Single Cell 2.5x1.5 Single Cell 2.5x1.5 Pipe 1x1.2 Twin Cell 2.5x2.5 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 2x1.2 Pipe 2x1.2 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2

Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Box Box Pipe Box Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe

New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction

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Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

Sl no

CD No.

Exisitng Chianage

Design Chianage

Size of Opening

Type of Structure

Proposal

131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148

412/1 412/2 412/3 412/4 412/5 413/1 413/2 414/1 414/2 414/3 416/1 416/2 416/3 417/1 418/1 418/2 418/3 418/4

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

411+105 411+190 411+680 411+800 411+850 412+490 412+650 413+060 413+200 413+325 415+200 415+895 415+995 416+110 417+010 417+135 417+180 417+310

Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 2x1.2 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Existing

Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Box

New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction

149 150 151 152 153 154 155

421/1 422/1 422/2 422/3 422/4 422/5 422/7

429+600 429+810 429+925 430+015 430+045 430+125 430+365

420+800 421+010 421+125 421+215 421+245 421+325 421+565

Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2

Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe

Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

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Sl no

CD No.

Exisitng Chianage

Design Chianage

Size of Opening

Type of Structure

Proposal

156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166

422/8 422/9 423/1 424/1 424/2 424/3 424/4 424/5 424/6 425/1 425/2

430+480 430+655 430+945 432+085 432+235 432+375 432+460 432+590 432+750 432+940 433+160

421+680 421+855 422+145 423+285 423+435 423+575 423+660 423+790 423+950 424+140 424+360

Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Edappally

Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Box Box Box Box

Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction Reconstruction

167 168 169 170 171

426/1 427/2 427/3 427/4 428/1

bypass bypass bypass bypass bypass

425+875 426+240 426+500 426+800 428+160

Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe 1x1.2 Existing

Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe

New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction New Construction

172 173

429/1 429/2

bypass bypass

428+658 428+870

Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe 1X1.2

Pipe Pipe

Reconstruction Reconstruction

1.6.11 Toll Plazas
Considering the traffic characteristics, two Toll Plazas are needed. It is recommended to construct the Toll Plazas at following locations: • Toll Plaza I – Km 344+160(Design Ch. km 337+700)

Toll Plaza II – Bypass(Design Ch.413+700)

1.6.12 Truck Lay bays and Rest Area

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On street parking of trucks were observed at many places in the project road and adequate number of truck lay byes shall be provided to segregate this from the through traffic. Proposed truck lay locations are given in Table 1.20.
Table 1.20: Proposed Location of Truck Lay-Byes

 

       

 

1 2 3 4

Bypass 365+350 392+820 431+850

327+700 359+050 386+020 425+150

LHS RHS LHS LHS

Ponnani Bypass Thangalpadi Kaipamangalam Varapuzha

1.6.13 Bus Bays / Bus Shelters Considering the overall safety of traffic and minimum hindrance to through traffic, bus bays have been proposed at 70 locations along the project road stretch. 1.6.14 Road Furniture, Traffic signs, Road marking, & Landscaping Road markings and road signs standards are designed as per IRC: 35 -1997 and IRC: 67 - 2001 respectively. Road and traffic signs are proposed at appropriate places to give caution and to inform the traffic (vehicular and pedestrians) for safe and smooth movement and the provision are made based on the IRC guidelines. Normally signs are placed on the left side of the road; in certain cases however these may be placed overhead or on either side of the road depending upon the site condition, for clear uninterrupted visibility. Wherever the width of the median is less than 5m in rural section, glare Blockers / glare screens may be proposed for safe nighttime driving. All signs shall be of Retro-reflective grade, for undisturbed traffic movement in the night times. Wherever applicable, roadside landscaping will be planned. But care would be taken not to reduce the sight distance at any of the intersections. Street lighting are proposed in urban and semi urban sections of the project road, at major intersections, Truck lay bays and amenities as per the guidelines given in IS: 1944 (Part I & II) 1970. 1.6.15 Alternate Option for reducing the project cost for making the project viable

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In order to reduce the overall cost to meet required financial viability to carry out the project under BOT Toll basis, consultants have restricted the bypasses to two lane and has excluded 14 underpasses, flyover which were part of original proposal.

1.6.15.1 Bypass
Bypasses which aggregates to a length of 49.72 km are restricted to two lane with main carriageway 7m.

1.6.15.2 Widening Scheme
Modified widening scheme after restricting the bypasses to two lane and removal of underpasses and flyover. Earthern shoulder is reduced to 1m from the standard 2m mentioned in manual of Four laning. Table 1.21: Proposed Widening Type / CSExisting Road Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Bypass Sl. No

Concentric widening without Service Road(median 2m)-1A Eccentric widening without Service Road ( median 2m)-1B New Four lane without Service Road (median 2m)-1C Concentric widening with Service Road (median 2m)-2A Eccentric widening with 7m Service Road(median 2m)-2B New Four lane with 7m Service Road on both side(median 2m)-2C New Four lane with 7m Service Road on LHS (median 2m)-2D Underpass Approach at 318+090 with 5.5m Slip Road-3C
Widening Type/ CS

14430.00 15820.00 6290.00 6080.00 8030.00 4690.00 1590.00 680.00
Length in m

1 2

RHS widening without Service Road in bypass (median 4.5m)-1D New two lane in bypass-1E

2255.00 46835.00

1.6.15.3 Service Roads Table 1.22 :Proposed Service Road Locations  

                               

                                     

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Total Length

                                                                                                                                                     
34340

     

                         

 

 

           

 

1.6.15.4 Junction Imrprovements
Table 1.23: Details of Improvement of Intersections

                   

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Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

                 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

318+090 319+440 Ponnani bypass Ponnani bypass 340+160 365+590 376+930 380+270 380+980 387+100 389+885 392+040 395+170 397+250 398+610 403+030 406+020 407+970 411+780 414+410 Paravur Bypass

318+090 319+060 330+400 332+420 333+715 358+800 370+200 373+600 377+310 380+510 383+285 385+230 388+350 390+490 391+850 396+335 399+220 401+100 404+135 406+890 411+400

Kuttipuram Ponnani Start Bypass

3 legged 3 legged 5 legged – Bypass 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 3 legged 4 legged 4 legged

Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

Edappal,Ponnani Ponnani Kolimpadi Ponnani End

Chavakkad Bypass End Vadanappilly Realignment Start Vadanappilly Realignment End Triprayar Realignment Start Triprayar Realignment Ends Chendrapinni Realignment Start Chendrapinni Realignment Ends Moonnupeedika Bypass start Moonnupeedika Bypass Ends Mathilakam-1 Bypass Start Mathilakam-1 Bypass Ends Mathilakam-2 Bypass Ends Kodungallur Bypass Start Kodungallur Bypass End Paravur Start Bypass

Ernakulam,Paravur

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Paravur ends

   
Bypass

 

 

22

426+170

417+400

3 legged

At grade Junction

23

438+670

428+940

Ernakulam City 438.800 Aluva

4 legged

At grade Junction

Minor Junctions Ponnani Bypass 343+240 352+900 358+190 358+730 363+110 370+640 371+570 372+640 375+280 Vadanapally Bypass TriprayarValappad Bypass TriprayarValappad Bypass 387+950 389+110 Chendrapinni Bypass Ponnani Crossing Bypass 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 3 legged – 4 legged At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

322+310 336+840 346+470 351+800 352+340 356+760 363+850 364+840 365+910 368+540

Kadavanadu Kunnamkulam, Beach Aviyoor,Beach Mallad,Beach Chavakkadu Pulikkakadavu, Benglamkadavu Pulikkakadavu, Mangalamkadavu Market,Polakkal Manappad, Pokkancheri Vadanappally Thrissur Road

11

370+975

12

377+910

Triprayar - Thrissur Road Valappad – Village Road Murinathode Beach Kattoor, Kazhibram Chandrappinni Village Road –

4 legged

At grade Junction

13 14 15

379+450 381+350 382+510

4 legged 3 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

16

384+670

4 legged

At grade Junction

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Mathilakm start

   
Bypass

 

 

17

405+420 Mathilakam I Bypass -

398+750

3legged

At grade Junction

18 19

392+980 393+280

Pallivalavu - Tippu Sulthan Road Iringalakkuda,

4 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction

20

413+560 Paravur Bypass

406+060

Moothakunnam Chungam, Bypass Crossing Karianthuruth, Kachanikode temple Koorikuzhi, Kottuvallikavu temple Koonammavu Hospital Aluva Olanad, Devaswom padam Puthenpalli, Varapuzha Mannamthuruthi, Varapuzha Njattuvetty ferry, Naduvilppadi Eloor, Cheranelloor Chitoor road Bypass Cross Edappally - Cross Road

3 legged

At grade Junction

21

416+755

4 legged

At grade Junction

22

426+450

417+680

4 legged

At grade Junction

23 24 25 26 27

427+080 427+350 427+820 429+200 430+020

418+300 418+590 419+020 420+400 421+220

4 legged 3 legged 3 legged 4 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

28

430+560

421+760

4 legged

At grade Junction

29 30 31 32 33

431+380 431+800 433+535 Paravur Bypass Edapally Bypass

422+580 423+000 424+735 426+020 426+620

4 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

1.6.15.5 Underpass
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Underpasses is proposed at one location for segregating local traffic and through traffic thus reducing the congestion at the intersection. Table 1.24: Proposal for Underpasses
Sl. No Existing Chainage (Km) Design Chainage (Km) Opening Size Usage

1

318+090

318+090

1 x 10.5m x 5m

Vehicular Underpass

1.6.15.6 ROB
A two lane ROB at km 437+700 (Design ch. 427+545) is already constructed in Edapally bypass which can cater for the proposed two laning.

1.6.15.7 Bridges and Cross Drainage Structures
The proposal for Bridges & Cross Drainage structures during widening and improvement is given in Table 1.25 & 1.26 respectively. All new structures are proposed with 3/6 lane configuration. All bridges and culverts along the bypasses are of 3 lane configuration as the bypasses are restricted to two lane configuration. Table 1.25: Widening/Improvement proposal for Major Bridges

Sl. Existing No

Design

Chainage Chainage (Km) (Km)

Proposed Span Type of Type of Scheme Arrangement Super Substructure structure

Type of Foundation

Abutment Pier BRIDGES – Existing NH17 falling in Project stretch
1 319+030 318+820 New Four lane 11x 32.5 PSC I girder RCC Solid 2 342+300 336+000 Additional Two lane Additional Two lane Additional Two lane Additional Two lane 1 x 16 .5+ 7 x 24.5 + 1 x 16.5 12 x 26.5 PSC I girder PSC I girder PSC I girder PSC I girder RCC RCC Rect. RCC Rect. RCC circular RCC circular Pile RCC Rect. Circular Pier

3

369+520

362+890

RCC

Well

4

412+180

404+860

1 x 31.7 + 7 x 32.3 + 1 x 31.7 1 x 32.73 + 9 x 33.3 + 1 x 32.75

RCC

Well

5

412+800

405+450

RCC

Well

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6

431+000

422+730

Additional Two lane

4 x 20 + 5 x 30+3 x 50+ 1x 83 + 1x 120+1 x 83+ 3 x 50+5 x 30+3 x 20

PSC box +RCC box + RCC voided slab

RCC

Well

BRIDGES – Bypasses 7 1+145Chavakkad 357+740Chavakkad New Two lane 1x20 + 1x30 + 1x20 RCC/PSC beam PSC I girder 3 x 30 PSC I girder RCC S olid RCC Solid RCC RCC circular RCC Rect. RCC circular Pile Pile Pile

8

4+564 Paravoor

410+620 Paravoor

New Two lane

3 x 25

9

9+080 Paravoor

416+300 Paravoor

New Two lane

Table 1.26: Widening/Improvement proposal for Minor Bridges

Sl. Existing Design Proposed Span Type of Type of Type of No Chainage Chainage Scheme Arrangement Super Substructure Foundation (Km) (Km) structure
1 382+400 375+670 Additional Two lane 2 413+750 406+210 Additional Two lane 3 430+300 421+465 Additional Two lane 1 x 16.0 RCC Tbeam RCC Well 1 x 24 RCC Tbeam RCC Well 1 x 7.1 RCC Slab RCC Open

BRIDGES – Bypasses
4 14+470Ponnani 1+428 Paravoor 333+200Ponnani 407+215 Paravoor New Two lane New Two lane 3 x 18 RCC Tbeam RCC Tbeam RCC RCC circular Pile

5

1 x 18

RCC

Pile

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6

1+716 Paravoor 2+244 Paravoor

407+770 Paravoor 408+085 Paravoor

New Two lane New Two lane

1 x 18

RCC Tbeam RCC Tbeam

RCC

-

Pile

7

1 x 18

RCC

-

Pile

2
Summary of EIA and IEE
2.1 Environmental Impacts and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report presents the Environmental Assessment of the proposed improvement for the 120.6 Km of NH 17 in the State of Kerala. The report has worked out with mitigation measures to minimise or mitigate the impacts identified during the course of project implementation. Guidelines formulated by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India were referred for preparing EIA. Apart from this various Indian Acts and regulations were reviewed such as, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (amended in 1978 and 1988), Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and EIA Notifications of 1994 and 2006. Field inspections at all the sensitive locations, collection of secondary information for all the environmental components, baseline environmental monitoring, and discussions with the officials, NGOs and local public were conducted to establish the baseline environmental status of the study area and to assess the impacts of the proposed improvements to the project road. The baseline environmental monitoring was conducted from September 2006 to October 2006. The ambient temperature during the monitoring period varied between 32.6 oC to 21.4 oC and relative humidity ranged between 96% and 88%. The solar radiation recorded ranged between 28.2 Watt hour/sq m and 0.20 Watt hour/sq m. Average rain fall during the study period was around 404.01 mm. Predominant winds were mostly from South-Southwest and South West directions with frequencies of 13.7% and 11.5 % respectively. Calm conditions prevailed for 0.7 % for the total time. The baseline status of ambient air quality has been established through a scientifically designed network of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) stations set up at 11 locations along the project road representing different conditions like rural, urban, residential and commercial areas. The monitoring was done for 24 hrs for two days in a week for four weeks. All the ambient air quality parameters were well within the NAAQ Standards at all the locations except an Increase in SPM level at Kottappuram
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. Surface water samples were collected from seven locations along the project road. Important chemical parameters like Chlorides, Hardness and Total Dissolved Solids were observed to be very high at five locations due to the backwater influence. Biological Indicator – total Coliforms – is also found to be higher than the permissible limits at five locations. Faecal Coliforms were present at four locations. Ground water samples were collected from six locations. All the physical and chemical parameters of ground water at all the locations were within the IS:10500 standards. Total Coliforms were more than the permissible limits, but faecal Coliforms were absent Out of the 11 locations where ambient noise level monitoring was done along the project road, eight locations represented residential areas and three locations represented commercial areas. Among the eight locations representing residential areas, noise levels at four locations were below the permissible limit set by the CPCB during day time and night time. At two locations the noise levels during day time and night time were above the permissible limits. Out of the remaining two locations representing residential areas, day time noise level at one location and night time noise level at other location was above the permissible limit. Among the three locations representing commercial areas, noise level at one location was below the permissible limits for commercial areas during day time and night time. Day time noise level at the remaining two locations was above the permissible limit. The project road is not passing through any forest areas, wildlife sanctuaries and protected areas. However, the project road is passing through Vembanad-Kol wetland system, which is a Ramsar Site. Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary is situated 5 Km away from the project road. No rare/threatened species of flora or fauna is present in the project area except the mangroves along the canals, rivers and estuaries crossing / abutting the project road. About 56,300 trees – mainly coconut trees - are present in the proposed 45-m right of way of the project road since it is passing through agricultural areas. The cost of implementing above mitigation measures as estimated in Table 2.1, works out to Rs.15.315 Crores. The operational cost of the same is estimated at Rs. 1.5 lakhs per annum during the first three years and Rs. 27.93 lakhs per annum from 4th year onwards Table 2.1Cost Estimates for Environmental Management Plan

Item A. Total Cost During Construction Phase 1. Provision of Sewage and sanitation facilities for the construction camps, including maintenance for 3 years 2. Provision of Water Supply Facilities for the construction camps 3. Plantation of twice the number of trees to be cut (56300 x 2), and their

Assumptions

Cost in Rs

Lump Sum

1,000,000.00

Lump Sum

600,000.00

Rs.900/Tree x 112,600 Trees

101,340,000.0 0

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Item fencing and maintenance for 3 years 4. Shrub plantation in the median for the entire corridor @ 500 saplings (single row) per kilometer for built-up areas with 1.5m of median and @1000 saplings (double row) for rural areas with 4.5 m of median, and their fencing and maintenance for 3 years 5. Transplantation of Mangroves and their maintenance for 3 years 6. Environmental Monitoring 6.1. Air Quality Monitoring

Assumptions

Cost in Rs

Rs. 500/Shrub x 80300 Shrubs (@ 500 shrubs/Km x 53.6 Km + 1000 shrubs/Km x 53.5 Km)

40,150,000.00

Lump Sum

2,500,000.00

Rs. 2000/location x 10 locations x 3 seasons x 3 years Rs. 2500/location x 4 locations x 2 seasons x 3 years Rs. 500/location x 10 locations x 3 seasons x 3 years Rs. 2000/location x 10 locations x 2 seasons x 3 years Rs. 35000/season x 3 seasons x 3 years Rs. 800/trip x 10 trips/day x 365 days x 2 years Lump sum

180,000.00

6.2. Water Quality Monitoring

60,000.00

6.3. Noise Monitoring

45,000.00

6.4. Soil Quality Monitoring

120,000.00

6.5. Mobilisation Charges

315,000.00

7. Dust Suppression at Site

5,840,000.00

8. Severances & Others (including training, workshops, awareness campaigning etc.) Total cost during construction phase

1,000,000.00

153,150,000.0 0

B. Annual Cost During Operational Phase during First Three Years

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Item 1. Environmental Monitoring 1.1. Air Pollution Monitoring

Assumptions

Cost in Rs

Rs.2000/location x 5 locations for 3 seasons Rs.500/location x 10 locations for 3 seasons Rs. 35000/season x 3 seasons

