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also in the world. Although, it is classified as vegetable, it has special qualities, which add to taste and flavour to food and hence it is mainly used in India cui sine and culinary preparations. In addition to its use in cuisine, it is also re lished in raw form with meals. Onion is consumed by all classes of people-poor a nd rich and hence assumes a place of essential item. Onion possess very good nut ritive and medicinal values- the nutritive ingredients of onion are as follows ( Quantities per 100 gm): 1 Water (%) 86.60 gm. 2 Carbohydrates 11.00 gm. 3 Proteins 1.20 gm. 4 Fats 0.10 gm. 5 Minerals 0.40 gm. 6 Calcium 0.18 gm. 7 Phosphorus 0.05 gm. 8 Iron 0.07 gm. 9 Vitamin B1 120 10 Vitamin C 11 11 Nicotinic acid 0.4 mili gm. 12 Ribo flavin 10 13 Calorific value 51 Onion has both glucose (reducing sugar) and sucrose (non-reducing sugar). The sp ecial quality of onion is its smell (flavour) on account of which it is commonly used in food and masala preparations. The pungent taste of onion is due to vola tile oil Allyl Propyl Disulphide present in it. There are hundreds of varieties of Onion grown in the world. According to colour , there are red, white and yellow types. Red and white varieties are grown in In dia. Although, onion is consumed in all the countries of the world, it is cultiv ated only in some countries. Hence it has export market and export value. Area u nder onion cultivation in the world is about 20 lakh hectares. India has the lar gest area of about 4 lakh ha. (20%) followed by China about 3 lakh ha. But the p roduction is the highest in China (48 lakh MT) as against India (44 lakh MT) due to higher productivity in China (16 MT/ha than India 14 MT/ha). In India, of th e four lakh hectares of area under onion, the maximum area of about 95,000 ha (a bout 24%) is in Maharashtra. Other important states are Karnataka, Orissa, U.P., Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, M.P., Tamil Nadu, Bihar and Gujarat. Trends of Exports Figures of domestic production exports and shares of exports for the last 10 yea rs are given in Table 1. During the last 10 years, onion production has increase d with some ups and down. Onion production is known for its fluctuations for som e reasons, particularly in Maharashtra State, which is the largest producer. By and large, there is increase in production with annual growth rate of 3.59%. How ever exports have increased of faster rate with annual growth rate of 7.64%. The share of exports has also increased from about 7% in 1988-89 to about 14% in 19 97-98. Onion is a pride item of agricultural exports earning valuable foreign ex change to the country. Of the total fresh vegetable exports 67% share is of onio n. The value exports has increased from Rs. 162.56 crores in 1992-93 has to Rs. 295 crores in 1997-98. However there was some decline in exports to Rs. 176 cror es in 1998-99 due to reduction in production in the previous year (1997-98). Table 1 Share of exports in domestic production of Onion Year Domestic Production (Lakh MT) Exports (Lakh MT) Share of exports in production 1988-89 32.24 2.14 6.64 1989-90 29.83 2.27 7.67 1990-91 38.44 2.40 6.25 1991-92 35.85 3.71 10.35
1992-93 35.90 2.72 7.57 1993-94 36.16 4.01 11.09 1994-95 38.83 4.97 12.80 1995-96 39.89 4.34 10.88 1996-97 44.28 5.13 11.58 1997-98 31.66* 4.47 14.12* Compound growth rate (%) 3.59 7.64 * Production of onion was hampered due to heavy and untimely rains in Maharashtr a in this year. Direction of Trade Onion is exported from India to in all 38 countries in varying quantities. Expor t to major countries is given in Table 2 along with quantities, value and unit v alue or price per kg. Fourteen countries shown in the table were seen as importa nt importing countries. Maximum quantity (23.30%) was imported by U.A.E. followe d by Malaysia (22.16%), Sri Lanka (16.06%), Bangladesh (11.76%) and Singapore (9 .02%). These five countries together imported nearly 83% onions. Total quantity exported in the year 1998-99 was 215.69 thousand tonnes valued at Rs. 176.05 cro res. Regarding unit value, the highest price was offered by Singapore (Rs. 11.35 per kg) and the lowest by Pakistan (Rs. 6.18 per kg). The overall average price received was Rs. 8.16 per kg. Most of the importing countries are Asian countri es and hence prices offered are relatively low. Varieties Exported Onions of four sizes are exported Big size - 4 to 6 cm. Diameter Medium - 3 to 4 cm. Diameter Small - 2 to 3 cm. Diameter Podisu - 2.5 to 3.5 cm. Diameter The varieties of different sizes exported are: Big - Pusa Red, Agrifound Light Red, N-2-4-1 Agrifound Dark Red, N-53, Nasik Loc al, Bellary Red, etc. Small – Agrifound Rose, Bangalore Rose, Podisa, Multore, Nattu etc. Nearly 90-92% of onion exported is of big size. Table 2 Exports of onion from India – Direction of trade (1998-99) Country Quantity Value Unit Value (000 MT) % Rs. In Crores % Rs/Kg U.A.E 51.337 23.80 38.98 22.14 7.59 Malaysia 47.793 22.16 42.68 24.24 8.93 Sri Lanka 34.636 16.06 27.10 15.39 7.82 Bangladesh 25.448 11.76 15.88 9.02 6.24 Singapore 19.451 9.02 22.07 12.54 11.35 Saudi Arabia 10.942 5.07 7.84 4.45 7.17 Pakistan 7.898 3.66 4.88 2.77 6.18 Mauritius 5.420 2.51 4.69 2.66 8.65 Kuwait 2.480 1.15 1.94 1.10 7.82 Reunion 1.897 0.88 2.14 1.22 11.28 Oman 1.419 0.66 0.94 0.53 6.62 Qatar 1.410 0.65 0.99 0.56 7.02 Baharin 1.403 0.65 1.37 0.78 9.76 Indonesia 1.120 0.52 1.04 0.59 9.28 Other 24 countries 3.040 1.41 3.51 1.99 11.55 Total 215.694 100.00 176.05 100.00 8.16 Economics Economics of Onion Cultivation • This chapter comprehensively analyze the various components of productio n and marketing costs, marketing channels adopted by the farmers, producer’s sha re in consumer’s rupee, price spread, etc. in respect of this important valued c
rop in this state. Costs and returns structure of Onion production Rs/Ha Sl.No. Particulars Belgaum Dharwad Bijapur Raichur Gulbarga Overall A. Variable Costs 1. Seeds 1332.65 16858.65 2352.00 2567.45 1991.99 1985.95 (7.95) (9.35) (7.99) (8.23) (7.50) (8.14) 2. Farm yard manure 2277.79 2735.81 3366.90 3276.33 1319.50 2595.27 (13.59) (15.18) (11.43) (10.50) (4.97) (10.64) 3. Fertilizers 2807.55 2526.03 4003.15 4486.75 1908.07 3146.31 (16.75) (14.01) (13.59) (14.38) (7.18) (12.89) 4. P. P. Chemicals 251.22 210.00 418.71 690.93 130.12 340.20 (1.50) (1.16) (1.42) (2.21) (0.49) (1.39) 5. Human Labour 5103.35 5828.40 10970.40 12736.00 11619.60 9251.47 (30.44) (32.33) (37.26) (40.81) (43.75) (37.91) 6. Bullock labour 1960.00 1960.00 636.00 1084.50 1680.50 1664.20 (11.69) (10.87) (5.56) (3.47) (6.33) (6.82) 7 . .Irrigation — — 2525.47 2116.27 2546.13 2395.96 (8.58) (6.78) (9.59) (9.82) 8. Repairs and maintenance 65.77 60.99 203.04 179.95 187.22 139.39 (0.39) (0.34) (0.69) (0.58) (0.70) (0.57) 9. Interest on variable cost 965.88 1050.48 1783.30 1899.67 2993.64 1738.59 (5.76) (5.83) (6.06) (6.09) (11.27) (7.12) Sub-total 14764.21 16057.36 27259.01 29037.85 24376.77 22299.04 (88.06) (89.08) (92.58) (93.05) (91.79) (91.39) B. Fixed Costs. 1. Depreciation 55.83 76.05 223.87 211.39 219.33 157.29 (0.33) (0.42) (0.76) (0.68) (0.82) (0.64) 2. Rental value of land 1750.00 1700.00 1750.00 1750.00 1750.00 1740.00 (10.44) (9.43) (5.94) (5.61) (6.59) (7.13) 3. Land revenue 13.02 13.02 13.02 13.02 13.02 13.02 (0.08) (0.07) (0.04) (0.04) (0.05) (0.05) 4. Interest on fixed cost 181.88 178.91 198.69 197.44 198.23 191.03 (1.08) (0.99) (0.67) (0.63) (0.75) (0.78) Sub-total 2000.73 967.98 2185.58 2171.85 2180.58 2101.34 (11.94) (10.92) (7.42) (6.95) (8.21) (8.61) C. Total Cost of Cultivation 16764.94 18025.34 29444.59 31207.70 26557.35 24400.38 (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) D. Returns Yield (q.) 99.04 116.72 211.80 196.62 205.76 165.99 Rate (Rs./q.) 336.67 350.33 458.73 486.67 471.00 420.68 Gross returns 33343.80 40890.58 97159.00 95689.05
96912.96 69828.67 Net returns 16578.86 22365.18 67714.41 64421.35 70355.61 45429.29 Note : Figures in Parentheses indicate percentage to total cost of cultivation Costs and returns per quintal of Onion production under rainfed and irrigated si tuations (Rupees) Sl.No. Particulars Belgaum (Rainfed) Dharwad (Rainfed) Bijapur (Irrigated) Raichur (Irrigated) Gulbarga (Irrigated) Overall I. Costs 1. Variable Cost 149.07 137.57 128.70 147.68 118.47 134.34 2. Fixed cost 20.20 16.86 10.32 11.05 10.60 12.66 3. Cultivation Cost 169.27 154.43 139.02 158.73 129.07 147.00 4. Marketing Cost 43.55 41.05 56.06 60.81 68.76 55.45 5. Total Cost (Ra 212.82 195.48 195.08 219.54 197.83 202.45 II. Returns 1. Gross returns 336.67 350.33 458.73 486.67 471.00 420.68 2. Net returns (i) Over variable cost 187.60 212.76 330.03 338.99 352.53 286.34 (ii) Over cultivation cost 167.40 195.90 319.71 327.94 341.93 273.68 (iii) Over total cost 123.85 154.85 263.65 267.13 273.17 218.83 3. Benefit cost ratio 3. 