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Project Description
1.1 General

Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, Government of India has decided to take
up the development of various National Highways stretches/Corridors under NHDP Phase III
program in the country concerning upgrading of capacity, safety, riding quality etc. to
international standards by four/ six-laning of highway stretches/ Corridors together with major
Port connectivity.

NHAI has been entrusted to implement the development projects for few selected stretches/
corridors either through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) basis or its own budgetary sources or
loans from ADB, World Bank etc. The NHAI has accordingly taken up project preparation of
certain stretches/ corridors of existing National Highways passing through various states of the
country.

The stretch of 111.73 km from Kuttipuram to Edapally of NH 17 in the state of Kerala is a part
of the NHDP-III projects. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) will be the employer and
executing agency for the consultancy services and the standards of output required from
the appointed consultants are of international level both in terms of quality and adherence
to the agreed time schedule.

M/s Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA in joint venture (JV) with Wilbur Smith Associates Private
Limited have been entrusted by NHAI the task of carrying out the Feasibility Studies and
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment including preparation of Detailed Project
Report for rehabilitation and upgrading to 4/6 lane divided highway.

This report deals with essentially of Project Report for rehabilitation and upgrading of a
stretch of 111.73 km on NH-17 in the state of Kerala to 4/6 lane divided highway.

1.2 Project Outline

The project essentially consists of conducting Feasibility Studies and Environmental and Social
Impact Assessment including preparation of Detailed Project Report for rehabilitation and
upgrading of a stretch of 111.73km on NH-17 in the state of Kerala to 4/6 lane divided
highway. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of work since it is executed by
PWD, NH Division.

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 1
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

1.3 Objective

The objectives of the present project covering the stretch of 111.73 km of NH-17 (Kuttipuram –
Edapally ) in the state of Kerala include the following:

To establish the technical, economical, environmental, social, and financial feasibility of the
project and prepare detailed project reports for rehabilitation and upgrading of the existing
2-lane National Highway (NH) sections to 4-lane divided carriageway configuration.

The viability of the project designed as a partially access controlled facility shall be
established taking into account the requirements with regard to rehabilitation, upgrading
and improvement based on highway design, pavement design, provision of service roads
wherever necessary, type of intersections, underpasses/flyovers/ROB’s, rehabilitation and
widening of existing and/or construction of new bridges and structures, road safety features,
quantities of various items of works and cost estimates vis-à-vis the investment and financial
return through toll and other revenue.

The Detailed Project Report (DPR) would inter-alia include detailed highway design, design of
pavement and overlay with options for flexible or rigid pavements, design of bridges and
cross drainage structures, design of service roads, quantities of various items, detailed
working drawings, detailed cost estimates, economic and financial viability analysis,
environmental and social feasibility, environmental and social action plans as appropriate
and documents required for tendering the project on commercial basis for
international/Local competitive bidding.

Detailed project preparation incorporating aspects of value engineering, quality audit and
safety audit requirement in design and execution.
Scope of Services

The scope of services as per section 3 and 4 of the ToR, include the following:

Collection of all secondary data & review of data and documents related to the project
roads and project influence area.

Detailed reconnaissance survey

Inventory and condition surveys for existing road & pavement, cross drainage structures and
bridges.

Identification of possible improvement of the existing alignment, central widening/one side


widening, by-pass, service roads, etc with alternatives and evaluation, shifting of utilities, trees
to be felled and planted and land acquisition requirements on Strip Plan (Topo
Maps/Satellite Images).

Identification of problem areas, where widening may not be possible for


physical/environmental/social constraints within the parameters of TOR.

Environmental and social studies and impact assessment including mitigation measures and
resettlement studies.

Traffic surveys, Toll Rate & Willingness to Pay Toll surveys & Axle Load surveys including
demand forecasting for the next 30 years and assessment of Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF)
as well as Capacity Assessment based on IRC 64-2001 and compare the Highway Capacity
Manual and RUCS.

Topography survey, pavement investigations, material and geotechnical investigations.

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 2
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Detailed design of horizontal and vertical alignment including cross sections, pavement
structure, intersections, cross drainage structures and bridges, flyovers, interchanges, railway
over bridges, user oriented facility along the road (road side amenities), road and other
appurtenances.

Detailed project preparation incorporating value engineering, quality audit and safety audit
requirement in design and implementation.

Obtain all necessary clearance required for implementation of the project on the ground
from the concerned agencies. The client shall provide the necessary supporting letters and
any official fees as per the demand note issued by the concerned agencies from whom the
clearances are being sought to enable implementation.

Rate analysis of non-schedule items, detailed quantity takeoff, BOQ and cost estimates.

Economic and financial analysis with financing options like BOT, Annuity, SPV etc.

Preparation of separate documents for BOT as well as EPC contracts for each DPR
assignments.

1.4 Approach

The Consultant’s approach to the project will be in accordance with the “Description of
Services” given in the Contract Document, understanding of the project objectives and
further discussions with the Client during progress of the project study.

The main objective of this consultancy service comprise of the following:

1. The widening work shall be within the existing ROW avoiding land acquisition,
and retaining the existing pavement, cross drainage structures and bridges as
far as possible within the requirement of IRC/ MOSRT&H guidelines.
2. Evolve the most economical but sound proposals for the required roadwork
and related bridge works.
3. Carry out engineering, economic, environmental and social feasibility studies
of the proposed road improvements keeping in view the aspect of Public-
Private Partnership (PPP) and BOT / Annuity.
4. Incorporate International “best practices” including use of ‘state of the art’
and computer based survey and design techniques (e.g. GPS, Total Station
Survey, computer aided designs (MX/MOSS/Equivalent, etc) for preparation
of the technical proposal, development of designs, cost estimates, bid
documents, etc.
5. Prepare preliminary designs of the agreed road and related bridge works as a
basis for completing Environmental Assessment (EA) and Social Impact
Assessments (SIA) of Project Affected Persons (PAP) as required, conforming
to sound economic analysis. Also preparing land acquisition, social and
environmental action plans such as Resettlement Action Plan (RAP), as
appropriate.

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 3
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

6. Conduct detailed engineering design of the proposed road and bridge works
and prepare suitable number of bid documents required for tendering
through International Competitive Bidding (ICB).
7. Provide reports and analysis suitable for meeting the standards and
specifications laid down according to MOSRT&H, MOEF, CPWD, Government
of India and ADB requirements on environmental and social assessments.

1.5 Project Road

The total project stretch(111.73 km) is located in the state of Kerala, an important state in the
southern part of India between Latitudes of 750 55’ & 760 20’ and between Longitudes of 100
10’ 32” & 100 55’. The State is bounded by Karnataka in the North and East; by the Arabian
Sea in the West and by Tamilnadu in the East and South. Kerala State comprises of 14 districts
extending over an area of 38864 sq.km.

The project stretch connects Kuttipuram( km 318+000) on Northern side and Edapally km
438+600 (Design Ch. Km 428+940) in the southern side and passing through Malapuram
,Thrissur and Ernakulam districts. It also leads to Mangalore, Goa and Mumbai from
Kuttipuram, forming an important link connecting northern districts of Kerala which includes
Kozhicode, Kannur, Kasargod and Wayanad. NH-17 links to southern districts of Kerala via.
NH-47. Kerala State is an important tourist destination due to its beaches along its coast and
generates heavy tourist volume throughout the year. It is an important and picturesque state
in the southern part of India. It traverses generally through plain terrain (98%) and about 2%
through rolling terrain. Mixed land use of residential and agricultural can be seen through out
the project road corridor. It also passes through many villages and towns. The unique feature
of Kerala is its wide spread residential development and ribbon development along the
Highway Corridor. The entire Kerala state can be termed as semi-urban. The location of the
project stretch is illustrated in Figure 1.1. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of
work since it is executed by PWD, NH Division

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 4
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Figure 1.1: Location Map of Project Road


1.5.1 Terrain and Land Use

The project road starts from km 318+000 at Kuttipuram , runs parallel to coastal line and ends
at Edapally at km 438+600 (Design Ch. Km 428+940) where it joins NH 47. For a small section
between Kuttipuram and Ponnani the project road runs towards the coast, parallel to
Bharatapuzha river. In general terrain is plain for a short length near Kuttipuram (km 320+000
to km 323+000) where it is rolling terrain. Land use along the alignment is mixed with
residential, commercial and agricultural. Many religious structures also exist on the project
corridor., (Plate 1.1 & 1.2)

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 5
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

   

Plate 1.1: Built-up Areas Plate 1.2: Agricultural Areas

1.5.2 Important Towns and Villages


The project road passes through nine major towns and many villages. The major towns along
the project road are listed below in Table 1.1
Table 1.1 Major Towns along the project road
Existing Design
Chainage Chainage
Sl No Name of Village (km) (km)
1 Ponnani 337+600 331+100
2 Chavakkad 362+600 356+300
3 Vadanapally 377+650 370+800
4 Triprayar 384+200 377+510
5 Kaipamangalam 394+600 387+180
6 Mathilakam 400+800 399+100
7 Kodungallur 409+800 403+210
8 Paravoor 422+400 413+800
9 Edapally 438+400 429+400

1.5.3 Carriage way and Formation

The existing road is an intermediate/two-lane carriageway of flexible pavement varying from


5.3 m to 7.5 m (except for a small stretch between Kuttipuram to Thavanur where the
carriageway is having only single lane width). Gravel shoulder of 1.0 m to 2.0 m wide has
been provided on either side for the entire length. The carriageway is generally in good
condition with respect to the riding quality except for Kuttipuram – Ponnani section where
the condition of the road is bad.

1.5.4 Pavement condition

Pavement condition is generally fair to poor throughout the corridor except for a few section
where condition of pavement is good. The occurrence of alligator cracks, shrinkage cracks,
raveling and rutting are observed for entire stretch. Patching is observed about 10% of the
total section.

From the condition survey data, a subjective rating in the form of Condition Index (CI) values
has been calculated on the basis of various surface distress measurements. CI values have
been arrived at by summing each distress value and suitably subtracting it from 100. The
lesser the CI value, more prominent are the effects of various surface distresses.

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 6
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

1.5.5 Right of way


Existing right of way of 8m to 30m. ROW pillars are missing at many Places.
Table 1.2: Details of existing ROW
Existing Chainage (km) Length Average ROW (m)
From To (m) Left Right Total
318.000 320.000 2000 16.86 20.23 38.01
320.000 322.000 2000 5.00 5.91 13.03
322.000 324.000 2000 4.50 4.43 10.63
324.000 326.000 2000 4.82 4.41 10.03
326.000 328.000 2000 4.55 4.37 8.92
328.000 330.000 2000 4.47 4.29 8.76
330.000 332.000 2000 5.42 5.98 13.99
332.000 334.000 2000 4.28 4.41 8.68
334.000 336.000 2000 5.32 5.29 11.37
336.000 338.000 2000 4.87 4.51 10.73
338.000 340.000 2000 6.83 7.90 17.26
340.000 342.000 2000 12.02 17.70 32.49
342.000 344.000 2000 13.88 10.73 24.87
344.000 346.000 2000 8.73 7.30 16.03
346.000 348.000 2000 7.39 8.49 15.88
348.000 350.000 2000 7.41 7.62 15.03
350.000 352.000 2000 6.40 5.76 12.15
352.000 354.000 2000 6.05 5.67 11.72
354.000 356.000 2000 6.78 6.89 13.67
356.000 358.000 2000 6.66 7.35 14.01
358.000 360.000 2000 7.51 7.42 14.94
360.000 362.000 2000 6.50 6.54 13.05
362.000 364.000 2000 6.94 7.36 15.03
364.000 366.000 2000 5.56 5.44 12.06
366.000 368.000 2000 7.62 6.16 15.20
368.000 370.000 2000 13.74 11.21 27.57
370.000 372.000 2000 11.46 9.91 21.37
372.000 374.000 2000 8.78 8.07 16.85
374.000 376.000 2000 8.48 8.11 16.58
376.000 378.000 2000 8.35 10.60 18.94
378.000 380.000 2000 10.27 9.67 19.94
380.000 382.000 2000 10.70 11.40 24.55

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 7
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Chainage (km) Length Average ROW (m)


From To (m) Left Right Total
382.000 384.000 2000 12.01 11.20 25.54
384.000 386.000 2000 9.04 9.51 20.22
386.000 388.000 2000 10.04 8.77 20.73
388.000 390.000 2000 7.49 7.74 16.85
390.000 392.000 2000 9.15 7.93 18.73
392.000 394.000 2000 8.73 8.38 19.32
394.000 396.000 2000 9.08 7.18 18.17
396.000 398.000 2000 8.30 8.21 18.99
398.000 400.000 2000 7.09 6.78 15.82
400.000 402.000 2000 7.27 6.44 14.50
402.000 404.000 2000 6.49 8.05 14.78
404.000 406.000 2000 7.32 6.51 13.83
406.000 408.000 2000 6.18 6.04 12.82
408.000 410.000 2000 6.26 6.50 13.59
410.000 412.000 2000 5.61 5.58 11.29
412.000 414.000 2000 13.17 13.87 29.08
414.000 416.000 2000 7.09 6.82 13.09
416.000 418.000 2000 3.86 3.88 7.74
418.000 420.000 2000 5.64 4.90 10.77
420.000 422.000 2000 4.79 4.73 9.52
422.000 424.000 2000 4.83 4.34 9.44
424.000 426.000 2000 5.62 5.53 11.14
426.000 428.000 2000 5.11 4.44 9.55
428.000 430.000 2000 6.45 6.33 13.03
430.000 432.000 2000 12.85 12.40 29.73
432.000 434.000 2000 16.24 11.92 21.39
434.000 436.000 2000 9.53 10.50 20.33
436.000 438.600 2000 11.15 4.74 16.09

1.5.6 Horizontal and Vertical Geometry

Horizontal geometry of NH-17 is inferior mainly at seven stretches at km 320+000 - km 323+000,


km 377+000 - km 378+000, km 385+000 – km 393+000, km 404+000 – km 411+000, km 414+500 –
km 424+000, km 426+000 – km 428+000 and km 435+000 – km 438+600. Geometric
deficiencies at these stretches are due to the presence of number of reverse curves and
single curves having insufficient radius and lack of sight distance due to the buildings and
compound walls projecting on to the road. Presence of these stretches makes travel on NH-
17 unsafe, particularly due to the movement of over speeding of buses. There are 62 curves

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 8
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

having design speed below the required standard. Some of those curves are shown in Plates
1.3 to 1.6. Vertical geometry of the entire length of the project is found satisfactory except for
a small stretch of km 320+000 – km 323+000 but this has no significance on the improvement
proposal because of the Ponnani bypass.

   

Plate 1.3: Sharp Curve at km 377+700 Plate 1.4: Sharp Curve at km 389+900

Plate 1.5 :Sharp Curve at km 396+800 Plate 1.6: Sharp Curve at km 432+200

1.5.7 Drainage Condition

The project road falls on heavy rainfall area with average annual rain fall more than 1500mm
The existing drainage condition along the project road is fair to poor. Details of drains
available are given in Table 1-3

Table 1.3 Summary of Details of Existing Drains

Length
Sl No Type of Drain (m) Width (m)
1 Lined Drain 30.8 0.3-0.5
2 Earthern Drain 1.4 0.3-0.75
3 Stone Masonry 0.8 0.75-1
4 Built-up Drain 3 0.75

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 9
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Plate 1.7: Built up Drain Plate 1.8: Lined Drain

1.5.8 Intersections

There are 17 numbers of major junctions and 33 other important junctions present on the
project road. In addition to this, a large number minor crossroads are present along the
project corridor which leads to intermediate villages. Plate 1.9 to 1.12 shows some of the
intersections along the project road

     
 

Plate 1.9: Kuttipuram Junction at km 318+050 Plate 1.10: Chamravattom Junction km


334+800

   

 
 

Plate 1.11: Ponnani Bypass End Junction at km Plate 1.12: Chavakkad Junction at
340+600 363+200
 

1.5.9 Utilities

The major utilities along the corridor are

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 10
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

• OFC cables of BSNL, Reliance Telephone cables, Cables of Bharathi Cellular Ltd,
Cables of Asianet Satellite Communications etc
• Water Supply pipe lines of Kerala Water Authority, Government of Kerala
• Electric posts, overhead cables, transformers etc

Utilities are laid continuously through the entire length of corridors. Relocation of these utilities
are a major issue.

1.5.10 Bridges and Cross Drainage Structures

There are 15 Bridges and 124 culverts along the project stretch.

Table 1.4 : Bridges and Culverts along the Project Stretch

Particulars NH 17 NH 17 (Existing Road Number of Bridges &


(Existing Road) Falling Within Project Culverts along
Stretch) Bypasses/Realignment
Existing Proposed
Major bridges 8 5 4
Minor bridges 7 3 4
Culverts 124 91 82
Total number of Structures to be 189
widened/constructed
 

1.5.11 Structures of Religious / Archeological Importance

Many religious structures are seen on either side of the project road. Kodungallur temple,
Cheraman mosque etc are major among them (Plate 1.13 & 1.14). The alignment at these
locations has to be carefully decided with minimum disturbance. Guruvayur temple, a major
religious centre in South India, is only 2 km away from the project corridor (near Chavakkad.

Plate 1.14: Kodungallur temple at


Plate 1.13 : Cheraman Mosque at 410+570
408+550
1.5.12 Existing facilities
The list of existing facilities along the project road are listed in Table 1.5 and Table 1.6

Table 1.5 :List of Existing facilities

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 11
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Sl No facilities Nos
1 Bus stops 20 (LHS)
17(Bothsides)
2 Petrol pump 24
3 Truck lay bay Nil
4 Toll plaza 3(km 369+125, km 411+900, km 430+800)
5 Rest Area Nil
6 Service Road 1. km 408+200 to km 408+400 Service road of
7.1 m on RHS, 1.2m median separating
carriageway and service road
2. km 408+400 to km 408+600 Service road of
6.7m.
Table 1.6: Location of Petrol Pump

SL No LHS(km) RHS(km)
1 336+000
2 340+200
3 359+210
4 363+200
5 373+975
6 376+800
7 378+200
8 383+450
9 384+300
10 384+750
11 388+600
12 394+950
13 395+635
14 397+550
15 404+830
16 407+860
17 408+800 408+800
18 415+700
19 420+280
20 420+425
21 420+450
22 423+000
23 427+600
24 435+400

1.5.13 Other Features

Properly planned, wayside amenities are non-existent on the project stretch.


Reasonable bus and truck traffic are observed along the project road. A detailed
study has been conducted for various amenities like rest areas, parking buses, bus
shelters, lay-byes for sick vehicles and other user related facilities.

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 12
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

1.6 Improvement Proposals


• Detailed analysis of the deficiencies and the suggested improvements are
discussed in detail in later Chapters. A brief description of the proposed
improvements in given below.
1.6.1 Bypasses
• The necessity of bypass is considered at many places. The feasibility and viability
of these has been assessed after collecting and analyzing the field data. The built
up areas with crowded commercial activities with immediate demand for
bypasses are at Ponnani, Chavakkad, Vadanapally, Trpirayar-Valappad,
Chendrappinni, Moonnupeedika, Mathilakam Section 1 and 2, Kodungallur,
Paravur, Edapally-Manjumelkkavala.. Summary of the proposed bypasses is listed
in Table 1.7.
Table 1.7: Summary of Proposed Bypasses

Name of bypass Existing Chainage (km) Design Chainage (km) Length


Start End Start End
Chainage Chainage Chainage Chainage
Ponnani 319+450 340+350 319+060 333+715 14.655
Chavakkad 363+200 365+400 356+300 358+800 2.45
Vadanapally 377+000 380+200 370+200 373+600 3.5
Trpirayar-Valappad 383+850 387+200 377+310 380+510 3.2
Chendrappinni 390+000 391+900 383+280 385+230 1.95
Moonnupeedika 395+300 397+250 388+350 390+490 2.14
Mathilakam Section 1 398+700 403+000 391+850 396+335 4.485
Mathilakam Section 2 405+500 406+060 398+750 399+220 0.47
Kodungallur 407+700 411+800 401+100 404+135 3.035
Paravur, 414+450 426+160 406+890 417+400 10.51
Edapally-
435+000 438+600 425+300 428+620 3.32
Manjumelkkavala

1.6.2 Widening Proposals

Based on traffic considerations, geometric standards and existing site conditions it is


proposed to widen the project road into a 4 lane carriageway of the following configuration.

• Median : 4.5m/1.2m
• Median Shyaway : 0.25m
• Shyaway at divider : 0.25m
• Main Carriageway in each direction : 7m ( 2 x 3.5m Lane)
• Service Road: 5.5m or 7m
• Paved Shoulder : 1.5m
• Earthen Shoulder : 2.0m
• Earthen Drain of suitable dimension
• Proposed ROW: 45m
Typical Cross Sections
The Consultants have proposed a ROW of 45m based on settlement pattern, Land-use,
Nature of Built-up and Socially sensitive structures. Widening scheme for the proposed project
road are arrived based on,
• Lane requirement based on traffic capacity analysis
• Requirement of service roads along built-up areas
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India
In Joint Venture With 1. 13
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Proposed widening / Cross section types are represented below in Table 1.8 respectively.

Table 1.8: Proposed Widening Type / CS-

Existing Road
Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m
1 Concentric widening without Service Road(median 2m)-1A 14430.00
2 Eccentric widening without Service Road ( median 2m)-1B 15820.00
3 New Four lane without Service Road (median 2m)-1C 6290.00
4 Concentric widening with Service Road (median 2m)-2A 6080.00
5 Eccentric widening with 7m Service Road(median 2m)-2B 7380.00
6 New Four lane with 7m Service Road on both side(median 2m)-2C 4690.00
7 New Four lane with 7m Service Road on LHS (median 2m)-2D 1590.00
8 Underpass Approach with 4.5 median with 5.5m Slip Road-3B 650.00
9 Underpass Approach at 318+090 with 5.5m Slip Road-3C 680.00
Bypass
Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m
1 RHS widening without Service Road in bypass (median 4.5m)-1D 2255.00
2 New Four lane in bypass(4.5 m median)-1E 22225.00
3 New Four lane with 7m Service Road in bypass(4.5 m median )-2E 14635.00
4 Underpass Approach with 4.5m median and 5.5m Slip Road-3A 8925.00
5 ROB Approach (3D) 610.00

1.6.3 Pavement Design


Pavement is designed based on MOSRTH/IRC standards. A Design life of 15 years is adopted
for Flexible Pavement. Based on traffic analysis it is proposed to have design traffic as follows:

Table 1.9: Design Traffic for main carriage way-

Sections Design Traffic (MSA)


Section I: From km 317+710 To km 357+250
20
(From km 318+000 To km 363+000)
Section II: From km 357+250 To km 402+940
35
(From km 363+000 To km 407+000)
Section III: From km 402+940 To km 428+620
45
(From km 407+000 To km 438+600)

For Service roads- 10.0 msa is adopted.


Design of Flexible Pavement
Proposed pavement composition for pavement for the project road, as per IRC: 37 are given
below in Table 1.10.

Due to the variations observed in the characteristic deflection values along the
project road, different compositions of pavement layers have been designed for
overlay as shown in the Table 1.10 as per IRC - 81.
Table 1.10: Flexible Pavement Design for Overlay and New Construction

Sections Design Recommended Pavement Composition in mm

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 14
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Traffic
For Strengthening & Widening For New Construction
(MSA)

Overlay on Widening Portion New 2/4 Lane New Service


Existing of Existing Road Road Road (If
Road required)

Section I: From
km 317+710 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC
40 BC
km 357+250 + 85 DBM + 85 DBM + 50 BM
20 + 85 DBM
(From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM
+ PCC
318+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB
363+000)
Section II: From
km 357+250 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC
40 BC
km 402+940 + 95 DBM + 95 DBM + 50 BM
35 + 95 DBM
(From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM
+ PCC
363+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB
407+000)
Section III: From
km 402+940 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC
40 BC
km 428+620 + 105 DBM + 105 DBM + 50 BM
45 + 105 DBM
(From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM
+ PCC
407+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB
438+600)
Remarks:
Overlay thickness on existing road is suitably modified to match with widening thickness to
avoid vertical joints in DBM layer.
GSB- Granular Sub-base is provided over subgrade soil of CBR > 10%.
500 mm Subgrade of CBR > 10% is provided wherever the existing Subgrade soil CBR is < 10%.
Pavement Composition is designed for 15 years life. However WMM & GSB layers are
designed for 20 years life.