30,000.00

1.2. Noise Monitoring

15,000.00

1.3. Mobilisation Charges

105,000.00

Total annual cost during operational phase during first three years C. Annual Cost During Operational Phase from 4th Year Onwards 1. Maintenance of trees and shrubs Rs.25000/km x 111.73 Km

150,000.00

2,793,250.00 2,793,250.00

Total annual cost during operational phase from 4th year onwards
Source: Analysis

 

UNITS

1 hectare 1 hectare 1 hectare 1 hectare 1 acre 1 cent 1 meter 1 sq. meter

= = = = = = = =

2.47 acres 10,000 sq. meter 11,959.90 sq. yards 2.5 Acres 100 cents 40.47 sq. mts. 3.28 foot 10.76 sq. foot

ABBREVIATIONS
BPL SRMC CBO CPR DC DPR DRRO EA ESDU FGDs GoK GRC

: : : : : : : : : : : :

Below Poverty Line Schedule of Rates Mangalore Circle Community Based Organization Common Property Resources Deputy Commissioner Detailed Project Report District Resettlement and Rehabilitation Officer Executing Agency Environmental and Social Development Unit Focus Group Discussions Government of Karnataka Grievance Redress Committee

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08)

Preliminary Project Report Volume V – Resettlement Action Plan

Ha IA LA LAA / LA Act R&R M&E NGO NH Act NHAI NHDP NPRR PAF PAP PC PIU RAP RoW Existing Milestone Chainage Proposed Design Chainage

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Hectare Implementing Agency Land Acquisition Land Acquisition Act Resettlement and Rehabilitation Monitoring and Evaluation Non-Governmental Organisation National Highway Act National Highway Authority of India National Highway Development Programme National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation Project Affected Family Project Affected Person Project Consultant Project Implementation Unit Resettlement Action Plan Right of Way 00/000 00+000

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DEFINITIONS
Assistance refers to the support provided to PAPs in the form of ex-gratia payments, loans, asset services, training and skills development, etc. in order to improve the standard of living and mitigate the negative impacts of the Project. Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households are households whose monthly income is less than a designated sum as determined by the Government of India. Compensation refers to the amount paid under the National Highways Act, 1956 for private property, structures and other assets acquired for the project. In this context, compensation refers to payments made by the Government when title of a property is transferred from a private entity to the government. Cut-off-Date. The date of notification under Subsection (1) of Section 3A, of National Highways Act, 1956 will be considered as cut-off date for PAPs who have legal title to the land/property, proposed for acquisition. In the case of Squatters, Encroachers and unauthorized occupants the date of census/socio-economic survey conducted by the Design DPR Consultants will be considered as the cut-off date for entitlements under the Project. Deputy Commissioner is the Administrative head of a District and overall in charge of any Land Acquisition for public purposes within the respective district. Encroachers are persons who have extended their building, agricultural lands, business premises or work places into government lands. Private Property Owners/ Titleholders are those who have legal title to land, structure and other assets. Project Affected Person (PAPs) are persons who have economic interests or residence within the project impact area and who may be adversely affected directly by the Project. Project Affected Persons include those displaced, those losing commercial or residential structures in whole or part, those losing agricultural land or homesteads in whole or part, and those losing income sources as a result of project action, or having losses as described in the Entitlement Matrix. PAPs include both titled and non-titled persons experiencing resettlement impacts due to the Project. Project Affected Family (PAFs) means consisting of such persons, his or her spouse, minor sons, unmarried daughters, minor brothers or unmarried sisters, father, mother and other members residing with him and dependent on him for their livelihood. Project Impact Area refers to the area proposed for the project under NH Act 1956, involving permanent land acquisition. Replacement Value of the acquired assets and property is the amount required for the Project Affected Household to replace/reconstruct the lost assets through purchase in open market. Squatters are those who have illegally occupied lands for residential, business and or other purposes. Tenants, Leaseholders and Sharecroppers are those persons having bonafide written or unwritten tenancy agreements, with a private property owner having clear
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property titles, to occupy a structure or land for agricultural use, residence and business. Vulnerable Households, for Project compensation entitlement purposes, are households headed by women (not having any other earning members in the family above 14 years of age), disabled persons, indigenous persons, and BPL households.

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3
Summary of Resettlement Action Plan
3.1 Introduction
The project road comprises the portion of NH-17 from chainage 317+710 at Kuttippuram in Malappuram district to chainage 429+440 at Edappally in Ernakulam district of Kerala. Topographically this stretch runs through plain land parallel to the coast line except for first 3 km, which runs through the rolling terrain of Malappuram district. The project road passes through three administrative boundaries– Malappuram, Trissur and Ernakulam districts of Kerala state Out of the total 111.730 km. first 25.14 km. passes through Malappuram district where the settlement pattern is less dense comprising residential, commercial and agricultural lands. As the road enters Thrissur district the population density increases and the land use is predominantly residential with commercial hubs in between. This stretch, which accounts for 53% of the total project length passes through many commercial centers with dense ribbon development on either side of the road. The last stretch of 24.182 km. in length, passes through urban centers of Paravur and Kanayannur taluk in Ernakulam and has very narrow winding roads with very closely and densely knit settlements. Following are the demarcations of the entire project road based on administrative boundaries: Section-I - Malappuram District - (Existing Chainage 317+ 710 to 349+280 & Design chainage: 317+710 to 342+820) Section-II - Thrissur District (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 409+110 & Design chainage: 342+820 to 405+260)

Section-III - Ernakulam District - (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 438+600 & Design chainage: 405+260 to 429+440)

3.2 Project Area Profile
Although project stretch has 65% rural settlements and an urbanization rate of only 12 per cent, it has a mixed character of urban and rural settlements due to the peculiar settlement pattern of Kerala which is called as urban-rural continuum. An analysis of the socioeconomic indicators like literacy rate and work force participation shows that level of development is more or less same in all levels of analysis - state, district and project area. The project area has a high literacy rate of 82 per cent and a WFPR of 30 per cent, which is just below the state average of 32 per cent. Gender disparity in terms of literacy rate and WFPR is less in project area as well as state and districts, except Malappuram, which shows very low participation of women in economic activities. The analysis of work force composition in the

and a reduction in the workers in agricultural sector. The declining status of agricultural sector of Kerala is further established by the finding that marginal and small sized land
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3.1

National Highways Authority of India

holdings dominates the agricultural sector and the presence of medium or large holdings that give more economic returns are very limited. Since Kerala’s economy is dominated by secondary and tertiary sector, especially tourism and construction industries, adequate infrastructure facilities like highways are a pre-requisite to boost and sustain the growth in these sectors. Moreover, the project highway has a very strategic importance in the state of Kerala due to following three reasons – Firstly, NH -17 is one of the three major transportation routes of the state; secondly, it gives easy access to major cities in Karnataka and Maharashtra and the regional transportation network, and thirdly, it increases the connectivity of the Kochi Port to the surrounding region. Hence the project, once completed, will increase the connectivity of the project area as well as the state as a whole to the surrounding region and the rest of the country, thereby facilitating an increased market access, locally, nationally and globally. The initial field reconnaissance conducted shows that the land use along the project stretch is dominated by residential and commercial activities with ribbon development at commercial nodes along the highway. The size of these commercial nodes varies widely and it repeats frequently at irregular intervals. The residential belts in between these nodes have small shops as well. In addition to commercial buildings, these nodal centres have religious structures, institutional structures like schools, hospitals, panchayat offices, post offices etc. Following are the socially sensitive stretches identified for the project area. Malappuram district: The existing highway here passes through two types of sensitive areas. The heavily built up area in the commercial areas of Chamravattom and Poonani town and the presence of numerous mosques very adjacent to the existing ROW, which is concentrated more towards RHS., due to the above said social sensitiveness bypass is proposed at the same locations. Trichur district: Following are the socially sensitive features along the existing road passing through Trichur district, which are saved by either realignment or bypass. • • • Presence of numerous mosques till it reaches Chavakkad Municipality Heavily built settlements of Chavakkad and Kodungalloor municipalities Presence of numerous commercial nodes and centers with ribbon development on either side of the highway that repeats at frequent but irregular intervals. These activity centres have heavily built up areas on either sides of the road.

Ernakulam district: The settlements along the existing highway in Ernakulam district was characterized by following socially sensitive features, which are also saved by either realignment or bypass • • • All the settlements here are in urban areas – except at Moothakunnam. Hence settlements are denser and closely packed than previous stretches. The settlements in Paravur are very dense; the already proposed bypass reduces the impact upon its social fabric. Even though the main temple complex at Thirumooppam on RHS is located away from the edge of existing ROW, people are against cutting of big banyan tree in front of it and are not willing to part with the temple compound and pond for the project purpose.
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For the dense settlements of Cheranallur, Kunnumpuram and Edappally a bypass is under construction for 30m. ROW.

3.3

R&R Policies and Entitlement Framework

This Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) document describes the principles and approach to be followed in minimizing and mitigating negative social and economic impacts of the project. The RAP has been developed based on applicable act/policies viz. National Highways Act1956, and National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation-2003 (NPRR) and following are the main R&R Policy Principles: (i) (ii) The negative impact on persons affected by the project would be avoided or minimized. If individuals or a community must lose all or part of their land, means of livelihood, or social support systems, so that a project might proceed, they will be compensated and assisted through replacement of land, housing, infrastructure, resources, income sources, and services, in cash or kind, so that their economic and social circumstances will be at least restored to the pre-project level. All acquisition of land would be under National Highways Act, 1956, which provides for compensation for properties to be acquired. Support would be extended for meeting the replacement value of the property. The persons affected by the project who does not own land or other properties but who have economic interest or lose their livelihoods will be assisted as per the broad principles brought out in this policy.

(iii)

(iv)

Broad entitlement framework for different categories of project-affected people has been assessed and is given in the entitlement matrix. Provisions will be kept in the budget for those who were not present at the time of enumeration. However, anyone moving into the project area after the cut-off date will not be entitled to assistance.

(v)

The PAPs will be fully informed and closely consulted. All information related to resettlement preparation and implementation will be disclosed to all concerned, and people’s participation is being ensured in planning and implementation of the project.

(vi) (vii)

Before taking possession of the acquired lands and properties, compensation and R&R assistance will be made in accordance with this policy. Institutions of the PAPs, and, where relevant, of their hosts, will be protected and supported. PAPs will be assisted to integrate economically and socially into host communities so that adverse impacts on the host communities are minimized and social harmony is promoted.

Compensation and assistance: In general terms, the PAPs under the project will be entitled to five types of compensation and assistance: (i) Compensation for loss of land, crops/trees; (ii) Compensation for structures (residential/commercial) and other immovable assets; (iii) Assistance for loss of business/wage income; (iv) Assistance for shifting; and, (V) Assistance for re-building and/or restoration of community resources/facilities. A detailed description of each compensation measures and assistance is provided in the Entitlement Matrix. Census Surveys: Census of PAPs located within the project impact area will be undertaken as part of implementation to document their status. This will provide a demographic overview of
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the affected population, profiles of household assets and main sources of livelihood. The survey will identify occupants/users of land/property other than owner/titleholders such as tenants, sharecroppers, leaseholders, encroachers, squatters, wage labourers and employees of business. Owners without title deed but having customary rights over the affected property will also be identified and recorded. This will mainly include schedule tribes/nomadic tribes. Census survey will cover 100% of the PAPs within the project impact area Cut-off-Date: Final technical drawings and topographic details will be used for reference during the Census Surveys and FGDs. The cut-off date for those who have legal title is the date of Notification under Sub-section (1) of Section 3A of NH Act. The date of census during revalidation of RAP would be the cut-off date for those who do not have legal standing for eligibility of assistance under the project. People moving into the project area after this cutoff date will not be entitled for support. Persons, who were not enumerated during the census but can show documentation or evidence that he/she is rightfully an Affected Person, will be included. The Project Authority (NHAI) is responsible for such verification during revalidation of RAP. Only those PAPs within the project affected area will be considered eligible for support under the project. Common Property Resources: All the affected facilities should be restored, if not possible, will be replaced by the project. Affected community will be closely consulted during the same. In case of reconstruction, pucca structure will be constructed irrespective of condition of affected structure during census survey. Outstanding loans: In cases where the land/property is under mortgage, the outstanding amount shall be paid to the lending agency from the total compensation package. Landowners shall pay un-expired lease to leaseholders and rental deposits to tenants. The same shall be done by government in case of government lands which are given on lease/tenancy. The Entitlement Matrix provides guidance for compensation, resettlement, and rehabilitation assistance planning. The Entitlement Matrix lists various types of losses, identification/eligibility and entitlements and provides basic parameters for preparation of compensation and resettlement benefits.

3.4
3.4.1

Assessment of Resettlement Impacts
RoW Status Verification

The ROW observed in the project road varies from 10 m. to 30 m except at few locations, where it is as less as 7m. ROW pillars are missing at many places. The limited ROW coupled with poor road geometry makes the present riding conditions along this road extremely bad.

3.4.2

Proposed Project Design

The highway design incorporating the social concerns envisages widening of the existing road to a uniform ROW of 45m. incorporating the bypasses already proposed by NH-division of PWD, Kerala. These bypasses, proposed for 30m. ROW, avoid the heavily built up settlements of Ponnani, Chavakkad, Kodungallur, Paravur and Edappally. It also proposes 6 more bypasses in addition, to reduce the social impact at Vadanappally, Triprayar, Valappad, Chendrapinni, Moonnupeedika, Perinjanam and Mathilakam. Among the PWD
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proposed bypasses, Ponnani bypass is under construction for an ROW of 30m., land has been surveyed for 30m. ROW in Chavvakkad, Kodungalloor and Paravur and land has been acquired for Edappaly bypass 3.4.3

Loss of Land

The additional land required for the widening of the existing road to four lane was estimated based on the land acquisition plan prepared by consultants. Accordingly, an additional area of 753.80 acres (305.06 Ha.) would be required which includes both private land and government land. Out of this an area of 734.39 acres would be required for road, 9.21 acres for toll plaza, 3.21 acres for truck lay bays and 6.98 acres for rest areas. The same is summarized in Table 3.1
Table 3.1: Land requirement for the proposed highway design Design Feature Land to be acquired (sq.mts.) (Acres)

Road Toll Plaza Truck Lay bays Rest Area Total

2972058.171 37291.15 13009.97 28266.61 3050625.901

734.39 9.21 3.21 6.98 753.80

3.4.4

Loss of Structures

This category includes loss of structures and semi-open within private or government plots. The census survey conducted for all the structures affected under the project covered major structures like residential, commercial and religious buildings as well as minor structures like compound walls bus stops, pump houses, wells, water taps etc. It reveals that a total of 5596 structures are affected out of which, 3991 are major buildings and remaining are minor structures or immovable assets. Structures which are located in the land already acquired for bypass is not considered in this survey, details are given in Table 3.2

Table 3.2: Category of buildings affected Major buildings No. of structures Percentage to total

Residential Commercial Resi. + Comm. Public buildings Religious Total

2120 1499 106 223 43 3991

53.12 37.56 2.66 5.59 1.07 100

*Inlcudes taps, graveyards, pump houses, wells, ponds, sheds, bus stops etc.

3.4.5

Loss of other Immovable Assets

Loss of other immovable assets include loss of compound walls, fences, loss of taps, wells, bus stops, sheds, pump houses etc. From the census survey of structures it has been found that there are 431 PAFs whose compound wall alone is affected. Majority of the compound walls
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are pucca and privately owned. Impact on other minor structures like public taps, bus shelters, etc. causes loss of another additional 1174 structures. These compensation for structures have been budgeted in the RAP budget as per prevailing schedule of rates published by PWD.

3.4.6

Impact on Livelihood/ Tenure

Out of a total of 3991 PAFs being affected by impact on structures, 1605 PAFs, which comprises owners of commercial structures and res-commerical structures looses their livelihood due to the loss of commercial spaces. As the census survey covered only the structure affected PAFs who are owners of the affected structures, the number of people who are employed in these commercial buildings and looses their livelihood are not covered. The non-availability of updated land records was another constraint in estimating the accurate number of PAFs.

3.5

Public Consultation and Information Dissemination

To ensure that people’s concerns are incorporated in the project design and to promote public understanding about the project and its implications public consultation and information dissemination is treated as a two way process where the information is passed on to public and their feed back is sought to understand their issues at the project preparatory stage itself. The major key stakeholders who participated in consultations at various stages include all Project Affected Families/Persons (PAF/Ps); elected representatives, Community leaders of PAPs, representatives of CBOs; designated staff of Project Management Unit (PIU); DC / officials from DC’s office and local Revenue officials; and representatives of local NGOs. The consultative process is continued through out the project period – design preparation, project initiation, project implementation and post implementation periods. In the project preparation stage the information gathered from field surveys are incorporated in the design phase of the project and preparation of RAP. At this stage methodologies used for public consultation and information dissemination includes reconnaissance survey; Focus Group Discussions; census of PAFs and public consultations. During the census survey public consultation were held with different stakeholders of the project at various locations, the details of which are given in the Table 3.3.
Table 3.3: Details of Public Consultation Details of consultation Subjects and issues discussed

Consultation with tenants & employees Date & Time : 23/11/06, 4 pm, Venue: Vyapara Bhavan hall, Trippayar Consultation with land owners and building owners. Date & Time : 27/11/06, 4 pm Venue: G.L.P. School, Moonu Peedika Consultation with Building owners, Tenants & Employees Date & Time : 25/11/06, 11Am Venue: Vyapara Bhavan hall,
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Objective of the project was shared with the people Demand for parking space During the public consultation at Tripayar people strongly demanded for a bypass. Objective of the project was shared with the people During the consultation people demanded on going market rates as compensation for their affected properties. Objective of the project was shared with the people During the public consultation at Chandrappinni people strongly demanded for
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Details of consultation

Subjects and issues discussed

Chendrappinni Consultation with land owners and building owners Date & Time: 27/11/06, 6 Pm Venue: SRV UP School, Chendrappinni Consultation with Polititians , Govt. officials & Public Date & Time:11/06/07, 10 Am to 12.30Pm Venue: Munsipall town hall ,Kodungallur Consultation with Polititians , Govt. officials & Public Date & Time:11/06/07, 2 Pm to 5 Pm Venue: Munsipall town hall ,Guruvayur

a Bypass. Objective of the project was shared with the people People strongly expressed their anxiety regarding the mode of payment and conpensation rates. The width of the road shall be 20m/30m instead of 45m so that number of affected buildings can be reduced . There should be proper resettlement action plan considering the market value according to the policy of Central Govt for those who lost the home and livelihood in specified time frame. Rehabilitation, resettlement and income restoration for all persons getting affected due to project Rehabilitation and income restoration for road side vendors. Issues discussed and concerns raised Updated the officials about the detailed objectives and current status of the project so that they can also disseminate information to the people to make them aware of the same. Sought the required cooperation for the collection of secondary data including land records. Odfficials expressed the opinion that rehabilitation and resettlement issues such as loss of livelihoods and assets of the people especially STs, SCs, OBCs should be adeqauetly taken care in the RAP. Appraised the officials about the objectives and current status of the project.