1.58 1.79 2.35 2.22 2.38 2.08 Marketing cost incurred by the producer in Onion (Rs/q.) Sl.No. Particulars Belgaum Dharwad Bijapur Raichur Gulbarga Overall A. Transactions 1. Quantity sold (q) 99.04 116.72 211.80 196.62 205.76 165.99 2. Sale price (Rs.) 336.67 350.33 458.73 486.67 471.00 420.68 3. Sale value (Rs.) 33343.80 40890.52 97159.00 95689.05 96912.96 69828.67 4. Net price (Rs.) 293.12 309.28 402.67 425.86 402.24 366.63 B. Costs 1. Cost of packing 13.08 12.00 14.35 1.99 9.96 9.84 (30.03) (29.23) (25.28) (3.27) (14.28) (17.35) 2. Loading and Unloading charges 3.00 3.00 2.98 2.00 3.00 2.76 (6.89) (7.31) (5.31) (3.29) (4.36) (4.86) 3. Transportration 13.78 13.16 15.71 22.15 21.88 18.18 (31.64) (32.05) (28.03) (36.43) (31.82) (32.04) 4. Commission charges 6.73 7.00 18.35 29.20 28.26 20.39 (15.46) (17.07) (32.73) (48.02) (41.10) (35.95) 5. Hamali charges 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.49 2.49 2.26 (4.59) (4.87) (3.55) (4.10) (3.68) (1.32) 6. Weighment charges 0.50 0.50 0.52 1.00 1.00 0.75 (1.15) (1.22) (0.93) (1.64) (1.45) (1.32) 7. Market cess 0.62 0.62 0.50 0.56 0.50 0.53 (1.42) (1.50) (0.89) (0.82) (0.73) (0.93) 8. Miscellaneous expenses 3.91 2.77 1.65 1.42 1.67 2.03 (8.97) (6.74) (2.95) (2.35) (2.42) (3.57) Total 43.55 41.05 56.06 6.81 68.76 56.72 (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) (100)
Total Cost of Marketing(Rs/Ha) 4313.19 11956.46 14148.06 9416.52 Note : Figures in parentheses indicate percentages EXPORT
India exported 11.61 lakh tonnes of onions during 2006-07 which is a record quan tity after the export was canalized through NAFED. There are many ups and downs recorded in export quantity and value which is due to fluctuation in production and prices, and sometimes due to ban imposed on export to safeguard the interest of consumers in the country. Big onions having, light red to dark red coloured bulbs are grown in most of the parts. Small onions, known as rose onion, and Kri shnapuram onions are grown in Kolar district in Karnataka and Cudappah district in Andhra Pradesh. Multiplier onion, known as Podisu and Shallots, are grown in Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry and Andhra Pradesh. Big onions produced in Maharastra, Gujrat, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are exported from Mumbai, Chennai , Tuticorin, Kandla and Kolkata ports to Dubai , Kuwait, S audi Arabia, Middle East, Malaysia, Singapore, Seychelles and Bangladesh. Onions grown in India are very much in demand in Gulf Countries and Singapore, Malaysi a, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh because of strong pungency. Small onions produced in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are exported from Chennai port to Singapore and Malaysia, and multiplier onions to Singapore, Malaysia,Sri Lanka etc. Maharashtra has maximum share in onion export. The NHRDF has developed all the 3 types onions , Agrifound Dark Red and Agrifoun d Light Red (big onion), Agrifound Rose (small onion) and Agrifound Red (multipl ier onion) for export. Important characters of these onions are given in Table 1 . The NHRDF have also tested yellow varieties where Arad(H) of Hazera Seed Co. , Israel has performed best. Table: Important characters of onion varieties Variety Colour Shape Maturity TSS ( % ) Productivity ( q / ha ) Remarks Agrifound Dark Red Dark red Global round, medium to big 90-100 d ays from transplanting 12-13 300-400 Medium storer Agrifound Light Red Light red Global round, medium to big, compact , o uter scale tight 120 days from transplanting 13-14 300-325 Good storer Agrifound Rose Scarlet red Flatish round, 2.5-3.5 cm diameter 95-110 d ays from sowing 16-18 190-200 Good storer Agrifound Rose Brick red 5-6 bulblets/ clump, bulblet of 2-2.5 cm size 66-67 days from sowing 15-17 180-200 Good storer Arad (H) Yellow Big-sized global round bulbs of 6-8 cm diameter 90-100 days after transplanting 9-10 500—800 Poor storer Onion Village The concept of developing the onion villages may help increase the export of oni on. The provision of financial assistance to exporters to complete in the intern ational market may also be looked into. Export on regular basis not only helps i n getting foreign exchange earnings but also allows farmers to get remunerative price for their produce thereby encouraging them to sustain the production and a vailability of onions. Government should in fact have long term export policy an d should even introduce contract production system in suitable pockets. Quality standards for export