1.6.4 Service Roads


Service roads are envisaged in congested towns / villages locations to segregate the slow
moving local traffic from the high-speed highway traffic. This will also cater to the need of the
local pedestrians and vehicles to travel without hindering the high-speed traffic along the
highway. However heavily built-up locations where land acquisition will be a serious social
issue are excluded from providing with service roads. In view of social aspects and density of
population of Kerala, the entire built-up needs to be provided with service road. But when
considering the economy of the project, proposal of service roads are restricted to
unavoidable locations. Table 1.11 shows the location identified for the provision of service
roads along the project road.
Table 1.11 :Proposed Service Road Locations  

Existing Chainage
(Km) Design Chainage (Km) Side (LHS/RHS Length
Sl. No. From To From To /Both) (km) Width (m)
1 318400 318800 318+440 318+670 Both 230 7
2 342000 342300 335+570 335+900 Both 330 7
3 342600 343000 336+100 336+600 Both 500 7
4 344460 345400 338+100 338+930 Both 830 7
5 349200 350400 342+740 343+940 Both 1200 7
6 352200 353090 345+770 346+690 LHS 920 7

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 15
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Chainage
(Km) Design Chainage (Km) Side (LHS/RHS Length
Sl. No. From To From To /Both) (km) Width (m)
7 353090 353390 346+690 346+990 Both 300 7
8 353390 354060 346+990 347+660 LHS 670 7
9 354060 354200 347+660 347+800 Both 140 7
10 357000 357600 350+610 351+210 Both 600 7
11 359800 363200 353+420 356+370 Both 2950 7
12 376400 377000 369+670 370+580 Both 910 7
13 382600 383850 375+930 377+520 Both 1590 7
14 388600 389920 382+010 383+290 Both 1280 7
15 - - 383+900 384+280 Both 380 7
16 - 392150 385+060 385+340 Both 280 7
17 407700 411800 401+000 404+020 Both 3020 7
18 413100 414450 406+450 406+900 Both 450 7
19 414450 - 406+900 410+580 Both 3680 7
20 - - 410+650 416+250 Both 5600 7
21 - 427000 417+160 418+220 Both 1060 7
22 427000 427200 418+220 418+420 Both 200 7
23 427200 427700 418+420 418+920 RHS 500 7
24 427700 431000 418+920 422+100 Both 3180 7
25 432000 434200 423+370 424+500 Both 1130 7
Total Length 61670

Slip Roads are proposed along with vehicular underpass . The Table 1.12 below gives the locations of 
slip roads. 

Table 1.12: Proposed Slip Road  

Existing chainage Design chainage Side

Length Width
Sl No From To From To Both/LHS/RHS (m) (m)
1 Bypass Bypass 321920 322700 Both 780 5.5
2 Bypass Bypass 330010 330800 Both 790 5.5
3 362740 363520 356370 357150 Both 780 5.5
4 Bypass Bypass 370585 371365 Both 780 5.5
5 Bypass Bypass 377520 378300 Both 780 5.5
6 Bypass Bypass 379060 379840 Both 780 5.5
7 Bypass Bypass 384280 385060 Both 780 5.5
8 Bypass Bypass 388595 389385 Both 790 5.5
9 Bypass Bypass 392585 393375 Both 790 5.5
10 412490 412910 405640 406060 Both 420 5.5
11 412910 413160 406060 406310 RHS 250 5.5
12 413160 413305 406310 406455 Both 145 5.5
13 425145 425960 416345 417160 Both 815 5.5
14 Bypass Bypass 425630 428200 Both 2570 5.5
15 433930 433858 428370 428442 Both 72 5.5

1.6.5 Geometric Improvements

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 16
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

The IRC design standards have been followed, keeping the TOR in mind, while formulating
the highway design standards for the project. The Project stretch of NH-17 in Kerala traverses
through plain and rolling terrains. Hence, IRC guidelines (IRC 73, 1980) “Geometric Design
Standards for Rural (Non-urban) Highways” have been used for formulating the design
standards. The design speeds to be adopted for various categories of road are as follows:

• Ruling design speed of 100 kmph and minimum speed of 80 kmph for the NH-17 in
plain terrain.
• Design speed of 60 kmph for entrance/ exist slip roads;
• Design speed of 40 kmph for service and other roads.

Improvements to horizontal Geometry

The horizontal geometric design has been carried out using Highway Software Packages
complying with the IRC / MORT&H requirements. There are 63 curves which does not satisfy
the design speed 100 kmph. So geometric improvements are proposed at these curves .
Improvements to Vertical Geometry

Vertical geometry of the entire length of the project is found satisfactory except for a small
stretch of km 320+000 – km 323+000 but this has no significance on the improvement
proposal because of the Ponnani bypass.

1.6.6 Improvement of Intersections

23 major junctions and 33 minor junctions are proposed for improvements in the project
stretch. 15 Vehicular Underpasses, are included in the improvement proposals which allow
safe movement of cross road traffic. The lists of r junctions proposed for improvements are
given in Table 1.13

Table 1.13: Details of Improvement of Intersections

Existing Design
Sl. Chainage Chainage Proposed
No. (km) (km) Road Leads To Junction Improvements
Major Junctions

Vehicular
1 318+090 318+090 Kuttipuram 3 legged Underpass
Ponnani Bypass
2 319+440 319+060 Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Ponnani Edappal,Ponnan Vehicular
3 bypass 330+400 i 5 legged Underpass
Ponnani Ponnani –
4 bypass 332+420 Kolimpadi 4 legged At grade Junction
Ponnani Bypass
5 340+160 333+715 End 3 legged At grade Junction
Chavakkad
6 365+590 358+800 Bypass End 3 legged At grade Junction
Vadanappilly
Realignment
7 376+930 370+200 Start 3 legged At grade Junction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 17
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Design
Sl. Chainage Chainage Proposed
No. (km) (km) Road Leads To Junction Improvements

Vadanappilly
8 380+270 373+600 Realignment End 3 legged At grade Junction
Triprayar
Realignment
9 380+980 377+310 Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Triprayar
Realignment
10 387+100 380+510 Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Chendrapinni
Realignment
11 389+885 383+285 Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Chendrapinni
Realignment
12 392+040 385+230 Ends 3 legged At grade Junction

Moonnupeedika
13 395+170 388+350 Bypass start 3 legged At grade Junction

Moonnupeedika
14 397+250 390+490 Bypass Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-1
15 398+610 391+850 Bypass Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-1
16 403+030 396+335 Bypass Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-2
17 406+020 399+220 Bypass Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Kodungallur
18 407+970 401+100 Bypass Start 4 legged At grade Junction
Kodungallur
19 411+780 404+135 Bypass End 3 legged At grade Junction
Paravur Bypass
20 414+410 406+890 Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Paravur Ernakulam,Parav Vehicular
21 Bypass 411+400 ur 4 legged underpass
Paravur Bypass
22 426+170 417+400 ends 3 legged At grade Junction

Ernakulam City
23 438+670 428+940 438.800 Aluva 4 legged Grade separator

Minor Junctions

Ponnani Ponnani Bypass Vehicular


1 Bypass 322+310 Crossing 4 legged Underpass

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 18
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Design
Sl. Chainage Chainage Proposed
No. (km) (km) Road Leads To Junction Improvements

2 343+240 336+840 Kadavanadu 3 legged At grade Junction


Kunnamkulam,
3 352+900 346+470 Beach 4 legged At grade Junction

4 358+190 351+800 Aviyoor,Beach 3 legged At grade Junction

5 358+730 352+340 Mallad,Beach 4 legged At grade Junction


Vehicular
6 363+110 356+760 Chavakkadu 3 legged Underpass

Pulikkakadavu,
Benglamkadav
7 370+640 363+850 u 3 legged At grade Junction

Pulikkakadavu,
Mangalamkad
8 371+570 364+840 avu 4 legged At grade Junction

9 372+640 365+910 Market,Polakkal 3 legged At grade Junction


Manappad,
10 375+280 368+540 Pokkancheri 3 legged At grade Junction

Vadanapall Vadanappally – Vehicular


11 y Bypass 370+975 Thrissur Road 4 legged Underpass
Triprayar-
Valappad Triprayar - Vehicular
12 Bypass 377+910 Thrissur Road 4 legged Underpass
Triprayar-
Valappad Valappad – Vehicular
13 Bypass 379+450 Village Road 4 legged Underpass
Murinathode
14 387+950 381+350 Beach 3 legged At grade Junction
Kattoor,
15 389+110 382+510 Kazhibram 4 legged At grade Junction

Chendrapin Chandrappinni Vehicular


16 ni Bypass 384+670 – Village Road 4 legged Underpass
Mathilakm
17 405+420 398+750 Bypass start 3legged At grade Junction
Pallivalavu -
Mathilakam Tippu Sulthan Vehicular
18 I Bypass 392+980 Road 4 legged Underpass

19 - 393+280 Iringalakkuda, 4 legged At grade Junction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 19
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Design
Sl. Chainage Chainage Proposed
No. (km) (km) Road Leads To Junction Improvements

Vehicular
20 413+560 406+060 Moothakunnam 3 legged Underpass

Paravur Chungam, Vehicular


21 Bypass 416+755 Bypass Crossing 4 legged Underpass

Karianthuruth,
Kachanikode
22 426+450 417+680 temple 4 legged At grade Junction
Koorikuzhi,
Kottuvallikavu
23 427+080 418+300 temple 4 legged At grade Junction
Koonammavu
24 427+350 418+590 Hospital 3 legged At grade Junction

25 427+820 419+020 Aluva 3 legged At grade Junction


Olanad,
Devaswom
26 429+200 420+400 padam 4 legged At grade Junction
Puthenpalli,
27 430+020 421+220 Varapuzha 4 legged At grade Junction

Mannamthuruth
28 430+560 421+760 i, Varapuzha 4 legged At grade Junction
Njattuvetty
ferry,
29 431+380 422+580 Naduvilppadi 4 legged At grade Junction
Eloor,
30 431+800 423+000 Cheranelloor 4 legged At grade Junction

31 433+535 424+735 Chitoor road 3 legged At grade Junction


Paravur Vehicular
32 Bypass 426+020 Bypass Cross 4 legged Underpass
Edapally Edappally - Vehicular
33 Bypass 426+620 Cross Road 4 legged Underpass

1.6.7 Underpass

Underpasses is proposed at 15 locations for segregating local traffic and through traffic thus
reducing the congestion at the intersection.

Table 1.14: Proposal for Underpasses

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 20
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Design Chainage


Sl. No Opening Size Usage
Chainage (Km) (Km)
1 318+090 318+090 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
2 Bypass 322+310 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
3 Bypass 330+400 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
4 363+110 356+760 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
5 Bypass 370+975 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
6 Bypass 377+910 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
7 Bypass 379+450 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
8 Bypass 384+670 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
9 Bypass 388+990 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
10 Bypass 392+980 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
11 413+560 406+060 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
12 Bypass 411+400 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
13 Bypass 416+755 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
14 Bypass 426+020 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
15 Bypass 426+620 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass

1.6.8 Flyover

Flyover is proposed at km 438+600 (Design ch. 428+940) where project road meets NH-47.The
Details of proposed flyover is given in Table 1.15 below.

Table 1.15: Proposal for Flyover

Existing Design
Sl. No Span Foundation
Chainage (Km) Chainage (Km)
5 x 35+1 x46+5x35-Second Tier
1 438+600 428+940 10 x 35+1 x46+10x35-Third Tier Pile
10 x 21+1x 38+1x15-Arm

1.6.9 ROB

A two lane ROB construction is in progress at km 437+700 (Design ch. 427+545) at Edappalli
where the project road encounter with a level crossing. An additional 12m wide ROB is
proposed at this location. Details of proposed ROB are given in Table 1.16 below

Table 1.16: Details of Proposed ROB

Existing Design Chainage


Sl. No Span Foundation
Chainage (Km) (Km)
13 x 21.6+ 1 x 7.85+
1 437+700 427+545 Pile
30+1 x 7.85+13 x 21.6

1.6.10 Bridges and Cross Drainage Structures

The proposal for Bridges & Cross Drainage structures during widening and improvement is
given in Table 1.17 & 1.18 respectively. All new structures are proposed with 3 lane
configuration

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 21
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram - Edapally Project Report
in the state of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Table 1.17: Widening/Improvement proposal for Bridges

Sl. No Existing Chainage Design Chainage Proposed Scheme Span Type of Super Type of Substructure Type of
(Km) (Km) Arrangement structure Foundation
Abutment Pier

BRIDGES – Existing NH17 falling in Project stretch

1 319+030 318+820 New Four lane 11x 32.5 PSC I girder RCC Solid RCC Rect. Circular Pier
2 342+300 336+000 Additional Two 1 x 16 .5+ 7 x PSC I girder RCC RCC Rect. Pile
lane 24.5 + 1 x 16.5
3 369+520 362+890 Additional Two 12 x 26.5 PSC I girder RCC RCC Rect. Well
lane
4 382+400 375+670 Additional Two 1 x 7.1 RCC Slab RCC - Open
lane
5 412+180 404+860 Additional Two 1 x 31.7 + 7 x PSC I girder RCC RCC Well
lane 32.3 + 1 x 31.7 circular
6 412+800 405+450 Additional Two 1 x 32.73 + 9 x PSC I girder RCC RCC Well
lane 33.3 + 1 x 32.75 circular
7 413+750 406+210 Additional Two 1 x 24 RCC T-beam RCC - Well
lane
8 430+300 421+465 Additional Two 1 x 16.0 RCC T-beam RCC - Well
lane
9 431+000 422+730 Additional Two 4 x 20 + 5 x 30+3 PSC box +RCC RCC Well
lane x 50+ 1x 83 + 1x box + RCC
120+1 x 83+ 3 x voided slab
50+5 x 30+3 x 20
BRIDGES – Bypasses

10 14+470-Ponnani 333+200- New Four lane 3 x 18 RCC T-beam RCC RCC Pile
Ponnani circular
11 1+145- 357+740- New Four lane 1x20 + 1x30 + RCC/PSC beam RCC Solid RCC Pile
Chavakkad Chavakkad 1x20 circular
12 1+428 - Paravoor 407+215 - New Four lane 1 x 18 RCC T-beam RCC - Pile
Paravoor
13 1+716 - Paravoor 407+770 - New Four lane 1 x 18 RCC T-beam RCC - Pile
Paravoor

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 22
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram - Edapally Project Report
in the state of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Sl. No Existing Chainage Design Chainage Proposed Scheme Span Type of Super Type of Substructure Type of
(Km) (Km) Arrangement structure Foundation
Abutment Pier

14 2+244 - Paravoor 408+085 - New Four lane 1 x 18 RCC T-beam RCC - Pile
Paravoor
15 4+564 - Paravoor 410+620 - New Four lane 3 x 25 PSC I girder RCC RCC Rect. Pile
Paravoor
16 9+080 Paravoor 416+300 New Four lane 3 x 30 PSC I girder RCC Solid RCC Pile
Paravoor circular

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA National Highways Authority of India


In Joint Venture With 1. 23
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd.
Table 1.18: Culvert Proposal

Particulars NH 17 NH 17 (Existing culverts Number of Culverts


(Existing Falling Within Project along
Road) Stretch) Bypasses/Realignment
Existing Proposed
Culverts 124 91 82
Total number of Structures to be 173
widened/constructed

Table1.19: List of Culverts proposed for improvements

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
        Exisitng    

1 318/1 317+795 317+795 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

2 318/2 317+885 317+885 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

3 319/1 318+065 318+065 Pipe 1X1.2 pipe Reconstruction

4 319/2 318+895 318+515 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

Ponnani

5 320/1 bypass 319+090 Single cell 2x1.5 Box Widening

6 320/2 bypass 319+468 Single cell 2x2 Box Widening

7 320/3 bypass 319+510 Single cell 2x2 Box Widening

8 320/4 bypass 319+825 Single cell 2x2 Box Widening

9 321/1 bypass 320+020 Single cell 2x2 Box Widening

10 321/2 bypass 320+510 Single cell 2x 1.5 Box Widening

11 321/3 bypass 320+910 Single cell 2x2 Box Widening

12 322/1 bypass 321+602 Single cell 2x1.5 Box Widening

13 323/1 bypass 322+612 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Widening

14 323/2 bypass 322+935 Single cell 2x3 Box Widening

15 324/1 bypass 323+238 Single cell 2x3 Box Widening

16 324/2 bypass 323+535 Single cell4x3 Box Widening

17 324/3 bypass 323+910 Single cell 4x3 Box Widening

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
18 325/1 bypass 324+360 Single cell 4x3 Box Widening

19 325/2 bypass 324+713 Single cell 5x2.8 Box Widening

20 326/1 bypass 325+030 Single cell 2x2 Box Widening

21 326/2 bypass 325+380 Single cell 2x2 Box Widening

22 327/1 bypass 326+675 Single cell 2x2 Box Reconstruction

23 328/1 bypass 327+080 Single cell 2x2 Box Reconstruction

24 328/2 bypass 327+500 Single cell 2x2 Box Reconstruction

25 329/1 bypass 328+000 Single cell 2x2 Box Reconstruction

26 329/2 bypass 328+410 Single cell 2x2 Box Reconstruction

27 330/1 bypass 329+000 Single cell 2x2 Box Reconstruction

28 330/2 bypass 329+410 Single cell 2x2 Box Reconstruction

29 330/3 bypass 329+730 Single cell 1.5x 1.5 Box Widening

30 331/1 bypass 330+420 Single cell1.5x 2 Box Widening

31 331/2 bypass 330+565 Single cell 1.5x 2 Box Widening

32 331/3 bypass 330+805 Single cell 1.5x 2 Box Widening

33 332/1 bypass 331+161 Single cell 1.5x 2 Box Widening

34 332/2 bypass 331+410 Single cell 1.5x 2 Box Widening

35 332/3 bypass 331+707 Single cell 2x2 Box New Construction

36 333/1 bypass 332+244 Single cell 2x2 Box New Construction

37 333/2 bypass 332+430 Single cell 2x2 Box New Construction

38 334/2 bypass 333+350 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New Construction

39 334/3 bypass 333+533 Single cell 1.5x 2 Box Widening

Existing

40 334/4 340+420 333+970 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

41 337/2 342+640 336+210 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

42 337/3 342+665 336+235 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
43 337/4 342+690 336+260 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

44 345/1 350+905 344+325 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

45 353/1 358+728 352+348 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

46 355/1 361+208 354+838 Single cell1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Chavakkadu

47 357/1 bypass 356+930 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New construction

48 358/1 bypass 357+410 Pipe 2X1.2 Pipe New construction

49 358/2 bypass 357+488 Pipe 2X1.2 Pipe New construction

50 358/4 bypass 357+820 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New construction

51 358/5 bypass 357+965 Pipe 2X1.2 Pipe New construction

52 359/1 bypass 358+108 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New construction

53 359/2 bypass 358+360 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

54 359/3 bypass 358+450 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

55 359/4 bypass 358+520 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

56 359/5 bypass 358+580 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

Existing

57 359/6 365+610 358+920 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

58 361/1 367+625 360+835 Single cell1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

59 362/1 367+810 361+020 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

60 362/2 368+045 361+255 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

61 362/3 368+150 361+360 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

62 363/1 368+905 362+115 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

63 363/2 369+390 362+600 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

64 364/1 370+360 363+625 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

65 366/1 372+505 365+770 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Vadanappilly

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
66 371/1 bypass 370+550 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

67 372/1 bypass 371+110 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New Construction

68 373/1 bypass 372+700 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

69 374/1 bypass 373+410 Single cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

Existing

70 375/1 380+705 374+035 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

71 375/2 380+778 374+108 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Triprayar

72 380/1 bypass 379+000 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

73 380/2 bypass 379+600 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New Construction

Existing

74 382/1 387+922 381+332 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

75 383/1 389+045 382+455 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Chendrappinni

76 384/1 bypass 383+422 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

77 384/2 bypass 383+845 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

78 385/1 bypass 384+240 Single Cell 2x1.5 Box New construction

79 385/2 bypass 384+752 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New construction

80 385/3 bypass 384+915 Pipe 1X1.2 pipe New Construction

Existing

81 386/1 392+410 385+600 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

82 386/2 392+750 385+940 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

83 387/1 393+355 386+545 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

84 388/1 394+085 387+275 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Moonnupeedika

85 389/1 bypass 388+195 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
86 391/1 bypass 390+682 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Mathilakam 1

87 393/1 bypass 392+520 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

88 393/2 bypass 392+645 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New construction

89 393/3 bypass 392+940 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New construction

90 395/1 bypass 394+495 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

91 395/2 bypass 394+535 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

92 396/1 bypass 395+180 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

93 396/2 bypass 395+550 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New construction

Existing

94 397/1 403+420 396+740 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Widening

95 398/1 403+810 397+130 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

96 398/2 404+082 397+402 Twin Cell 3.0x2.5 Box Widening

97 399/1 405+390 398+710 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Mathilakam 2

98 400/1 bypass 399+015 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New Construction

Existing

99 400/2 406+450 399+880 Single Cell 3x2 Box Widening

100 401/1 406+885 400+315 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

101 401/2 407+280 400+710 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Kodungallur

102 402/1 bypass 401+900 Single Cell 3.5x2 Box New Construction

103 404/1 bypass 403+120 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

104 404/2 bypass 403+580 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

Existing

105 406/2 413+290 405+770 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
106 406/3 413+505 405+985 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

107 407/2 413+965 406+515 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

108 407/3 413+700 406+780 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Paravoor

109 407/4 bypass 406+950 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

110 408/1 bypass 407+150 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe New Construction

111 408/3 bypass 407+480 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

112 408/5 bypass 407+820 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

113 409/2 bypass 408+305 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe New Construction

114 409/3 bypass 408+435 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New Construction

115 409/4 bypass 408+745 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe New Construction

116 409/5 bypass 408+800 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

117 410/1 bypass 409+000 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe New Construction

118 410/2 bypass 409+390 Single Cell 2.5x1.5 Box New Construction

119 410/3 bypass 409+500 Single Cell 2.5x1.5 Box New Construction

120 410/4 bypass 409+605 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

121 410/5 bypass 409+715 Twin Cell 2.5x2.5 Box New Construction

122 410/6 bypass 409+770 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe New Construction

123 410/7 bypass 409+815 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

124 410/8 bypass 409+960 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe New Construction

125 411/1 bypass 410+070 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

126 411/2 bypass 410+115 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

127 411/3 bypass 410+180 Pipe 2x1.2 Pipe New Construction

128 411/4 bypass 410+225 Pipe 2x1.2 Pipe New Construction

129 411/5 bypass 410+400 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe New Construction

130 411/7 bypass 410+865 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
131 412/1 bypass 411+105 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

132 412/2 bypass 411+190 Pipe 2x1.2 Pipe New Construction

133 412/3 bypass 411+680 Pipe 5x1.2 Pipe New Construction

134 412/4 bypass 411+800 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

135 412/5 bypass 411+850 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

136 413/1 bypass 412+490 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

137 413/2 bypass 412+650 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

138 414/1 bypass 413+060 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

139 414/2 bypass 413+200 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

140 414/3 bypass 413+325 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

141 416/1 bypass 415+200 Pipe 4X1.2 Pipe New Construction

142 416/2 bypass 415+895 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

143 416/3 bypass 415+995 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

144 417/1 bypass 416+110 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe New Construction

145 418/1 bypass 417+010 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

146 418/2 bypass 417+135 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

147 418/3 bypass 417+180 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

148 418/4 bypass 417+310 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box New Construction

Existing

149 421/1 429+600 420+800 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

150 422/1 429+810 421+010 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

151 422/2 429+925 421+125 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

152 422/3 430+015 421+215 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

153 422/4 430+045 421+245 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

154 422/5 430+125 421+325 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

155 422/7 430+365 421+565 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Sl CD Exisitng Design Type of


Size of Opening Proposal
no No. Chianage Chianage Structure
156 422/8 430+480 421+680 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

157 422/9 430+655 421+855 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

158 423/1 430+945 422+145 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

159 424/1 432+085 423+285 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

160 424/2 432+235 423+435 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

161 424/3 432+375 423+575 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

162 424/4 432+460 423+660 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

163 424/5 432+590 423+790 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

164 424/6 432+750 423+950 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

165 425/1 432+940 424+140 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

166 425/2 433+160 424+360 Single Cell 1.5x1.5 Box Reconstruction

Edappally

167 426/1 bypass 425+875 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

168 427/2 bypass 426+240 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

169 427/3 bypass 426+500 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

170 427/4 bypass 426+800 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

171 428/1 bypass 428+160 Pipe 1x1.2 Pipe New Construction

Existing

172 429/1 bypass 428+658 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

173 429/2 bypass 428+870 Pipe 1X1.2 Pipe Reconstruction

1.6.11 Toll Plazas


Considering the traffic characteristics, two Toll Plazas are needed. It is recommended
to construct the Toll Plazas at following locations:
• Toll Plaza I – Km 344+160(Design Ch. km 337+700)
• Toll Plaza II – Bypass(Design Ch.413+700)
1.6.12 Truck Lay bays and Rest Area

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

On street parking of trucks were observed at many places in the project road
and adequate number of truck lay byes shall be provided to segregate this
from the through traffic. Proposed truck lay locations are given in Table 1.20.
Table 1.20: Proposed Location of Truck Lay-Byes

     

   

1 Bypass 327+700 LHS Ponnani Bypass

2 365+350 359+050 RHS Thangalpadi

3 392+820 386+020 LHS Kaipamangalam

4 431+850 425+150 LHS Varapuzha

1.6.13 Bus Bays / Bus Shelters

Considering the overall safety of traffic and minimum hindrance to through


traffic, bus bays have been proposed at 70 locations along the project road
stretch.