Govt. officials met Dr.M.Beena.IAS, District Collector and District Magistrate, Thrissur District. Mr.K.Premachandra Kurup, District Collector and District Magistrate, Malappuram District. Smt.Rama Devi, Deputy Collector (LA), Eranakulam, District Mr. T.N. Prathapan, M.L.A, Nattika,.Thrissur

3.6

Institutional Framework

NHAI has an Environmental and Social Development Unit (ESDU) at the corporate level. ESDU/ NHAI will undertake the revalidation of RAP before the start of RAP implementation and will engage services of Project Consultant (PC) for the same. For the project implementation NHAI will set up Project Implementation Unit (PIU) at Palakkad. PIU will be headed by Project Director (PD), GM/DGM level officer.

NHAI

General ManagerESDU Project Consultant Deputy General Manager- Environment Resettlement Manager
E-7

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Independent Monitoring Agency
National Highways Authority of India

Project Director - PIU

Figure 3.1: Institutional Framework: RAP Implementation R&R Cell will be established as a part of PIU, and three District Resettlement and Rehabilitation Officers (DRROs), one for each project district, will be appointed to R&R Cell. DRROs will assist PD in all land acquisition and resettlement activities under the project. Institutional arrangement for RAP implementation is given in Figure 6.6. NHAI will be the Executing Agency (EA) for project. ESDU of NHAI will oversee all RAP implementation activities, and will engage service of non-governmental organization (NGO) for RAP implementation and an independent agency for external monitoring. DRROs (R&R Cell) at PIU will undertake RAP implementation, with the help of NGO appointed by ESDU. All the RAP activities will be regularly reported to ESDU by PIU. PIU/R&R Cell will establish networking with district administration (District Collectors office, Revenue Department etc.) to ensure timely implementation of RAP. Networking with central/state/town departments will also be established (i) so as to link proposed income restoration packages with government schemes, if any; (ii) for restoration/replacement of community infrastructure such as water supply, sewerage, electricity/telephone network, irrigation canals etc.; and (iii) for restoration/replacement of CPR’s/public amenities such as shrines, schools etc. Implementation Schedule: Implementation of RAP will include land acquisition, and resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) activities. The implementation process will cover (i) identification of cut-off date and notification; (ii) verification of properties of PAPs and estimation of their type and level of losses and distribution of identity cards; (iii) preparation of PAPs for relocation through consultation, however, the process of consultation will continue throughout the RAP implementation and (iv) Relocation and resettlement of the PAPs. It is assumed that implementation will take minimum 10 months to hand over land for civil works. Training for income restoration, if proposed, however shall continue for another month, estimating a total period of 11 months for RAP implementation. No civil works should begin until all PAPs receive the approved compensation package. Civil works should therefore be linked with the completion of land acquisition, schedule are given in Table 3.4
Table 3.4: Schedule of Land Acquisition and Resettlement Activities
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Sl. No.

Land Acquisition and Resettlement Activities

Start Date

Completion Date

Duration (days)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Revalidation of RP RP Approval by NHAI Issue of identity cards Recruitment of Implementing NGO Information sharing, consultations and disclosure meetings Payment of compensation and assistance for relocation Relocation and resettlement of PAPs Skill Training of vulnerable groups / income restoration activities, if proposed during revalidation Possession of acquired property Internal monitoring External monitoring Handover acquired lands to contractors for construction Start of Civil Works

1st of Month 1 1st of Month 3 1st of Month 4 1st of Month 3

30th of Month 2 30th of Month 3 30th of Month 4 30th of Month 3

90 30 30 30

All through the RP implementation period 1st of Month 5 1st of Month 6 30th of Month 7 15th of Month 8 30th of Month 11 30th of Month 9 60 75 90 (Optional) 30

8

15th of Month 8

9 10 11 12 13

1st of Month 9

All through the RP implementation period All through the RP implementation period 1st of Month 10 5th of Month 10 onwards

Source: WSAPL’s Social Team

Monitoring and Evaluation: RAP implementation will be closely monitored to provide Project Implementation Unit (PIU) with an effective basis for assessing resettlement progress and identifying potential difficulties and problems. For monitoring and evaluation (M&E), PIU will appoint an independent agency to undertake external monitoring of the entire project. The independent agency will monitor the project on a half-yearly basis and submit its reports directly to the PIU. This monitoring will include, administrative monitoring, socio-economic monitoring and impact evaluation. Internal monitoring will track indicators such as the number of families affected, resettled, assistance extended, infrastructure facilities provided, financial aspects, such as compensation paid, grant extended etc. R&R Cell at PIU will carry out internal monitoring, who will report to the Project Director on monthly basis in prescribed monitoring formats. These formats, to be filled by District Resettlement and Rehabilitation Officers (DRROs) at R&R Cell, will indicate actual achievements against the targets fixed, and reasons for shortfall, if any. Based on the reports, the PIU will monitor and evaluate every three (3) months the overall progress on each R&R component within the project and determine actions to be taken by the PIU in situations where the set objectives are not being met.

3.7

RAP Budget

RAP budget, can be broadly subdivided into following three subsections: The final RAP budget is given in table 6.15
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(a) Assistance for Loss of Land (b) Assistance for Loss of Structures and Assets (c) R&R Implementation

Assistance for Loss of Land
Assistance for land has been prepared based on the land acquisition plan where the extent of land area that needs to be acquired is calculated for each survey number in each village. Based on the land use of the area to be acquired along the existing road and the bypasses, unit rates of land is applied to get the total assistance for loss of land. The land value includes 30% solatium, 12% interest and Registration and stamp duty.Table.3.5
Table 3.5: Cost of Land Sl. No. Components of Cost Unit (Acres) 753.8

A : Total Affected Land Area

B : LA Cost 1 2 3 4 Total
Note: * Includes cost of land for 2 toll plazas and other amenities

Cost (in INR Crores) Cost of LA Solatium @ 30% of the LA Cost Interest @ 12 % of the LA cost Registration rate (8%) and stamp duty (1%) charges 178.52 53.56 21.42 16.07 269.57

The cost of acquiring land of 753.8 Acres for the project comes to Rs. 269.57 Crores, of these Rs 53.56 crores are solatium (30%) and an additional Rs. 21.42 Crores and Rs. 16.07 crores would be required to be disbursed to the PAFs as interest rate and Registration expanses respectively. Intrest would be paid at the rate of 12% while registration expanses are at the rate of 9 %( 8% registration and 1% stamp duty) This solatium would be given to take care of other exigencies like registration of newly purchased property and stamp duty fees etc.

3.8

R&R Assistance

R&R assistance and other cost include the one time ex-gratia amount Rs 10000/family.The category wise number of affected families is given in table 3.6
Table 3.6: R&R Assistance Sl.No Assistance Unit Quantity (Nos) Unit Rate (Rs.) Amount in Rs. Crore

1 2 3

R&R Assistance to Land(Only Land)affected PAF* R&R Assistance to land & structures affected Families R&R Assistance to Non title holders Total

PAF PAF PAF

23744 5596 4815 34155

10000 10,000 10,000

23.74 5.60 4.82 34.16

3.9

Final RAP Budget

Final Resettlement Action Plan and budget has been summarized in Table 3.7.
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Table 3.7: Final RAP Budget Final RAP Budget

A : Land Cost Total Affected Land Area (in acres) Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 Components of Cost Cost of LA Solatium @ 30% of the LA Cost Interest @ 12 % of the LA cost Registration rate (8%) and stamp duty (1%) charges Sub Total B .Structure Cost Total No of Affected Structure Sl. No. 1 2 3 Components of Cost Replacement value of structures including compound walls Replacement value of semi-open structures Replacement value of other fixed assets Sub Total C .R&R Assistance Total Number of Affected Families Sl. No. 1 2 3 Components of Cost R&R Assistance to Land affected PAF* R&R Assistance to land & structures affected Families R&R Assistance to Non title holders Sub Total Grand Total (A+B+C) 34155 Cost (in INR Crores) 23.74 5.60 4.82 34.16 469.68 5596 Cost (in INR Crores) 157.77 7.01 1.18 165.96 753.8 Cost (in INR Crores) 178.52 53.56 21.42 16.07 269.57

4
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Project Cost Estimates
Project Background
The cost estimates have been prepared for widening of the existing two lane road to a four/six lane  carriageway including strengthening of the existing pavement, strengthening / widening of existing  bridge structures, construction of new bridges, rehabilitation and reconstruction / widening of cross  drainage structures, longitudinal drains, underpasses,  junction improvements, road furniture, street  lighting, toll plaza, bus bays, rest area ,Social and Environmental cost etc.  
The Construction cost of the project road has been worked out for following options 2 3 4 5 Widening to four lanes. (concentric widening) Widening to four lanes. (eccentric Widening) New Construction along existing carriageway New construction for bypass

5.1
4.2.1

Methodology
Basic Rates

The process involved in the cost estimation has been described under the following sections.

The rate analysis has been carried on the basis of STANDARD DATA BOOK for analysis of rate (First  revision) and adopting Schedule of rate provided by Kerala PWD. The basic rates for each  construction items were analyzed on the basis of material study undertaken, the prices of  construction materials collected from various sources and on the anticipated distance of source to  the site of work. For items where these rates are not available, the rates were adopted as per  previous experience of the consultant / Market rates and prevailing percentage over these rates  were considered.   4.2.2 Quantification of Items

The quantification of road works, Bridges and CD structures items are calculated from typical cross  sections and drawings. The construction items covered in cost estimates are: site clearance;  earthwork in new embankment, and widening; Pavement in carriageways and shoulders; culverts;  Bridges, ROB s and under passes; Repair to bridges and culverts; Repair and Rehabilitation for  structures; Road Junctions; Pavement markings, Signs and other Appurtenances; Drainage and  Protective works; Service Roads; Toll plaza ,Parking and Lay bye; Environmental Protection and  Resettlement; Land Acquisition; Electrical Works, Miscellaneous items, Utility relocations, etc.  4.2.3 Land / Environmental / Social costs

The project corridor passes through plain area. Widening of the existing carriageway has been assumed to be on either side of the existing pavement or symmetrical central widening where the existing carriageway comes under the median. Land acquisition cost has been calculated as given in social screening report based on the area calculated from the alignment report. Environmental costs include the cost of cutting of trees (compensatory afforestation), rehabilitation of water source such as hand pumps, wells, bore wells and ponds, noise protection measures near sensitive locations, air, water and noise quality monitoring at different stages and the cost of environmental enhancement along the project road.
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4.2.4

Strengthening / Widening & New Construction of Roads

Estimates have been worked out on the basis of typical cross section of the pavement. Pavement composition for overlay and new construction are taken as per the pavement designs.

4.2.5

Bridges, Culverts & Other Structures

All structures including CD works are proposed to be widened/ constructed to suit 4/6‐lane  configuration in general. The structures comprise of major and minor bridges, ROBs, underpasses  ,culverts and Flyover.  4.2.6 Repairs to Bridges & Culverts

A study of the existing Bridges and Culverts has been carried out to ascertain the structure to be retained or reconstructed and the cost of the Repairs, Rehabilitation, and upgrading is worked out based on the condition survey by experienced bridge engineers and re habilitation experts. The cost thus arrived is included in the bill.

4.2.7

Junction Improvements

The existing road requires horizontal & vertical geometric improvements and also camber correction and profile correction. In order to link the project road with cross roads, major and minor types of junction improvements have been considered.

4.2.8

Longitudinal Side Drains

Longitudinal unlined drains are provided in rural stretch and RCC drains are provided in built up and Hill cutting sections. Necessary provision for the same is made in the cost estimate.

4.2.9

Road Furniture

Road furniture such as crash barriers/guard-rails, road signs, pavement markings, mileage stones, retro reflective sign boards, etc. have a provision in the cost estimate.

4.2.10 Toll Plaza
There will be Two toll plazas along the project corridor at selected location for collection of traffic. Suitable provision is made in the cost estimate for this purpose.

4.2.11 Bus Bays
Bus-bays are proposed at 35 locations on both sides. The shelter structure shall be structurally safe and functional so as to protect the waiting passengers adequately from sun, rain, and wind.

4.2.12 Utility Relocation
Broad provision is made in the cost estimate for raising and or shifting electric supply lines, telephone lines, OFC lines and other utilities.

4.2.13 Contingencies
The contingencies are considered as 3% of the total construction cost.

4.2.14 Contractor’s Profit
As this project is planning to implement on BOT scheme 10% contractor’s profit is not considered during the rate analyis.

4.3

Project Cost

The estimated cost for 4/6-lane widening of 4-6 laning of Kuttipuram – Edapally Section of NH – 17 , project road is presented in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 : Cost Estimate for 4‐6 laning of  Kuttipuram – Edapally Section 
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BILL NO.

BILL NAME

AMOUNT (Rs.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

SITE CLEARANCE AND DISMANTLING EARTH WORK SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSES BITUMINOUS WORKS CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS NEW BRIDGES AND UNDER PASSES ROAD OVER BRIDGES (ROB'S) TRAFFIC SIGNAGES, ROAD MARKING AND OTHER APPURTENANCES PROTECTIVE WORKS, DUCTS & OTHER SERVICES ELECTRICAL WORKS TOLL PLAZA REPAIR AND REHABILITATION MISCELLANEOUS TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST 10& escalation for one year (crores) CONTINGENCIES/QC @ 3% OF CIVIL COST (crores) IC & PRE-OPERATIVE EXPENSES @1% OF EPC (crores) FINANCING COST @ 2% DEBT AT 70:30 DER (crores) ESCLATION @ 5% PER ANUM DURING CONSTRUCTION PERIOD (CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 30 MONTHS) (crores) INTEREST DURING CONSTRUCTION @ 11% PA ON DEBT (AT 70:30 DER) (TERM LOAN) (crores) TOTAL CONCESSIONAIRE COST(crores) TOTAL LENGTH OF PROJECT ROAD (KM) PER KM COST ( CRORES ) NHAI COST LAND ACQUISITION, ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION,R&R, UTILITY SHIFTING ETC., (crores) TOTAL NHAI COST(crores) TOTAL PROJECT COST ( CONCESSIONAIRE + NHAI COST ) (crores) TOTAL PROJECT PER KM COST ( CRORES )

17,215,348 497,948,090 1,696,670,777 1,490,591,381 298,189,283 3,442,290,179 198,759,957 106,968,600 640,246,019 123,456,650 170,357,894 57,279,451 98,165,867

8,838,139,543 928.001
27.84 9.558 12.824 79.454 87.280 1144.957 111.73 10.25 485.20 485.20 1630.16 14.59

5
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Εχονομιχ & Φινανχιαλ Αναλψσι σ
5.1 Economic Analysis
5.1.1 Introduction
The objective of the cost benefit economic analysis is to identify and quantify the benefits and costs associated with the project (with respect to 4/6 laning of Kuttippuram- Edappali (NH-17) in the State of Kerala from the existing double lane). This analysis will help in identification of the optimum solution along with the economic viability in terms of its likely investment return potential. This is carried out in order to test the economic feasibility of the identified improvement to the project road and assist National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), Government of India in taking decision. The economic feasibility study is carried out using the overall guidelines stipulated by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) and the World Bank in their manuals (Economic Evaluation of Highway Projects in India (SP – 30, 1993), Manual for Road Investment Decision Model’ (SP – 38, February 1992) and Manual for HDM - 4 Version 1.3 (World Bank, 2000)). These manuals are accepted by the World Bank, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MORT&H) and National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) for highway projects in India. The cost – benefit analysis is carried out by using the discounted cash flow (DCF) technique to obtain the economic internal rate of return (EIRR) and economic net present value (ENPV) for the proposed investments linked with the project. This is followed by a ‘sensitivity analysis’ carried out by increasing or decreasing the critical factors affecting the cost and benefit streams of the proposed project, in order to ascertain their effect on the economic feasibility indicators i.e. ENPV, EIRR. In broad terms, the society costs pertaining to the highway development, to be considered in this analysis includes:

Agency costs
• • • Capital cost Recurrent cost for maintenance (annual & periodical) Residual value at the end of analysis period

Road user costs
• • • Vehicle operating cost Travel time cost Accident cost

The analysis period of the project has considered 30 years operation period from the completion of the improvements. Base year for the analysis is 2006. Hence the period from 2006 to 2040 has been considered for economic evaluation for the project road.