The quality standards of onion have been fixed by Agmark although now it is not mandatory to obtain Agmark certificate for onion export. It is necessary to main tain the quality by observing the standards. The grades , big ,medium, small and mixed are followed for different types of onions which depend on requirements f rom importing country. In the survey made by NHRDF , it is observed that Middle East countries demand light red to dark red colour, European countries and Japan demand yellowish /brown colour onions having mild pungency, 3-4 cm sized onions are preferred in Bangladesh, 4-6 cm sized are preferred in Middle East and Far East, while European and Japan prefer 6-7 cm sized onions. Rose onions of 2.5 3.5 cm size and multiplier onions of bigger size with attractive red colour bulb lets are preferred for export. European countries and Japan prefer yellow big-si zed onions. The demand in these countries is from February and up to May when it is very easily possible to cultivate onion in Nasik area of Maharashtra. The bulbs selected for export should be reasonably uniform in shape , size, colo ur and pungency. They should be mature ,solid, reasonably firm with tough clingi ng skin, thoroughly cured and dried outer scales free from dirt and other foreig n material. Defective, diseased, damaged bulbs caused by seed stem, tops, roots, moisture, dry sunscald, sun burn, sprouting, mechanical or other injuries and s taining, free from moulds, soft rot and insect attack should not be used for exp ort. The trained labourer are thus required for grading and packing of onions fo r exports. The packing size for export varies from 8 to 25 kg depending on requi rement of onion by importing country. Although jute mesh bags are used for expor t, if there is no restriction for their use due to environmental pollution probl ems in some countries, plastic-wooven bags since are reusable and attractive, sh ould be introduced. Scope for increasing export India is presently exporting onions to mainly Gulf countries, Far East countries , Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka where there is not much scope to increase the quanti ty as some countries have also started their own production. The scope , however , exists for diversifying the market to European countries and Japan. These coun tries do not prefer strong and pungent onions. In these countries, yellow onions having mild pungency, bigger bulb size with thick fleshy layers are preferred. The possibility of growing yellow onions in Maharastra, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh a nd other parts was explored by NHRDF by taking trials on farmers fields where b ulbs of Arad ( H ) could be successfully produced during late-kharif season. The evaluation of various exotic varieties has been done in the past and is being t aken up by NHRDF now also where good bulb development with required size and qua lity could be produced during late-kharif season and thus export from February t o May by sending bulbs in electrically-ventilated containers could be explored. For this, however, contract production is preferred as there may not be much loc al demand for these onions if not purchased by exporters for export. Similarly, there is a scope for exporting dehydrated onions as many processing u nits under export-oriented unit schemes have been installed in India. These are not presently running to their installed capacity mainly for want of raw materia l. Thus, there is a scope for development of varieties suitable for dehydration. Onion Agrifound White developed by NHRDF holds promise in this regard. This var iety has already been given for evaluation under ICAR coordinated trials. Effect of export of onions on domestic supplies and price There is general feeling that prices of onion within the country go up if export is increased which is not true as the quantity exported is about 10-12% of the total production. Proper planning for production ,increased export on the other