1.6.14 Road Furniture, Traffic signs, Road marking, & Landscaping

Road markings and road signs standards are designed as per IRC: 35 -1997
and IRC: 67 - 2001 respectively. Road and traffic signs are proposed at
appropriate places to give caution and to inform the traffic (vehicular and
pedestrians) for safe and smooth movement and the provision are made
based on the IRC guidelines. Normally signs are placed on the left side of the
road; in certain cases however these may be placed overhead or on either
side of the road depending upon the site condition, for clear uninterrupted
visibility. Wherever the width of the median is less than 5m in rural section,
glare Blockers / glare screens may be proposed for safe nighttime driving. All
signs shall be of Retro-reflective grade, for undisturbed traffic movement in
the night times.

Wherever applicable, roadside landscaping will be planned. But care would


be taken not to reduce the sight distance at any of the intersections.

Street lighting are proposed in urban and semi urban sections of the project
road, at major intersections, Truck lay bays and amenities as per the
guidelines given in IS: 1944 (Part I & II) 1970.

1.6.15 Alternate Option for reducing the project cost for making the project
viable

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

In order to reduce the overall cost to meet required financial viability to carry out the
project under BOT Toll basis, consultants have restricted the bypasses to two lane and
has excluded 14 underpasses, flyover which were part of original proposal.

1.6.15.1 Bypass
Bypasses which aggregates to a length of 49.72 km are restricted to two lane with
main carriageway 7m.

1.6.15.2 Widening Scheme


Modified widening scheme after restricting the bypasses to two lane and removal of
underpasses and flyover. Earthern shoulder is reduced to 1m from the standard 2m
mentioned in manual of Four laning.

Table 1.21: Proposed Widening Type / CS-

Existing Road
Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m
1 Concentric widening without Service Road(median 2m)-1A 14430.00
2 Eccentric widening without Service Road ( median 2m)-1B 15820.00
3 New Four lane without Service Road (median 2m)-1C 6290.00
4 Concentric widening with Service Road (median 2m)-2A 6080.00
5 Eccentric widening with 7m Service Road(median 2m)-2B 8030.00
6 New Four lane with 7m Service Road on both side(median 2m)-2C 4690.00
7 New Four lane with 7m Service Road on LHS (median 2m)-2D 1590.00
8 Underpass Approach at 318+090 with 5.5m Slip Road-3C 680.00
Bypass
Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m
1 RHS widening without Service Road in bypass (median 4.5m)-1D 2255.00
2 New two lane in bypass-1E 46835.00

1.6.15.3 Service Roads


Table 1.22 :Proposed Service Road Locations  

   

               

               

               

     

     

     

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

   

               

               

               

               

               

               

               

     

     

     

     

               

               

               

               

               

               

Total Length 34340

1.6.15.4 Junction Imrprovements


Table 1.23: Details of Improvement of Intersections

   

           

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

   

           

1 318+090 318+090 Kuttipuram 3 legged Vehicular Underpass


Ponnani Bypass
2 319+440 319+060 Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Ponnani
3 bypass 330+400 Edappal,Ponnani 5 legged At grade Junction
Ponnani Ponnani –
4 bypass 332+420 Kolimpadi 4 legged At grade Junction
Ponnani Bypass
5 340+160 333+715 End 3 legged At grade Junction
Chavakkad Bypass
6 365+590 358+800 End 3 legged At grade Junction
Vadanappilly
7 376+930 370+200 Realignment Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Vadanappilly
8 380+270 373+600 Realignment End 3 legged At grade Junction
Triprayar
9 380+980 377+310 Realignment Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Triprayar
10 387+100 380+510 Realignment Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Chendrapinni
11 389+885 383+285 Realignment Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Chendrapinni
12 392+040 385+230 Realignment Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Moonnupeedika
13 395+170 388+350 Bypass start 3 legged At grade Junction

Moonnupeedika
14 397+250 390+490 Bypass Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-1
15 398+610 391+850 Bypass Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-1
16 403+030 396+335 Bypass Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-2
17 406+020 399+220 Bypass Ends 3 legged At grade Junction
Kodungallur Bypass
18 407+970 401+100 Start 4 legged At grade Junction
Kodungallur Bypass
19 411+780 404+135 End 3 legged At grade Junction
Paravur Bypass
20 414+410 406+890 Start 3 legged At grade Junction
Paravur
21 Bypass 411+400 Ernakulam,Paravur 4 legged At grade Junction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

   

           

Paravur Bypass
22 426+170 417+400 ends 3 legged At grade Junction

Ernakulam City
23 438+670 428+940 438.800 Aluva 4 legged At grade Junction

Minor Junctions

Ponnani Ponnani Bypass


1 Bypass 322+310 Crossing 4 legged At grade Junction

2 343+240 336+840 Kadavanadu 3 legged At grade Junction


Kunnamkulam,
3 352+900 346+470 Beach 4 legged At grade Junction

4 358+190 351+800 Aviyoor,Beach 3 legged At grade Junction

5 358+730 352+340 Mallad,Beach 4 legged At grade Junction

6 363+110 356+760 Chavakkadu 3 legged At grade Junction


Pulikkakadavu,
7 370+640 363+850 Benglamkadavu 3 legged At grade Junction

Pulikkakadavu,
8 371+570 364+840 Mangalamkadavu 4 legged At grade Junction

9 372+640 365+910 Market,Polakkal 3 legged At grade Junction


Manappad,
10 375+280 368+540 Pokkancheri 3 legged At grade Junction

Vadanapally Vadanappally –
11 Bypass 370+975 Thrissur Road 4 legged At grade Junction
Triprayar-
Valappad Triprayar - Thrissur
12 Bypass 377+910 Road 4 legged At grade Junction
Triprayar-
Valappad Valappad – Village
13 Bypass 379+450 Road 4 legged At grade Junction
Murinathode
14 387+950 381+350 Beach 3 legged At grade Junction

15 389+110 382+510 Kattoor, Kazhibram 4 legged At grade Junction

Chendrapinni Chandrappinni –
16 Bypass 384+670 Village Road 4 legged At grade Junction

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

   

           

Mathilakm Bypass
17 405+420 398+750 start 3legged At grade Junction

Mathilakam I Pallivalavu - Tippu


18 Bypass 392+980 Sulthan Road 4 legged At grade Junction

19 - 393+280 Iringalakkuda, 4 legged At grade Junction

20 413+560 406+060 Moothakunnam 3 legged At grade Junction

Paravur Chungam, Bypass


21 Bypass 416+755 Crossing 4 legged At grade Junction
Karianthuruth,
Kachanikode
22 426+450 417+680 temple 4 legged At grade Junction
Koorikuzhi,
Kottuvallikavu
23 427+080 418+300 temple 4 legged At grade Junction
Koonammavu
24 427+350 418+590 Hospital 3 legged At grade Junction

25 427+820 419+020 Aluva 3 legged At grade Junction


Olanad,
26 429+200 420+400 Devaswom padam 4 legged At grade Junction
Puthenpalli,
27 430+020 421+220 Varapuzha 4 legged At grade Junction

Mannamthuruthi,
28 430+560 421+760 Varapuzha 4 legged At grade Junction

Njattuvetty ferry,
29 431+380 422+580 Naduvilppadi 4 legged At grade Junction

30 431+800 423+000 Eloor, Cheranelloor 4 legged At grade Junction

31 433+535 424+735 Chitoor road 3 legged At grade Junction


Paravur
32 Bypass 426+020 Bypass Cross 4 legged At grade Junction
Edapally Edappally - Cross
33 Bypass 426+620 Road 4 legged At grade Junction

1.6.15.5 Underpass

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Underpasses is proposed at one location for segregating local traffic and through
traffic thus reducing the congestion at the intersection.

Table 1.24: Proposal for Underpasses

Existing Design Chainage


Sl. No Opening Size Usage
Chainage (Km) (Km)
1 318+090 318+090 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass

1.6.15.6 ROB
A two lane ROB at km 437+700 (Design ch. 427+545) is already constructed in
Edapally bypass which can cater for the proposed two laning.

1.6.15.7 Bridges and Cross Drainage Structures

The proposal for Bridges & Cross Drainage structures during widening and
improvement is given in Table 1.25 & 1.26 respectively. All new structures are
proposed with 3/6 lane configuration. All bridges and culverts along the bypasses
are of 3 lane configuration as the bypasses are restricted to two lane configuration.

Table 1.25: Widening/Improvement proposal for Major Bridges

Sl. Existing Design Proposed Span Type of Type of Type of


No Scheme Arrangement Super Substructure Foundation
structure
Chainage Chainage

(Km) (Km)

Abutment Pier

BRIDGES – Existing NH17 falling in Project stretch

1 319+030 318+820 New Four 11x 32.5 PSC I RCC RCC Circular Pier
lane girder Rect.
Solid

2 342+300 336+000 Additional 1 x 16 .5+ 7 x PSC I RCC RCC Pile


Two lane 24.5 + 1 x 16.5 girder Rect.

3 369+520 362+890 Additional 12 x 26.5 PSC I RCC RCC Well


Two lane girder Rect.

4 412+180 404+860 Additional 1 x 31.7 + 7 x PSC I RCC RCC Well


Two lane 32.3 + 1 x 31.7 girder circular

5 412+800 405+450 Additional 1 x 32.73 + 9 x PSC I RCC RCC Well


Two lane 33.3 + 1 x 32.75 girder circular

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

6 431+000 422+730 Additional 4 x 20 + 5 x 30+3 PSC box RCC Well


Two lane x 50+ 1x 83 + 1x +RCC box
120+1 x 83+ 3 x + RCC
50+5 x 30+3 x 20 voided
slab

BRIDGES – Bypasses

7 1+145- 357+740- New Two 1x20 + 1x30 + RCC/PSC RCC RCC Pile
Chavakkad Chavakkad lane 1x20
beam Solid circular

8 4+564 - 410+620 - New Two 3 x 25 PSC RCC RCC Pile


Paravoor Paravoor lane
I girder Rect.

9 9+080 416+300 New Two 3 x 30 PSC RCC S RCC Pile


Paravoor Paravoor lane
I girder olid circular

Table 1.26: Widening/Improvement proposal for Minor Bridges

Sl. Existing Design Proposed Span Type of Type of Type of


No Chainage Chainage Scheme Arrangement Super Substructure Foundation
(Km) (Km) structure

1 382+400 375+670 Additional 1 x 7.1 RCC Slab RCC - Open


Two

lane

2 413+750 406+210 Additional 1 x 24 RCC T- RCC - Well


Two beam

lane

3 430+300 421+465 Additional 1 x 16.0 RCC T- RCC - Well


Two beam

lane

BRIDGES – Bypasses

4 14+470- 333+200- New Two 3 x 18 RCC T- RCC RCC Pile


Ponnani Ponnani lane beam circular

5 1+428 - 407+215 - New Two 1 x 18 RCC T- RCC - Pile


Paravoor Paravoor lane beam

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

6 1+716 - 407+770 - New Two 1 x 18 RCC T- RCC - Pile


Paravoor Paravoor lane beam

7 2+244 - 408+085 - New Two 1 x 18 RCC T- RCC - Pile


Paravoor Paravoor lane beam

2
Summary of EIA and IEE
2.1 Environmental Impacts and Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report presents the Environmental Assessment


of the proposed improvement for the 120.6 Km of NH 17 in the State of Kerala. The
report has worked out with mitigation measures to minimise or mitigate the impacts
identified during the course of project implementation. Guidelines formulated by
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India were referred for
preparing EIA. Apart from this various Indian Acts and regulations were reviewed such
as, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (amended in 1978 and
1988), Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, Environment (Protection)
Act, 1986 and EIA Notifications of 1994 and 2006.

Field inspections at all the sensitive locations, collection of secondary information for
all the environmental components, baseline environmental monitoring, and
discussions with the officials, NGOs and local public were conducted to establish the
baseline environmental status of the study area and to assess the impacts of the
proposed improvements to the project road. The baseline environmental monitoring
was conducted from September 2006 to October 2006.

The ambient temperature during the monitoring period varied between 32.6 oC to
21.4 oC and relative humidity ranged between 96% and 88%. The solar radiation
recorded ranged between 28.2 Watt hour/sq m and 0.20 Watt hour/sq m. Average
rain fall during the study period was around 404.01 mm. Predominant winds were
mostly from South-Southwest and South West directions with frequencies of 13.7% and
11.5 % respectively. Calm conditions prevailed for 0.7 % for the total time.

The baseline status of ambient air quality has been established through a scientifically
designed network of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) stations set up at 11
locations along the project road representing different conditions like rural, urban,
residential and commercial areas. The monitoring was done for 24 hrs for two days in
a week for four weeks. All the ambient air quality parameters were well within the
NAAQ Standards at all the locations except an Increase in SPM level at Kottappuram

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

. Surface water samples were collected from seven locations along the project road.
Important chemical parameters like Chlorides, Hardness and Total Dissolved Solids
were observed to be very high at five locations due to the backwater influence.
Biological Indicator – total Coliforms – is also found to be higher than the permissible
limits at five locations. Faecal Coliforms were present at four locations. Ground water
samples were collected from six locations. All the physical and chemical parameters
of ground water at all the locations were within the IS:10500 standards. Total Coliforms
were more than the permissible limits, but faecal Coliforms were absent

Out of the 11 locations where ambient noise level monitoring was done along the
project road, eight locations represented residential areas and three locations
represented commercial areas. Among the eight locations representing residential
areas, noise levels at four locations were below the permissible limit set by the CPCB
during day time and night time. At two locations the noise levels during day time and
night time were above the permissible limits. Out of the remaining two locations
representing residential areas, day time noise level at one location and night time
noise level at other location was above the permissible limit. Among the three
locations representing commercial areas, noise level at one location was below the
permissible limits for commercial areas during day time and night time. Day time noise
level at the remaining two locations was above the permissible limit.

The project road is not passing through any forest areas, wildlife sanctuaries and
protected areas. However, the project road is passing through Vembanad-Kol
wetland system, which is a Ramsar Site. Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary is situated 5
Km away from the project road. No rare/threatened species of flora or fauna is
present in the project area except the mangroves along the canals, rivers and
estuaries crossing / abutting the project road. About 56,300 trees – mainly coconut
trees - are present in the proposed 45-m right of way of the project road since it is
passing through agricultural areas.

The cost of implementing above mitigation measures as estimated in Table 2.1, works
out to Rs.15.315 Crores. The operational cost of the same is estimated at Rs. 1.5 lakhs
per annum during the first three years and Rs. 27.93 lakhs per annum from 4th year
onwards

Table 2.1Cost Estimates for Environmental Management Plan


Item Assumptions Cost in Rs

A. Total Cost During Construction Phase

1. Provision of Sewage and sanitation Lump Sum 1,000,000.00


facilities for the construction camps,
including maintenance for 3 years

2. Provision of Water Supply Facilities for Lump Sum 600,000.00


the construction camps

3. Plantation of twice the number of Rs.900/Tree x 112,600 Trees 101,340,000.0


trees to be cut (56300 x 2), and their 0

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
for 4-6 laning of Kundapur - Surathkal Section of NH-17 in the State Volume V – Resettlement Action
of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Item Assumptions Cost in Rs

fencing and maintenance for 3 years

4. Shrub plantation in the median for Rs. 500/Shrub x 80300 40,150,000.00


the entire corridor @ 500 saplings (single Shrubs (@ 500 shrubs/Km x
row) per kilometer for built-up areas 53.6 Km + 1000 shrubs/Km x
with 1.5m of median and @1000 53.5 Km)
saplings (double row) for rural areas
with 4.5 m of median, and their fencing
and maintenance for 3 years

5. Transplantation of Mangroves and Lump Sum 2,500,000.00


their maintenance for 3 years

6. Environmental Monitoring

6.1. Air Quality Monitoring Rs. 2000/location x 10 180,000.00


locations x 3 seasons x 3
years

6.2. Water Quality Monitoring Rs. 2500/location x 4 60,000.00


locations x 2 seasons x 3
years

6.3. Noise Monitoring Rs. 500/location x 10 45,000.00


locations x 3 seasons x 3
years

6.4. Soil Quality Monitoring Rs. 2000/location x 10 120,000.00


locations x 2 seasons x 3
years

6.5. Mobilisation Charges Rs. 35000/season x 3 315,000.00


seasons x 3 years

7. Dust Suppression at Site Rs. 800/trip x 10 trips/day x 5,840,000.00


365 days x 2 years

8. Severances & Others (including Lump sum 1,000,000.00


training, workshops, awareness
campaigning etc.)

Total cost during construction phase 153,150,000.0


0

B. Annual Cost During Operational Phase during First Three Years

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Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report Preliminary Project Report
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of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Item Assumptions Cost in Rs

1. Environmental Monitoring

1.1. Air Pollution Monitoring Rs.2000/location x 5 30,000.00


locations for 3 seasons

1.2. Noise Monitoring Rs.500/location x 10 15,000.00


locations for 3 seasons

1.3. Mobilisation Charges Rs. 35000/season x 3 105,000.00


seasons

Total annual cost during operational phase during first three years 150,000.00

C. Annual Cost During Operational Phase from 4th Year Onwards

1. Maintenance of trees and shrubs Rs.25000/km x 111.73 Km 2,793,250.00

Total annual cost during operational phase from 4th year onwards 2,793,250.00

Source: Analysis

UNITS
1 hectare = 2.47 acres
1 hectare = 10,000 sq. meter
1 hectare = 11,959.90 sq. yards
1 hectare = 2.5 Acres
1 acre = 100 cents
1 cent = 40.47 sq. mts.
1 meter = 3.28 foot
1 sq. meter = 10.76 sq. foot

ABBREVIATIONS
BPL : Below Poverty Line
SRMC : Schedule of Rates Mangalore Circle
CBO : Community Based Organization
CPR : Common Property Resources
DC : Deputy Commissioner
DPR : Detailed Project Report
DRRO : District Resettlement and Rehabilitation Officer
EA : Executing Agency
ESDU : Environmental and Social Development Unit
FGDs : Focus Group Discussions
GoK : Government of Karnataka
GRC : Grievance Redress Committee

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of Karnataka under NHDP phase –III (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/08) Plan

Ha : Hectare
IA : Implementing Agency
LA : Land Acquisition
LAA / LA Act : Land Acquisition Act
R&R : Resettlement and Rehabilitation
M&E : Monitoring and Evaluation
NGO : Non-Governmental Organisation
NH Act : National Highway Act
NHAI : National Highway Authority of India
NHDP : National Highway Development Programme
NPRR : National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation
PAF : Project Affected Family
PAP : Project Affected Person
PC : Project Consultant
PIU : Project Implementation Unit
RAP : Resettlement Action Plan
RoW : Right of Way
Existing Milestone : 00/000
Chainage
Proposed Design : 00+000
Chainage

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DEFINITIONS
Assistance refers to the support provided to PAPs in the form of ex-gratia payments,
loans, asset services, training and skills development, etc. in order to improve the
standard of living and mitigate the negative impacts of the Project.

Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households are households whose monthly income is less
than a designated sum as determined by the Government of India.

Compensation refers to the amount paid under the National Highways Act, 1956 for
private property, structures and other assets acquired for the project. In this context,
compensation refers to payments made by the Government when title of a property
is transferred from a private entity to the government.

Cut-off-Date. The date of notification under Subsection (1) of Section 3A, of National
Highways Act, 1956 will be considered as cut-off date for PAPs who have legal title to
the land/property, proposed for acquisition. In the case of Squatters, Encroachers
and unauthorized occupants the date of census/socio-economic survey conducted
by the Design DPR Consultants will be considered as the cut-off date for entitlements
under the Project.

Deputy Commissioner is the Administrative head of a District and overall in charge of


any Land Acquisition for public purposes within the respective district.

Encroachers are persons who have extended their building, agricultural lands,
business premises or work places into government lands.

Private Property Owners/ Titleholders are those who have legal title to land, structure
and other assets.

Project Affected Person (PAPs) are persons who have economic interests or residence
within the project impact area and who may be adversely affected directly by the
Project. Project Affected Persons include those displaced, those losing commercial or
residential structures in whole or part, those losing agricultural land or homesteads in
whole or part, and those losing income sources as a result of project action, or having
losses as described in the Entitlement Matrix. PAPs include both titled and non-titled
persons experiencing resettlement impacts due to the Project.

Project Affected Family (PAFs) means consisting of such persons, his or her spouse,
minor sons, unmarried daughters, minor brothers or unmarried sisters, father, mother
and other members residing with him and dependent on him for their livelihood.

Project Impact Area refers to the area proposed for the project under NH Act 1956,
involving permanent land acquisition.

Replacement Value of the acquired assets and property is the amount required for
the Project Affected Household to replace/reconstruct the lost assets through
purchase in open market.

Squatters are those who have illegally occupied lands for residential, business and or
other purposes.

Tenants, Leaseholders and Sharecroppers are those persons having bonafide written
or unwritten tenancy agreements, with a private property owner having clear

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property titles, to occupy a structure or land for agricultural use, residence and
business.

Vulnerable Households, for Project compensation entitlement purposes, are


households headed by women (not having any other earning members in the family
above 14 years of age), disabled persons, indigenous persons, and BPL households.

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3
Summary of Resettlement
Action Plan
3.1 Introduction
The project road comprises the portion of NH-17 from chainage 317+710 at Kuttippuram in
Malappuram district to chainage 429+440 at Edappally in Ernakulam district of Kerala.
Topographically this stretch runs through plain land parallel to the coast line except for first 3
km, which runs through the rolling terrain of Malappuram district.

The project road passes through three administrative boundaries– Malappuram, Trissur and
Ernakulam districts of Kerala state Out of the total 111.730 km. first 25.14 km. passes through
Malappuram district where the settlement pattern is less dense comprising residential,
commercial and agricultural lands. As the road enters Thrissur district the population density
increases and the land use is predominantly residential with commercial hubs in between.
This stretch, which accounts for 53% of the total project length passes through many
commercial centers with dense ribbon development on either side of the road. The last
stretch of 24.182 km. in length, passes through urban centers of Paravur and Kanayannur
taluk in Ernakulam and has very narrow winding roads with very closely and densely knit
settlements. Following are the demarcations of the entire project road based on
administrative boundaries:

Section-I - Malappuram District - (Existing Chainage 317+ 710 to 349+280 & Design chainage:
317+710 to 342+820)

Section-II - Thrissur District - (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 409+110 & Design chainage:
342+820 to 405+260)

Section-III - Ernakulam District - (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 438+600 & Design chainage:
405+260 to 429+440)

3.2 Project Area Profile


Although project stretch has 65% rural settlements and an urbanization rate of only 12 per
cent, it has a mixed character of urban and rural settlements due to the peculiar settlement
pattern of Kerala which is called as urban-rural continuum. An analysis of the socio-
economic indicators like literacy rate and work force participation shows that level of
development is more or less same in all levels of analysis - state, district and project area. The
project area has a high literacy rate of 82 per cent and a WFPR of 30 per cent, which is just
below the state average of 32 per cent. Gender disparity in terms of literacy rate and WFPR is
less in project area as well as state and districts, except Malappuram, which shows very low
participation of women in economic activities. The analysis of work force composition in the

and a reduction in the workers in agricultural sector. The declining status of agricultural
sector of Kerala is further established by the finding that marginal and small sized land

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holdings dominates the agricultural sector and the presence of medium or large holdings
that give more economic returns are very limited. Since Kerala’s economy is dominated by
secondary and tertiary sector, especially tourism and construction industries, adequate
infrastructure facilities like highways are a pre-requisite to boost and sustain the growth in
these sectors. Moreover, the project highway has a very strategic importance in the state of
Kerala due to following three reasons – Firstly, NH -17 is one of the three major transportation
routes of the state; secondly, it gives easy access to major cities in Karnataka and
Maharashtra and the regional transportation network, and thirdly, it increases the
connectivity of the Kochi Port to the surrounding region. Hence the project, once
completed, will increase the connectivity of the project area as well as the state as a whole
to the surrounding region and the rest of the country, thereby facilitating an increased
market access, locally, nationally and globally.

The initial field reconnaissance conducted shows that the land use along the project stretch
is dominated by residential and commercial activities with ribbon development at
commercial nodes along the highway. The size of these commercial nodes varies widely and
it repeats frequently at irregular intervals. The residential belts in between these nodes have
small shops as well. In addition to commercial buildings, these nodal centres have religious
structures, institutional structures like schools, hospitals, panchayat offices, post offices etc.
Following are the socially sensitive stretches identified for the project area.

Malappuram district: The existing highway here passes through two types of sensitive areas.
The heavily built up area in the commercial areas of Chamravattom and Poonani town and
the presence of numerous mosques very adjacent to the existing ROW, which is
concentrated more towards RHS., due to the above said social sensitiveness bypass is
proposed at the same locations.

Trichur district: Following are the socially sensitive features along the existing road passing
through Trichur district, which are saved by either realignment or bypass.

• Presence of numerous mosques till it reaches Chavakkad Municipality

• Heavily built settlements of Chavakkad and Kodungalloor municipalities

• Presence of numerous commercial nodes and centers with ribbon


development on either side of the highway that repeats at frequent but
irregular intervals. These activity centres have heavily built up areas on either
sides of the road.