5.1.2

Alternatives
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The project road is divided into three sections, further divided into seventeen homogeneous sections (HS), for analysis of the improvement proposals. The details are given in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Details of Sections on the Project Road Sections Chainage (Start) Chainage (End) Length (Km)

1.KuttipuramChavakkad 2.ChavakkadKodungallur 3. Kodungallur- Edapally Total

318+000 362+000 407+700 318+800

362+000 407+700 438+600 438+600

44.00 45.7 30.9 120.60

The following alternatives are considered for the economic analysis.
• Without Project Situation: The first is a ‘without project’ (do minimum) where the existing two lane project road is considered as such in its present condition and without widening. In this case, the future traffic volume is assumed to continue to flow along the existing road only. In the HDM model analysis, this ‘do minimum’ alternative will form the first / base strategy against which all other strategies will be compared. With Project Situation: This comprises of the strategy of the ‘with project’ situation in the HDM model. In order to arrive at the net benefits associated with this strategy, these are compared to the ‘do minimum’ / ‘without project’ alternative. The improvement proposals considered for ‘with project situation’ are as follows:
Existing Length (Km) Proposals

Table 5.2: Project Proposals Sections HS

1.KuttipuramChavakkad 2.ChavakkadKodungallur

1.Kuttipuram- Chavakkad 1. Chavakkad to bypass 2. Chavakkad Bypass section 3. Chavakkad- Vadanappally 4. Vadanappally Bypass 5. Vadanappally- Triprayar 6. Triprayar bypass 7. Triprayar- Chendrappinni 8. Chendrappinni Bypass 9.Chendrapinni Moonnupeedika 10. Moonnupeedika Bypass -

44.0 1.2 2.2 11.6 3.2 3.7 3.4 3.8 0.9 3.4 1.9 1.4 4.3

Widen to 4L along existing alignment Widen to 4L along existing alignment 4L Bypass Widen to 4L along existing alignment 4L Bypass Widen to 4L along existing alignment 4L Bypass Widen to 4L along existing alignment 4L Bypass Widen to 4L along existing alignment 4L Bypass Widen to 4L along existing alignment 4L Bypass

11.Moonnnupeedika- Mathilakam 12. Mathilakam Bypass 1
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Sections

HS

Existing Length (Km)

Proposals

13. Mathilakam 14. Mathilakam Bypass 2 15. Mathilakam- Kodungallur 3.KodungallurEdapally 1. Kodungallur- Edapally

2.5 0.6 1.6 30.9

Widen to 4L along existing alignment 4L Bypass Widen to 4L along existing alignment Widen to 4L along existing alignment

All these proposals are considered with flexible pavement option only as it is recommended during feasibility study. By comparing the above alternatives, the net agency costs, the net user costs and the net project benefits associated with the project during its analysis period of 30 years, are calculated for the proposed improvement options. These calculations are performed in order to arrive at their economic internal rate of return (EIRR) and economic net present value (ENPV). Based on the results of the analysis, the economic feasibility for the project was determined.

5.1.3

Analysis Model

HDM model (HDM III Manager, Version 3.0, 1995) has been further improved by the World Bank in their recently released HDM – 4 (Version 1.3). Considering the improved advantages, HDM – 4 (Version 1.3) is used for the present economic analysis, which also calculates vehicle user costs based on the pavement deterioration models. However, as there is no provision available for sensitivity analysis in the HDM – 4, computer spreadsheets developed for this purpose are used for sensitivity analysis, for which the HDM model based outputs are used as inputs. The World Bank initiated a Highway Design and Maintenance study in 1969 using leading research institutions and road agencies during which empirical relationships between road roughness, maintenance and vehicle operating costs were derived. These were incorporated in the HDM III in 1987, which was the result of 18 years research in Australia, Brazil, France, India, Kenya, Sweden, UK and USA. Between 1971 and 1982, four major empirical studies were carried out which included the Road User Cost Study (RUCS) carried of by MOST, Govt. of India (Dr. L.R Kadiyali). The results of this study and those of Kenya, Brazil and the Caribbean were the basis of the relationships developed for HDM III model released in 1987 and further improved on in its HDM Manager Version 3.0. This version released in June 1995 was tested in more than 20 countries before its release and because of its strong development background in India, considered most appropriate for the analysis of this project. The latest version HDM – 4 (Version 1.3) released in 2000 by the World Bank, is the further improvement over their HDM Manager Version 3.0, supported with adequate test applications in different situations, including the Indian highway projects. This justifies the relevance of HDM – 4 for Indian highway projects and use for the present study.

5.1.4

Input Data

5.1.4.1Capital cost
The capital cost of construction of the proposed widening including the phasing of investment during the construction period has been calculated. These include the costs for
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construction package being evaluated in the economic analysis. The costs of different pavement options have been considered. The analysis period of the project for is taken as 35 years from the base year:

• • • •

Base Year 2006 Construction period – 2008 to 2010 Project opened for traffic – 2011 End of the analysis period –2040

Number of operating years after project improvement, considered for economic analysis – 30 years.

Components considered for the calculation of construction cost include: • • • • • All highway construction components including survey, design etc. Social displacement costs Land acquisition Costs of environmental protection measures Contingencies and Quality control during construction period

The capital cost is summarised in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3: Details of the Construction Cost considered for Economic Analysis Flexible Option Financial Cost (Rs. In Millions) Economic Cost (Rs. In Millions)

Sl. No.

Section

1

Kuttipuram- Edapally

13955.1

12559.6

5.1.4.2 Maintenance Cost (Recurrent Cost)
The maintenance works considered for the alternatives in the analysis include: Flexible Pavement: • • • Annual Maintenance (Routine maintenance): Surface dressing / Resealing Overlay

Details of the maintenance programme followed for the project road sections under different situations along with their unit rates, followed in the analysis, are summed up below in Table 5.4 (a) to 5.4 (c). All the financial costs pertaining to construction and maintenance (Agency Cost) were converted into economic costs by using the conversion factor of 0.9 and the same were used in the economic feasibility analysis. This is as per the guidelines of International funding

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institutions for highway projects in India, though IRC suggests a conversion factor to be in the range of 0.80 – 0.85 (IRC: SP - 30, 1993).
Table 5.4(a): Annual / Periodical Maintenance Programme for the Improved Project Road Sections – Flexible Pavement Sl. No. Maintenance Starting Interval /Intervention Overlay Type year Thickness (mm)

1 2 3

Resealing Overlay Patching

2015 2020 2010

Scheduled (every 5 years) Responsive (When Roughness > 4.0 IRI & cumulative ESAL > 150 MSA) Annual (Repairing all potholes)

25 SDBC 50 BC 100%

Table 5.4(b): Annual / Periodical Maintenance Programme for all Existing Road Sections under unimproved situation Sl. No. Maintenance Starting Interval /Intervention Overlay Type year Thickness (mm)

1 2 3

Resealing Overlay Patching

2010 2015 2005

Scheduled (every 5 years) Scheduled (every 10 years) Annual (Repairing all potholes)

20 SDBC 25 SDBC 100%

Table 5.4(c): Unit Cost Rates for Maintenance – Flexible SI. No. Details

Financial Cost

Economic Cost

1 2 3 4 5 6

Patching (Rs per Sq m) Resealing 25 mm (Rs per Sq m) Resealing 20 mm (Rs per Sq m) Overlay (50 mm) (Rs per Sq m) Overlay (25 mm) (Rs per Sq m) Edge Repair

328.0 80.0 52.95 173.0 96.0 382.67

295.2 72.0 47.66 155.7 86.0 344.4

5.1.4.3 The Residual Value
Considering the remaining life of the construction items the Residual value (salvage value) has been assessed at the end of the analysis period. For structures, the life is assumed to be 50 years and as such the remaining life is taken from 2040. Values of the selected construction items such as LA, structures, sub-base, social displacement cost etc. are included in the economic analysis as residual values at the end of the analysis periods. These residual values are considered, as benefits to the project in the analysis. In order to maintain uniformity among studies, National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) has suggested that 20% of the project cost shall be considered as salvage value at the end of the analysis period for economic evaluation studies for BOT highway projects in India. The same has been adopted for present study.

5.1.4.4 Road User Costs
The economic cost inputs that are required for estimating Road user costs are: • • Price of selected (popular) models, by vehicle type Tyre prices
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• • •

Fuel cost including oil price Crew cost (wages of Drivers / Assistants) Time costs for: • • Passenger Freight (holding cost)

The cost of vehicles and tyre were collected from the dealers located in the influence area of the project road. All the transfer payments such as sales tax, excise duty, road tax octroi etc. are deducted from the financial cost to arrive at the resource cost. A vehicle operator’s survey has been conducted to estimate the wages of drivers and their assistants. Finally, the crew cost is estimated with appropriate hours of work time per annum for different vehicle types. With respect to maintenance labour costs, local workshops have been contacted to assess the vehicle type wise wage bill for repairs and amount of labour time spent on them. Based on these labour costs have been calculated per hour, for each vehicle category. Time costs: Passengers The average income of full-time employed people in the study region was computed from published macroeconomic and demographic data, with a premium of 33% to allow for business overheads. This value (22.53/hour) was applied to passenger-hours in work time. Journeys in non-work time were valued at 30% of the average income of full-time employed people (Rs 6.76/hour). This procedure is in keeping with the guidelines contained in the World Bank’s Infrastructure Note No.OT-51. Particularly in the case of subsistence workers and self-employed workers in the informal sector, the concept of ‘work time’ is questionable, but we have adhered to the principle that a distinction should be made between time that is lost to productive effort and time that is not. We feel that above values estimated at macro level can represent bus passengers. Hence a step-up approach is followed to estimate the passenger time value by other better modes. Accordingly a notional increase is followed to estimate the time value for passengers by minibus, two wheelers and cars, as given in Table 5.5.
Table5.5(a): Time Value Adopted for Passenger Vehicles, 2005 Vehicle Type Time value (Rs / Hour), 2005

Work Bus Mini Bus TW Car 21.79 26.15 30.51 45.77

Non work 6.54 7.84 9.15 13.73

Table 5.5(b): Derivation of the Value of Passenger Time - 2005

                                                            
1

Kenneth M Gwilliam, ‘The Value of Time in Economic Evaluation of Transport Projects: Lessons from recent Research’.
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Details

Unit

Value

Datum year

Annual Growth (%)

2005

Input… Gross State Domestic Product (NSDP) Population Working population: main Working population: marginal Working population: FTE** Computed… Assumed NSDP (70%) to households Average income per FTE worker Average income per FTE worker*** Work time value, with 33% overheads Non-work time value at 30% A B C D E=C+D/2 Rs million Rs million % % % 1,309,17 5 62.11 38.13 6.64 41.45 20012002 2001 2001* 2001* 6.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1,581,417 64.95 39.87 6.95 43.35

F=A×0.7 0 G=(F/B)/ E H=G/240 0 I=H×1.33 J=H×0.30

Rs million Rs/year Rs/hour Rs/hour Rs/hour

1,106,992 39,320 16.38 21.79 6.54

(Note: *Census; in the absence of evidence to the contrary it is assumed that average household size and the proportion of people in the working population have remained constant. **Full-time equivalent workers, assuming marginal workers are employed half-time. ***Assuming 2,400 worked hours per year.

Time costs: freight From the discussions with the vehicle operators in the region and axle load surveys on the road, an estimate was made of the average load carried by each category of truck, and its economic value on State level. This was then used as the basis for computing an hourly inventory cost (or freight holding cost), using the social discount rate as the cost of working capital locked up in goods in transit and assuming an effective 2,400-hour working year. Table 5.6 presents the derivation of the values used in the model for the three classes of freight vehicle. All three values were rounded to the nearest rupee per vehicle-hour.
Table 5.6: Derivation of the Time Value of Freight in Transit Details LCV 2- axle truck 3-axle truck Multi-axle truck*

Average value of load (Rs.) Interest cost for a year ( × 12%) Interest cost per working hour ÷ 2,400 at 1999 price

190,000 22,800 9.5

275,000 33,000 13.75

690,000 82,800 34.5

725,000 87,000 36.25

(Note: Average value of load is arrived from the discussion with the vehicle users in the study region.)
For uniformity, National Highways Authority (NHAI) had suggested economic road user costs in November 2000, in consultations with the Design Consultants, to be used as HDM Model inputs for carrying out economic analysis for BOT highway projects in India. After a careful
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comparison of the road user costs collected from the field and other secondary sources, it was decided to adopt data collected from the field for the present analysis. Wherever necessary, the NHAI suggested road user costs also supplemented. Based on the above considerations, the economic costs estimated for different VOC components are presented in Table 5.7.
Table 5. 7: Economic Road User Cost Inputs Vehicle type Model New vehicle Economic price (Rs.) New tyre Economic price (Rs.) Maint.* Labour (Rs./hour) Crew cost * (Rs./cre w hour)

Car (NT) Car (OT) Autorickshaws Bus Mini Bus TW LCV 2-Axle Truck 3-Axle Truck MAV

Maruti, CS E1 (M) Ambassador, 1.5DL

140113 291648 58985

947 1431 555 5670 2396 436 3144 5670 5670 5670

22 19 19 38 30 19 31 33 39 47

27 27 27 98 46 46 68 99 101

LP1512TC/52 Mahindra Mini Bus Hero Honda Splendour LPT407 LB LPT1613TC/48 LPT2515TC LPS4021TC –

878439 444500 36121 436440 869483 1084629 1661611

(*- based on the information collected from the vehicle operators / workshops during traffic surveys.)

The economic cost of petrol, diesel, oils and lubricant adopted for the present analysis is given in Table 5.8.
Table 5.8: Details of Economic Cost for Fuel - 2005 Item Market Price Rs/litre Economic cost Rs/litre Factor to arrive Economic Cost*

Petrol Diesel Engine Oil Lubricants Grease

42.15 29.40 90 95 110

23.88 23.34 67.56 71.32 82.58

0.5666 0.7971 0.7507 0.7507 0.7507

*Based on ADB TA Study on Rural Road Sector Project - I for MP & Chhattisgarh States, 2003

The vehicle characteristics of representative vehicles used as input for HDM - 4 are given in Table 5.9.
Table 5.9: Vehicle characteristics (HDM Input Data) Vehicle GVW No. of No. of No. of type (Tonnes) Axles Tyres passeng ers Service life (Years) Hours driven/ Year Kms. driven/ Year Annual interest rate (%)

Car (NT) Car (OT)

1.4 2

2 2

4 4

5 4.6

10 10

1950 1950

32000 32000

12 12

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Vehicle type

GVW (Tonnes)

No. of Axles

No. of Tyres

No. of passeng ers

Service life (Years)

Hours driven/ Year

Kms. driven/ Year

Annual interest rate (%)

Bus Mini Bus TW LCV 2-Axle Truck 3-Axle Truck MAV

14.9 2.5 0.2 5.3 15.7 25 40.2

2 2 2 2 2 3 5

6 4 2 4 6 10 12

39.5 15 1.6 -

10 8 10 12 10 10 12

2000 1500 700 1500 2100 2100 2400

66000 60000 21000 60000 85000 85000 120000

12 12 12 12 12 12 12

5.1.4.5 Road Characteristics
The road characteristics for the considered network required as input to the HDM model were collected during the reconnaissance and other engineering surveys. The road characteristics for those proposed improvements are adopted from the design proposals. The roughness of the new flexible pavement at the time of opening to traffic in 2011 have been set at 2.0 (IRI) for the ‘with project’ alternative. For the flexible, the deterioration model will predict the roughness at any point in time during the project life.

5.1.4.6 Traffic
Normal Traffic: Traffic growth rates, covering the period of analysis adopted from the Traffic Section of this Report are given in Table 5.10 below for all the Project Road Sections.

Diverted and Generated Traffic: The diversion expected to the project road after the proposed improvements and additional traffic from the proposed Vallarpadam container terminal at Ernakulam, as given in the Traffic Chapter, is discounted to 2005 and added with the normal traffic to arrive at the base year traffic in 2005.
Considering the existing landuse and the proposed developments in the project region, it is felt that there is better scope for new traffic generation due to the improvement to the project road. Hence, on conservative approach, 10%-generated traffic is considered for the analysis in ‘one stroke’ during the initial year for the widening road sections. For new bypass sections, where roads are passing through
Table 5.10: Projected Traffic Growth Rates adopted for the Project road Year Motorised Vehicles Two Wheelers Auto Car LCV Bus/Mini Bus Trucks MAV (3 Axle, >3 Axle) Non Motorised vehicles Cycle Cart

20052009 20102014 20152019

9.6 9.8 9.9

4.0 4.1 4.1

5.0 5.1 5.2

7 6.0 5.5

4.7 4.3 3.9

5.0 4.3 3.9

7 6.0 5.5

2.0 1.8 1.6

2.0 1.8 1.6

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Year

Motorised Vehicles Two Wheelers Auto Car LCV Bus/Mini Bus Trucks MAV (3 Axle, >3 Axle)

Non Motorised vehicles Cycle Cart

20202024 20252029 >2030

9.5 9.1 7.8

4.0 3.8 3.2

4.9 4.7 4.1

5.0 4.5 4.0

3.5 3.2 2.9

3.5 3.2 2.9

5.0 4.5 4.0

1.5 1.3 1.2

1.5 1.3 1.2

(Note: A growth rate of 3% is adopted for old tech cars) Section wise AADT for the base year 2005, are given in Table 5.11.
Table 5.11(a): Distribution of Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) – 2005* Vehicle Kuttipuram- Chavakkad Chavakkad- Kodungallur Type Section (Section I) Section (Section II) Nos. % Composition Nos. % Composition Kodungallur- Edapally Section (Section III) Nos. %Composition

Motorized Vehicles Bus Mini Bus MAV 3 Axle 2 Axle LCV** TW Car (N) Car(O) AR TOTAL 298 85 211 91 836 455 2633 2167 241 1382 8399 3.5 1 2.5 1.1 10 5.4 31.4 25.8 2.9 16.5 100 860 313 204 88 705 733 1708 2963 329 966 8869 9.7 3.5 2.3 1 7.9 8.3 19.3 33.4 3.7 10.9 100 879 223 223 95 864 998 5943 4225 469 971 14890 5.9 1.5 1.5 0.6 5.8 6.7 39.9 28.4 3.2 6.5 100

Non-Motorized Vehicles Animal Carts Cycles TOTAL 22 619 641 3.4 96.6 100 1 286 287 0.3 99.7 100 3 831 834 0.4 99.6 100

(Note: *- Expected traffic diversion to the project road and additional traffic from Vallarpadam Container terminal is discounted to year 2005 and added with normal traffic in 2005. ** include tractors)

Table 5.11(b): Details of Traffic considered for Bypasses of Section II - 2009 Vehicle Type Bypass Traffic Existing Road Traffic No. % No. %

Motorised Vehicles Bus
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258

4.5

774

14.3

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Vehicle Type

Bypass Traffic No. %

Existing Road Traffic No. %

Mini Bus MAV 3 Axle 2 Axle LCV** TW Car (N) Car(O) AR TOTAL Non-Motorized Vehicles Animal Carts Cycles TOTAL

94 241 103 643 577 739 2521 259 339 5775

1.6 4.2 1.8 11.1 10.0 12.8 43.6 4.5 5.9 100

283 27 11 214 384 1725 1080 111 791 5402

5.2 0.5 0.2 4.0 7.1 31.9 20.0 2.2 14.6 100

-

-

1 309 310

0.3 99.7 100

In order to suit the vehicle categories available in HDM - 4, the vehicles observed in the traffic survey have been grouped as shown in Table 5.12.