Ernakulam district: The settlements along the existing highway in Ernakulam district was
characterized by following socially sensitive features, which are also saved by either
realignment or bypass

• All the settlements here are in urban areas – except at Moothakunnam. Hence
settlements are denser and closely packed than previous stretches.

• The settlements in Paravur are very dense; the already proposed bypass reduces
the impact upon its social fabric.

• Even though the main temple complex at Thirumooppam on RHS is located away
from the edge of existing ROW, people are against cutting of big banyan tree in
front of it and are not willing to part with the temple compound and pond for the
project purpose.

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• For the dense settlements of Cheranallur, Kunnumpuram and Edappally a bypass
is under construction for 30m. ROW.

3.3 R&R Policies and Entitlement Framework


This Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) document describes the principles and approach to be
followed in minimizing and mitigating negative social and economic impacts of the project.
The RAP has been developed based on applicable act/policies viz. National Highways Act-
1956, and National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation-2003 (NPRR) and following are
the main R&R Policy Principles:

(i) The negative impact on persons affected by the project would be avoided or
minimized.

(ii) If individuals or a community must lose all or part of their land, means of livelihood, or
social support systems, so that a project might proceed, they will be compensated
and assisted through replacement of land, housing, infrastructure, resources, income
sources, and services, in cash or kind, so that their economic and social
circumstances will be at least restored to the pre-project level.

(iii) All acquisition of land would be under National Highways Act, 1956, which provides
for compensation for properties to be acquired. Support would be extended for
meeting the replacement value of the property. The persons affected by the project
who does not own land or other properties but who have economic interest or lose
their livelihoods will be assisted as per the broad principles brought out in this policy.

(iv) Broad entitlement framework for different categories of project-affected people has
been assessed and is given in the entitlement matrix. Provisions will be kept in the
budget for those who were not present at the time of enumeration. However, anyone
moving into the project area after the cut-off date will not be entitled to assistance.

(v) The PAPs will be fully informed and closely consulted. All information related to
resettlement preparation and implementation will be disclosed to all concerned, and
people’s participation is being ensured in planning and implementation of the
project.

(vi) Before taking possession of the acquired lands and properties, compensation and
R&R assistance will be made in accordance with this policy.

(vii) Institutions of the PAPs, and, where relevant, of their hosts, will be protected and
supported. PAPs will be assisted to integrate economically and socially into host
communities so that adverse impacts on the host communities are minimized and
social harmony is promoted.

Compensation and assistance: In general terms, the PAPs under the project will be entitled to
five types of compensation and assistance: (i) Compensation for loss of land, crops/trees; (ii)
Compensation for structures (residential/commercial) and other immovable assets; (iii)
Assistance for loss of business/wage income; (iv) Assistance for shifting; and, (V) Assistance for
re-building and/or restoration of community resources/facilities. A detailed description of
each compensation measures and assistance is provided in the Entitlement Matrix.

Census Surveys: Census of PAPs located within the project impact area will be undertaken as
part of implementation to document their status. This will provide a demographic overview of
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the affected population, profiles of household assets and main sources of livelihood. The
survey will identify occupants/users of land/property other than owner/titleholders such as
tenants, sharecroppers, leaseholders, encroachers, squatters, wage labourers and
employees of business. Owners without title deed but having customary rights over the
affected property will also be identified and recorded. This will mainly include schedule
tribes/nomadic tribes. Census survey will cover 100% of the PAPs within the project impact
area

Cut-off-Date: Final technical drawings and topographic details will be used for reference
during the Census Surveys and FGDs. The cut-off date for those who have legal title is the
date of Notification under Sub-section (1) of Section 3A of NH Act. The date of census during
revalidation of RAP would be the cut-off date for those who do not have legal standing for
eligibility of assistance under the project. People moving into the project area after this cut-
off date will not be entitled for support. Persons, who were not enumerated during the census
but can show documentation or evidence that he/she is rightfully an Affected Person, will be
included. The Project Authority (NHAI) is responsible for such verification during revalidation of
RAP. Only those PAPs within the project affected area will be considered eligible for support
under the project.

Common Property Resources: All the affected facilities should be restored, if not possible, will
be replaced by the project. Affected community will be closely consulted during the same.
In case of reconstruction, pucca structure will be constructed irrespective of condition of
affected structure during census survey.

Outstanding loans: In cases where the land/property is under mortgage, the outstanding
amount shall be paid to the lending agency from the total compensation package.
Landowners shall pay un-expired lease to leaseholders and rental deposits to tenants. The
same shall be done by government in case of government lands which are given on
lease/tenancy.

The Entitlement Matrix provides guidance for compensation, resettlement, and rehabilitation
assistance planning. The Entitlement Matrix lists various types of losses, identification/eligibility
and entitlements and provides basic parameters for preparation of compensation and
resettlement benefits.

3.4 Assessment of Resettlement Impacts


3.4.1 RoW Status Verification
The ROW observed in the project road varies from 10 m. to 30 m except at few locations,
where it is as less as 7m. ROW pillars are missing at many places. The limited ROW coupled
with poor road geometry makes the present riding conditions along this road extremely bad.

3.4.2 Proposed Project Design


The highway design incorporating the social concerns envisages widening of the existing
road to a uniform ROW of 45m. incorporating the bypasses already proposed by NH-division
of PWD, Kerala. These bypasses, proposed for 30m. ROW, avoid the heavily built up
settlements of Ponnani, Chavakkad, Kodungallur, Paravur and Edappally. It also proposes 6
more bypasses in addition, to reduce the social impact at Vadanappally, Triprayar,
Valappad, Chendrapinni, Moonnupeedika, Perinjanam and Mathilakam. Among the PWD
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proposed bypasses, Ponnani bypass is under construction for an ROW of 30m., land has been
surveyed for 30m. ROW in Chavvakkad, Kodungalloor and Paravur and land has been
acquired for Edappaly bypass

3.4.3 Loss of Land


The additional land required for the widening of the existing road to four lane was estimated
based on the land acquisition plan prepared by consultants. Accordingly, an additional
area of 753.80 acres (305.06 Ha.) would be required which includes both private land and
government land. Out of this an area of 734.39 acres would be required for road, 9.21 acres
for toll plaza, 3.21 acres for truck lay bays and 6.98 acres for rest areas. The same is
summarized in Table 3.1
Table 3.1: Land requirement for the proposed highway design
Land to be acquired
Design Feature
(sq.mts.) (Acres)
Road 2972058.171 734.39
Toll Plaza 37291.15 9.21
Truck Lay bays 13009.97 3.21
Rest Area 28266.61 6.98
Total 3050625.901 753.80

3.4.4 Loss of Structures


This category includes loss of structures and semi-open within private or government plots.
The census survey conducted for all the structures affected under the project covered major
structures like residential, commercial and religious buildings as well as minor structures like
compound walls bus stops, pump houses, wells, water taps etc. It reveals that a total of 5596
structures are affected out of which, 3991 are major buildings and remaining are minor
structures or immovable assets. Structures which are located in the land already acquired for
bypass is not considered in this survey, details are given in Table 3.2

Table 3.2: Category of buildings affected


Major buildings No. of structures Percentage to total
Residential 2120 53.12
Commercial 1499 37.56
Resi. + Comm. 106 2.66
Public buildings 223 5.59
Religious 43 1.07
Total 3991 100
*Inlcudes taps, graveyards, pump houses, wells, ponds, sheds, bus stops etc.

3.4.5 Loss of other Immovable Assets


Loss of other immovable assets include loss of compound walls, fences, loss of taps, wells, bus
stops, sheds, pump houses etc. From the census survey of structures it has been found that
there are 431 PAFs whose compound wall alone is affected. Majority of the compound walls

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are pucca and privately owned. Impact on other minor structures like public taps, bus
shelters, etc. causes loss of another additional 1174 structures. These compensation for
structures have been budgeted in the RAP budget as per prevailing schedule of rates
published by PWD.

3.4.6 Impact on Livelihood/ Tenure


Out of a total of 3991 PAFs being affected by impact on structures, 1605 PAFs, which
comprises owners of commercial structures and res-commerical structures looses their
livelihood due to the loss of commercial spaces. As the census survey covered only the
structure affected PAFs who are owners of the affected structures, the number of people
who are employed in these commercial buildings and looses their livelihood are not
covered. The non-availability of updated land records was another constraint in estimating
the accurate number of PAFs.

3.5 Public Consultation and Information Dissemination


To ensure that people’s concerns are incorporated in the project design and to promote
public understanding about the project and its implications public consultation and
information dissemination is treated as a two way process where the information is passed on
to public and their feed back is sought to understand their issues at the project preparatory
stage itself. The major key stakeholders who participated in consultations at various stages
include all Project Affected Families/Persons (PAF/Ps); elected representatives, Community
leaders of PAPs, representatives of CBOs; designated staff of Project Management Unit (PIU);
DC / officials from DC’s office and local Revenue officials; and representatives of local
NGOs.

The consultative process is continued through out the project period – design preparation,
project initiation, project implementation and post implementation periods. In the project
preparation stage the information gathered from field surveys are incorporated in the design
phase of the project and preparation of RAP. At this stage methodologies used for public
consultation and information dissemination includes reconnaissance survey; Focus Group
Discussions; census of PAFs and public consultations. During the census survey public
consultation were held with different stakeholders of the project at various locations, the
details of which are given in the Table 3.3.
Table 3.3: Details of Public Consultation
Details of consultation Subjects and issues discussed
Consultation with tenants & employees Objective of the project was shared with the
Date & Time : 23/11/06, 4 pm, Venue: people
Vyapara Bhavan hall, Trippayar Demand for parking space
During the public consultation at Tripayar
people strongly demanded for a bypass.
Consultation with land owners and Objective of the project was shared with the
building owners. people
Date & Time : 27/11/06, 4 pm During the consultation people demanded on
Venue: G.L.P. School, Moonu Peedika going market rates as compensation for their
affected properties.
Consultation with Building owners, Objective of the project was shared with the
Tenants & Employees people
Date & Time : 25/11/06, 11Am During the public consultation at
Venue: Vyapara Bhavan hall, Chandrappinni people strongly demanded for

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Details of consultation Subjects and issues discussed
Chendrappinni a Bypass.
Consultation with land owners and Objective of the project was shared with the
building owners people
Date & Time: 27/11/06, 6 Pm People strongly expressed their anxiety
Venue: SRV UP School, regarding the mode of payment and
Chendrappinni conpensation rates.
Consultation with Polititians , Govt. The width of the road shall be 20m/30m instead
officials & Public of 45m so that number of affected buildings can
Date & Time:11/06/07, 10 Am to 12.30Pm be reduced
Venue: Munsipall town hall ,Kodungallur . There should be proper resettlement action
Consultation with Polititians , Govt. plan considering the market value according to
officials & Public the policy of Central Govt for those who lost the
Date & Time:11/06/07, 2 Pm to 5 Pm home and livelihood in specified time frame.
Venue: Munsipall town hall ,Guruvayur Rehabilitation, resettlement and income
restoration for all persons getting affected due
to project
Rehabilitation and income restoration for road
side vendors.
Govt. officials met Issues discussed and concerns raised
Dr.M.Beena.IAS, District Collector and Updated the officials about the detailed
District Magistrate, Thrissur District. objectives and current status of the project so
Mr.K.Premachandra Kurup, District that they can also disseminate information to
Collector and District Magistrate, the people to make them aware of the same.
Malappuram District. Sought the required cooperation for the
Smt.Rama Devi, Deputy Collector (LA), collection of secondary data including land
Eranakulam, District records.
Mr. T.N. Prathapan, M.L.A, Nattika,.Thrissur Odfficials expressed the opinion that
rehabilitation and resettlement issues such as
loss of livelihoods and assets of the people
especially STs, SCs, OBCs should be adeqauetly
taken care in the RAP.
Appraised the officials about the objectives
and current status of the project.

3.6 Institutional Framework


NHAI has an Environmental and Social Development Unit (ESDU) at the corporate level.
ESDU/ NHAI will undertake the revalidation of RAP before the start of RAP implementation
and will engage services of Project Consultant (PC) for the same. For the project
implementation NHAI will set up Project Implementation Unit (PIU) at Palakkad. PIU will be
headed by Project Director (PD), GM/DGM level officer.

NHAI

General Manager-
ESDU
Project
Consultant

Deputy General Resettlement Independent


Manager- Environment Manager Monitoring
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Project Director - PIU


Figure 3.1: Institutional Framework: RAP Implementation
R&R Cell will be established as a part of PIU, and three District Resettlement and
Rehabilitation Officers (DRROs), one for each project district, will be appointed to R&R Cell.
DRROs will assist PD in all land acquisition and resettlement activities under the project.
Institutional arrangement for RAP implementation is given in Figure 6.6. NHAI will be the
Executing Agency (EA) for project. ESDU of NHAI will oversee all RAP implementation
activities, and will engage service of non-governmental organization (NGO) for RAP
implementation and an independent agency for external monitoring. DRROs (R&R Cell) at
PIU will undertake RAP implementation, with the help of NGO appointed by ESDU. All the RAP
activities will be regularly reported to ESDU by PIU. PIU/R&R Cell will establish networking with
district administration (District Collectors office, Revenue Department etc.) to ensure timely
implementation of RAP. Networking with central/state/town departments will also be
established (i) so as to link proposed income restoration packages with government
schemes, if any; (ii) for restoration/replacement of community infrastructure such as water
supply, sewerage, electricity/telephone network, irrigation canals etc.; and (iii) for
restoration/replacement of CPR’s/public amenities such as shrines, schools etc.

Implementation Schedule: Implementation of RAP will include land acquisition, and


resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) activities. The implementation process will cover (i)
identification of cut-off date and notification; (ii) verification of properties of PAPs and
estimation of their type and level of losses and distribution of identity cards; (iii) preparation of
PAPs for relocation through consultation, however, the process of consultation will continue
throughout the RAP implementation and (iv) Relocation and resettlement of the PAPs. It is
assumed that implementation will take minimum 10 months to hand over land for civil works.
Training for income restoration, if proposed, however shall continue for another month,
estimating a total period of 11 months for RAP implementation. No civil works should begin
until all PAPs receive the approved compensation package. Civil works should therefore be
linked with the completion of land acquisition, schedule are given in Table 3.4
Table 3.4: Schedule of Land Acquisition and Resettlement Activities

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Land Acquisition and Duration
Sl. No. Start Date Completion Date
Resettlement Activities (days)

1 Revalidation of RP 1st of Month 1 30th of Month 2 90


2 RP Approval by NHAI 1st of Month 3 30th of Month 3 30
3 Issue of identity cards 1st of Month 4 30th of Month 4 30
Recruitment of
4 1st of Month 3 30th of Month 3 30
Implementing NGO
Information sharing,
5 consultations and disclosure All through the RP implementation period
meetings
Payment of compensation
6 1st of Month 5 30th of Month 7 60
and assistance for relocation
Relocation and resettlement
7 1st of Month 6 15th of Month 8 75
of PAPs
Skill Training of vulnerable
groups / income restoration 30th of Month 90
8 15th of Month 8
activities, if proposed during 11 (Optional)
revalidation
Possession of acquired
9 1st of Month 9 30th of Month 9 30
property
10 Internal monitoring All through the RP implementation period
11 External monitoring All through the RP implementation period
Handover acquired lands to
12 1st of Month 10
contractors for construction
13 Start of Civil Works 5th of Month 10 onwards

Source: WSAPL’s Social Team

Monitoring and Evaluation: RAP implementation will be closely monitored to provide Project
Implementation Unit (PIU) with an effective basis for assessing resettlement progress and
identifying potential difficulties and problems. For monitoring and evaluation (M&E), PIU will
appoint an independent agency to undertake external monitoring of the entire project. The
independent agency will monitor the project on a half-yearly basis and submit its reports
directly to the PIU. This monitoring will include, administrative monitoring, socio-economic
monitoring and impact evaluation.

Internal monitoring will track indicators such as the number of families affected, resettled,
assistance extended, infrastructure facilities provided, financial aspects, such as
compensation paid, grant extended etc. R&R Cell at PIU will carry out internal monitoring,
who will report to the Project Director on monthly basis in prescribed monitoring formats.
These formats, to be filled by District Resettlement and Rehabilitation Officers (DRROs) at R&R
Cell, will indicate actual achievements against the targets fixed, and reasons for shortfall, if
any. Based on the reports, the PIU will monitor and evaluate every three (3) months the
overall progress on each R&R component within the project and determine actions to be
taken by the PIU in situations where the set objectives are not being met.

3.7 RAP Budget


RAP budget, can be broadly subdivided into following three subsections: The final RAP
budget is given in table 6.15

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(a) Assistance for Loss of Land

(b) Assistance for Loss of Structures and Assets

(c) R&R Implementation

Assistance for Loss of Land


Assistance for land has been prepared based on the land acquisition plan where the extent
of land area that needs to be acquired is calculated for each survey number in each village.
Based on the land use of the area to be acquired along the existing road and the bypasses,
unit rates of land is applied to get the total assistance for loss of land. The land value includes
30% solatium, 12% interest and Registration and stamp duty.Table.3.5
Table 3.5: Cost of Land
Sl. No. Components of Cost Unit (Acres)
A : Total Affected Land Area 753.8
B : LA Cost Cost (in INR Crores)
1 Cost of LA 178.52
2 Solatium @ 30% of the LA Cost 53.56
3 Interest @ 12 % of the LA cost 21.42

4 Registration rate (8%) and stamp duty (1%) 16.07


charges
Total 269.57

Note: * Includes cost of land for 2 toll plazas and other amenities

The cost of acquiring land of 753.8 Acres for the project comes to Rs. 269.57 Crores, of these
Rs 53.56 crores are solatium (30%) and an additional Rs. 21.42 Crores and Rs. 16.07 crores
would be required to be disbursed to the PAFs as interest rate and Registration expanses
respectively. Intrest would be paid at the rate of 12% while registration expanses are at the
rate of 9 %( 8% registration and 1% stamp duty) This solatium would be given to take care of
other exigencies like registration of newly purchased property and stamp duty fees etc.

3.8 R&R Assistance


R&R assistance and other cost include the one time ex-gratia amount Rs 10000/family.The
category wise number of affected families is given in table 3.6
Table 3.6: R&R Assistance
Quantity Unit Rate
Sl.No Assistance Unit Amount in Rs. Crore
(Nos) (Rs.)
R&R Assistance to Land(Only
1 PAF 23744 10000 23.74
Land)affected PAF*
R&R Assistance to land &
2 PAF 5596 10,000 5.60
structures affected Families
R&R Assistance to Non title
3 PAF 4815 10,000 4.82
holders
Total 34155 34.16

3.9 Final RAP Budget


Final Resettlement Action Plan and budget has been summarized in Table 3.7.

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Table 3.7: Final RAP Budget
Final RAP Budget
A : Land Cost

Total Affected Land Area (in acres) 753.8


Sl. No. Components of Cost Cost (in INR Crores)

1 Cost of LA 178.52
2 Solatium @ 30% of the LA Cost 53.56
3 Interest @ 12 % of the LA cost 21.42
4 Registration rate (8%) and stamp duty (1%) 16.07
charges
Sub Total 269.57

B .Structure Cost

Total No of Affected Structure 5596

Sl. No. Components of Cost Cost (in INR Crores)

1 Replacement value of structures including 157.77


compound walls
2 Replacement value of semi-open structures 7.01
3 Replacement value of other fixed assets 1.18

Sub Total 165.96

C .R&R Assistance

Total Number of Affected Families 34155

Sl. No. Components of Cost Cost (in INR Crores)

1 R&R Assistance to Land affected PAF* 23.74


R&R Assistance to land & structures affected
2 Families 5.60
3 R&R Assistance to Non title holders 4.82
Sub Total 34.16

Grand Total (A+B+C) 469.68

4
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Project Cost Estimates
Project Background

The cost estimates have been prepared for widening of the existing two lane road to a four/six lane 
carriageway including strengthening of the existing pavement, strengthening / widening of existing 
bridge structures, construction of new bridges, rehabilitation and reconstruction / widening of cross 
drainage structures, longitudinal drains, underpasses,  junction improvements, road furniture, street 
lighting, toll plaza, bus bays, rest area ,Social and Environmental cost etc.  

The Construction cost of the project road has been worked out for following options

2 Widening to four lanes. (concentric widening)


3 Widening to four lanes. (eccentric Widening)
4 New Construction along existing carriageway
5 New construction for bypass

5.1 Methodology
The process involved in the cost estimation has been described under the following sections.

4.2.1 Basic Rates


The rate analysis has been carried on the basis of STANDARD DATA BOOK for analysis of rate (First 
revision) and adopting Schedule of rate provided by Kerala PWD. The basic rates for each 
construction items were analyzed on the basis of material study undertaken, the prices of 
construction materials collected from various sources and on the anticipated distance of source to 
the site of work. For items where these rates are not available, the rates were adopted as per 
previous experience of the consultant / Market rates and prevailing percentage over these rates 
were considered.  

4.2.2 Quantification of Items


The quantification of road works, Bridges and CD structures items are calculated from typical cross 
sections and drawings. The construction items covered in cost estimates are: site clearance; 
earthwork in new embankment, and widening; Pavement in carriageways and shoulders; culverts; 
Bridges, ROB s and under passes; Repair to bridges and culverts; Repair and Rehabilitation for 
structures; Road Junctions; Pavement markings, Signs and other Appurtenances; Drainage and 
Protective works; Service Roads; Toll plaza ,Parking and Lay bye; Environmental Protection and 
Resettlement; Land Acquisition; Electrical Works, Miscellaneous items, Utility relocations, etc. 

4.2.3 Land / Environmental / Social costs


The project corridor passes through plain area. Widening of the existing carriageway has
been assumed to be on either side of the existing pavement or symmetrical central widening
where the existing carriageway comes under the median. Land acquisition cost has been
calculated as given in social screening report based on the area calculated from the
alignment report. Environmental costs include the cost of cutting of trees (compensatory
afforestation), rehabilitation of water source such as hand pumps, wells, bore wells and
ponds, noise protection measures near sensitive locations, air, water and noise quality
monitoring at different stages and the cost of environmental enhancement along the
project road.

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4.2.4 Strengthening / Widening & New Construction of Roads
Estimates have been worked out on the basis of typical cross section of the pavement.
Pavement composition for overlay and new construction are taken as per the pavement
designs.
4.2.5 Bridges, Culverts & Other Structures
All structures including CD works are proposed to be widened/ constructed to suit 4/6‐lane 
configuration in general. The structures comprise of major and minor bridges, ROBs, underpasses 
,culverts and Flyover. 

4.2.6 Repairs to Bridges & Culverts


A study of the existing Bridges and Culverts has been carried out to ascertain the structure to
be retained or reconstructed and the cost of the Repairs, Rehabilitation, and upgrading is
worked out based on the condition survey by experienced bridge engineers and re -
habilitation experts. The cost thus arrived is included in the bill.
4.2.7 Junction Improvements
The existing road requires horizontal & vertical geometric improvements and also camber
correction and profile correction. In order to link the project road with cross roads, major and
minor types of junction improvements have been considered.
4.2.8 Longitudinal Side Drains
Longitudinal unlined drains are provided in rural stretch and RCC drains are provided in built
up and Hill cutting sections. Necessary provision for the same is made in the cost estimate.
4.2.9 Road Furniture
Road furniture such as crash barriers/guard-rails, road signs, pavement markings, mileage
stones, retro reflective sign boards, etc. have a provision in the cost estimate.
4.2.10 Toll Plaza
There will be Two toll plazas along the project corridor at selected location for collection of
traffic. Suitable provision is made in the cost estimate for this purpose.
4.2.11 Bus Bays
Bus-bays are proposed at 35 locations on both sides. The shelter structure shall be structurally
safe and functional so as to protect the waiting passengers adequately from sun, rain, and
wind.
4.2.12 Utility Relocation
Broad provision is made in the cost estimate for raising and or shifting electric supply lines,
telephone lines, OFC lines and other utilities.
4.2.13 Contingencies
The contingencies are considered as 3% of the total construction cost.
4.2.14 Contractor’s Profit
As this project is planning to implement on BOT scheme 10% contractor’s profit is not
considered during the rate analyis.

4.3 Project Cost


The estimated cost for 4/6-lane widening of 4-6 laning of Kuttipuram – Edapally Section of
NH – 17 , project road is presented in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 : Cost Estimate for 4‐6 laning of  Kuttipuram – Edapally Section 
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BILL NO. BILL NAME AMOUNT (Rs.)