Table 5.12: Vehicle Classifications HDM - 4 Group

Traffic Survey Vehicles

Motorised Vehicles Car Pickup Bus Minibus LCV Truck HCV MAV Two Wheelers Auto rickshaw Non - Motorised Vehicles Animal Drawn Cycles Bullock / Horse Drawn Carts Pedel cycles Car (New technology) Car (Old technology), Bus Minibus, Passenger Tempo / Van LCV, tractor and tractor trailer 2 Axle truck 3 Axle truck Multi Axle truck Scooters, Motorbikes Auto rickshaw

5.1.5

Economic Evaluation of the Project Road
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Economic evaluation was carried out for the individual homogeneous sections and sections separately as well for the full Project Road. In the analysis, the ‘with project’ alternative of widening the project road is compared with the base option of ‘without project’ alternative of maintaining the existing road only without improvements. This is to arrive at the net economic benefits, which consist of reduction in vehicle operation cost, reduction in travel time and reduction in accident cost. Results of the analysis, carried out through HDM – 4 (Version 1.3), are summarised below in Table 5.13.
Table 5.13: Results of the Economic Analysis Economic Internal Rate of Return in %(EIRR) HS /Section No VOC Savings only as Project Benefit All Savings only as Project Benefit Economic Net Present Value of Net Benefits at 12 % Discount Rate (Rs in Millions) VOC Savings only as All Savings only Project as Project Benefit Benefit

Full Project Road •

8.5

21.4

-2777.83

9975.53

Full project road is economically feasible for the proposed improvement, considering the EIRR values (21.4%).

5.1.6

Sensitivity Analysis

Sensitivity analysis was carried out to the economic feasibility results, for the following scenarios:
• • • • Scenario - I Base Costs and Base Benefits Scenario - II Base Costs plus 15% and Base Benefits Scenario - III Base Costs and Base Benefits minus 15% Scenario - IV Base Costs plus 15% and Base Benefits minus 15%

Sensitivity analysis to the economic evaluation criteria (EIRR and ENPV) were also carried out for the following situations:
• • Reduction in VOC only is considered as project benefit Reduction in VOC, Time cost and Accident cost together are considered as project benefit

Results of the sensitivity analysis were summarised below in Table 5.14.
Table 5.14: Results of the Sensitivity Analysis Flexible Pavement Option EIRR (%) S. No Sensitivity Scenario VOC Savings only as Project Benefit

ENPV (%)

VOC, Time Cost VOC, Time Cost VOC Savings & Accident Cost & Accident Cost only as Savings together Savings together Project as Project as Project Benefit Benefit Benefit

1.0 1.1 1.2

Full Project Road Normal Scenario 8.5 21.4 19.5 -2777.83 -3,876.41 9975.53 8,876.94 15% increase in Agency 7.6 cost Scenario

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Flexible Pavement Option EIRR (%) S. No Sensitivity Scenario VOC Savings only as Project Benefit

ENPV (%)

VOC, Time Cost VOC, Time Cost VOC Savings & Accident Cost & Accident Cost only as Savings together Savings together Project as Project as Project Benefit Benefit Benefit

1.3 1.4

15% decrease in User 7.4 Benefit Scenario 15% increase in Agency cost + 15% decrease in 6.6 User Benefit Scenario

19.3 17.5

-3,459.74 -4,558.32

7,380.62 6,282.04

5.1.7

Conclusions and Recommendations

The project road section of NH 17 from Kuttipuram to Edappali is economically feasible for the proposed widening to four lanes considering the positive values of EIRR (21.4%) and ENPV (Rs. 9975.53 Million). It has also been established that the proposal is economically feasible in the worst-case scenario developed in sensitivity analysis (EIRR: 17.5%, ENPV: Rs. 6282.04 Million).

5.2
5.2.1

Financial Analysis
Background

The road consisting of NH17 from Kuttipuram to Edapplli (km 318+000 to km 438+600(Deign ch.429+440) is proposed for improvement including widening to 4lane. The proposed length of the project road is 111.73 km, considered as a single package. Two toll plazas are proposed on the project road, ie; at Km 344+150(Design ch.337+700) and km Bypass(Designch.413+700). Present section discuss about the financial feasibility analysis carried out for the package, so as to help NHAI to take a decision whether the project can be implemented under BOT concept. The details of the project road considered for the present financial feasibility analysis are given in Table 5.15.
Table 5.15: Project Road Details PACKAGE ROAD START END PROPOSA L LENGTH

Package 1

NH17

317+710

438+600 (Designch.429/440)

4-laning

111.73

New MCA: The provision of new MCA has been considered for viability analysis

5.2.2

Approach to Financial Evaluation on BOT Basis

The viability of the project depends on the working cash flows available to service the debt and equity. This working cash flow is basically dependent upon the following:• • Project Cost Traffic & Traffic Growth
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• • • •

Toll Structure Operation and Maintenance expenses Interest on Debt Tax

The main objective of Financial Analysis is to examine the viability of implementing the project on a BOT basis. The analysis attempts to ascertain the extent to which the investment can be recovered through toll revenue and the gap, if any, be funded through Grant / Subsidy. This covers aspects like financing through debt and equity, loan repayment, debt servicing, taxation, depreciation, etc. The viability of the project is evaluated on the basis of Project FIRR (Financial Internal Rate of Return on total investment). The FIRR is estimated on the basis of cash flow analysis, where both costs and revenue have been indexed to take account of inflation. Financial analysis has been carried out for the project with debt equity ratio of 70:30.

5.2.3

Cost of Civil Works

The total cost of the project includes cost of civil works including the improvement of existing carriageway and cost of toll plaza. The estimated project cost is considered excluding shifting of utilities, land acquisition, acquisition of structures, rehabilitation and resettlement and environmental mitigation measures which are to be borne by NHAI. Cost of Civil Works at 2006 prices is given in Table 5.16.

Table 5.16: Details of Project Civil Cost Package No. Description Cost of Civil Works (Rs in crore) Rate per Km (Rs in crore)

Package-I

From Km 317+710 - Km to km 429+440(Design ch.438/600) of NH 17 (4-laning) Escalated cost for one year

884 928.001

7.91 8.29

5.2.4

Cost Escalation

The base costs have been escalated at a rate of 3% per annum to obtain the actual costs in the year of expenditure. This is based on average WPI for the last 5 years.

5.2.5

Interest During Construction (IDC)

The interest during construction, which on the cost of funding incurred on the project, has been calculated on the basis of an interest of 11 percent per annum as per the current market rate for lending Highway Projects.

5.2.6

Total Project Cost

The total landed costs for the package at the end of the construction period has been estimated by adding Contingencies, IC & Pre-operative expenses, Financing Cost, Escalation, Interest during Construction (IDC) etc. The total landed cost at the time of commissioning is thus estimated on Package basis and presented in Table 5.17.
Table 5.17: Total Project Cost Details

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Sl. No.

PARTICULARS

Cost (Rs. in Crore)

TOTAL KM A 1 Concessionaire Cost Total Civil Construction cost (1) Civil Construction cost escalated at 5% for 1 year Contingencies/QC @ 3% of Civil Cost (2) Total EPC Cost (3) 3 4 5 6 IC & Pre-operative expenses @1% of EPC (4) Financing Cost @ 2% Debt at 70:30 DER (5) Escalation @ 5% Per Annum During Construction Period (Construction Period 30 months) Interest During Construction @ 11% pa on Debt (at 70:30 DER) (Term Loan). (6) Total Concession Cost TOTAL CONCESSION COST/PER Km. B 1 NHAI Cost Land Acquisition, Environmental Mitigation, R&R, Utility Shifting etc. TOTAL NHAI COST TOTAL PROJECT COST (Concessionaire Cost + NHAI Cost) TOTAL PROJECT COST/PER Km.

111.73

883.810 928.001 27.84 955.841 9.558 14.484 14.484 79.454 1144.957 10.25 485.2 485.20 1630.16 14.59

2

5.2.7

Toll Rates

Tolls can be set either to maximize revenue or maximize the utilization of the project without causing congestion. However, in no case, tolls are set at a level higher than the perceived benefits of using the facility. Toll rates are estimated based on the National Highways (NHAI)) New Draft Toll Policy. The fee under sub-rule for projects involving conversion into four-lanes of existing two-lane of national highways shall not exceed the capping rates given below at June 1997 rates escalated in accordance with the average WPI. According to draft NH toll policy, Rates were recommended for different types of vehicles for the year 2006-07 based on WPI of 1st January 2007 (WPI 208.2) which are given in Table 5.18.
Table 5.18: Per Km Capping Rates

Rate (Rs/Km) S. No. Type of vehicle JANUARY 2007 4/6 Lane
1. 2. 3. 4. Car or Jeep or Van Light Commercial vehicles including Mini Bus Bus or Truck Multi Axle Vehicle
E-29 National Highways Authority of India

0.65 1.05 2.2 3.45

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Rate (Rs/Km) S. No. Type of vehicle JANUARY 2007 4/6 Lane
5. Heavy construction earthmoving equipment machinery and 4.2

NHAI toll capping rates have been escalated at a rate of 5% every year and rounded off to nearest rupee. As per the new Toll policy, fee for use of any structure or bypass, having an estimated cost exceeding Rs. Fifty Crore and forming part of a section of National Highway, shall be levied at the rates specified in the rule 4(b) separately from the fee levied (rule 4(f)) for the use of the remaining part of such section of the National Highway.

Table 5.19: Bypass/structure Toll Charges as per rule 4(f)
Cost of structure (Rs.in crore) Base Rate of Fee ( Rs. Per Vehicle per Trip) Car ,Jeep, Van or Light Motor Vehicle 5 1 Light Commercial Vehicle, Light Goods Vehicle or Mini Bus 7.5 1.50 Truck or Bus HCM,EME or MAV Over sized vehicle

10 to 15 For every additional Rs.5 Crore or part there of, exceeding Rs.15 Cr. And upto Rs.100Cr.

15 3

22 4.50

30 6

5.2.8

Grant and Its treatment

A) Equity Support: It shall be equal to the sum specified in the bid and as accepted by the authority but in no case greater than the equity and shall be further restricted to a sum not exceeding 20% of TPC i.e. maximum 20% of TPC (Total Project Cost). Here TPC is excluding equity support. Formula is to be worked out with the help of circular reference. It shall be due and payable to the Concessionaire after it has expended the Equity. Further it shall be disbursed proportionately along with the loan funds. B) O & M Support: O&M support will be equal to the minus of equity support discussed above from the possible total 40% subsidy. This O & M support is fixed which is equal to seven annual instalments. Accordingly, maximum 20% Grant has been considered during Construction Period and the same has been reduced from the Total Project Cost. Balance O & M support has been considered in 7 years from COD in equal installment.
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5.2.9

Concession to Local Traffic
The concessionaire shall allow the discounts as given in Schedule R and as per The National Highways (Collection of fee for the use of National Highways) Rules,2007

5.2.10 Traffic
Traffic surveys for seven days volume counts have been carried out during 28th November 2005 to 4th December 2005 at km 345.10 (at Veliancode), km 381.2 (at Thalikulam), km 413 (at Kottappuramt) & km 426.4 (at Valluvally). The AADT in the base year 2005 are given in Table 5.20.
Table 5.20: AADT in the Base Year 2005 SI. Description AADT for 1st No. section AADT for 2nd section AADT for 3rd section Average

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Car/Jeep/Auto Mini Bus Bus LCV Truck-2 Axle Truck-3 Axle Multi Axle Total PCU

3790 85 298 455 836 91 211 5767

4258 313 860 733 705 88 204 7161

5665 223 880 998 864 95 223 8948

4571 207 680 729 802 92 213 7295 11795

Growth rates for projections of the traffic are given in Table 5.21.
Table 5.21: Growth Rates for Projections of the Traffic SI. Mode Growth Rates No. Upto 2010 – 2015 – 2019 2009 2014

2020 – 2024

2025 – 2029

2030 onwards

1 2 3 4 5

Car/Van/ Jeep LCV’s Bus / Bus Trucks MAV Mini

5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

95% vehicles has been considered as Tollable Traffic on account of non-tollable, leakage in Traffic and Error in Traffic Projections etc.

5.2.11 Toll Revenue
The toll revenue is the product of the forecast traffic expected to use the road and the appropriate toll fee for the vehicle category. A toll indexing pattern @ 5% per year as per the old Toll Policy (100% of average WPI of 5%) has been adopted and rounded off to nearest

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one Rupee. Toll revenues have been calculated for each of toll fee structure proposed above. Penalty for overloading There is a provision for penalty for overloading as under:• • if vehicle is loaded for more than 10% then 50% of fee if vehicle is loaded for more than 20% and above then 100% of the fee

Differential fees After 5th anniversary of the appointed date there is a differential fee applicable as under:• • peak hours = < 6 hrs in a day off peak hours = twice the peak hours i.e. 12 hrs

Concessionaire may determine and collect a premium of up to 25% of the fee during peak hours. Offering a discount during off peak hours at a rate equal to twice the said premium. If revenue because of differential fee is gained then 80% of the difference shall be credited to Safety Reserve. However, no effect to the above has been given in the Financial Analysis as old Toll Policy is considered.

5.2.12 Other Income
Apart from the Toll Income, there may be other streams of revenue generated by extending land development rights to the Concessionaire and revenue from any other service facilities like Advertisements, Truck Parking Terminals, Parking Areas, Automobile Service Centre, Petrol Pumps, and Cable Ducting etc. However, as per the policy of NHAI, no advertisements are allowed in the project highway. Also for other streams of revenue there is no clear cut guidance and accordingly no income on these accounts has been considered.

5.2.13 Discounts for Concession To Local Traffic, Exempted Vehicle
An appropriate discount of shall be allowed as given in Schedule R and as per The National Highways (Collection of fee for the use of National Highways) Rules,2007

5.2.14 Tax Calculation Module
Tax Rate: The tax rate adopted for this study is 33.66% (30% tax + 10% surcharge + 2% education tax) following the deduction of depreciation and amortization. Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT): Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) of 11.33% (10% tax + 10% surcharge + 2% education tax) has been taken into account for the total concession period. Tax Exemptions (Under Section 80 IA): According to the scheme under section 80-IA, 100% of the profit is deductible for ten years. However the benefit deduction is available only for ten consecutive assessment years falling within a period of twenty years from the year the Project begins its operations. Proposed Sources of Finance In general, the developer shall crystallize the sources of finance by optimizing his equity returns keeping in view the project cash flows, terms, and conditions of various financing options available. Further the market standing and financial strength of the Developer would
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largely determine the terms and conditions of finance offered to the Developer by various lending agencies. For the purpose of the study, following sources of finance have been taken: • • • Equity: To be provided by the Developer Subsidy / Grant for viability of funding, to be provided by the client. Debt: To be arranged by the Developer / Concessionaire

5.2.15 Expenses
Expenses can broadly be classified based on the phases in which they are incurred, viz. construction period expenses and operation & maintenance period expenses. Construction Period Expenses • • • • Preliminary and pre-operative expenses Contingency allowance Interest during construction period Finance Charges

Operation and Maintenance Period Expenses • • • • • • • • Toll collection expenses Administrative expenses for day-to-day operation including insurances Maintenance expenses, which include routine and periodic maintenance Interest expenses incurred for servicing term loans Tax Concession Fee Electricity & Patrolling expenses Insurance @ Rs. 0.15% of TPC/annum

Toll Collection Expenses Toll collection expenses are estimated as Rs 1.25 crores per annum per toll plaza. Concession Fee As per new MCA, no Concession Fee is payable by the Concessionaire

5.2.16 Operation and Maintenance Cost
Routine maintenance costs comprise of maintenance of the pavement, collection of litter, traffic management (policing), accident repairs and all ancillary works including beautification. The periodic maintenance costs include cost of overlay, repair/renovation of road furniture, drains, buildings etc. The periodic maintenance includes periodic renewals at every 5 years. Routine maintenance/ Periodic maintenance costs have been considered as per the estimates based on the MORT&H guidelines 1997 prices. The details of the maintenance costs and administration charges are given in Table 5.22.
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Table 5.22: Maintenance & OM Cost (2006 price) Sl. No Description

Amount (Rs. in Lacs)

1 2 3 4 5

Routine maintenance in every year cost per km for the four lanes with paved shoulder (Rs Lacs / Km) Periodic maintenance every five years cost per km for the four lanes with paved shoulder (Rs Lacs / Km) Routine maintenance per Toll Plaza (Rs Lacs /annum) Other Office Expenses Patrolling & Eletricity Expenses (Rs Lacs / Km)

3.00 25.00 125.00 200.00 1.00

5.2.17 Resource Mobilization Schedule
The Project implementation period has been taken as 30 months spread into three years. Based on the implementation period, the project cost has been phased as given in Table 5.23.
Table 5.23: Phasing of Project Cost Description 1st year 2nd year 3rd Year

Percentage of total cost incurred

5%

35%

60%

5.2.18 Minimum Return Criteria
Keeping in view the present market condition, the minimum return criteria for the B.O.T project is considered as follows:• • • • • Project FIRR – Post Tax Return on Equity (Equity IRR) Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) Net Present Value (NPV) @ 12% Payback Period : : : : : Minimum of 13% Minimum of 15% Minimum 1.33 Should be positive Should not be more than 16 years

  5.2.19 Concession Period

Concession Period of 30 Years

Since the project is not viable on BOT basis for 20 and 25 years, a higher period of 30 years including Construction Period from 2008 - 2037 has been considered for Financial Analysis.

5.2.20 Construction Period
Construction Period of 30 months spread into three years has been considered effective from year 2008.

5.2.21 Financial Viability
The main objective of undertaking this study is to assess whether the project is financially viable or not. It is important to note that the proposal should be an attractive proposition for
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private sector participation under Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) system. The basic methodology followed for estimating the financial viability of the project is to calculate the FIRR (Financial Internal Rate of Return) on the investment for the project. The following assumptions are taken into consideration for the financial analysis:• • • • • • • • • • • • • Debt – Equity ratio :- 70:30 Subsidy – maximum of 20% during construction and 20% during O & M Concession period (Including 30 months construction period) – 30 years. Escalation – 5% Interest on Debt – 11% Interest During Construction – 11% Project Phasing : First year – 5% , Second year – 35% , Third year – 60% Loan Repayment period – 10 years Tax rebate – 10 years (100% exemption for 10 years out of block of 15 years). Moratorium – 3 years during construction period Depreciation by Straight line method - 100% for 27.5 years Depreciation by Written down value method – 10% Financing costs - 2% of project cost

5.2.22 Results and Analysis
Based on the project structure traffic study and toll rate analysis, financial feasibility analysis has been carried out as per the methodology outlined in earlier sections. The objective of the financial analysis is to ascertain the existence of sustainable project returns, which shall successfully meet the expectations of its financial investors. The analysis reveals various FIRR values corresponding to each year of toll operation. FIRR for the Returns on Investment and Returns on Equity for the years from 2010 to 2037(concession period is 30 years including Construction Period) with maximum 40% subsidy Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant and 30 years Concession Period are given in Table 5.24.
Table 5.24: Financial Feasibility Results Post Tax FIRR % Return on Equity % NPV @ 12% (Rs Crore) Pay Back Period

SCENARIOS

(With 40% Grant/Subsidy) for 30 years of concession period Statement

15.58

19.25

321.38

10 years Profitability

The profit and loss statement indicates the net profit earned during the concession period. Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant are given in Table 5.25.
Table 5.25: Project Profitability Results (Rs in Crores)

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Years

Case

Net Revenue

Total O&M Cost

Net Operating income

Profit or Loss before tax

Total Tax

Profit or Loss After tax

2011 2038

With 40% Grant/ Subsidy

62.87 1114.31

6.03 40.36

56.84 1073.97

3.4 1032.33

0.39 359.13

3.02 673.20

5.2.23 C

onclusion
It would be seen that considering the enhancement of toll rate on the basis of structure/bypass cost, the project is financially viable on BOT basis with maximum of 40% Grant and 30 years Concession Period. Accordingly, project should be undertaken either on annuity basis or EPC contract basis. To get minimum viability criteria of 15% Equity IRR, 10.65% grant is required.

Executive Summary
Project Background
The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, MORT&H, Government of India has decided to take up the development of various National Highway Corridors for augmentation of capacity for safe and efficient movement of traffic by widening to 4/6 lanes. One such set of corridors is 10,000 km of NHDP-III spread over the country. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has been entrusted to implement the development projects for these selected stretches/ corridors either through public-private partnership (PPP) basis or its own budgetary sources or loans from ADB, World Bank or any such organisation. The stretch of around 111.73 km on NH 17 from Kuttipuram to Edapally in the state of Kerala is a part of the NHDP-III projects. M/s Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA in joint venture (JV) with Wilbur Smith Associates Private Limited have been entrusted by NHAI the task of carrying out the Feasibility Studies and preparation of Detailed Project Report including Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for rehabilitation and upgrading to 4/6 lane divided highway.

     

Project Description

The project stretch is located in the state of Kerala and connects Kuttipuram km 318+000 on Northern side and Edapally km 438+600 (Design Ch. Km 428+940) in the southern side and passing through Ernakulam, Thrissur and Malapuram districts. The total design length of the project road is 111.73km.The Project Highway also leads to Mangalore, Goa and Mumbai from Kuttipuram, forming an important link connecting northern districts of Kerala which includes Kozhicode, Kannur, Kasargod and Wayanad. NH-17 links to southern districts of
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Kerala via. NH-47. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of work since it is executed by PWD, NH Division The salient proposals for up gradation and improvement of the NH47 are classified into the following engineering aspects. • Widening of the project road into 4 lane configurations based on traffic capacity. • Improving the horizontal and vertical geometry of the existing road based on the design standards Including realignment where ever justifiable. • Design of pavement for widening and strengthening of the existing road. • Improvement of all major and minor intersections. • Rehabilitation and widening of the existing structures including bridges, culverts, ROBs, underpasses, grade separators etc and design of new ones. • Provision of comprehensive road furniture for complete road safety. Widening Proposals Based on traffic considerations, geometric standards and existing site condition it is proposed to have the following configuration for the four laning • • • • • • • • • Median: 4.5m /2m Median Shy away: 0.25m. Shy away at Divider: 0.25m. Main Carriageway in each direction: 7.0m (2 x 3.5m Lane). Service Road at major built ups in both directions: 5.5 or 7m. Paved Shoulder: 1.5m Earthen Shoulder: 1.0m Earthen Drain of suitable dimension Right of Way: Plain 45 m

Typical Cross Sections The entire alignment passes through plain terrain . The Consultants have proposed a RoW of 45 m based on settlement pattern & Land-use, Nature of built-up & Details of socially sensitive structures Widening options for the project road were arrived at based on, Lane requirements based on traffic capacity analysis. Requirement of service roads along built-up areas. Lengths of project road under various cross sections are summarized in table Summary of Typical Cross Sections Existing Road Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Widening Type/ CS Concentric widening without Service Road(median 2m)-1A Eccentric widening without Service Road ( median 2m)-1B New Four lane without Service Road (median 2m)-1C Concentric widening with Service Road (median 2m)-2A Eccentric widening with 7m Service Road(median 2m)-2B New Four lane with 7m Service Road on both side(median 2m)-2C New Four lane with 7m Service Road on LHS (median 2m)-2D
E-37 National Highways Authority of India

Length in m 14430.00 15820.00 6290.00 6080.00 7380.00 4690.00 1590.00

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

8 9 Bypass Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5

Underpass Approach with 2m median with 5.5m Slip Road-3B Underpass Approach at 318+090 with 5.5m Slip Road-3C Widening Type/ CS RHS widening without Service Road in bypass (median 4.5m)-1D New Four lane in bypass(4.5 m median)-1E New Four lane with 7m Service Road in bypass(4.5 m median )-2E Underpass Approach with 4.5m median and 5.5m Slip Road-3A ROB Approach (3D)

650.00 680.00 Length in m 2255.00 22225.00 14635.00 8925.00 610.00

Geometric Improvements Horizontal Geometry Existing project road has a number of deficient stretches with a design speed less than 100 kmph. Care has been taken to improve the geometric standard of the project road to suite design standards of National Highways with 100 kmph design speed. A summary of improved horizontal geometry are given in table below. Summary of Proposed Horizontal Alignment Chainage (Km) 319+450 319+600 320+200 320+200 to 334+800 344+850 337+750 341+700 342+750 343+450 348+600 355+700 358+100 362+600 363+100 363+650 376+300 377+100 377+700 378+100 ROW (m) 36.50 44.00 21.65 10.50 Radius (m) 40.000 40.000 20.000 30 sharp curves less than 50m radius 30.000 30.000 300.000 200.000 80.000 300.000 250.000 350.000 200.000 25.000 30.000 200.000 150.000 150.000 60.000 LHS/RHS Left Right Left Right-11, left-12 and reverse-7 Right Left Left Right Right Right Right Left Left Left Right Right Left Right Reverse Curve Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius New Bypass proposal from km 377+000 to km 380+200 Improvements New Bypass proposal from km 319+450 to km 340+350

9.80 12.20 37.00 29.70 25.50 15.60 13.20 15.10 18.60 8.95 10.75 23.45 10.80 21.60 22.90

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Chainage (Km) 379+350 380+050 381+700 382+750 385+150 386+150 389+900 390+025 390+200 391+250 391+500

ROW (m) 11.20 29.60 20.90 32.60 22.60 17.30 16.20 11.20 24.20 22.10 17.85

Radius (m) 400.000 250.000 350.000 250.000 150.000 60.000 30.000 40.000 40.000 60.000 50.000

LHS/RHS Right Left Right Reverse Curve Reverse Curve Reverse Curve Right Left Left Left Reverse Curve

Improvements

Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius New Bypass proposal from km 383+850 to km 387+250 Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius New Bypass proposal from km 391+000 to km 391+900

393+000 394+500 395+800 396+900 397+450 398+250 399+000 400+050 402+000 402+200 405+450 405+650 405+900 406+060 406+700 407+700 to 411+600 413+700 414+450 414+450 to 424+600 424+800

21.25 17.40 18.50 15.90 18.60 19.60 16.60 16.60 17.00 15.00 10.70 13.15 8.40 12.25 11.75 13.50

40.000 80.000 60.000 25.000 250.000 200.000 100.000 60.000 80.000 90.000 25.000 50.000 40.000 35.000 90.000 12 sharp curves less than 50m radius 300.000 20.000 16 sharp curves less than 60m radius 50.000

Reverse Curve Reverse Curve Reverse Curve Right Right Left Left Right Right Reverse Curve Right Left Right Right Reverse Curve 7 right and 5 left

Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius New Bypass proposal from km 395+300 to km 397+250 Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius New Bypass proposal from km 398+700 to km 406+060

Improved Curve Radius New Bypass proposal from km 407+700 to km 411+800 Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius New Bypass proposal from km 414+450 to km 426+160

30.80 25.80 9.55

Left Left 9 Right, 3 left & 4 reverse curves Right

10.80

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E-39 National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Chainage (Km) 425+100 425+600 425+750 426+200 427+400 428+650 432+250 435+250 436+150 436+400 436+550 436+600 to 438+600

ROW (m) 10.40 10.65 7.70 12.50 8.80 8.70 29.80 35.50 7.20 9.30 8.10 16.50

Radius (m) 100.000 90.000 150.000 200.000 90.000 70.000 300.000 25.000 20.000 35.000 40.000 5 Sharp curves radius less than 50m

LHS/RHS Right Reverse curves Right Right Right Right Right Reverse curve Reverse curve Right Left 2 reverse curve, 1 left and 2 right curves

Improvements

Improved Curve Radius Improved Curve Radius New Realignment proposal from km 435+000 to km 438+600

Vertical Geometry Vertical geometry of the entire length of the project is found satisfactory except for a small stretch of km 320+000 – km 323+000 but this has no significance on the improvement proposal because of the Ponnani bypass Realignments The following realignments are proposed by consultants after thorough study. Ponnani Bypass The construction work of a two lane bypass for Ponnani town is already under progress. The Ponnani bypass starts at Km 319+450 (Design ch .319+060) after Kuttipuram Bridge and ends at Chainage Km 340+350 (Design ch 333+715) near Puduponnani Bridge (Anappadi). Total length of the bypass is 14.655 km. Features of this bypass alignment are described in three sections. The first section (4 km long) is from Km 319+450 to Km 323+300 near Ayamkalam, where it changes the existing alignment of NH 17. This section is passing through rolling terrain. The second section (7.5 km long) starts from Km 323+300(i.e. from Ayamkalam) and ends at Km 334+800 near Chamravattom. For first and second section, two lane single carriage way is under construction vide contract no. 11/SE/NH/CC/KOCHI 2003 DT 26/02/2004. Completion period for this project is 28 months. Although the construction of pavement is in initial stage, considering this cost, necessary correction has been effected in the costing part. The last section (3.155 km long) is from Chamravattom at Km 334+800 and ends near Puduponnani at Chainage Km 340+350(Design ch.333+715). In this stretch, two lane bypass road is already constructed for a length of 2.50 Km. Land acquisition of 30m wide ROW for entire 15 Km long bypass is completed. This bypass is treated as the starting stretch of the study corridor in place of the original National Highway stretch. Consultant has carried out the detailed study of this alignment and the details of the proposal are discussed below.

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E-40 National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

The realignment mainly passes through coconut plantation and paddy fields thus avoiding Ponnani town built up and also giving a better approach to Pudupponnani Bridge. While designing the alignment, due care has been exercised to utilize the maximum extend of acquired 30m ROW and this has been achieved without compromising the design standards. This 14.655Km long proposed realignment has 12 curves designed for a speed of 100 kmph. . No other alternative options for Ponnani bypass are studied because Kerala PWD has already completed the land acquisition of this bypass for 30m wide ROW Chavakkad Bypass Chavakkadu bypass starts at Km 363+200(Design ch.356+350 ) near Manathala temple and joins back the existing NH-17 at Km 365+400(Design ch.358+800) near Williams Bridge (Orumanayur). This 2.45 km long bypass mainly passes through coconut plantation area and small built-up area thus avoiding Chavakkad town built up. Proposed bypass has 6 curves designed for a speed of 100 Kmph and a major bridge at Design Chainage km 357+740 in the bypass Vadanappally Realignment has been proposed to bypass built-up at Vadanappally and Thalikkulam from Km 377+000(Design ch.370+200) to Km 380+200(Design ch.373+600) on left hand side of the existing alignment. This will avoid acquisition of heavy built-up area in Vadanappally and will bypass two sharp curves between Km 377+500 and Km 377+750 having design speed less than 30 Kmph. During the feasibility stage 3 alternative alignments have been studied and found that left side alignment is more viable. Hence more detailed investigations on left hand side alignment have been carried out. Socio economic impact of acquiring 45m has been considered for feasibility study. This proposed alignment mainly passes through coconut plantations and low lying area. Length of this realignment is 3.5 km. Triprayar- Valappad Various options were considered for Triprayar valappad bypass. Among this the proposal on the left hand side realignment found feasible since it avoid large commercial built-up at Triprayar and sharp, blind reverse curve at Valappad (Km 386+150). The curves at this location have design speed less than 30kmph and thus making this location one of the main accident prone areas. The proposed bypass starts at km 383+850(Design ch.377+310) and ends at km 387+200(Design ch.380+510) .The proposed realignment mainly passes through agricultural areas. Study has been carried out for assessing the socio economic impact of acquiring 45m wide RoW. Length of this realignment is 3.20 km Chendrappinni Left hand side realignment has been proposed for one of the accident prone area of the project stretch at Chendrapinni. The reverse curves between Km 391+000 and Km 392+000 on the heavy built-up area is one of the major bottlenecks of the project road. This proposed realignment starts at Km 390+000(Design ch.383+280) and ends near Km 391+900(Design ch.385+230). Consultant has fixed the shortest possible route for this alignment and study has been carried out for assessing the socio economic impact of acquiring 45m wide RoW. This realignment mainly passes though agricultural land. Length of this realignment is 1.950 km. Moonnupeedika Kaipamangalam, Moonnupeedika and Perinjanam are having heavy commercial built-ups from Km 395+000 to Km 397+000. Kaipamangalam is one of the major built-up areas in the stretch between Triprayar and Kodungallur. Existing RoW varies from 10 to 17m. The horizontal alignment at Km 396+700 is very poor with more than 2 reverse curves with design speed less than 50 kmph. The proposed bypass alignment starts from Km 395+300(Design ch. 388+350)and ends near Km 397+250(Design ch.390+490). Studies had been conducted for assessing the socio
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. E-41 National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

economic impact of acquiring 45 RoW . This alignment passes though small residential areas and agricultural areas. Length of this realignment is 2.14 km Mathilakam Section 1& 2 The proposed realignment for First section of Mathilakam starts at Km 398+700(Design ch.391+850) and ends near Km 403+000(Design ch.396+335). Second section of this bypass starts at 405+500(Design ch.398+750) and ends at km 406+060(Design ch.399+220) This reach has more than 6 reverse-curves with less than 50 kmph design speed and passing through heavy built-up area. Large number of schools, religious structures and good residential buildings are presented in this location. Proposed realignment initially runs through residential area for a length of 400m and afterwards passes through coconut plantations. It crosses two important roads, which lead to Moonnupeedika and Iringalakkuda at Km 400+900 and Km 401+050 respectively. From Km 401+050 alignment passes through built-up area for a length of 700m and rejoins on left hand side of existing road at km 403+000. The realignment of the section for km 403+000 to Km 405+500 is through existing alignment and due to the presence of a canal, which is included in national inland waterway on left hand side within 50 m. Then this alignment shifts to right hand side at Km 403+300 and runs for 500m and again shifts to left hand side. From Km 405+500(Design ch.398+750), the second section of realignment starts and runs through agricultural area on left hand side and ends at km 406+060(Design ch 399+220). Length of first and second sections of realignment is 4.485 km and 0.47 km respectively Kodungallur Bypass Consultant decided to retain the alignment proposed by NH Division and PWD Kerala for temple town of Kodungallur, which starts at Km 407+700(Design ch.401+100) near Chathapura and ends at Km 411+800(Design ch.404+135) near TKS Puram before the starting of Kottapuram Bridge. Length of this bypass is 3.035 Km. Consultants reviewed the details of the proposed bypass alignment and identified improvements required to meet the design standards. This bypass passes through moderate built-up area and has 3 curves designed for a speed of 100 kmph. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of work since it is executed by PWD, NH Division Paravur Bypass Proposed bypass for Paravur starts at Km 414+450 (Design ch.406+890)near Moothakunnam and will bypass Paravur town and join the existing alignment at Km 426+160 (Design ch.417+400)near Valluvally, including the Cheriyapalli Bridge. Length of the bypass is 10.51 Km. This is an existing proposal as part of the 2 lane realignment initiated by PWD NH division, starting from Kodungallur at Km 407+700. The construction of the bypass stretch between Km 411+900 to Km 414+450 including Kottapuram twin bridges and Varappuzha bridge have been completed. The Land acquisition for this stretch from Km 414+450 to Km 430+000 has been completed for 30m RoW. This realignment will bypass the busy built-ups like Paravur, Cheriapilly and Valluvally. This alignment mainly passes through coconut plantations. Consultants have reviewed the existing data and proposed improvements to meet design speed of 100kmph and have fixed this bypass alignment with 13 curves. Since the acquired ROW of 30m is below the stipulated ROW for National Highways, socio economical impact of acquiring 45m RoW has been considered as part of the feasibility study options and no alternative have been suggested because of ready acquisition of land by PWD Kerala Edapally Manjumelkavala Realignment As part of improvements proposed by PWD, NH Division, Kerala, land acquisition is in progress from Kottapuram to Edapally for a width of 30m. ROB, Viaduct and approach roads are under construction at Km 437+700 vide job number: 017/KL/2004/673 and agreement number 9/SE/NHCE/Kochi2005-2006. Date of commencement of this project was 02/09/2005 and completion date is 01/09/2007. Deductions have been considered for a total length of 1775m including 559m viaduct and improvements have been proposed for existing road.
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

At Km 438+600, a staggered 4-leg intersection is present, where a grade separator is proposed. Socio economic impact of acquiring 45m RoW has been considered for the feasibility study. This alignment will bypass busy built-up at Edappally and improve the poor geometry of existing alignment. Alignment starts at Km 435+000 (Design ch.425+300)and an end at Km 438+600(Design ch.428+620) and approximate length is 3.320 Km Pavement Design The design for new pavement of both flexible and rigid pavement as well as strengthening (overlay) of existing pavement has been carried as per IRC guidelines for the project stretch. The life cost analysis of flexible pavement and rigid pavement option revealed that flexible pavement option has better economic return than the rigid pavement. Hence the flexible pavement design for 15 years life period is considered and recommended for the entire project road stretch. The recommended pavement composition for the project road stretch from km 318+000 to km 438+600 is given below Recommended Pavement Compositions Recommended Pavement Composition in mm Sections Design Traffic (MSA) For Strengthening & Widening Overlay on Existing Road Widening Portion of Existing Road For New Construction New 2/4 Lane Road New Service Road

(If required) Section I: From 25 SDBC 40 BC km 318+000 To 40 BC 40 BC + 50 BM + 85 DBM km 357+250 + 85 DBM 20 + 85 DBM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM (From km + PCC + 200 GSB + 200 GSB 318+000 To km + 200 GSB 363+000) Section II: From km 357+250 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC 40 BC km 402+940 + 95 DBM + 95 DBM + 50 BM 35 + 95 DBM (From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + PCC 363+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB 407+000) Section III: From km 402+940 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC 40 BC km 428+620 + 105 DBM + 105 DBM + 50 BM 45 + 105 DBM (From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + PCC 407+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB 438+600) Remarks: Overlay thickness on existing road is suitably modified to match with widening thickness to avoid vertical joints in DBM layer. GSB- Granular Sub-base is provided over subgrade soil of CBR > 10%. 500 mm Subgrade of CBR > 10% is provided wherever the existing Subgrade soil CBR is < 10%. Pavement Composition is designed for 15 years life. However WMM & GSB layers are designed for 20 years life.