1 SITE CLEARANCE AND DISMANTLING 17,215,348


2 EARTH WORK 497,948,090
3 SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSES 1,696,670,777
4 BITUMINOUS WORKS 1,490,591,381
5 CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS 298,189,283

6 NEW BRIDGES AND UNDER PASSES 3,442,290,179

7 ROAD OVER BRIDGES (ROB'S) 198,759,957


TRAFFIC SIGNAGES, ROAD MARKING AND OTHER
8 106,968,600
APPURTENANCES
9 PROTECTIVE WORKS, DUCTS & OTHER SERVICES 640,246,019
10 ELECTRICAL WORKS 123,456,650
11 TOLL PLAZA 170,357,894
12 REPAIR AND REHABILITATION 57,279,451
13 MISCELLANEOUS 98,165,867
8,838,139,543
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST

928.001
10& escalation for one year (crores)

CONTINGENCIES/QC @ 3% OF CIVIL COST (crores) 27.84

IC & PRE-OPERATIVE EXPENSES @1% OF EPC (crores) 9.558

FINANCING COST @ 2% DEBT AT 70:30 DER (crores) 12.824


ESCLATION @ 5% PER ANUM DURING CONSTRUCTION 79.454
PERIOD (CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 30 MONTHS) (crores)
INTEREST DURING CONSTRUCTION @ 11% PA ON DEBT 87.280
(AT 70:30 DER) (TERM LOAN) (crores)
TOTAL CONCESSIONAIRE COST(crores) 1144.957

TOTAL LENGTH OF PROJECT ROAD (KM) 111.73

PER KM COST ( CRORES ) 10.25

NHAI COST
LAND ACQUISITION, ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION,R&R, 485.20
UTILITY SHIFTING ETC., (crores)
TOTAL NHAI COST(crores) 485.20
TOTAL PROJECT COST ( CONCESSIONAIRE + NHAI 1630.16
COST ) (crores)
TOTAL PROJECT PER KM COST ( CRORES ) 14.59

5
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Εχονομιχ & Φινανχιαλ Αναλψσι
σ
5.1 Economic Analysis
5.1.1 Introduction
The objective of the cost benefit economic analysis is to identify and quantify the benefits
and costs associated with the project (with respect to 4/6 laning of Kuttippuram- Edappali
(NH-17) in the State of Kerala from the existing double lane). This analysis will help in
identification of the optimum solution along with the economic viability in terms of its likely
investment return potential. This is carried out in order to test the economic feasibility of the
identified improvement to the project road and assist National Highways Authority of India
(NHAI), Government of India in taking decision.

The economic feasibility study is carried out using the overall guidelines stipulated by the
Indian Roads Congress (IRC) and the World Bank in their manuals (Economic Evaluation of
Highway Projects in India (SP – 30, 1993), Manual for Road Investment Decision Model’ (SP –
38, February 1992) and Manual for HDM - 4 Version 1.3 (World Bank, 2000)). These manuals
are accepted by the World Bank, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MORT&H) and
National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) for highway projects in India.

The cost – benefit analysis is carried out by using the discounted cash flow (DCF) technique
to obtain the economic internal rate of return (EIRR) and economic net present value (ENPV)
for the proposed investments linked with the project. This is followed by a ‘sensitivity analysis’
carried out by increasing or decreasing the critical factors affecting the cost and benefit
streams of the proposed project, in order to ascertain their effect on the economic feasibility
indicators i.e. ENPV, EIRR.

In broad terms, the society costs pertaining to the highway development, to be considered
in this analysis includes:

Agency costs
• Capital cost

• Recurrent cost for maintenance (annual & periodical)

• Residual value at the end of analysis period

Road user costs


• Vehicle operating cost

• Travel time cost

• Accident cost

The analysis period of the project has considered 30 years operation period from the
completion of the improvements. Base year for the analysis is 2006. Hence the period from
2006 to 2040 has been considered for economic evaluation for the project road.

5.1.2 Alternatives

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The project road is divided into three sections, further divided into seventeen homogeneous
sections (HS), for analysis of the improvement proposals. The details are given in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1: Details of Sections on the Project Road


Sections Chainage Chainage (End) Length (Km)
(Start)

1.Kuttipuram- 318+000 362+000 44.00


Chavakkad
2.Chavakkad- 362+000 407+700 45.7
Kodungallur
3. Kodungallur- Edapally 407+700 438+600 30.9
Total 318+800 438+600 120.60

The following alternatives are considered for the economic analysis.


• Without Project Situation: The first is a ‘without project’ (do minimum) where the
existing two lane project road is considered as such in its present condition and
without widening. In this case, the future traffic volume is assumed to continue to flow
along the existing road only. In the HDM model analysis, this ‘do minimum’ alternative
will form the first / base strategy against which all other strategies will be compared.

• With Project Situation: This comprises of the strategy of the ‘with project’ situation in
the HDM model. In order to arrive at the net benefits associated with this strategy,
these are compared to the ‘do minimum’ / ‘without project’ alternative. The
improvement proposals considered for ‘with project situation’ are as follows:
Table 5.2: Project Proposals
Sections HS Existing Proposals
Length
(Km)
1.Kuttipuram- 1.Kuttipuram- Chavakkad 44.0 Widen to 4L along
Chavakkad existing alignment
2.Chavakkad- 1. Chavakkad to bypass 1.2 Widen to 4L along
Kodungallur existing alignment
2. Chavakkad Bypass section 2.2 4L Bypass
3. Chavakkad- Vadanappally 11.6 Widen to 4L along
existing alignment
4. Vadanappally Bypass 3.2 4L Bypass
5. Vadanappally- Triprayar 3.7 Widen to 4L along
existing alignment
6. Triprayar bypass 3.4 4L Bypass
7. Triprayar- Chendrappinni 3.8 Widen to 4L along
existing alignment
8. Chendrappinni Bypass 0.9 4L Bypass
9.Chendrapinni - 3.4 Widen to 4L along
Moonnupeedika existing alignment
10. Moonnupeedika Bypass 1.9 4L Bypass
11.Moonnnupeedika- Mathilakam 1.4 Widen to 4L along
existing alignment
12. Mathilakam Bypass 1 4.3 4L Bypass

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Sections HS Existing Proposals
Length
(Km)
13. Mathilakam 2.5 Widen to 4L along
existing alignment
14. Mathilakam Bypass 2 0.6 4L Bypass
15. Mathilakam- Kodungallur 1.6 Widen to 4L along
existing alignment
3.Kodungallur- 1. Kodungallur- Edapally 30.9 Widen to 4L along
Edapally existing alignment

All these proposals are considered with flexible pavement option only as it is recommended
during feasibility study.

By comparing the above alternatives, the net agency costs, the net user costs and the net
project benefits associated with the project during its analysis period of 30 years, are
calculated for the proposed improvement options. These calculations are performed in order
to arrive at their economic internal rate of return (EIRR) and economic net present value
(ENPV). Based on the results of the analysis, the economic feasibility for the project was
determined.

5.1.3 Analysis Model


HDM model (HDM III Manager, Version 3.0, 1995) has been further improved by the World
Bank in their recently released HDM – 4 (Version 1.3). Considering the improved advantages,
HDM – 4 (Version 1.3) is used for the present economic analysis, which also calculates vehicle
user costs based on the pavement deterioration models. However, as there is no provision
available for sensitivity analysis in the HDM – 4, computer spreadsheets developed for this
purpose are used for sensitivity analysis, for which the HDM model based outputs are used as
inputs.

The World Bank initiated a Highway Design and Maintenance study in 1969 using leading
research institutions and road agencies during which empirical relationships between road
roughness, maintenance and vehicle operating costs were derived. These were
incorporated in the HDM III in 1987, which was the result of 18 years research in Australia,
Brazil, France, India, Kenya, Sweden, UK and USA. Between 1971 and 1982, four major
empirical studies were carried out which included the Road User Cost Study (RUCS) carried
of by MOST, Govt. of India (Dr. L.R Kadiyali). The results of this study and those of Kenya, Brazil
and the Caribbean were the basis of the relationships developed for HDM III model released
in 1987 and further improved on in its HDM Manager Version 3.0. This version released in June
1995 was tested in more than 20 countries before its release and because of its strong
development background in India, considered most appropriate for the analysis of this
project. The latest version HDM – 4 (Version 1.3) released in 2000 by the World Bank, is the
further improvement over their HDM Manager Version 3.0, supported with adequate test
applications in different situations, including the Indian highway projects. This justifies the
relevance of HDM – 4 for Indian highway projects and use for the present study.

5.1.4 Input Data

5.1.4.1Capital cost
The capital cost of construction of the proposed widening including the phasing of
investment during the construction period has been calculated. These include the costs for
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construction package being evaluated in the economic analysis. The costs of different
pavement options have been considered.

The analysis period of the project for is taken as 35 years from the base year:

• Base Year 2006

• Construction period – 2008 to 2010

• Project opened for traffic – 2011

• End of the analysis period –2040


Number of operating years after project improvement, considered for economic analysis –
30 years.

Components considered for the calculation of construction cost include:

• All highway construction components including survey, design etc.

• Social displacement costs

• Land acquisition

• Costs of environmental protection measures

• Contingencies and Quality control during construction period


The capital cost is summarised in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3: Details of the Construction Cost considered for Economic Analysis
Flexible Option

Financial Cost (Rs. In Economic Cost


Sl. No. Section Millions) (Rs. In Millions)

1 Kuttipuram- Edapally 13955.1 12559.6

5.1.4.2 Maintenance Cost (Recurrent Cost)


The maintenance works considered for the alternatives in the analysis include:

Flexible Pavement:

• Annual Maintenance (Routine maintenance):

• Surface dressing / Resealing

• Overlay

Details of the maintenance programme followed for the project road sections under
different situations along with their unit rates, followed in the analysis, are summed up below
in Table 5.4 (a) to 5.4 (c).

All the financial costs pertaining to construction and maintenance (Agency Cost) were
converted into economic costs by using the conversion factor of 0.9 and the same were
used in the economic feasibility analysis. This is as per the guidelines of International funding

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institutions for highway projects in India, though IRC suggests a conversion factor to be in the
range of 0.80 – 0.85 (IRC: SP - 30, 1993).
Table 5.4(a): Annual / Periodical Maintenance Programme for the Improved Project Road Sections –
Flexible Pavement
Sl. No. Maintenance Starting Interval /Intervention Overlay
Type year Thickness (mm)
1 Resealing 2015 Scheduled (every 5 years) 25 SDBC
2 Overlay 2020 Responsive (When Roughness > 4.0 50 BC
IRI & cumulative ESAL > 150 MSA)
3 Patching 2010 Annual (Repairing all potholes) 100%

Table 5.4(b): Annual / Periodical Maintenance Programme for all Existing Road Sections under
unimproved situation
Sl. No. Maintenance Starting Interval /Intervention Overlay
Type year Thickness (mm)
1 Resealing 2010 Scheduled (every 5 years) 20 SDBC
2 Overlay 2015 Scheduled (every 10 years) 25 SDBC
3 Patching 2005 Annual (Repairing all potholes) 100%

Table 5.4(c): Unit Cost Rates for Maintenance – Flexible


SI. No. Details Financial Cost Economic Cost

1 Patching (Rs per Sq m) 328.0 295.2


2 Resealing 25 mm (Rs per Sq m) 80.0 72.0
3 Resealing 20 mm (Rs per Sq m) 52.95 47.66
4 Overlay (50 mm) (Rs per Sq m) 173.0 155.7
5 Overlay (25 mm) (Rs per Sq m) 96.0 86.0
6 Edge Repair 382.67 344.4

5.1.4.3 The Residual Value


Considering the remaining life of the construction items the Residual value (salvage value)
has been assessed at the end of the analysis period. For structures, the life is assumed to be
50 years and as such the remaining life is taken from 2040.

Values of the selected construction items such as LA, structures, sub-base, social
displacement cost etc. are included in the economic analysis as residual values at the end
of the analysis periods. These residual values are considered, as benefits to the project in the
analysis. In order to maintain uniformity among studies, National Highway Authority of India
(NHAI) has suggested that 20% of the project cost shall be considered as salvage value at
the end of the analysis period for economic evaluation studies for BOT highway projects in
India. The same has been adopted for present study.

5.1.4.4 Road User Costs


The economic cost inputs that are required for estimating Road user costs are:

• Price of selected (popular) models, by vehicle type


• Tyre prices

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• Fuel cost including oil price
• Crew cost (wages of Drivers / Assistants)
• Time costs for:
• Passenger
• Freight (holding cost)
The cost of vehicles and tyre were collected from the dealers located in the influence area
of the project road. All the transfer payments such as sales tax, excise duty, road tax octroi
etc. are deducted from the financial cost to arrive at the resource cost.

A vehicle operator’s survey has been conducted to estimate the wages of drivers and their
assistants. Finally, the crew cost is estimated with appropriate hours of work time per annum
for different vehicle types.

With respect to maintenance labour costs, local workshops have been contacted to assess
the vehicle type wise wage bill for repairs and amount of labour time spent on them. Based
on these labour costs have been calculated per hour, for each vehicle category.

Time costs: Passengers

The average income of full-time employed people in the study region was computed from
published macroeconomic and demographic data, with a premium of 33% to allow for
business overheads. This value (22.53/hour) was applied to passenger-hours in work time.
Journeys in non-work time were valued at 30% of the average income of full-time employed
people (Rs 6.76/hour). This procedure is in keeping with the guidelines contained in the World
Bank’s Infrastructure Note No.OT-51.

Particularly in the case of subsistence workers and self-employed workers in the informal
sector, the concept of ‘work time’ is questionable, but we have adhered to the principle that
a distinction should be made between time that is lost to productive effort and time that is
not.

We feel that above values estimated at macro level can represent bus passengers. Hence a
step-up approach is followed to estimate the passenger time value by other better modes.
Accordingly a notional increase is followed to estimate the time value for passengers by
minibus, two wheelers and cars, as given in Table 5.5.
Table5.5(a): Time Value Adopted for Passenger Vehicles, 2005
Vehicle Type Time value (Rs / Hour), 2005

Work Non work


Bus 21.79 6.54
Mini Bus 26.15 7.84
TW 30.51 9.15
Car 45.77 13.73

Table 5.5(b): Derivation of the Value of Passenger Time - 2005

                                                            
1
Kenneth M Gwilliam, ‘The Value of Time in Economic Evaluation of Transport Projects: Lessons from
recent Research’.
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Details Unit Value Datum Annual 2005
year Growth
(%)
Input…
Gross State Domestic A Rs million 1,309,17 2001- 6.5 1,581,417
Product (NSDP) 5 2002
Population B Rs million 62.11 2001 1.5 64.95
Working population: C % 38.13 2001* 1.5 39.87
main
Working population: D % 6.64 2001* 1.5 6.95
marginal
Working population: E=C+D/2 % 41.45 43.35
FTE**
Computed…
Assumed NSDP (70%) to F=A×0.7 Rs million 1,106,992
households 0
Average income per FTE G=(F/B)/ Rs/year 39,320
worker E
Average income per FTE H=G/240 Rs/hour 16.38
worker*** 0
Work time value, with I=H×1.33 Rs/hour 21.79
33% overheads
Non-work time value at J=H×0.30 Rs/hour 6.54
30%
(Note:
*Census; in the absence of evidence to the contrary it is assumed that average household size and the proportion of
people in the working population have remained constant.
**Full-time equivalent workers, assuming marginal workers are employed half-time.
***Assuming 2,400 worked hours per year.

• Time costs: freight

From the discussions with the vehicle operators in the region and axle load surveys on the
road, an estimate was made of the average load carried by each category of truck, and its
economic value on State level. This was then used as the basis for computing an hourly
inventory cost (or freight holding cost), using the social discount rate as the cost of working
capital locked up in goods in transit and assuming an effective 2,400-hour working year.

Table 5.6 presents the derivation of the values used in the model for the three classes of
freight vehicle. All three values were rounded to the nearest rupee per vehicle-hour.
Table 5.6: Derivation of the Time Value of Freight in Transit
Details LCV 2- axle truck 3-axle Multi-axle
truck truck*
Average value of load (Rs.) 190,000 275,000 690,000 725,000
Interest cost for a year ( × 12%) 22,800 33,000 82,800 87,000
Interest cost per working hour ÷ 9.5 13.75 34.5 36.25
2,400 at 1999 price
(Note: Average value of load is arrived from the discussion with the vehicle users in
the study region.)

For uniformity, National Highways Authority (NHAI) had suggested economic road user costs
in November 2000, in consultations with the Design Consultants, to be used as HDM Model
inputs for carrying out economic analysis for BOT highway projects in India. After a careful

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comparison of the road user costs collected from the field and other secondary sources, it
was decided to adopt data collected from the field for the present analysis. Wherever
necessary, the NHAI suggested road user costs also supplemented.

Based on the above considerations, the economic costs estimated for different VOC
components are presented in Table 5.7.
Table 5. 7: Economic Road User Cost Inputs
Vehicle type Model New vehicle New tyre Maint.* Crew
Economic price Economic Labour cost *
(Rs.) price (Rs.) (Rs./hour) (Rs./cre
w hour)
Car (NT) Maruti, CS E1 (M) 140113 947 22 27
Car (OT) Ambassador, 1.5DL 291648 1431 19 27
Autorickshaws 58985 555 19 27
Bus LP1512TC/52 878439 5670 38 98
Mini Bus Mahindra Mini Bus 444500 2396 30 46
TW Hero Honda – 36121 436 19 -
Splendour
LCV LPT407 LB 436440 3144 31 46
2-Axle Truck LPT1613TC/48 869483 5670 33 68
3-Axle Truck LPT2515TC 1084629 5670 39 99
MAV LPS4021TC 1661611 5670 47 101

(*- based on the information collected from the vehicle operators / workshops during traffic surveys.)

The economic cost of petrol, diesel, oils and lubricant adopted for the present analysis is
given in Table 5.8.
Table 5.8: Details of Economic Cost for Fuel - 2005
Item Market Price Economic cost Factor to arrive
Economic Cost*
Rs/litre Rs/litre

Petrol 42.15 23.88 0.5666


Diesel 29.40 23.34 0.7971
Engine Oil 90 67.56 0.7507
Lubricants 95 71.32 0.7507
Grease 110 82.58 0.7507
*Based on ADB TA Study on Rural Road Sector Project - I for MP & Chhattisgarh States, 2003

The vehicle characteristics of representative vehicles used as input for HDM - 4 are
given in Table 5.9.
Table 5.9: Vehicle characteristics (HDM Input Data)
Vehicle GVW No. of No. of No. of Service Hours Kms. Annual
type (Tonnes) Axles Tyres passeng life driven/ driven/ interest
ers (Years) Year Year rate (%)
Car (NT) 1.4 2 4 5 10 1950 32000 12
Car (OT) 2 2 4 4.6 10 1950 32000 12

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Vehicle GVW No. of No. of No. of Service Hours Kms. Annual
type (Tonnes) Axles Tyres passeng life driven/ driven/ interest
ers (Years) Year Year rate (%)
Bus 14.9 2 6 39.5 10 2000 66000 12
Mini Bus 2.5 2 4 15 8 1500 60000 12
TW 0.2 2 2 1.6 10 700 21000 12
LCV 5.3 2 4 - 12 1500 60000 12
2-Axle 15.7 2 6 - 10 2100 85000 12
Truck
3-Axle 25 3 10 - 10 2100 85000 12
Truck
MAV 40.2 5 12 - 12 2400 120000 12

5.1.4.5 Road Characteristics


The road characteristics for the considered network required as input to the HDM model
were collected during the reconnaissance and other engineering surveys. The road
characteristics for those proposed improvements are adopted from the design proposals.
The roughness of the new flexible pavement at the time of opening to traffic in 2011 have
been set at 2.0 (IRI) for the ‘with project’ alternative. For the flexible, the deterioration model
will predict the roughness at any point in time during the project life.

5.1.4.6 Traffic

Normal Traffic: Traffic growth rates, covering the period of analysis adopted from the Traffic
Section of this Report are given in Table 5.10 below for all the Project Road Sections.

Diverted and Generated Traffic: The diversion expected to the project road after the
proposed improvements and additional traffic from the proposed Vallarpadam
container terminal at Ernakulam, as given in the Traffic Chapter, is discounted to
2005 and added with the normal traffic to arrive at the base year traffic in 2005.

Considering the existing landuse and the proposed developments in the project region, it is
felt that there is better scope for new traffic generation due to the improvement to the
project road. Hence, on conservative approach, 10%-generated traffic is considered for the
analysis in ‘one stroke’ during the initial year for the widening road sections. For new bypass
sections, where roads are passing through
Table 5.10: Projected Traffic Growth Rates adopted for the Project road
Year Motorised Vehicles Non Motorised
vehicles
Two Auto Car LCV Bus/Mini Trucks MAV (3 Cycle Cart
Wheelers Bus Axle, >3
Axle)
2005- 9.6 4.0 5.0 7 4.7 5.0 7 2.0 2.0
2009
2010- 9.8 4.1 5.1 6.0 4.3 4.3 6.0 1.8 1.8
2014
2015- 9.9 4.1 5.2 5.5 3.9 3.9 5.5 1.6 1.6
2019

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Year Motorised Vehicles Non Motorised
vehicles
Two Auto Car LCV Bus/Mini Trucks MAV (3 Cycle Cart
Wheelers Bus Axle, >3
Axle)
2020- 9.5 4.0 4.9 5.0 3.5 3.5 5.0 1.5 1.5
2024
2025- 9.1 3.8 4.7 4.5 3.2 3.2 4.5 1.3 1.3
2029
>2030 7.8 3.2 4.1 4.0 2.9 2.9 4.0 1.2 1.2

(Note: A growth rate of 3% is adopted for old tech cars)

Section wise AADT for the base year 2005, are given in Table 5.11.
Table 5.11(a): Distribution of Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) – 2005*
Vehicle Kuttipuram- Chavakkad Chavakkad- Kodungallur Kodungallur- Edapally
Type Section (Section I) Section (Section II) Section (Section III)
Nos. % Composition Nos. % Composition Nos. %Composition

Motorized Vehicles

Bus 298 3.5 860 9.7 879 5.9

Mini Bus 85 1 313 3.5 223 1.5

MAV 211 2.5 204 2.3 223 1.5

3 Axle 91 1.1 88 1 95 0.6

2 Axle 836 10 705 7.9 864 5.8

LCV** 455 5.4 733 8.3 998 6.7

TW 2633 31.4 1708 19.3 5943 39.9

Car (N) 2167 25.8 2963 33.4 4225 28.4

Car(O) 241 2.9 329 3.7 469 3.2

AR 1382 16.5 966 10.9 971 6.5

TOTAL 8399 100 8869 100 14890 100

Non-Motorized Vehicles

Animal 22 3.4 1 0.3 3 0.4


Carts
Cycles 619 96.6 286 99.7 831 99.6

TOTAL 641 100 287 100 834 100


(Note: *- Expected traffic diversion to the project road and additional traffic from Vallarpadam Container terminal is
discounted to year 2005 and added with normal traffic in 2005.
** include tractors)

Table 5.11(b): Details of Traffic considered for Bypasses of Section II - 2009


Vehicle Type Bypass Traffic Existing Road Traffic

No. % No. %

Motorised Vehicles
Bus 258 4.5 774 14.3

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Vehicle Type Bypass Traffic Existing Road Traffic

No. % No. %

Mini Bus 94 1.6 283 5.2


MAV 241 4.2 27 0.5
3 Axle 103 1.8 11 0.2
2 Axle 643 11.1 214 4.0
LCV** 577 10.0 384 7.1
TW 739 12.8 1725 31.9
Car (N) 2521 43.6 1080 20.0
Car(O) 259 4.5 111 2.2
AR 339 5.9 791 14.6
TOTAL 5775 100 5402 100
Non-Motorized Vehicles
Animal Carts - - 1 0.3
Cycles - - 309 99.7
TOTAL - - 310 100

In order to suit the vehicle categories available in HDM - 4, the vehicles observed in the traffic
survey have been grouped as shown in Table 5.12.

Table 5.12: Vehicle Classifications


HDM - 4 Group Traffic Survey Vehicles

Motorised Vehicles
Car Car (New technology)
Pickup Car (Old technology),
Bus Bus
Minibus Minibus, Passenger Tempo / Van
LCV LCV, tractor and tractor trailer
Truck 2 Axle truck
HCV 3 Axle truck
MAV Multi Axle truck
Two Wheelers Scooters, Motorbikes
Auto rickshaw Auto rickshaw
Non - Motorised Vehicles
Animal Drawn Bullock / Horse Drawn Carts
Cycles Pedel cycles

5.1.5 Economic Evaluation of the Project Road


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Economic evaluation was carried out for the individual homogeneous sections and sections
separately as well for the full Project Road. In the analysis, the ‘with project’ alternative of
widening the project road is compared with the base option of ‘without project’ alternative
of maintaining the existing road only without improvements. This is to arrive at the net
economic benefits, which consist of reduction in vehicle operation cost, reduction in travel
time and reduction in accident cost. Results of the analysis, carried out through HDM – 4
(Version 1.3), are summarised below in Table 5.13.

Table 5.13: Results of the Economic Analysis


Economic Net Present Value of
Economic Internal Rate of Return in
Net Benefits at 12 % Discount
%(EIRR)
Rate (Rs in Millions)
HS /Section No VOC Savings
All Savings
VOC Savings only only as All Savings only
only as Project
as Project Benefit Project as Project Benefit
Benefit
Benefit
Full Project Road 8.5 21.4 -2777.83 9975.53

• Full project road is economically feasible for the proposed improvement,


considering the EIRR values (21.4%).