Junction Improvements Improvements have been proposed for all the junctions along the project road. Junctions are classified as follows:
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The

E-43 National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Major Junctions with NH/SH/Arterial roads and other important roads Junctions with minor access roads 23 major junctions are proposed for improvements in the project stretch. The lists of major & minor junctions along with the summary of improvements are given in table Locations of Junction Improvements Proposed Existing Chainage (km) Design Chainage (km)

Sl. No.

Road Leads To

Junction 3 legged 3 legged 5 legged 4 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged

Proposed Improvements

Major Junctions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 318+090 319+440 334+800 Ponnani bypass 340+160 365+590 376+930 380+270 380+980 387+100 389+885 392+040 395+170 397+250 398+610 403+030 406+020 407+970 411+780 318+090 319+060 330+400 332+420 333+715 358+800 370+200 373+600 377+310 380+510 383+285 385+230 388+350 390+490 391+850 396+335 399+220 401+100 404+135 Kuttipuram Ponnani Start Bypass Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

Edappal,Ponnani Ponnani Kolimpadi –

Ponnani Bypass End Chavakkad Bypass End Vadanappilly Realignment Start Vadanappilly Realignment End Triprayar Realignment Start Triprayar Realignment Ends Chendrapinni Realignment Start Chendrapinni Realignment Ends Moonnupeedika Bypass start Moonnupeedika Bypass Ends Mathilakam-1 Bypass Start Mathilakam-1 Bypass Ends Mathilakam-2 Bypass Ends Kodungallur Bypass Start Kodungallur Bypass End
E-44

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.

National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No. 20 21 22 23

Existing Chainage (km) 414+410 Paravur Bypass 426+170 438+670

Design Chainage (km) 406+890 411+400 417+400 428+940

Road Leads To Paravur Bypass Start Ernakulam,Paravur Paravur ends Bypass City

Junction 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged

Proposed Improvements At grade Junction Vehicular underpass At grade Junction Grade separator

Ernakulam 438.800 Aluva

Minor Junctions Ponnani Bypass 343+240 352+900 358+190 358+730 363+110 370+640 Ponnani Crossing Kadavanadu Kunnamkulam, Beach Aviyoor,Beach Mallad,Beach Chavakkadu Pulikkakadavu, Benglamkadavu Pulikkakadavu, Mangalamkadavu Market,Polakkal Manappad, Pokkancheri Vadanappally Thrissur Road Triprayar Road – 4 legged 4 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged Bypass Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

322+310 336+840 346+470 351+800 352+340 356+760 363+850

4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 3 legged 3 legged

8 9 10

371+570 372+640 375+280

364+840 365+910 368+540

4 legged 3 legged 3 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass

11 12 13 14 15

377+800 384+700 386+100 387+950 389+110

370+975 377+910 379+450 381+350 382+510

Thrissur

Valappad – Village Road Murinathode Beach Kattoor, Kazhibram Chandrappinni Village Road
E-45

16

391+500

384+670

4 legged

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.

National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No. 17 18 19

Existing Chainage (km) 405+420 400+000 -

Design Chainage (km) 398+750 392+980 393+280

Road Leads To Mathilakm start Bypass

Junction 3legged 4 legged 4 legged

Proposed Improvements At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass

Pallivalavu - Tippu Sulthan Road Iringalakkuda,

20

413+570

406+060

Moothakunnam Chungam, Crossing Bypass

3 legged

21

425+450

416+755

4 legged

22

426+450

417+680

Karianthuruth, Kachanikode temple Koorikuzhi, Kottuvallikavu temple Koonammavu Hospital Aluva Olanad, Devaswom padam Puthenpalli, Varapuzha Mannamthuruthi, Varapuzha Njattuvetty ferry, Naduvilppadi Eloor, Cheranelloor Chitoor road Bypass Cross Edappally - Cross Road

4 legged

At grade Junction

23 24 25

427+080 427+350 427+820

418+300 418+590 419+020

4 legged 3 legged 3 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction

26 27

429+200 430+020

420+400 421+220

4 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction

28

430+560

421+760

4 legged

At grade Junction

29 30 31 32 33

431+380 431+800 433+535 436+700 437+400

422+580 423+000 424+735 426+020 426+620

4 legged 4 legged 3 legged 4 legged 4 legged

At grade Junction At grade Junction At grade Junction Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass

Service Roads In view of social aspects and density of population of Kerala ,Service roads needs to be provided with all the built up.But Considering economy of the project ,proposal of service
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA In Joint Venture With Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. E-46 National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

roads are restricted at unavoidable locations. Table shows the location identified for the provision of service roads along the project road. Proposed Service Roads

Sl. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Existing Chainage (Km) From
318400 342000 342600 344460 349200 352200 353090 353390 354060 357000 359800 376400 382600 388600 407700 413100 414450 427000 427200 427700 432000

Design Chainage (Km) From
318+440 335+570 336+100 338+100 342+740 345+770 346+690 346+990 347+660 350+610 353+420 369+670 375+930 382+010 383+900 385+060 401+000 406+450 406+900 410+650 417+160 418+220 418+420 418+920 423+370

To
318800 342300 343000 345400 350400 353090 353390 354060 354200 357600 363200 377000 383850 389920 392150 411800 414450 427000 427200 427700 431000 434200

To
318+670 335+900 336+600 338+930 343+940 346+690 346+990 347+660 347+800 351+210 356+370 370+580 377+520 383+290 384+280 385+340 404+020 406+900 410+580 416+250 418+220 418+420 418+920 422+100 424+500

Side (LHS/RHS/ Both)
Both Both Both Both Both LHS Both LHS Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both RHS Both Both Total Length

Length (km)
230 330 500 830 1200 920 300 670 140 600 2950 910 1590 1280 380 280 3020 450 3680 5600 1060 200 500 3180 1130 61770

Width (m)
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Way side Amenities Adequate provisions of wayside amenities are provided on the project road to improve the safety for the convenience of road users.Two rest areas are proposed at the project road, which comprises facilities such as toilet, drinking water, telephone booth & sufficient off / on street parking space. Rest area is proposed at km 353+400(Design ch.348+900) and Design ch.394+500(Bypass) of the project road. The summary of wayside amenities is given in table Summary of Wayside Amenities SI. No. 1 Type of Amenity Truck Lay Bays Location - Design Chainage (Km) Designch.327+700(bypass),365+350(Design ch.359+050),392+820(Designch.386+020 )& 431+850(Design ch.425+150)

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E-47 National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

SI. No. 2 3 4

Type of Amenity Rest Area Bus Bays Toll Plaza

Location - Design Chainage (Km) At km 353+300(Design ch.348+900) & 394+600(bypass) At 70 Locations Km .344+160(Design ch.337+700) & Bypass(Design ch.413+700)

Road Furniture Road markings and road signs standards are proposed based on IRC standards. The summary of traffic signs and road furniture proposed along the project road are given in table. Proposed Road Furniture along the Project Road
Sl No List of Signs Unit Quantity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Stop sign Curve sign Median openings Side road Chevron Signs for curves (for curves <=1000m radius) Red reflectors Keep left Cat’s eyes Advanced Direction sign Rout Marker sign Place Identification sign Overhead Cantilever Sign Boards Overhead Gantry Sign Boards Bus Stop sign Metal Beam Crash Barrier Retroreflectorised sheets on crash barriers, railings etc.

No No No No No No No No No No No No No No m sqm

120 242 49 110 1772 600 27 6000 47 90 40 18 12 70 12624 1268

ROB A two lane ROB construction is in progress at km 427+545 (Design ch.437+700) at Edappalli where the project road encounter with a level crossing. An additional 12m wide ROB is proposed at this location. Details of proposed ROB are given in table Details of Proposed ROB Sl. No 1 Flyover
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Existing Chainage (Km) 437+700

Design Chainage (Km) 427+545

Span 13 x 21.6+ 1 x 7.85+ 30+1 x 7.85+13 x 21.6

Foundation Pile

E-48 National Highways Authority of India

Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Flyover is proposed at km 428+941 (Design ch.438+600) where project road meets NH-47.The Details of proposed flyover is given in table Details of Proposed flyover Sl. No Existing Chainage (Km) 438+600 Design Chainage (Km) 428+940 Span 5 x 35+1 x46+5x35-Second Tier 10 x 35+1 x46+10x35-Third Tier 10 x 21+1x 38+1x15-Arm Foundation

1

Pile

Vehicular Underpass Vehicular underpasses are proposed at fifteen locations for easy crossing of vehicles. The Details of Vehicular underpasses are given in table Proposal for New Vehicular Underpasses Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Existing Chainage (Km) 318+090 Bypass Bypass 363+110 Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass 413+560 Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass Design Chainage (Km) 318+090 322+310 330+400 356+760 370+975 377+910 379+450 384+670 388+990 392+980 406+060 411+400 416+755 426+020 426+620 Opening Size 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m 1 x 10.5m x 5m Usage Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass Vehicular Underpass

Slip Roads Slip Roads are proposed along with vehicular underpass . The table below gives the locations of slip roads. Proposed Slip Roads Existing chainage Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 From Bypass Bypass 362740 Bypass Bypass To Bypass Bypass 363520 Bypass Bypass Design chainage From 321920 330010 356370 370585 377520 To 322700 330800 357150 371365 378300
E-49 National Highways Authority of India

side Both/LHS/RHS Both Both Both Both Both Length(m) 780 790 780 780 780 Width(m) 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Existing chainage Sl No 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 From Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass 412490 412910 413160 425145 Bypass 433930 To Bypass Bypass Bypass Bypass 412910 413160 413305 425960 Bypass 433858

Design chainage From 379060 384280 388595 392585 405640 406060 406310 416345 425630 428370 To 379840 385060 389385 393375 406060 406310 406455 417160 428200 428442 Both/LHS/RHS Both Both Both Both Both RHS Both Both Both Both

side Length(m) 780 780 790 790 420 250 145 815 2570 72 Width(m) 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5

Bridges & Cross Drainage Structures There are 15 bridges along the existing road including eight major bridges and seven minor bridges. Navigational clearance is provided on all major bridge locations. Out of the total 15 bridges, 6 are bypassed (4 minor bridges and 2 major bridge) and 8 new bridges are proposed at bypass locations. There are 124 culverts on the project stretch along the existing roadProposal for culverts

Proposals for Bridges
The proposal of bridges and Cross Drainage Structures during widening and improvement is given in table Details of proposals for bridges Sl. No Existing Chainage (Km) Design Chainage (Km) Proposed Scheme Span Arrangem ent Type of Super structure Type of Substructure Abutment Pier Type of Foundatio n

BRIDGES – Existing NH17 falling in Project stretch 1 2 319+030 342+300 318+820 336+000 New Four lane Additiona l Two lane Additiona l Two lane Additiona l Two lane Additiona l Two lane Additiona l Two lane 11x 32.5 1 x 16 .5+ 7 x 24.5 + 1 x 16.5 12 x 26.5 1 x 7.1 1 x 31.7 + 7 x 32.3 + 1 x 31.7 1 x 32.73 + 9 x 33.3 + 1 x 32.75 1 x 24 1 x 16.0
E-50 National Highways Authority of India

PSC girder PSC girder

I I

RCC Solid RCC

RCC Rect. RCC Rect. RCC Rect. RCC circul ar RCC circul ar -

Circular Pier Pile

3 4 5

369+520 382+400 412+180

362+890 375+670 404+860

PSC I girder RCC Slab PSC girder PSC girder I

RCC RCC RCC

Well Open Well

6

412+800

405+450

I

RCC

Well

7 8

413+750 430+300

406+210 421+465

Additiona l Two lane Additiona

RCC beam RCC

TT-

RCC RCC

Well Well

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No

Existing Chainage (Km)

Design Chainage (Km)

Proposed Scheme

Span Arrangem ent

Type of Super structure beam

Type of Substructure Abutment Pier

Type of Foundatio n

l Two lane 9 431+000 422+730 Additiona l Two lane 4 x 20 + 5 x 30+3 x 50+ 1x 83 + 1x 120+1 x 83+ 3 x 50+5 x 30+3 x 20 3 x 18

PSC box +RCC box + RCC voided slab

RCC

Well

BRIDGES – Bypasses 10 14+470Ponnani 1+145Chavakka d 1+428 Paravoor 1+716 Paravoor 2+244 Paravoor 4+564 Paravoor 9+080 Paravoor 333+200Ponnani 357+740Chavakk ad 407+215 Paravoor 407+770 Paravoor 408+085 Paravoor 410+620 Paravoor 416+300 Paravoor New Four lane New Four lane New lane New lane New lane New lane New lane Four Four Four Four Four RCC beam + + TRCC RCC circul ar RCC circul ar RCC Rect. RCC circul ar Pile

11

12 13 14 15 16

1x20 1x30 1x20 1 x 18 1 x 18 1 x 18 3 x 25 3 x 30

RCC/PSC beam RCC beam RCC beam RCC beam PSC girder PSC girder TTTI I

RCC Solid RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC Solid

Pile

Pile Pile Pile Pile Pile

Proposals for Culverts
Culvert Details Existing Type of culvert Pipe Box New constructio n 0 0 Reconstructio n 25 31 Widenin g 0 3 Bypass New constructio n 55 27 Reconstructio n 0 8 Widenin g 1 23

Summary of EIA
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Introduction Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report presents the environmental assessment of the proposed improvements for the 121-Km Kuttippuram – Edappally stretch of NH 17 in the State of Kerala, and the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to minimise or mitigate the impacts identified. Guidelines formulated by Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) were referred for preparing the EIA. Apart from this various Indian acts and regulations were reviewed such as, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and EIA Notifications of 1994 and 2006. Following are the major tasks conducted as a part of EIA Study. • • • • Preliminary reconnaissance survey and collection of secondary information to identify environmentally sensitive issues relating to the project ; Identification of base-line status of various environmental parameters through environmental monitoring study; Assessment of potential impacts of the project on these base-line conditions; Formulation of Environment Management Plan (EMP) incorporating appropriate mitigation measures to offset the identified adverse impacts, and Environmental Monitoring Plan for evaluating the effective implementation of EMP; Estimation of cost for EMP and Monitoring Plan; and Formulation of institutional arrangements for the implementation of EMP.

• •

Baseline Environmental Profile of the Project Area Field inspections at all the sensitive locations, collection of secondary information for all the environmental components, baseline environmental monitoring from September 2006 to October 2006, and discussions with the officials, NGOs and local public were conducted to establish the baseline environmental status of the study area. Topography. Except a small portion in the Ponnani bypass, the entire project road passes through plain terrain, which falls in the low land region along the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala. Meteorology. The entire project area has a tropical humid climate. The hot season from March to May is followed by the South West Monsoon season from June to September. The period from October to November is the North East Monsoon season, and the period from December to February is generally dry. The South West Monsoon is usually very heavy and nearly 75 % of the annual rains are received during this season. The range of temperature varies between 32°C and 22°C. The average annual rainfall is 280 mm/ year and the average relative humidity is 81.5%. An Automatic Weather Monitoring Station was set up at Vadanappally as part of the baseline environmental monitoring. The ambient temperature during the monitoring period varied between 32.6 oC and 21.4 oC and relative humidity ranged between 96% and 88%. The solar radiation recorded ranged between 28.2 Watt hour/sq m and 0.20 Watt hour/sq m. Average rain fall during the study period was around 404.01 mm. Predominant winds were mostly from South-Southwest and South West directions with frequencies of 13.7% and 11.5 % respectively. Calm conditions prevailed for 0.7 % for the total time. Geology and Minerals. Geologically the project area is composed mostly of Archaean gneisses and crystalline schists with a narrow coastal belt of recent sediments and mud banks. The project area is not rich in mineral wealth except the deposits of lime shells found in the coastal belt of Ponnani and deposits of Ilmenite along with monazite found in the beach sand of Ponnani, Veliyamkod and Chavakkad area along the project road. Soil Characteristics. Coastal alluvial soil is seen in the project area. the texture is dominated by sand fraction with very rapid permeability. These soils are generally acidic and of low fertility level. Laterite soil type is observed in the hilly terrain of Ponnani bypass. Soil sampling

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

done at seven locations along the project road shows that the soil texture along the project road varies from silty clay to sandy loam and the pH varies from 5.5 to 9.3. Hydrology. The project road is crossing / abutting a number of water bodies through out the stretch. Different branches of Periyar, the largest river in Kerala, are crossing the project road at seven locations. Bharathapuzha, the second largest river in Kerala is crossing the project road at Kuttipuram. Proposed National Waterway No. 3 (NW-3) from Kovalam to Kasargod, which is part of different rivers and canals is crossing the project road at four locations and runs parallel to the project road intermittently on LHS and RHS in between these locations. Kanjiramukku River is crossing the project road at Puthuponnani. Ground water level in the project area is shallow in the plain terrain, varying from 1 to 3 meters. Ambient Air Quality. The baseline status of ambient air quality monitored at 11 locations along the project road shows that all the ambient air quality parameters were well within the NAAQ Standards at all the locations except an Increase in SPM level at Kottappuram. Water Quality. Surface water samples were collected from seven locations along the project road. Important chemical parameters like Chlorides, Hardness and Total Dissolved Solids were observed to be very high at five locations due to the backwater influence. Biological Indicator – total Coliforms – is also found to be higher than the permissible limits at five locations. Faecal Coliforms were present at four locations. Ground water samples were collected from six locations. All the physical and chemical parameters of ground water at all the locations were within the IS:10500 standards. Total Coliforms were more than the permissible limits, but faecal Coliforms were absent. Ambient Noise Level. Out of the 11 locations where ambient noise level monitoring was done along the project road, eight locations represented residential areas and three locations represented commercial areas. Among the eight locations representing residential areas, noise levels at four locations were below the permissible limit set by the CPCB during day time and night time. At two locations the noise levels during day time and night time were above the permissible limits. Out of the remaining two locations representing residential areas, day time noise level at one location and night time noise level at other location was above the permissible limit. Among the three locations representing commercial areas, noise level at one location was below the permissible limits for commercial areas during day time and night time. Day time noise level at the remaining two locations was above the permissible limit. Biological Environment. The project road is not passing through any forest areas, wildlife sanctuaries and protected areas. However, the project road is passing through VembanadKol wetland system, which is a Ramsar Site. Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary is situated 5 Km away from the project road. No rare/threatened species of flora or fauna is present in the project area except the mangroves along the canals, rivers and estuaries crossing / abutting the project road. About 56,300 trees – mainly coconut trees - are present with in the proposed 45-m right of way of the project road since it is passing through agricultural areas. Land Environment. The predominant land use along the project road is residential followed by agricultural and commercial. Ribbon development is found through out the project road. The project road passes through four municipalities namely Ponnani, Chavakkad, Kodungalloor and Paravur, Kochi Municipal Corporation and a number of other small towns. Paddy, Coconut, Tapioca, Areca nut, Cashew nut, Banana, Pulses, and Betel vine are the important crops along the project road. The project road falls under Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) at sixteen locations. Assessment of Potential Environmental Impacts Project Benefits: Beneficial impacts of the project will be the reduction in air pollution due to better service levels of the road, reduction in travel time and accidents, better connectivity to Cochin – the industrial hub and major sea port of Kerala - from northern parts of Kerala and neighbouring states, better connectivity to the proposed Vallarpadam Container Terminal and proposed LNG Terminal at Cochin and different small-scale fishing harbours
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

along the sea coast of Ernakulam, Thrissur and Malappuram districts, easy access to the famous Guruvayoor Temple from northern and southern part of Kerala, generation of local employment during road construction, and Improvement of local economy and industry due to better infrastructure. Negative Impacts: Major environmental impacts expected due to the project are the cutting of about 56,300 trees – mainly coconut trees, loss of productive agricultural lands and the damage of mangrove areas in CRZ locations. No significant impacts are anticipated on the ecology of the Vembanad-Kol wetland system and CRZ areas since no reclamation of wetlands or water bodies is proposed for the project. Temporary impacts are anticipated on air quality, water quality and noise levels in the project area during the construction phase. An increase in ambient noise level is expected during the operation phase. Environmental modelling was conducted to predict the concentration of Carbon Monoxide and noise levels along the project road in 2011 and 2016 and the results were compared with the permissible limits set by CPCB. The CO modelling results show that concentration of CO will be within the standards at all the sensitive receptor locations along the project road for the projected years. Noise modelling results show that the noise levels within 20m from the centreline of the road in 2011 and within 50m from the centreline of the road in 2016 will exceed the permissible limits for residential areas in certain stretches of the project road. Public Consultations Public Consultations were conducted at Village level at four locations and at district level at two locations along the project road. The main issue raised during the consultation process was the demand for market rate for land acquisition. All the issues raised during the consultation process are addressed in the EMP and the Resettlement Action Plan. Mitigation of Impacts and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Project specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP), stating the various impacts and their mitigation measures, is formulated to avoid/minimise the anticipated impacts. The responsibility of implementing suggested mitigation measures lies mainly with Contractor, Construction Supervision Consultant and PIU. An Environmental Monitoring Plan is proposed as part of the EMP to evaluate the efficiency of implementation of mitigation measures recommended in the EMP and facilitate management decisions for the project. Block Cost Estimates for Environmental Management Plan The cost of implementing the mitigation measures suggested in the EMP and conducting the environmental monitoring as per the Environmental Monitoring Plan works out to Rs.15.315 Crores during the construction phase. The operational cost of the same is estimated at Rs. 1.5 lakhs per annum during the first three years and Rs. 27.93 lakhs per annum from 4th year onwards. Conclusions and Recommendations With proper implementation of mitigation measures proposed in the EMP, the proposed project does not lead to any significant irreversible environmental impacts in the project influence area. The environmental monitoring plan and reporting mechanism proposed as part of the EMP will ensure the proper implementation of the EMP. Through providing better transportation facilities, the proposed project will create a developmental boom in the in the project area leading to an improvement in the socio-economic conditions of the entire region. Thus the overall benefits of project outweigh the negative impacts of the project. The project requires the following environmental clearances: Environmental Clearance from MoEF: Since the proposed project is for the expansion of existing National Highway greater than 30 Km involving additional RoW greater than 20 m involving land acquisition, it falls under Category “B” as per the EIA Notification 2006 and requires environmental clearance from SEIAA. But SEIAA is not constituted in Kerala State and hence this project shall be treated as a Category “A” project, which requires clearance from MoEF. Since the EIA Document of the present project is prepared before 30th June, 2007, and
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

since it is included in the Schedule of EIA Notification 2006, EIA appraisal of this project may be done as per the Interim Operational Guidelines till 13th September 2007. Clearance from Kerala Forest Department: Prior Clearance is required from Kerala Forest Department for cutting of trees within the proposed RoW and their transportation. Consent to establish from Kerala State Pollution Control Board: Consent to establish is required for the project from the Kerala State Pollution Control Board under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 CRZ Clearance from Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority and MoEF: Since many parts of the project road passes through CRZ areas, and since the project cost is more than five crores, clearances from Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority and MoEF are required for the project.

   Summary of RAP    
The project road comprises the portion of NH-17 from chainage 318+000 at Kuttippuram in Malappuram district to chainage 429+440 at Edappally in Ernakulam district of Kerala. Topographically this stretch runs through plain land parallel to the coast line except for first 3 km, which runs through the rolling terrain of Malappuram district. The project road passes through three administrative boundaries– Malappuram, Trissur and Ernakulam districts of Kerala state Out of the total 111.730 km. first 25.14 km. passes through Malappuram district where the settlement pattern is less dense comprising residential, commercial and agricultural lands. As the road enters Thrissur district the population density increases and the land use is predominantly residential with commercial hubs in between. This stretch, which accounts for 53% of the total project length passes through many commercial centers with dense ribbon development on either side of the road. The last stretch of 24.182 km. in length, passes through urban centers of Paravur and Kanayannur taluk in Ernakulam and has very narrow winding roads with very closely and densely knit settlements. Following are the demarcations of the entire project road based on administrative boundaries: Section-I - Malappuram District - (Existing Chainage 317+ 710 to 349+280 & Design chainage: 317+710 to 342+820) Section-II - Thrissur District (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 409+110 & Design chainage: 342+820 to 405+260)

Section-III - Ernakulam District - (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 438+600 & Design chainage: 405+260 to 429+440)

    Loss of Land
The additional land required for the widening of the existing road to four lane was estimated based on the land acquisition plan prepared by consultants. Accordingly, an additional
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

area of 753.80 acres (305.06 Ha.) would be required which includes both private land and government land. Out of this an area of 734.39 acres would be required for road, 9.21 acres for toll plaza, 3.21 acres for truck lay bays and 6.98 acres for rest areas. The same is summarized in table Land requirement for the proposed highway design Design Feature Road Toll Plaza Truck Lay bays Rest Area Total Land to be acquired (sq.mts.) 2972058.171 37291.15 13009.97 28266.61 3050625.901 (Acres) 734.39 9.21 3.21 6.98 753.80

Loss of Structures
This category includes loss of structures and semi-open within private or government plots. The census survey conducted for all the structures affected under the project covered major structures like residential, commercial and religious buildings as well as minor structures like compound walls bus stops, pump houses, wells, water taps etc. It reveals that a total of 5596 structures are affected out of which, 3991 are major buildings and remaining are minor structures or immovable assets. Structures which are located in the land already acquired for bypass is not considered in this survey, details are given in table Category of buildings affected Major buildings No. of structures Percentage to total

Residential Commercial Resi. + Comm. Public buildings Religious Total Loss of Immovable Assets

2120 1499 106 223 43 3991

53.12 37.56 2.66 5.59 1.07 100

*Inlcudes taps, graveyards, pump houses, wells, ponds, sheds, bus stops etc.

Loss of other immovable assets include loss of compound walls, fences, loss of taps, wells, bus stops, sheds, pump houses etc. From the census survey of structures it has been found that there are 431 PAFs whose compound wall alone is affected. Majority of the compound walls are pucca and privately owned. Impact on other minor structures like public taps, bus shelters, etc. causes loss of another additional 1174 structures. These compensation for structures have been budgeted in the RAP budget as per prevailing schedule of rates published by PWD.

Impact on Livelyhood/Tenure
Out of a total of 3991 PAFs being affected by impact on structures, 1605 PAFs, which comprises owners of commercial structures and res-commerical structures looses their livelihood due to the loss of commercial spaces. As the census survey covered only the structure affected PAFs who are owners of the affected structures, the number of people
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

who are employed in these commercial buildings and looses their livelihood are not covered. The non-availability of updated land records was another constraint in estimating the accurate number of PAFs.

RAP Budget
RAP budget, can be broadly subdivided into following three subsections: The final RAP budget is given in Table E 19 (d) Assistance for Loss of Land (e) Assistance for Loss of Structures and Assets (f) R&R Implementation

6.8.1

Assistance for Loss of Land

Assistance for land has been prepared based on the land acquisition plan where the extent of land area that needs to be acquired is calculated for each survey number in each village. Based on the land use of the area to be acquired along the existing road and the bypasses, unit rates of land is applied to get the total assistance for loss of land. The land value includes 30% solatium, 12% interest and Registration and stamp duty. table Cost of Land Sl. No. B : LA Cost 1 2 3 4 Total
Note: * Includes cost of land for 2 toll plazas and other amenities

Components of Cost

Unit (Acres) 753.8 Cost (in INR Crores) 178.52 53.56 21.42 16.07 269.57

A : Total Affected Land Area Cost of LA Solatium @ 30% of the LA Cost Interest @ 12 % of the LA cost Registration rate (8%) and stamp duty (1%) charges

The cost of acquiring land of 753.8 Acres for the project comes to Rs. 269.57 Crores, of these Rs 53.56 crores are solatium (30%) and an additional Rs. 21.42 Crores and Rs. 16.07 crores would be required to be disbursed to the PAFs as interest rate and Registration expanses respectively. Intrest would be paid at the rate of 12% while registration expanses are at the rate of 9 %( 8% registration and 1% stamp duty) This solatium would be given to take care of other exigencies like registration of newly purchased property and stamp duty fees etc.

6.8.2

Assistance for Loss of Structures and Assets

Assistance for loss of structures and minor assets like wells, pump houses, compound walls etc, within residential and commercial plots has been summarized in table. Cost of Structures and Assets. Sl. No. 1 Components of Cost Replacement value of structures including compound walls
E-57 National Highways Authority of India

Cost (in INR Crores) 157.77

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Sl. No. 2 3

Components of Cost Replacement value of semi-open structures Replacement value of other fixed assets Total Assistance for Loss of Structures

Cost (in INR Crores) 7.01 1.18 165.96

The cost of structures is estimated at Rs. 157.77 which is equivalent to replacement value (without depreciation). The same for semi-open structures and fixed assets are estimated at Rs. 7.01 crores and 1.18 crores respectively. The total assistance for loss of structures ths comes to Rs. 165.96 crores.

6.8.3

R&R Assistance

R&R assistance and other cost include the one time ex-gratia amount Rs 10000/family.The category wise number of affected families is given in table R&R Assistance Sl.No 1 2 3 Assistance R&R Assistance to Land(Only Land)affected PAF* R&R Assistance to land & structures affected Families R&R Assistance to Non title holders Total Unit PAF PAF PAF Quantity (Nos) 23744 5596 4815 34155 Unit Rate (Rs.) 10000 10,000 10,000 Amount in Rs. Crore 23.74 5.60 4.82 34.16

.

6.8.4

Final RAP Budget

Final Resettlement Action Plan and budget has been summarized in table. Final RAP Budget Final RAP Budget

Assistance Land Cost Structure Cost R&R Assistance Total

Amount in Rs. Crore 269.57 165.96 34.16 469.68

Project Cost Estimates  

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

The estimated cost for 4-6 laning of Kuttipuram – Edapally Section of NH – 17 , project road is presented in table. Cost Estimate for 4-6 laning of Kuttipuram – Edapally Section
BILL NO. BILL NAME AMOUNT (Rs.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

SITE CLEARANCE AND DISMANTLING EARTH WORK SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSES BITUMINOUS WORKS CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS NEW BRIDGES AND UNDER PASSES ROAD OVER BRIDGES (ROB'S) TRAFFIC SIGNAGES, ROAD MARKING AND OTHER APPURTENANCES PROTECTIVE WORKS, DUCTS & OTHER SERVICES ELECTRICAL WORKS TOLL PLAZA REPAIR AND REHABILITATION MISCELLANEOUS TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST 10& escalation for one year (crores) CONTINGENCIES/QC @ 3% OF CIVIL COST (crores) IC & PRE-OPERATIVE EXPENSES @1% OF EPC (crores) FINANCING COST @ 2% DEBT AT 70:30 DER (crores) ESCLATION @ 5% PER ANUM DURING CONSTRUCTION PERIOD (CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 30 MONTHS) (crores) INTEREST DURING CONSTRUCTION @ 11% PA ON DEBT (AT 70:30 DER) (TERM LOAN) (crores) TOTAL CONCESSIONAIRE COST(crores) TOTAL LENGTH OF PROJECT ROAD (KM) PER KM COST ( CRORES ) NHAI COST LAND ACQUISITION, ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION,R&R, UTILITY SHIFTING ETC., (crores) TOTAL NHAI COST(crores) TOTAL PROJECT COST ( CONCESSIONAIRE + NHAI COST ) (crores) TOTAL PROJECT PER KM COST ( CRORES )

17,215,348 497,948,090 1,696,670,777 1,490,591,381 298,189,283 3,442,290,179 198,759,957 106,968,600 640,246,019 123,456,650 170,357,894 57,279,451 98,165,867

8,838,139,543 928.001
27.84 9.558 12.824 79.454 87.280 1144.957 111.73 10.25 485.20 485.20 1630.16 14.59

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Project Report

Economic Analysis

&

Financial  

Economic Analysis
Economic evaluation was carried out for the full Project Road. In the analysis, the ‘with project’ alternative of widening the project road to 4 lane configurations were compared with the base option of ‘without project’ alternative of maintaining the existing road only and without improvements. This is to arrive at the net economic benefits, which consist of reduction in vehicle operation cost, reduction in travel time and reduction in accident cost. Analysis period was taken as 30 years from the date of operation. The project road section of NH 17 from Kuttipuram to Edappali is economically feasible forthe proposed widening to four lanes considering the positive values of EIRR (21.4%) and ENPV (Rs. 9975.53 Million). It has also been established that the proposal is economically feasible in the worst-case scenario developed in sensitivity analysis (EIRR: 17.5%, ENPV: Rs. 6282.04 Million). Financial Analysis Based on the project structure traffic study and toll rate analysis, financial feasibility analysis has been carried out as per the methodology outlined in earlier sections. The objective of the financial analysis is to ascertain the existence of sustainable project returns, which shall successfully meet the expectations of its financial investors. The analysis reveals various FIRR values corresponding to each year of toll operation. FIRR for the Returns on Investment and Returns on Equity for the years from 2010 to 2037(concession period is 30 years including Construction Period) with maximum 40% subsidy Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant and 30 years Concession Period are given in Table 5.24.
Table 5.24: Financial Feasibility Results Post Tax FIRR % Return on Equity % NPV @ 12% (Rs Crore) Pay Back Period

SCENARIOS

(With 40% Grant/Subsidy) for 30 years of concession period Statement

15.58

19.25

321.38

10 years Profitability

The profit and loss statement indicates the net profit earned during the concession period. Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant are given in Table 5.25.
Table 5.25: Project Profitability Results (Rs in Crores) Net Revenue Total O&M Cost Net Operating income Profit or Loss before tax Total Tax Profit or Loss After tax

Years

Case

2011 2038

With 40% Grant/ Subsidy

62.87 1114.31

6.03 40.36

56.84 1073.97

3.4 1032.33

0.39 359.13

3.02 673.20

Conclusion
It would be seen that considering the enhancement of toll rate on the basis of structure/bypass cost, the project is financially viable on BOT basis with maximum of 40% Grant and 30 years Concession Period. Accordingly, project should be undertaken either on
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Project  
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis Project Report

annuity basis or EPC contract basis. To get minimum viability criteria of 15% Equity IRR, 10.65% grant is required.

 

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