5.1.6 Sensitivity Analysis

Sensitivity analysis was carried out to the economic feasibility results, for the following
scenarios:
• Scenario - I Base Costs and Base Benefits

• Scenario - II Base Costs plus 15% and Base Benefits

• Scenario - III Base Costs and Base Benefits minus 15%

• Scenario - IV Base Costs plus 15% and Base Benefits minus 15%

Sensitivity analysis to the economic evaluation criteria (EIRR and ENPV) were also
carried out for the following situations:
• Reduction in VOC only is considered as project benefit

• Reduction in VOC, Time cost and Accident cost together are considered as project
benefit

Results of the sensitivity analysis were summarised below in Table 5.14.


Table 5.14: Results of the Sensitivity Analysis
Flexible Pavement Option
EIRR (%) ENPV (%)
VOC, Time Cost
S. No Sensitivity Scenario VOC, Time Cost VOC Savings
VOC Savings & Accident Cost
& Accident Cost only as
only as Project Savings together
Savings together Project
Benefit as Project
as Project Benefit Benefit
Benefit
1.0 Full Project Road
1.1 Normal Scenario 8.5 21.4 -2777.83 9975.53
15% increase in Agency
1.2 7.6 19.5 -3,876.41 8,876.94
cost Scenario

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Flexible Pavement Option
EIRR (%) ENPV (%)
VOC, Time Cost
S. No Sensitivity Scenario VOC, Time Cost VOC Savings
VOC Savings & Accident Cost
& Accident Cost only as
only as Project Savings together
Savings together Project
Benefit as Project
as Project Benefit Benefit
Benefit
15% decrease in User
1.3 7.4 19.3 -3,459.74 7,380.62
Benefit Scenario
15% increase in Agency
1.4 cost + 15% decrease in 6.6 17.5 -4,558.32 6,282.04
User Benefit Scenario

5.1.7 Conclusions and Recommendations

The project road section of NH 17 from Kuttipuram to Edappali is economically


feasible for the proposed widening to four lanes considering the positive values of
EIRR (21.4%) and ENPV (Rs. 9975.53 Million). It has also been established that the
proposal is economically feasible in the worst-case scenario developed in sensitivity
analysis (EIRR: 17.5%, ENPV: Rs. 6282.04 Million).

5.2 Financial Analysis

5.2.1 Background
The road consisting of NH17 from Kuttipuram to Edapplli (km 318+000 to km
438+600(Deign ch.429+440) is proposed for improvement including widening to 4-
lane. The proposed length of the project road is 111.73 km, considered as a single
package. Two toll plazas are proposed on the project road, ie; at Km
344+150(Design ch.337+700) and km Bypass(Designch.413+700). Present section
discuss about the financial feasibility analysis carried out for the package, so as to
help NHAI to take a decision whether the project can be implemented under BOT
concept.

The details of the project road considered for the present financial feasibility analysis
are given in Table 5.15.
Table 5.15: Project Road Details
PROPOSA
PACKAGE ROAD START END LENGTH
L
438+600
Package 1 NH17 317+710 4-laning 111.73
(Designch.429/440)
New MCA: The provision of new MCA has been considered for viability analysis

5.2.2 Approach to Financial Evaluation on BOT Basis


The viability of the project depends on the working cash flows available to service the debt
and equity. This working cash flow is basically dependent upon the following:-

• Project Cost

• Traffic & Traffic Growth

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• Toll Structure

• Operation and Maintenance expenses

• Interest on Debt

• Tax

The main objective of Financial Analysis is to examine the viability of implementing the
project on a BOT basis. The analysis attempts to ascertain the extent to which the investment
can be recovered through toll revenue and the gap, if any, be funded through Grant /
Subsidy. This covers aspects like financing through debt and equity, loan repayment, debt
servicing, taxation, depreciation, etc. The viability of the project is evaluated on the basis of
Project FIRR (Financial Internal Rate of Return on total investment). The FIRR is estimated on
the basis of cash flow analysis, where both costs and revenue have been indexed to take
account of inflation. Financial analysis has been carried out for the project with debt equity
ratio of 70:30.

5.2.3 Cost of Civil Works


The total cost of the project includes cost of civil works including the improvement of existing
carriageway and cost of toll plaza. The estimated project cost is considered excluding
shifting of utilities, land acquisition, acquisition of structures, rehabilitation and resettlement
and environmental mitigation measures which are to be borne by NHAI. Cost of Civil Works
at 2006 prices is given in Table 5.16.

Table 5.16: Details of Project Civil Cost


Cost of Civil
Rate per Km
Package No. Description Works
(Rs in crore)
(Rs in crore)
From Km 317+710 - Km to
Package-I km 429+440(Design ch.438/600) of NH 17 884 7.91
(4-laning)
Escalated cost for one year 928.001 8.29

5.2.4 Cost Escalation


The base costs have been escalated at a rate of 3% per annum to obtain the actual costs in
the year of expenditure. This is based on average WPI for the last 5 years.

5.2.5 Interest During Construction (IDC)


The interest during construction, which on the cost of funding incurred on the project, has
been calculated on the basis of an interest of 11 percent per annum as per the current
market rate for lending Highway Projects.

5.2.6 Total Project Cost


The total landed costs for the package at the end of the construction period has been
estimated by adding Contingencies, IC & Pre-operative expenses, Financing Cost,
Escalation, Interest during Construction (IDC) etc. The total landed cost at the time of
commissioning is thus estimated on Package basis and presented in Table 5.17.
Table 5.17: Total Project Cost Details

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Sl. No. PARTICULARS Cost (Rs. in Crore)

TOTAL KM 111.73
A Concessionaire Cost

1 Total Civil Construction cost (1) 883.810


Civil Construction cost escalated at 5% for 1 928.001
year
2 Contingencies/QC @ 3% of Civil Cost (2) 27.84
Total EPC Cost (3) 955.841
3 IC & Pre-operative expenses @1% of EPC (4) 9.558
4 Financing Cost @ 2% Debt at 70:30 DER (5) 14.484
5 Escalation @ 5% Per Annum During 14.484
Construction Period (Construction Period 30
months)
6 Interest During Construction @ 11% pa on 79.454
Debt (at 70:30 DER) (Term Loan). (6)
Total Concession Cost 1144.957
TOTAL CONCESSION COST/PER Km. 10.25
B NHAI Cost
1 Land Acquisition, Environmental Mitigation, 485.2
R&R, Utility Shifting etc.
TOTAL NHAI COST 485.20
TOTAL PROJECT COST (Concessionaire Cost 1630.16
+ NHAI Cost)
TOTAL PROJECT COST/PER Km. 14.59

5.2.7 Toll Rates


Tolls can be set either to maximize revenue or maximize the utilization of the project without
causing congestion. However, in no case, tolls are set at a level higher than the perceived
benefits of using the facility. Toll rates are estimated based on the National Highways (NHAI))
New Draft Toll Policy. The fee under sub-rule for projects involving conversion into four-lanes
of existing two-lane of national highways shall not exceed the capping rates given below at
June 1997 rates escalated in accordance with the average WPI. According to draft NH toll
policy, Rates were recommended for different types of vehicles for the year 2006-07 based
on WPI of 1st January 2007 (WPI 208.2) which are given in Table 5.18.
Table 5.18: Per Km Capping Rates
Rate (Rs/Km)

JANUARY
S. No. Type of vehicle
2007

4/6 Lane

1. Car or Jeep or Van 0.65


2. Light Commercial vehicles including Mini Bus 1.05
3. Bus or Truck 2.2
4. Multi Axle Vehicle 3.45
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Rate (Rs/Km)

JANUARY
S. No. Type of vehicle
2007

4/6 Lane

Heavy construction machinery and


5. 4.2
earthmoving equipment

NHAI toll capping rates have been escalated at a rate of 5% every year and rounded off to
nearest rupee.

As per the new Toll policy, fee for use of any structure or bypass, having an estimated cost
exceeding Rs. Fifty Crore and forming part of a section of National Highway, shall be levied
at the rates specified in the rule 4(b) separately from the fee levied (rule 4(f)) for the use of
the remaining part of such section of the National Highway.

Table 5.19: Bypass/structure Toll Charges as per rule 4(f)

Cost of Base Rate of Fee ( Rs. Per Vehicle per Trip)


structure (Rs.in
crore) Car ,Jeep, Light Commercial Truck or HCM,EME Over sized
Van or Light Vehicle, Light Goods Bus vehicle
or MAV
Motor Vehicle or Mini Bus
Vehicle

10 to 15 5 7.5 15 22 30
For every 1 1.50 3 4.50 6
additional Rs.5
Crore or part
there of,
exceeding
Rs.15 Cr. And
upto Rs.100Cr.
5.2.8 Grant and Its treatment
A) Equity Support: It shall be equal to the sum specified in the bid and as accepted by the
authority but in no case greater than the equity and shall be further restricted to a sum not
exceeding 20% of TPC i.e. maximum 20% of TPC (Total Project Cost). Here TPC is excluding
equity support. Formula is to be worked out with the help of circular reference. It shall be
due and payable to the Concessionaire after it has expended the Equity. Further it shall be
disbursed proportionately along with the loan funds.

B) O & M Support: O&M support will be equal to the minus of equity support discussed above
from the possible total 40% subsidy. This O & M support is fixed which is equal to seven annual
instalments.

Accordingly, maximum 20% Grant has been considered during Construction Period and the
same has been reduced from the Total Project Cost. Balance O & M support has been
considered in 7 years from COD in equal installment.

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5.2.9 Concession to Local Traffic
• The concessionaire shall allow the discounts as given in Schedule R and as per The
National Highways (Collection of fee for the use of National Highways) Rules,2007

5.2.10 Traffic

Traffic surveys for seven days volume counts have been carried out during 28th November
2005 to 4th December 2005 at km 345.10 (at Veliancode), km 381.2 (at Thalikulam), km 413
(at Kottappuramt) & km 426.4 (at Valluvally). The AADT in the base year 2005 are given in
Table 5.20.

Table 5.20: AADT in the Base Year 2005


SI. Description AADT for 1st AADT for 2nd AADT for Average
No. section section 3rd
section
1 Car/Jeep/Auto 3790 4258 5665 4571
2 Mini Bus 85 313 223 207
3 Bus 298 860 880 680
4 LCV 455 733 998 729
5 Truck-2 Axle 836 705 864 802
6 Truck-3 Axle 91 88 95 92
7 Multi Axle 211 204 223 213
Total 5767 7161 8948 7295
PCU 11795

Growth rates for projections of the traffic are given in Table 5.21.

Table 5.21: Growth Rates for Projections of the Traffic


SI. Mode Growth Rates
No.
Upto 2010 – 2015 – 2019 2020 – 2025 – 2029 2030
2009 2014 2024 onwards
1 Car/Van/ 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
Jeep
2 LCV’s 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
3 Bus / Mini 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
Bus
4 Trucks 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
5 MAV 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

95% vehicles has been considered as Tollable Traffic on account of non-tollable, leakage in
Traffic and Error in Traffic Projections etc.

5.2.11 Toll Revenue


The toll revenue is the product of the forecast traffic expected to use the road and the
appropriate toll fee for the vehicle category. A toll indexing pattern @ 5% per year as per the
old Toll Policy (100% of average WPI of 5%) has been adopted and rounded off to nearest

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one Rupee. Toll revenues have been calculated for each of toll fee structure proposed
above.

Penalty for overloading

There is a provision for penalty for overloading as under:-

• if vehicle is loaded for more than 10% then 50% of fee


• if vehicle is loaded for more than 20% and above then 100% of the fee
Differential fees

After 5th anniversary of the appointed date there is a differential fee applicable as under:-

• peak hours = < 6 hrs in a day


• off peak hours = twice the peak hours i.e. 12 hrs
Concessionaire may determine and collect a premium of up to 25% of the fee during peak
hours. Offering a discount during off peak hours at a rate equal to twice the said premium. If
revenue because of differential fee is gained then 80% of the difference shall be credited to
Safety Reserve.

However, no effect to the above has been given in the Financial Analysis as old Toll Policy is
considered.

5.2.12 Other Income


Apart from the Toll Income, there may be other streams of revenue generated by extending
land development rights to the Concessionaire and revenue from any other service facilities
like Advertisements, Truck Parking Terminals, Parking Areas, Automobile Service Centre, Petrol
Pumps, and Cable Ducting etc. However, as per the policy of NHAI, no advertisements are
allowed in the project highway. Also for other streams of revenue there is no clear cut
guidance and accordingly no income on these accounts has been considered.

5.2.13 Discounts for Concession To Local Traffic, Exempted Vehicle


An appropriate discount of shall be allowed as given in Schedule R and as per The National
Highways (Collection of fee for the use of National Highways) Rules,2007

5.2.14 Tax Calculation Module

Tax Rate: The tax rate adopted for this study is 33.66% (30% tax + 10% surcharge + 2%
education tax) following the deduction of depreciation and amortization.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT): Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) of 11.33% (10% tax + 10%
surcharge + 2% education tax) has been taken into account for the total concession period.

Tax Exemptions (Under Section 80 IA): According to the scheme under section 80-IA, 100% of
the profit is deductible for ten years. However the benefit deduction is available only for ten
consecutive assessment years falling within a period of twenty years from the year the
Project begins its operations.

Proposed Sources of Finance

In general, the developer shall crystallize the sources of finance by optimizing his equity
returns keeping in view the project cash flows, terms, and conditions of various financing
options available. Further the market standing and financial strength of the Developer would

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largely determine the terms and conditions of finance offered to the Developer by various
lending agencies. For the purpose of the study, following sources of finance have been
taken:

• Equity: To be provided by the Developer


• Subsidy / Grant for viability of funding, to be provided by the client.
• Debt: To be arranged by the Developer / Concessionaire

5.2.15 Expenses
Expenses can broadly be classified based on the phases in which they are incurred, viz.
construction period expenses and operation & maintenance period expenses.

Construction Period Expenses

• Preliminary and pre-operative expenses


• Contingency allowance
• Interest during construction period
• Finance Charges
Operation and Maintenance Period Expenses

• Toll collection expenses


• Administrative expenses for day-to-day operation including insurances
• Maintenance expenses, which include routine and periodic maintenance
• Interest expenses incurred for servicing term loans
• Tax
• Concession Fee
• Electricity & Patrolling expenses
• Insurance @ Rs. 0.15% of TPC/annum
Toll Collection Expenses

Toll collection expenses are estimated as Rs 1.25 crores per annum per toll plaza.

Concession Fee

As per new MCA, no Concession Fee is payable by the Concessionaire

5.2.16 Operation and Maintenance Cost


Routine maintenance costs comprise of maintenance of the pavement, collection of litter,
traffic management (policing), accident repairs and all ancillary works including
beautification.

The periodic maintenance costs include cost of overlay, repair/renovation of road furniture,
drains, buildings etc. The periodic maintenance includes periodic renewals at every 5 years.

Routine maintenance/ Periodic maintenance costs have been considered as per the
estimates based on the MORT&H guidelines 1997 prices. The details of the maintenance
costs and administration charges are given in Table 5.22.

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Table 5.22: Maintenance & OM Cost (2006 price)
Sl. No Description Amount
(Rs. in Lacs)
1 Routine maintenance in every year cost per km for the four 3.00
lanes with paved shoulder (Rs Lacs / Km)
2 Periodic maintenance every five years cost per km for the four 25.00
lanes with paved shoulder (Rs Lacs / Km)
3 Routine maintenance per Toll Plaza (Rs Lacs /annum) 125.00
4 Other Office Expenses 200.00
5 Patrolling & Eletricity Expenses (Rs Lacs / Km) 1.00

5.2.17 Resource Mobilization Schedule


The Project implementation period has been taken as 30 months spread into three years.
Based on the implementation period, the project cost has been phased as given in Table
5.23.
Table 5.23: Phasing of Project Cost
Description 1st year 2nd year 3rd Year
Percentage of total cost incurred 5% 35% 60%

5.2.18 Minimum Return Criteria


Keeping in view the present market condition, the minimum return criteria for the B.O.T
project is considered as follows:-

• Project FIRR – Post Tax : Minimum of 13%

• Return on Equity (Equity IRR) : Minimum of 15%

• Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) : Minimum 1.33

• Net Present Value (NPV) @ 12% : Should be positive

• Payback Period : Should not be more than 16 years

  Concession Period of 30 Years

5.2.19 Concession Period


Since the project is not viable on BOT basis for 20 and 25 years, a higher period of 30 years
including Construction Period from 2008 - 2037 has been considered for Financial Analysis.

5.2.20 Construction Period


Construction Period of 30 months spread into three years has been considered effective from
year 2008.

5.2.21 Financial Viability


The main objective of undertaking this study is to assess whether the project is financially
viable or not. It is important to note that the proposal should be an attractive proposition for

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


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private sector participation under Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) system. The basic
methodology followed for estimating the financial viability of the project is to calculate the
FIRR (Financial Internal Rate of Return) on the investment for the project.

The following assumptions are taken into consideration for the financial analysis:-

• Debt – Equity ratio :- 70:30

• Subsidy – maximum of 20% during construction and 20% during O & M

• Concession period (Including 30 months construction period) – 30 years.

• Escalation – 5%

• Interest on Debt – 11%

• Interest During Construction – 11%

• Project Phasing : First year – 5% , Second year – 35% , Third year – 60%

• Loan Repayment period – 10 years

• Tax rebate – 10 years (100% exemption for 10 years out of block of 15 years).

• Moratorium – 3 years during construction period

• Depreciation by Straight line method - 100% for 27.5 years

• Depreciation by Written down value method – 10%

• Financing costs - 2% of project cost

5.2.22 Results and Analysis


Based on the project structure traffic study and toll rate analysis, financial feasibility analysis
has been carried out as per the methodology outlined in earlier sections. The objective of
the financial analysis is to ascertain the existence of sustainable project returns, which shall
successfully meet the expectations of its financial investors. The analysis reveals various FIRR
values corresponding to each year of toll operation. FIRR for the Returns on Investment and
Returns on Equity for the years from 2010 to 2037(concession period is 30 years including
Construction Period) with maximum 40% subsidy Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant and 30
years Concession Period are given in Table 5.24.
Table 5.24: Financial Feasibility Results

Post Tax Return on NPV @ 12% Pay Back


SCENARIOS FIRR % Equity % (Rs Crore) Period
(With 40%
Grant/Subsidy) for 30
15.58 19.25 321.38 10 years
years of concession
period Profitability
Statement

The profit and loss statement indicates the net profit earned during the concession period.

Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant are given in Table 5.25.
Table 5.25: Project Profitability Results (Rs in Crores)

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Profit or
Total Net Profit or
Net Loss Total
Years Case O&M Operating Loss
Revenue before Tax
Cost income After tax
tax
2011 With 40% 62.87 6.03 56.84 3.4 0.39 3.02
Grant/
2038 Subsidy 1114.31 40.36 1073.97 1032.33 359.13 673.20
5.2.23 C
onclusion
It would be seen that considering the enhancement of toll rate on the basis of
structure/bypass cost, the project is financially viable on BOT basis with maximum of 40%
Grant and 30 years Concession Period. Accordingly, project should be undertaken either on
annuity basis or EPC contract basis. To get minimum viability criteria of 15% Equity IRR, 10.65%
grant is required.

Executive Summary
Project Background

The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, MORT&H, Government of India has decided to
take up the development of various National Highway Corridors for augmentation of
capacity for safe and efficient movement of traffic by widening to 4/6 lanes. One such set
of corridors is 10,000 km of NHDP-III spread over the country. National Highways Authority of
India (NHAI) has been entrusted to implement the development projects for these selected
stretches/ corridors either through public-private partnership (PPP) basis or its own budgetary
sources or loans from ADB, World Bank or any such organisation. The stretch of around 111.73
km on NH 17 from Kuttipuram to Edapally in the state of Kerala is a part of the NHDP-III
projects.
M/s Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA in joint venture (JV) with Wilbur Smith Associates Private
Limited have been entrusted by NHAI the task of carrying out the Feasibility Studies and
preparation of Detailed Project Report including Environmental and Social Impact
Assessment for rehabilitation and upgrading to 4/6 lane divided highway.
 
Project Description
 

The project stretch is located in the state of Kerala and connects Kuttipuram km 318+000 on
Northern side and Edapally km 438+600 (Design Ch. Km 428+940) in the southern side and
passing through Ernakulam, Thrissur and Malapuram districts. The total design length of the
project road is 111.73km.The Project Highway also leads to Mangalore, Goa and Mumbai
from Kuttipuram, forming an important link connecting northern districts of Kerala which
includes Kozhicode, Kannur, Kasargod and Wayanad. NH-17 links to southern districts of

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Kerala via. NH-47. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of work since it is executed
by PWD, NH Division
The salient proposals for up gradation and improvement of the NH47 are classified into the
following engineering aspects.
• Widening of the project road into 4 lane configurations based on traffic capacity.
• Improving the horizontal and vertical geometry of the existing road based on the design
standards Including realignment where ever justifiable.
• Design of pavement for widening and strengthening of the existing road.
• Improvement of all major and minor intersections.
• Rehabilitation and widening of the existing structures including bridges, culverts, ROBs,
underpasses, grade separators etc and design of new ones.
• Provision of comprehensive road furniture for complete road safety.
Widening Proposals
Based on traffic considerations, geometric standards and existing site condition it is proposed
to have the following configuration for the four laning

• Median: 4.5m /2m


• Median Shy away: 0.25m.
• Shy away at Divider: 0.25m.
• Main Carriageway in each direction: 7.0m (2 x 3.5m Lane).
• Service Road at major built ups in both directions: 5.5 or 7m.
• Paved Shoulder: 1.5m
• Earthen Shoulder: 1.0m
• Earthen Drain of suitable dimension
• Right of Way: Plain 45 m
Typical Cross Sections
The entire alignment passes through plain terrain . The Consultants have proposed a RoW of
45 m based on settlement pattern & Land-use, Nature of built-up & Details of socially sensitive
structures Widening options for the project road were arrived at based on,
Lane requirements based on traffic capacity analysis.
Requirement of service roads along built-up areas.
Lengths of project road under various cross sections are summarized in table
Summary of Typical Cross Sections
Existing Road
Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m
1 Concentric widening without Service Road(median 2m)-1A 14430.00
2 Eccentric widening without Service Road ( median 2m)-1B 15820.00
3 New Four lane without Service Road (median 2m)-1C 6290.00
4 Concentric widening with Service Road (median 2m)-2A 6080.00
5 Eccentric widening with 7m Service Road(median 2m)-2B 7380.00
6 New Four lane with 7m Service Road on both side(median 2m)-2C 4690.00
7 New Four lane with 7m Service Road on LHS (median 2m)-2D 1590.00

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

8 Underpass Approach with 2m median with 5.5m Slip Road-3B 650.00


9 Underpass Approach at 318+090 with 5.5m Slip Road-3C 680.00
Bypass
Sl. No Widening Type/ CS Length in m
1 RHS widening without Service Road in bypass (median 4.5m)-1D 2255.00
2 New Four lane in bypass(4.5 m median)-1E 22225.00
3 New Four lane with 7m Service Road in bypass(4.5 m median )-2E 14635.00
4 Underpass Approach with 4.5m median and 5.5m Slip Road-3A 8925.00
5 ROB Approach (3D)
610.00

Geometric Improvements
Horizontal Geometry
Existing project road has a number of deficient stretches with a design speed less than 100
kmph. Care has been taken to improve the geometric standard of the project road to suite
design standards of National Highways with 100 kmph design speed. A summary of improved
horizontal geometry are given in table below.
Summary of Proposed Horizontal Alignment

Chainage ROW (m) Radius (m) LHS/RHS Improvements


(Km)
319+450 36.50 40.000 Left New Bypass proposal
from km 319+450 to km
319+600 44.00 40.000 Right
340+350
320+200 21.65 20.000 Left
320+200 to 10.50 30 sharp curves Right-11, left-12
334+800 less than 50m and reverse-7
radius
344+850 9.80 30.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
337+750 12.20 30.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
341+700 37.00 300.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
342+750 29.70 200.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
343+450 25.50 80.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
348+600 15.60 300.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
355+700 13.20 250.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
358+100 15.10 350.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
362+600 18.60 200.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
363+100 8.95 25.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
363+650 10.75 30.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
376+300 23.45 200.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
377+100 10.80 150.000 Left New Bypass proposal
from km 377+000 to km
377+700 21.60 150.000 Right
380+200
378+100 22.90 60.000 Reverse Curve

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Chainage ROW (m) Radius (m) LHS/RHS Improvements


(Km)
379+350 11.20 400.000 Right
380+050 29.60 250.000 Left
381+700 20.90 350.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
382+750 32.60 250.000 Reverse Curve Improved Curve Radius
385+150 22.60 150.000 Reverse Curve New Bypass proposal
from km 383+850 to km
386+150 17.30 60.000 Reverse Curve
387+250
389+900 16.20 30.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
390+025 11.20 40.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
390+200 24.20 40.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
391+250 22.10 60.000 Left New Bypass proposal
from km 391+000 to km
391+500 17.85 50.000 Reverse Curve
391+900

393+000 21.25 40.000 Reverse Curve Improved Curve Radius


394+500 17.40 80.000 Reverse Curve Improved Curve Radius
395+800 18.50 60.000 Reverse Curve New Bypass proposal
from km 395+300 to km
396+900 15.90 25.000 Right
397+250
397+450 18.60 250.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
398+250 19.60 200.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
399+000 16.60 100.000 Left New Bypass proposal
from km 398+700 to km
400+050 16.60 60.000 Right
406+060
402+000 17.00 80.000 Right
402+200 15.00 90.000 Reverse Curve
405+450 10.70 25.000 Right
405+650 13.15 50.000 Left
405+900 8.40 40.000 Right
406+060 12.25 35.000 Right
406+700 11.75 90.000 Reverse Curve Improved Curve Radius
407+700 to 13.50 12 sharp curves 7 right and 5 left New Bypass proposal
411+600 less than 50m from km 407+700 to km
radius 411+800
413+700 30.80 300.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
414+450 25.80 20.000 Left Improved Curve Radius
414+450 to 9.55 16 sharp curves 9 Right, 3 left & 4 New Bypass proposal
424+600 less than 60m reverse curves from km 414+450 to km
radius 426+160
424+800 10.80 50.000 Right

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Chainage ROW (m) Radius (m) LHS/RHS Improvements


(Km)
425+100 10.40 100.000 Right
425+600 10.65 90.000 Reverse curves
425+750 7.70 150.000 Right
426+200 12.50 200.000 Right
427+400 8.80 90.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
428+650 8.70 70.000 Right Improved Curve Radius
432+250 29.80 300.000 Right New Realignment
proposal from km
435+250 35.50 25.000 Reverse curve
435+000 to km 438+600
436+150 7.20 20.000 Reverse curve
436+400 9.30 35.000 Right
436+550 8.10 40.000 Left
436+600 to 16.50 5 Sharp curves 2 reverse curve, 1
438+600 radius less than left and 2 right
50m curves

Vertical Geometry
Vertical geometry of the entire length of the project is found satisfactory except for a small
stretch of km 320+000 – km 323+000 but this has no significance on the improvement
proposal because of the Ponnani bypass
Realignments
The following realignments are proposed by consultants after thorough study.
Ponnani Bypass
The construction work of a two lane bypass for Ponnani town is already under progress. The
Ponnani bypass starts at Km 319+450 (Design ch .319+060) after Kuttipuram Bridge and ends
at Chainage Km 340+350 (Design ch 333+715) near Puduponnani Bridge (Anappadi). Total
length of the bypass is 14.655 km. Features of this bypass alignment are described in three
sections.
The first section (4 km long) is from Km 319+450 to Km 323+300 near Ayamkalam, where it
changes the existing alignment of NH 17. This section is passing through rolling terrain.
The second section (7.5 km long) starts from Km 323+300(i.e. from Ayamkalam) and ends at
Km 334+800 near Chamravattom.
For first and second section, two lane single carriage way is under construction vide contract
no. 11/SE/NH/CC/KOCHI 2003 DT 26/02/2004. Completion period for this project is 28 months.
Although the construction of pavement is in initial stage, considering this cost, necessary
correction has been effected in the costing part.
The last section (3.155 km long) is from Chamravattom at Km 334+800 and ends near
Puduponnani at Chainage Km 340+350(Design ch.333+715). In this stretch, two lane bypass
road is already constructed for a length of 2.50 Km. Land acquisition of 30m wide ROW for
entire 15 Km long bypass is completed. This bypass is treated as the starting stretch of the
study corridor in place of the original National Highway stretch. Consultant has carried out
the detailed study of this alignment and the details of the proposal are discussed below.

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

The realignment mainly passes through coconut plantation and paddy fields thus avoiding
Ponnani town built up and also giving a better approach to Pudupponnani Bridge. While
designing the alignment, due care has been exercised to utilize the maximum extend of
acquired 30m ROW and this has been achieved without compromising the design standards.
This 14.655Km long proposed realignment has 12 curves designed for a speed of 100 kmph. .
No other alternative options for Ponnani bypass are studied because Kerala PWD has
already completed the land acquisition of this bypass for 30m wide ROW
Chavakkad Bypass
Chavakkadu bypass starts at Km 363+200(Design ch.356+350 ) near Manathala temple and
joins back the existing NH-17 at Km 365+400(Design ch.358+800) near Williams Bridge
(Orumanayur). This 2.45 km long bypass mainly passes through coconut plantation area and
small built-up area thus avoiding Chavakkad town built up. Proposed bypass has 6 curves
designed for a speed of 100 Kmph and a major bridge at Design Chainage km 357+740 in
the bypass
Vadanappally
Realignment has been proposed to bypass built-up at Vadanappally and Thalikkulam from
Km 377+000(Design ch.370+200) to Km 380+200(Design ch.373+600) on left hand side of the
existing alignment. This will avoid acquisition of heavy built-up area in Vadanappally and will
bypass two sharp curves between Km 377+500 and Km 377+750 having design speed less
than 30 Kmph. During the feasibility stage 3 alternative alignments have been studied and
found that left side alignment is more viable.
Hence more detailed investigations on left hand side alignment have been carried out.
Socio economic impact of acquiring 45m has been considered for feasibility study. This
proposed alignment mainly passes through coconut plantations and low lying area. Length
of this realignment is 3.5 km.
Triprayar- Valappad
Various options were considered for Triprayar valappad bypass. Among this the proposal on
the left hand side realignment found feasible since it avoid large commercial built-up at
Triprayar and sharp, blind reverse curve at Valappad (Km 386+150). The curves at this
location have design speed less than 30kmph and thus making this location one of the main
accident prone areas. The proposed bypass starts at km 383+850(Design ch.377+310) and
ends at km 387+200(Design ch.380+510) .The proposed realignment mainly passes through
agricultural areas. Study has been carried out for assessing the socio economic impact of
acquiring 45m wide RoW. Length of this realignment is 3.20 km
Chendrappinni
Left hand side realignment has been proposed for one of the accident prone area of the
project stretch at Chendrapinni. The reverse curves between Km 391+000 and Km 392+000
on the heavy built-up area is one of the major bottlenecks of the project road. This proposed
realignment starts at Km 390+000(Design ch.383+280) and ends near Km 391+900(Design
ch.385+230). Consultant has fixed the shortest possible route for this alignment and study has
been carried out for assessing the socio economic impact of acquiring 45m wide RoW. This
realignment mainly passes though agricultural land. Length of this realignment is 1.950 km.
Moonnupeedika
Kaipamangalam, Moonnupeedika and Perinjanam are having heavy commercial built-ups
from Km 395+000 to Km 397+000. Kaipamangalam is one of the major built-up areas in the
stretch between Triprayar and Kodungallur. Existing RoW varies from 10 to 17m. The
horizontal alignment at Km 396+700 is very poor with more than 2 reverse curves with design
speed less than 50 kmph.
The proposed bypass alignment starts from Km 395+300(Design ch. 388+350)and ends near
Km 397+250(Design ch.390+490). Studies had been conducted for assessing the socio

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

economic impact of acquiring 45 RoW . This alignment passes though small residential areas
and agricultural areas. Length of this realignment is 2.14 km
Mathilakam Section 1& 2
The proposed realignment for First section of Mathilakam starts at Km 398+700(Design
ch.391+850) and ends near Km 403+000(Design ch.396+335). Second section of this bypass
starts at 405+500(Design ch.398+750) and ends at km 406+060(Design ch.399+220) This reach
has more than 6 reverse-curves with less than 50 kmph design speed and passing through
heavy built-up area. Large number of schools, religious structures and good residential
buildings are presented in this location. Proposed realignment initially runs through residential
area for a length of 400m and afterwards passes through coconut plantations. It crosses two
important roads, which lead to Moonnupeedika and Iringalakkuda at Km 400+900 and Km
401+050 respectively. From Km 401+050 alignment passes through built-up area for a length
of 700m and rejoins on left hand side of existing road at km 403+000. The realignment of the
section for km 403+000 to Km 405+500 is through existing alignment and due to the presence
of a canal, which is included in national inland waterway on left hand side within 50 m. Then
this alignment shifts to right hand side at Km 403+300 and runs for 500m and again shifts to left
hand side.
From Km 405+500(Design ch.398+750), the second section of realignment starts and runs
through agricultural area on left hand side and ends at km 406+060(Design ch 399+220).
Length of first and second sections of realignment is 4.485 km and 0.47 km respectively
Kodungallur Bypass
Consultant decided to retain the alignment proposed by NH Division and PWD Kerala for
temple town of Kodungallur, which starts at Km 407+700(Design ch.401+100) near
Chathapura and ends at Km 411+800(Design ch.404+135) near TKS Puram before the starting
of Kottapuram Bridge. Length of this bypass is 3.035 Km. Consultants reviewed the details of
the proposed bypass alignment and identified improvements required to meet the design
standards.
This bypass passes through moderate built-up area and has 3 curves designed for a speed of
100 kmph. Kodungallur bypass is excluded from the scope of work since it is executed by
PWD, NH Division
Paravur Bypass
Proposed bypass for Paravur starts at Km 414+450 (Design ch.406+890)near Moothakunnam
and will bypass Paravur town and join the existing alignment at Km 426+160 (Design
ch.417+400)near Valluvally, including the Cheriyapalli Bridge. Length of the bypass is 10.51
Km. This is an existing proposal as part of the 2 lane realignment initiated by PWD NH division,
starting from Kodungallur at Km 407+700. The construction of the bypass stretch between Km
411+900 to Km 414+450 including Kottapuram twin bridges and Varappuzha bridge have
been completed. The Land acquisition for this stretch from Km 414+450 to Km 430+000 has
been completed for 30m RoW. This realignment will bypass the busy built-ups like Paravur,
Cheriapilly and Valluvally. This alignment mainly passes through coconut plantations.
Consultants have reviewed the existing data and proposed improvements to meet design
speed of 100kmph and have fixed this bypass alignment with 13 curves. Since the acquired
ROW of 30m is below the stipulated ROW for National Highways, socio economical impact of
acquiring 45m RoW has been considered as part of the feasibility study options and no
alternative have been suggested because of ready acquisition of land by PWD Kerala
Edapally Manjumelkavala Realignment
As part of improvements proposed by PWD, NH Division, Kerala, land acquisition is in progress
from Kottapuram to Edapally for a width of 30m. ROB, Viaduct and approach roads are
under construction at Km 437+700 vide job number: 017/KL/2004/673 and agreement
number 9/SE/NHCE/Kochi2005-2006. Date of commencement of this project was 02/09/2005
and completion date is 01/09/2007. Deductions have been considered for a total length of
1775m including 559m viaduct and improvements have been proposed for existing road.
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA
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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

At Km 438+600, a staggered 4-leg intersection is present, where a grade separator is


proposed. Socio economic impact of acquiring 45m RoW has been considered for the
feasibility study. This alignment will bypass busy built-up at Edappally and improve the poor
geometry of existing alignment. Alignment starts at Km 435+000 (Design ch.425+300)and an
end at Km 438+600(Design ch.428+620) and approximate length is 3.320 Km
Pavement Design
The design for new pavement of both flexible and rigid pavement as well as strengthening
(overlay) of existing pavement has been carried as per IRC guidelines for the project stretch.
The life cost analysis of flexible pavement and rigid pavement option revealed that flexible
pavement option has better economic return than the rigid pavement. Hence the flexible
pavement design for 15 years life period is considered and recommended for the entire
project road stretch.
The recommended pavement composition for the project road stretch from km 318+000 to
km 438+600 is given below
Recommended Pavement Compositions
Recommended Pavement Composition in mm

Design For Strengthening & Widening For New Construction


Sections Traffic
Overlay on Widening Portion New 2/4 Lane New Service
(MSA)
Existing of Existing Road Road Road
Road (If required)
Section I: From
km 318+000 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC
40 BC
km 357+250 + 85 DBM + 85 DBM + 50 BM
20 + 85 DBM
(From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM
+ PCC
318+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB
363+000)
Section II: From
km 357+250 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC
40 BC
km 402+940 + 95 DBM + 95 DBM + 50 BM
35 + 95 DBM
(From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM
+ PCC
363+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB
407+000)
Section III: From
km 402+940 To 40 BC 40 BC 25 SDBC
40 BC
km 428+620 + 105 DBM + 105 DBM + 50 BM
45 + 105 DBM
(From km + 250 WMM + 250 WMM + 250 WMM
+ PCC
407+000 To km + 200 GSB + 200 GSB + 200 GSB
438+600)
Remarks:
Overlay thickness on existing road is suitably modified to match with widening thickness to
avoid vertical joints in DBM layer.
GSB- Granular Sub-base is provided over subgrade soil of CBR > 10%.
500 mm Subgrade of CBR > 10% is provided wherever the existing Subgrade soil CBR is < 10%.
Pavement Composition is designed for 15 years life. However WMM & GSB layers are
designed for 20 years life.

Junction Improvements
Improvements have been proposed for all the junctions along the project road. The
Junctions are classified as follows:

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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Major Junctions with NH/SH/Arterial roads and other important roads


Junctions with minor access roads
23 major junctions are proposed for improvements in the project stretch. The lists of major &
minor junctions along with the summary of improvements are given in table
Locations of Junction Improvements Proposed

Existing Design
Sl. Chainage Chainage Proposed
No. (km) (km) Road Leads To Junction Improvements
Major Junctions
3
1 318+090 318+090 Kuttipuram legged Vehicular Underpass
Ponnani Bypass 3
2 319+440 319+060 Start legged At grade Junction
5
3 334+800 330+400 Edappal,Ponnani legged Vehicular Underpass
Ponnani Ponnani – 4
4 bypass 332+420 Kolimpadi legged At grade Junction
3
5 340+160 333+715 Ponnani Bypass End legged At grade Junction
Chavakkad Bypass 3
6 365+590 358+800 End legged At grade Junction
Vadanappilly 3
7 376+930 370+200 Realignment Start legged At grade Junction

Vadanappilly 3
8 380+270 373+600 Realignment End legged At grade Junction
Triprayar 3
9 380+980 377+310 Realignment Start legged At grade Junction
Triprayar 3
10 387+100 380+510 Realignment Ends legged At grade Junction
Chendrapinni 3
11 389+885 383+285 Realignment Start legged At grade Junction
Chendrapinni 3
12 392+040 385+230 Realignment Ends legged At grade Junction
Moonnupeedika 3
13 395+170 388+350 Bypass start legged At grade Junction
Moonnupeedika 3
14 397+250 390+490 Bypass Ends legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-1 3
15 398+610 391+850 Bypass Start legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-1 3
16 403+030 396+335 Bypass Ends legged At grade Junction
Mathilakam-2 3
17 406+020 399+220 Bypass Ends legged At grade Junction
Kodungallur Bypass 4
18 407+970 401+100 Start legged At grade Junction
Kodungallur Bypass 3
19 411+780 404+135 End legged At grade Junction
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA
E-44
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Design
Sl. Chainage Chainage Proposed
No. (km) (km) Road Leads To Junction Improvements
3
20 414+410 406+890 Paravur Bypass Start legged At grade Junction
Paravur 4
21 Bypass 411+400 Ernakulam,Paravur legged Vehicular underpass
Paravur Bypass 3
22 426+170 417+400 ends legged At grade Junction
Ernakulam City 4
23 438+670 428+940 438.800 Aluva legged Grade separator

Minor Junctions

Ponnani Ponnani Bypass Vehicular


1 Bypass 322+310 Crossing 4 legged Underpass

2 343+240 336+840 Kadavanadu 3 legged At grade Junction


Kunnamkulam,
3 352+900 346+470 Beach 4 legged At grade Junction
4 358+190 351+800 Aviyoor,Beach 3 legged At grade Junction

5 358+730 352+340 Mallad,Beach 4 legged At grade Junction


Vehicular
6 363+110 356+760 Chavakkadu 3 legged Underpass
Pulikkakadavu,
7 370+640 363+850 Benglamkadavu 3 legged At grade Junction

Pulikkakadavu,
8 371+570 364+840 Mangalamkadavu 4 legged At grade Junction

9 372+640 365+910 Market,Polakkal 3 legged At grade Junction


Manappad,
10 375+280 368+540 Pokkancheri 3 legged At grade Junction

Vadanappally – Vehicular
11 377+800 370+975 Thrissur Road 4 legged Underpass
Triprayar - Thrissur Vehicular
12 384+700 377+910 Road 4 legged Underpass
Valappad – Village Vehicular
13 386+100 379+450 Road 4 legged Underpass

14 387+950 381+350 Murinathode Beach 3 legged At grade Junction

15 389+110 382+510 Kattoor, Kazhibram 4 legged At grade Junction

Chandrappinni – Vehicular
16 391+500 384+670 Village Road 4 legged Underpass

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-45
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing Design
Sl. Chainage Chainage Proposed
No. (km) (km) Road Leads To Junction Improvements
Mathilakm Bypass
17 405+420 398+750 start 3legged At grade Junction
Pallivalavu - Tippu Vehicular
18 400+000 392+980 Sulthan Road 4 legged Underpass

19 - 393+280 Iringalakkuda, 4 legged At grade Junction

Vehicular
20 413+570 406+060 Moothakunnam 3 legged Underpass

Chungam, Bypass Vehicular


21 425+450 416+755 Crossing 4 legged Underpass

Karianthuruth,
Kachanikode
22 426+450 417+680 temple 4 legged At grade Junction
Koorikuzhi,
Kottuvallikavu
23 427+080 418+300 temple 4 legged At grade Junction
Koonammavu
24 427+350 418+590 Hospital 3 legged At grade Junction

25 427+820 419+020 Aluva 3 legged At grade Junction

Olanad,
26 429+200 420+400 Devaswom padam 4 legged At grade Junction
Puthenpalli,
27 430+020 421+220 Varapuzha 4 legged At grade Junction

Mannamthuruthi,
28 430+560 421+760 Varapuzha 4 legged At grade Junction

Njattuvetty ferry,
29 431+380 422+580 Naduvilppadi 4 legged At grade Junction

30 431+800 423+000 Eloor, Cheranelloor 4 legged At grade Junction


31 433+535 424+735 Chitoor road 3 legged At grade Junction
Vehicular
32 436+700 426+020 Bypass Cross 4 legged Underpass
Edappally - Cross Vehicular
33 437+400 426+620 Road 4 legged Underpass

Service Roads
In view of social aspects and density of population of Kerala ,Service roads needs to be
provided with all the built up.But Considering economy of the project ,proposal of service

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-46
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

roads are restricted at unavoidable locations. Table shows the location identified for the
provision of service roads along the project road.
Proposed Service Roads
Existing Design Chainage
Chainage (Km) (Km) Side
Sl. (LHS/RHS/ Length
No. From To From To Both) (km) Width (m)

1 318400 318800 318+440 318+670 Both 230 7


2 342000 342300 335+570 335+900 Both 330 7
3 342600 343000 336+100 336+600 Both 500 7
4 344460 345400 338+100 338+930 Both 830 7
5 349200 350400 342+740 343+940 Both 1200 7
6 352200 353090 345+770 346+690 LHS 920 7
7 353090 353390 346+690 346+990 Both 300 7
8 353390 354060 346+990 347+660 LHS 670 7
9 354060 354200 347+660 347+800 Both 140 7
10 357000 357600 350+610 351+210 Both 600 7
11 359800 363200 353+420 356+370 Both 2950 7
12 376400 377000 369+670 370+580 Both 910 7
13 382600 383850 375+930 377+520 Both 1590 7
14 388600 389920 382+010 383+290 Both 1280 7
15 - - 383+900 384+280 Both 380 7
16 - 392150 385+060 385+340 Both 280 7
17 407700 411800 401+000 404+020 Both 3020 7
18 413100 414450 406+450 406+900 Both 450 7
19 414450 - 406+900 410+580 Both 3680 7
20 - - 410+650 416+250 Both 5600 7
21 - 427000 417+160 418+220 Both 1060 7
22 427000 427200 418+220 418+420 Both 200 7
23 427200 427700 418+420 418+920 RHS 500 7
24 427700 431000 418+920 422+100 Both 3180 7
25 432000 434200 423+370 424+500 Both 1130 7
Total Length 61770

Way side Amenities


Adequate provisions of wayside amenities are provided on the project road to improve the
safety for the convenience of road users.Two rest areas are proposed at the project road,
which comprises facilities such as toilet, drinking water, telephone booth & sufficient off / on
street parking space. Rest area is proposed at km 353+400(Design ch.348+900) and Design
ch.394+500(Bypass) of the project road. The summary of wayside amenities is given in table
Summary of Wayside Amenities

SI. No. Type of Amenity Location - Design Chainage (Km)


Designch.327+700(bypass),365+350(Design
1 Truck Lay Bays ch.359+050),392+820(Designch.386+020 )&
431+850(Design ch.425+150)

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-47
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

SI. No. Type of Amenity Location - Design Chainage (Km)


2 Rest Area At km 353+300(Design ch.348+900) & 394+600(bypass)
3 Bus Bays At 70 Locations
Km .344+160(Design ch.337+700) &
4 Toll Plaza
Bypass(Design ch.413+700)

Road Furniture
Road markings and road signs standards are proposed based on IRC standards. The
summary of traffic signs and road furniture proposed along the project road are given in
table.
Proposed Road Furniture along the Project Road
Sl No List of Signs Unit Quantity

1 Stop sign No 120


2 Curve sign No 242
3 Median openings No 49
4 Side road No 110
Chevron Signs for curves (for curves No
5 1772
<=1000m radius)
6 Red reflectors No 600
7 Keep left No 27
8 Cat’s eyes No 6000
9 Advanced Direction sign No 47
10 Rout Marker sign No 90
11 Place Identification sign No 40
12 Overhead Cantilever Sign Boards No 18
13 Overhead Gantry Sign Boards No 12
14 Bus Stop sign No 70
15 Metal Beam Crash Barrier m 12624
Retroreflectorised sheets on crash sqm
16 1268
barriers, railings etc.

ROB
A two lane ROB construction is in progress at km 427+545 (Design ch.437+700) at Edappalli
where the project road encounter with a level crossing. An additional 12m wide ROB is
proposed at this location. Details of proposed ROB are given in table
Details of Proposed ROB

Existing Design
Sl. No Span Foundation
Chainage (Km) Chainage (Km)
13 x 21.6+ 1 x 7.85+
1 437+700 427+545 Pile
30+1 x 7.85+13 x 21.6

Flyover

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-48
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Flyover is proposed at km 428+941 (Design ch.438+600) where project road meets NH-47.The
Details of proposed flyover is given in table
Details of Proposed flyover

Design
Existing
Sl. No Chainage Span Foundation
Chainage (Km)
(Km)
5 x 35+1 x46+5x35-Second Tier
1 438+600 428+940 10 x 35+1 x46+10x35-Third Tier Pile
10 x 21+1x 38+1x15-Arm

Vehicular Underpass
Vehicular underpasses are proposed at fifteen locations for easy crossing of vehicles. The
Details of Vehicular underpasses are given in table
Proposal for New Vehicular Underpasses

Existing Design
Sl. No Opening Size Usage
Chainage (Km) Chainage (Km)
1 318+090 318+090 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
2 Bypass 322+310 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
3 Bypass 330+400 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
4 363+110 356+760 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
5 Bypass 370+975 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
6 Bypass 377+910 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
7 Bypass 379+450 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
8 Bypass 384+670 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
9 Bypass 388+990 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
10 Bypass 392+980 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
11 413+560 406+060 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
12 Bypass 411+400 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
13 Bypass 416+755 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
14 Bypass 426+020 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass
15 Bypass 426+620 1 x 10.5m x 5m Vehicular Underpass

Slip Roads
Slip Roads are proposed along with vehicular underpass . The table below gives the locations
of slip roads.
Proposed Slip Roads
Existing
chainage Design chainage side

Sl No From To From To Both/LHS/RHS Length(m) Width(m)


1 Bypass Bypass 321920 322700 Both 780 5.5
2 Bypass Bypass 330010 330800 Both 790 5.5
3 362740 363520 356370 357150 Both 780 5.5
4 Bypass Bypass 370585 371365 Both 780 5.5
5 Bypass Bypass 377520 378300 Both 780 5.5

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-49
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Existing
chainage Design chainage side

Sl No From To From To Both/LHS/RHS Length(m) Width(m)


6 Bypass Bypass 379060 379840 Both 780 5.5
7 Bypass Bypass 384280 385060 Both 780 5.5
8 Bypass Bypass 388595 389385 Both 790 5.5
9 Bypass Bypass 392585 393375 Both 790 5.5
10 412490 412910 405640 406060 Both 420 5.5
11 412910 413160 406060 406310 RHS 250 5.5
12 413160 413305 406310 406455 Both 145 5.5
13 425145 425960 416345 417160 Both 815 5.5
14 Bypass Bypass 425630 428200 Both 2570 5.5
15 433930 433858 428370 428442 Both 72 5.5

Bridges & Cross Drainage Structures


There are 15 bridges along the existing road including eight major bridges and seven minor
bridges. Navigational clearance is provided on all major bridge locations. Out of the total 15
bridges, 6 are bypassed (4 minor bridges and 2 major bridge) and 8 new bridges are
proposed at bypass locations. There are 124 culverts on the project stretch along the existing
roadProposal for culverts
Proposals for Bridges
The proposal of bridges and Cross Drainage Structures during widening and improvement is
given in table
Details of proposals for bridges
Sl. Existing Design Proposed Span Type of Type of Type of
No Chainage Chainage Scheme Arrangem Super Substructure Foundatio
(Km) (Km) ent structure Abutment Pier n

BRIDGES – Existing NH17 falling in Project stretch


1 319+030 318+820 New Four 11x 32.5 PSC I RCC Solid RCC Circular
lane girder Rect. Pier
2 342+300 336+000 Additiona 1 x 16 .5+ PSC I RCC RCC Pile
l Two lane 7 x 24.5 + girder Rect.
1 x 16.5
3 369+520 362+890 Additiona 12 x 26.5 PSC I RCC RCC Well
l Two lane girder Rect.
4 382+400 375+670 Additiona 1 x 7.1 RCC Slab RCC - Open
l Two lane
5 412+180 404+860 Additiona 1 x 31.7 + PSC I RCC RCC Well
l Two lane 7 x 32.3 + girder circul
1 x 31.7 ar
6 412+800 405+450 Additiona 1 x 32.73 PSC I RCC RCC Well
l Two lane + 9 x 33.3 girder circul
+ 1 x ar
32.75
7 413+750 406+210 Additiona 1 x 24 RCC T- RCC - Well
l Two lane beam
8 430+300 421+465 Additiona 1 x 16.0 RCC T- RCC - Well

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-50
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Sl. Existing Design Proposed Span Type of Type of Type of


No Chainage Chainage Scheme Arrangem Super Substructure Foundatio
(Km) (Km) ent structure Abutment Pier n

l Two lane beam


9 431+000 422+730 Additiona 4 x 20 + 5 PSC box RCC Well
l Two lane x 30+3 x +RCC
50+ 1x 83 box +
+ 1x RCC
120+1 x voided
83+ 3 x slab
50+5 x
30+3 x 20
BRIDGES – Bypasses
10 14+470- 333+200- New Four 3 x 18 RCC T- RCC RCC Pile
Ponnani Ponnani lane beam circul
ar
11 1+145- 357+740- New Four 1x20 + RCC/PSC RCC RCC Pile
Chavakka Chavakk lane 1x30 + beam Solid circul
d ad 1x20 ar
12 1+428 - 407+215 - New Four 1 x 18 RCC T- RCC - Pile
Paravoor Paravoor lane beam
13 1+716 - 407+770 - New Four 1 x 18 RCC T- RCC - Pile
Paravoor Paravoor lane beam
14 2+244 - 408+085 - New Four 1 x 18 RCC T- RCC - Pile
Paravoor Paravoor lane beam
15 4+564 - 410+620 - New Four 3 x 25 PSC I RCC RCC Pile
Paravoor Paravoor lane girder Rect.
16 9+080 416+300 New Four 3 x 30 PSC I RCC Solid RCC Pile
Paravoor Paravoor lane girder circul
ar

Proposals for Culverts


Culvert Details
Existing Bypass
New New
Type of Reconstructio Widenin Reconstructio Widenin
constructio constructio
culvert n g n g
n n
Pipe 0 25 0 55 0 1
Box 0 31 3 27 8 23

Summary of EIA

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-51
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report presents the environmental assessment of the
proposed improvements for the 121-Km Kuttippuram – Edappally stretch of NH 17 in the State
of Kerala, and the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to minimise or mitigate the
impacts identified. Guidelines formulated by Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) were
referred for preparing the EIA. Apart from this various Indian acts and regulations were
reviewed such as, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Air (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and EIA Notifications of
1994 and 2006. Following are the major tasks conducted as a part of EIA Study.
• Preliminary reconnaissance survey and collection of secondary information to identify
environmentally sensitive issues relating to the project ;
• Identification of base-line status of various environmental parameters through
environmental monitoring study;
• Assessment of potential impacts of the project on these base-line conditions;
• Formulation of Environment Management Plan (EMP) incorporating appropriate
mitigation measures to offset the identified adverse impacts, and Environmental
Monitoring Plan for evaluating the effective implementation of EMP;
• Estimation of cost for EMP and Monitoring Plan; and
• Formulation of institutional arrangements for the implementation of EMP.
Baseline Environmental Profile of the Project Area
Field inspections at all the sensitive locations, collection of secondary information for all the
environmental components, baseline environmental monitoring from September 2006 to
October 2006, and discussions with the officials, NGOs and local public were conducted to
establish the baseline environmental status of the study area.
Topography. Except a small portion in the Ponnani bypass, the entire project road passes
through plain terrain, which falls in the low land region along the Arabian Sea coast of
Kerala.
Meteorology. The entire project area has a tropical humid climate. The hot season from
March to May is followed by the South West Monsoon season from June to September. The
period from October to November is the North East Monsoon season, and the period from
December to February is generally dry. The South West Monsoon is usually very heavy and
nearly 75 % of the annual rains are received during this season. The range of temperature
varies between 32°C and 22°C. The average annual rainfall is 280 mm/ year and the
average relative humidity is 81.5%. An Automatic Weather Monitoring Station was set up at
Vadanappally as part of the baseline environmental monitoring. The ambient temperature
during the monitoring period varied between 32.6 oC and 21.4 oC and relative humidity
ranged between 96% and 88%. The solar radiation recorded ranged between 28.2 Watt
hour/sq m and 0.20 Watt hour/sq m. Average rain fall during the study period was around
404.01 mm. Predominant winds were mostly from South-Southwest and South West directions
with frequencies of 13.7% and 11.5 % respectively. Calm conditions prevailed for 0.7 % for the
total time.
Geology and Minerals. Geologically the project area is composed mostly of Archaean
gneisses and crystalline schists with a narrow coastal belt of recent sediments and mud
banks. The project area is not rich in mineral wealth except the deposits of lime shells found in
the coastal belt of Ponnani and deposits of Ilmenite along with monazite found in the beach
sand of Ponnani, Veliyamkod and Chavakkad area along the project road.
Soil Characteristics. Coastal alluvial soil is seen in the project area. the texture is dominated
by sand fraction with very rapid permeability. These soils are generally acidic and of low
fertility level. Laterite soil type is observed in the hilly terrain of Ponnani bypass. Soil sampling

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-52
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

done at seven locations along the project road shows that the soil texture along the project
road varies from silty clay to sandy loam and the pH varies from 5.5 to 9.3.
Hydrology. The project road is crossing / abutting a number of water bodies through out the
stretch. Different branches of Periyar, the largest river in Kerala, are crossing the project road
at seven locations. Bharathapuzha, the second largest river in Kerala is crossing the project
road at Kuttipuram. Proposed National Waterway No. 3 (NW-3) from Kovalam to Kasargod,
which is part of different rivers and canals is crossing the project road at four locations and
runs parallel to the project road intermittently on LHS and RHS in between these locations.
Kanjiramukku River is crossing the project road at Puthuponnani. Ground water level in the
project area is shallow in the plain terrain, varying from 1 to 3 meters.
Ambient Air Quality. The baseline status of ambient air quality monitored at 11 locations
along the project road shows that all the ambient air quality parameters were well within the
NAAQ Standards at all the locations except an Increase in SPM level at Kottappuram.
Water Quality. Surface water samples were collected from seven locations along the project
road. Important chemical parameters like Chlorides, Hardness and Total Dissolved Solids were
observed to be very high at five locations due to the backwater influence. Biological
Indicator – total Coliforms – is also found to be higher than the permissible limits at five
locations. Faecal Coliforms were present at four locations. Ground water samples were
collected from six locations. All the physical and chemical parameters of ground water at all
the locations were within the IS:10500 standards. Total Coliforms were more than the
permissible limits, but faecal Coliforms were absent.
Ambient Noise Level. Out of the 11 locations where ambient noise level monitoring was done
along the project road, eight locations represented residential areas and three locations
represented commercial areas. Among the eight locations representing residential areas,
noise levels at four locations were below the permissible limit set by the CPCB during day
time and night time. At two locations the noise levels during day time and night time were
above the permissible limits. Out of the remaining two locations representing residential
areas, day time noise level at one location and night time noise level at other location was
above the permissible limit. Among the three locations representing commercial areas, noise
level at one location was below the permissible limits for commercial areas during day time
and night time. Day time noise level at the remaining two locations was above the
permissible limit.
Biological Environment. The project road is not passing through any forest areas, wildlife
sanctuaries and protected areas. However, the project road is passing through Vembanad-
Kol wetland system, which is a Ramsar Site. Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary is situated 5 Km
away from the project road. No rare/threatened species of flora or fauna is present in the
project area except the mangroves along the canals, rivers and estuaries crossing / abutting
the project road. About 56,300 trees – mainly coconut trees - are present with in the
proposed 45-m right of way of the project road since it is passing through agricultural areas.
Land Environment. The predominant land use along the project road is residential followed
by agricultural and commercial. Ribbon development is found through out the project road.
The project road passes through four municipalities namely Ponnani, Chavakkad,
Kodungalloor and Paravur, Kochi Municipal Corporation and a number of other small towns.
Paddy, Coconut, Tapioca, Areca nut, Cashew nut, Banana, Pulses, and Betel vine are the
important crops along the project road. The project road falls under Coastal Regulation Zone
(CRZ) at sixteen locations.
Assessment of Potential Environmental Impacts
Project Benefits: Beneficial impacts of the project will be the reduction in air pollution due to
better service levels of the road, reduction in travel time and accidents, better connectivity
to Cochin – the industrial hub and major sea port of Kerala - from northern parts of Kerala
and neighbouring states, better connectivity to the proposed Vallarpadam Container
Terminal and proposed LNG Terminal at Cochin and different small-scale fishing harbours

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


E-53
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

along the sea coast of Ernakulam, Thrissur and Malappuram districts, easy access to the
famous Guruvayoor Temple from northern and southern part of Kerala, generation of local
employment during road construction, and Improvement of local economy and industry due
to better infrastructure.
Negative Impacts: Major environmental impacts expected due to the project are the cutting
of about 56,300 trees – mainly coconut trees, loss of productive agricultural lands and the
damage of mangrove areas in CRZ locations. No significant impacts are anticipated on the
ecology of the Vembanad-Kol wetland system and CRZ areas since no reclamation of
wetlands or water bodies is proposed for the project. Temporary impacts are anticipated on
air quality, water quality and noise levels in the project area during the construction phase.
An increase in ambient noise level is expected during the operation phase.
Environmental modelling was conducted to predict the concentration of Carbon Monoxide
and noise levels along the project road in 2011 and 2016 and the results were compared with
the permissible limits set by CPCB. The CO modelling results show that concentration of CO
will be within the standards at all the sensitive receptor locations along the project road for
the projected years. Noise modelling results show that the noise levels within 20m from the
centreline of the road in 2011 and within 50m from the centreline of the road in 2016 will
exceed the permissible limits for residential areas in certain stretches of the project road.
Public Consultations
Public Consultations were conducted at Village level at four locations and at district level at
two locations along the project road. The main issue raised during the consultation process
was the demand for market rate for land acquisition. All the issues raised during the
consultation process are addressed in the EMP and the Resettlement Action Plan.
Mitigation of Impacts and Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
Project specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP), stating the various impacts and their
mitigation measures, is formulated to avoid/minimise the anticipated impacts. The
responsibility of implementing suggested mitigation measures lies mainly with Contractor,
Construction Supervision Consultant and PIU. An Environmental Monitoring Plan is proposed
as part of the EMP to evaluate the efficiency of implementation of mitigation measures
recommended in the EMP and facilitate management decisions for the project.
Block Cost Estimates for Environmental Management Plan
The cost of implementing the mitigation measures suggested in the EMP and conducting the
environmental monitoring as per the Environmental Monitoring Plan works out to Rs.15.315
Crores during the construction phase. The operational cost of the same is estimated at Rs. 1.5
lakhs per annum during the first three years and Rs. 27.93 lakhs per annum from 4th year
onwards.
Conclusions and Recommendations
With proper implementation of mitigation measures proposed in the EMP, the proposed
project does not lead to any significant irreversible environmental impacts in the project
influence area. The environmental monitoring plan and reporting mechanism proposed as
part of the EMP will ensure the proper implementation of the EMP. Through providing better
transportation facilities, the proposed project will create a developmental boom in the in the
project area leading to an improvement in the socio-economic conditions of the entire
region. Thus the overall benefits of project outweigh the negative impacts of the project.
The project requires the following environmental clearances:
Environmental Clearance from MoEF: Since the proposed project is for the expansion of
existing National Highway greater than 30 Km involving additional RoW greater than 20 m
involving land acquisition, it falls under Category “B” as per the EIA Notification 2006 and
requires environmental clearance from SEIAA. But SEIAA is not constituted in Kerala State and
hence this project shall be treated as a Category “A” project, which requires clearance from
MoEF. Since the EIA Document of the present project is prepared before 30th June, 2007, and
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA
E-54
In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

since it is included in the Schedule of EIA Notification 2006, EIA appraisal of this project may
be done as per the Interim Operational Guidelines till 13th September 2007.
Clearance from Kerala Forest Department: Prior Clearance is required from Kerala Forest
Department for cutting of trees within the proposed RoW and their transportation.
Consent to establish from Kerala State Pollution Control Board: Consent to establish is required
for the project from the Kerala State Pollution Control Board under the Water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
CRZ Clearance from Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority and MoEF: Since many
parts of the project road passes through CRZ areas, and since the project cost is more than
five crores, clearances from Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority and MoEF are
required for the project.
 

 Summary of RAP

The project road comprises the portion of NH-17 from chainage 318+000 at Kuttippuram in
Malappuram district to chainage 429+440 at Edappally in Ernakulam district of Kerala.
Topographically this stretch runs through plain land parallel to the coast line except for first 3
km, which runs through the rolling terrain of Malappuram district.

The project road passes through three administrative boundaries– Malappuram, Trissur and
Ernakulam districts of Kerala state Out of the total 111.730 km. first 25.14 km. passes through
Malappuram district where the settlement pattern is less dense comprising residential,
commercial and agricultural lands. As the road enters Thrissur district the population density
increases and the land use is predominantly residential with commercial hubs in between.
This stretch, which accounts for 53% of the total project length passes through many
commercial centers with dense ribbon development on either side of the road. The last
stretch of 24.182 km. in length, passes through urban centers of Paravur and Kanayannur
taluk in Ernakulam and has very narrow winding roads with very closely and densely knit
settlements. Following are the demarcations of the entire project road based on
administrative boundaries:

Section-I - Malappuram District - (Existing Chainage 317+ 710 to 349+280 & Design chainage:
317+710 to 342+820)

Section-II - Thrissur District - (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 409+110 & Design chainage:
342+820 to 405+260)

Section-III - Ernakulam District - (Existing Chainage 349+ 280 to 438+600 & Design chainage:
405+260 to 429+440)

Loss of Land
The additional land required for the widening of the existing road to four lane was estimated
based on the land acquisition plan prepared by consultants. Accordingly, an additional
Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA
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Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

area of 753.80 acres (305.06 Ha.) would be required which includes both private land and
government land. Out of this an area of 734.39 acres would be required for road, 9.21 acres
for toll plaza, 3.21 acres for truck lay bays and 6.98 acres for rest areas. The same is
summarized in table

Land requirement for the proposed highway design


Land to be acquired
Design Feature
(sq.mts.) (Acres)
Road 2972058.171 734.39
Toll Plaza 37291.15 9.21
Truck Lay bays 13009.97 3.21
Rest Area 28266.61 6.98
Total 3050625.901 753.80

Loss of Structures
This category includes loss of structures and semi-open within private or government plots.
The census survey conducted for all the structures affected under the project covered major
structures like residential, commercial and religious buildings as well as minor structures like
compound walls bus stops, pump houses, wells, water taps etc. It reveals that a total of 5596
structures are affected out of which, 3991 are major buildings and remaining are minor
structures or immovable assets. Structures which are located in the land already acquired for
bypass is not considered in this survey, details are given in table

Category of buildings affected


Major buildings No. of structures Percentage to total
Residential 2120 53.12
Commercial 1499 37.56
Resi. + Comm. 106 2.66
Public buildings 223 5.59
Religious 43 1.07
Total 3991 100
*Inlcudes taps, graveyards, pump houses, wells, ponds, sheds, bus stops etc.

Loss of Immovable Assets


Loss of other immovable assets include loss of compound walls, fences, loss of taps, wells, bus
stops, sheds, pump houses etc. From the census survey of structures it has been found that
there are 431 PAFs whose compound wall alone is affected. Majority of the compound walls
are pucca and privately owned. Impact on other minor structures like public taps, bus
shelters, etc. causes loss of another additional 1174 structures. These compensation for
structures have been budgeted in the RAP budget as per prevailing schedule of rates
published by PWD.

Impact on Livelyhood/Tenure
Out of a total of 3991 PAFs being affected by impact on structures, 1605 PAFs, which
comprises owners of commercial structures and res-commerical structures looses their
livelihood due to the loss of commercial spaces. As the census survey covered only the
structure affected PAFs who are owners of the affected structures, the number of people

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


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Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

who are employed in these commercial buildings and looses their livelihood are not
covered. The non-availability of updated land records was another constraint in estimating
the accurate number of PAFs.

RAP Budget
RAP budget, can be broadly subdivided into following three subsections: The final RAP
budget is given in Table E 19

(d) Assistance for Loss of Land

(e) Assistance for Loss of Structures and Assets

(f) R&R Implementation

6.8.1 Assistance for Loss of Land


Assistance for land has been prepared based on the land acquisition plan where the extent
of land area that needs to be acquired is calculated for each survey number in each village.
Based on the land use of the area to be acquired along the existing road and the bypasses,
unit rates of land is applied to get the total assistance for loss of land. The land value includes
30% solatium, 12% interest and Registration and stamp duty. table

Cost of Land
Sl. No. Components of Cost Unit (Acres)
A : Total Affected Land Area 753.8
B : LA Cost Cost (in INR Crores)
1 Cost of LA 178.52
2 Solatium @ 30% of the LA Cost 53.56
3 Interest @ 12 % of the LA cost 21.42

4 Registration rate (8%) and stamp duty (1%) 16.07


charges
Total 269.57

Note: * Includes cost of land for 2 toll plazas and other amenities

The cost of acquiring land of 753.8 Acres for the project comes to Rs. 269.57 Crores, of these
Rs 53.56 crores are solatium (30%) and an additional Rs. 21.42 Crores and Rs. 16.07 crores
would be required to be disbursed to the PAFs as interest rate and Registration expanses
respectively. Intrest would be paid at the rate of 12% while registration expanses are at the
rate of 9 %( 8% registration and 1% stamp duty) This solatium would be given to take care of
other exigencies like registration of newly purchased property and stamp duty fees etc.

6.8.2 Assistance for Loss of Structures and Assets


Assistance for loss of structures and minor assets like wells, pump houses, compound walls etc,
within residential and commercial plots has been summarized in table.

Cost of Structures and Assets.


Sl. No. Components of Cost Cost (in INR Crores)
1 Replacement value of structures including 157.77
compound walls

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Sl. No. Components of Cost Cost (in INR Crores)


2 Replacement value of semi-open structures 7.01
3 Replacement value of other fixed assets 1.18
Total Assistance for Loss of Structures 165.96

The cost of structures is estimated at Rs. 157.77 which is equivalent to replacement value
(without depreciation). The same for semi-open structures and fixed assets are estimated at
Rs. 7.01 crores and 1.18 crores respectively. The total assistance for loss of structures ths
comes to Rs. 165.96 crores.

6.8.3 R&R Assistance


R&R assistance and other cost include the one time ex-gratia amount Rs 10000/family.The
category wise number of affected families is given in table

R&R Assistance
Quantity Unit Rate Amount in Rs.
Sl.No Assistance Unit
(Nos) (Rs.) Crore
R&R Assistance to Land(Only
1 PAF 23744 10000 23.74
Land)affected PAF*
R&R Assistance to land &
2 PAF 5596 10,000 5.60
structures affected Families
R&R Assistance to Non title
3 PAF 4815 10,000 4.82
holders
Total 34155 34.16

.
6.8.4 Final RAP Budget
Final Resettlement Action Plan and budget has been summarized in table.
Final RAP Budget
Final RAP Budget
Assistance Amount in Rs. Crore

Land Cost 269.57

Structure Cost 165.96

R&R Assistance 34.16

Total 469.68

Project Cost Estimates


 

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In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

The estimated cost for 4-6 laning of Kuttipuram – Edapally Section of NH – 17 , project road
is presented in table.
Cost Estimate for 4-6 laning of Kuttipuram – Edapally Section
BILL NO. BILL NAME AMOUNT (Rs.)

1 SITE CLEARANCE AND DISMANTLING 17,215,348


2 EARTH WORK 497,948,090
3 SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSES 1,696,670,777
4 BITUMINOUS WORKS 1,490,591,381
5 CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS 298,189,283

6 NEW BRIDGES AND UNDER PASSES 3,442,290,179

7 ROAD OVER BRIDGES (ROB'S) 198,759,957


TRAFFIC SIGNAGES, ROAD MARKING AND OTHER
8 106,968,600
APPURTENANCES
9 PROTECTIVE WORKS, DUCTS & OTHER SERVICES 640,246,019
10 ELECTRICAL WORKS 123,456,650
11 TOLL PLAZA 170,357,894
12 REPAIR AND REHABILITATION 57,279,451
13 MISCELLANEOUS 98,165,867
8,838,139,543
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST

928.001
10& escalation for one year (crores)

CONTINGENCIES/QC @ 3% OF CIVIL COST (crores) 27.84

IC & PRE-OPERATIVE EXPENSES @1% OF EPC (crores) 9.558

FINANCING COST @ 2% DEBT AT 70:30 DER (crores) 12.824


ESCLATION @ 5% PER ANUM DURING CONSTRUCTION 79.454
PERIOD (CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 30 MONTHS) (crores)
INTEREST DURING CONSTRUCTION @ 11% PA ON DEBT 87.280
(AT 70:30 DER) (TERM LOAN) (crores)
TOTAL CONCESSIONAIRE COST(crores) 1144.957

TOTAL LENGTH OF PROJECT ROAD (KM) 111.73

PER KM COST ( CRORES ) 10.25

NHAI COST
LAND ACQUISITION, ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION,R&R, 485.20
UTILITY SHIFTING ETC., (crores)
TOTAL NHAI COST(crores) 485.20
TOTAL PROJECT COST ( CONCESSIONAIRE + NHAI 1630.16
COST ) (crores)
TOTAL PROJECT PER KM COST ( CRORES ) 14.59

Wilbur Smith Associates Inc. USA


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In Joint Venture With
Wilbur Smith Associates Pvt. Ltd. National Highways Authority of India
Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report
in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

Economic & Financial


Analysis
 

Economic Analysis
Economic evaluation was carried out for the full Project Road. In the analysis, the ‘with
project’ alternative of widening the project road to 4 lane configurations were compared
with the base option of ‘without project’ alternative of maintaining the existing road only and
without improvements. This is to arrive at the net economic benefits, which consist of
reduction in vehicle operation cost, reduction in travel time and reduction in accident cost.
Analysis period was taken as 30 years from the date of operation.
The project road section of NH 17 from Kuttipuram to Edappali is economically feasible forthe
proposed widening to four lanes considering the positive values of EIRR (21.4%) and ENPV (Rs.
9975.53 Million). It has also been established that the proposal is economically feasible in the
worst-case scenario developed in sensitivity analysis (EIRR: 17.5%, ENPV: Rs. 6282.04 Million).

Financial Analysis
Based on the project structure traffic study and toll rate analysis, financial feasibility analysis
has been carried out as per the methodology outlined in earlier sections. The objective of
the financial analysis is to ascertain the existence of sustainable project returns, which shall
successfully meet the expectations of its financial investors. The analysis reveals various FIRR
values corresponding to each year of toll operation. FIRR for the Returns on Investment and
Returns on Equity for the years from 2010 to 2037(concession period is 30 years including
Construction Period) with maximum 40% subsidy Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant and 30
years Concession Period are given in Table 5.24.
Table 5.24: Financial Feasibility Results

Post Tax Return on NPV @ 12% Pay Back


SCENARIOS FIRR % Equity % (Rs Crore) Period
(With 40%
Grant/Subsidy) for 30
15.58 19.25 321.38 10 years
years of concession
period Profitability
Statement

The profit and loss statement indicates the net profit earned during the concession period.

Results for 4 laning with 40% Grant are given in Table 5.25.
Table 5.25: Project Profitability Results (Rs in Crores)

Profit or
Total Net Profit or
Net Loss Total
Years Case O&M Operating Loss
Revenue before Tax
Cost income After tax
tax
2011 With 40% 62.87 6.03 56.84 3.4 0.39 3.02
Grant/
2038 Subsidy 1114.31 40.36 1073.97 1032.33 359.13 673.20
Conclusion
It would be seen that considering the enhancement of toll rate on the basis of
structure/bypass cost, the project is financially viable on BOT basis with maximum of 40%
Grant and 30 years Concession Period. Accordingly, project should be undertaken either on
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Project

  Four Laning of NH-17 from Kuttipuram-Edapally Project Report


in the State of Kerala under NHDP Phase III on BOT Basis

annuity basis or EPC contract basis. To get minimum viability criteria of 15% Equity IRR, 10.65%
grant is required.

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