hand may help growers to get remunerative prices for good quality produce and de velop the tendency for growing high quality produce by farmers as also encourage them to maintain the production level of onion which is essential to maintain t he supplies even for domestic markets demands without much price fluctuation. The production practices and post-harvest handling if taken by the growers and o thers involved in the onion industry based on scientific and recommended guideli nes would maintain the quantity and quality required for domestic and export mar kets both and thus may not have much effect on internal supplies/prices of onion . With this view, the expansion of area under kharif in non-traditional pockets in North and Eastern India and cultivation of early crop by set ( bulbet ) produ ction are being popularized by NHRDF so that onion supply for domestic demand is maintained and export of onion is also continued. Constraints in onion export There are some constraints seen in onion exports and suggestions to overcome the se problems so that onion export from India is not only continued but maybe incr eased : Suggestions for improvement • Popularization of improved varieties, quality seed production and distri bution, expansion of area in non- traditional pockets and contract production fo r export. • Planning for contract production for export market expansion of area and production of kharif onion for early harvesting. • Unawareness of proper post harvest practices and quality Training of farmers and others involved in onion production, post-harvest manage ment and marketing. • Packing material used is not attractive Introduction of attractive, eco-friendly packages, consumer packages etc. • Electrically-ventilated containers for export of yellow onions to Europe . Adequate transport with reasonable rates, synchronize the rail/road transport with schedule of vessel and providing insulated wagons. • Developing more ventilated storage godowns for onions. Providing handlin g sheds and make available modified containers with proper ventilation • To develop market intelligence for different seasons, quality of produce and corresponding season crop in other competing countries. STRATEGY FOR INCREASING EXPORT The strategies suggested to improve the export of onions are : • Production and distribution of quality seed of improved varieties in ade quate quantities by following seed village concept. • Development of disease and insect pests resistant, heat / moisture stres s tolerant varieties by taking such work at NRC for Onion and Garlic. • Development of biological control measures against pests and disease by taking up work with NRC for Onion and Garlic and NHRDF. • Development of yellow coloured hybrid and OPs for export to European and Japanese markets by popularizing the technology for production during late-khar if based on work undertaken by NHRDF and adopting contract production. • Development of bigger bulblet varieties in multiplier onion. • Training of farmers, traders and exporters involved in onion production, handling and marketing. • Creation of adequate curing and storage facilities at field level and at ports. • Popularizing various onion products in export markets developing varieti es suitable for various processed products. MAHARASHTRA STATE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING BOARD, Pune - 37. Head Office : Plot No. R-7, Chhatrapati Shivaji Market Yard, Gultekadi, Pune -
411037. Telephone : 91-20-4261190, 4268297,Fax: 91-20-4272095/20-24275154 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org, Web Site : www.msamb.com GUIDELINES FOR EXPORT OF ONIONS Government of India through its notification, No.41(RE/99)/1997-2002, Ne w Delhi, dated 12th February, 1999, has amended the Exim Policy for 2004-2009 an d authorised the Government of Maharashtra to designate an agency for canalised export of onions from the State. In turn, the Government of Maharashtra has desi gnated Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board (hereinafter referred to i n short as MSAMB) as the Designated Agency for canalisation of Onion exports fro m the State through its Notification No.CMS 1099/CR 42/99/24-C Dated 17th Februa ry, 1999. 1. OBJECTIVE : The main objectives before MSAMB as the exclusive canalising agency for the State of Maharashtra are to maximise foreign exchange earnings for the count ry through streamlined system of export so that Maharashtra s image as a dependa ble export of onion is well established in the world market, as well as helping onion farmers in getting fair return for their produce particularly during marke ting season and to help in maintaining domestic availability of onions at reason able prices to the consumers. 2. REGISTRATION : Any person/Company desires to participate in export of onions is require d to register themselves with authorised office of MSAMB. This will be only one time requirement. The registration of Associate Shippers may be reviewed on the basis of their onion performance from time to time. Application for registration with MSAMB is required to be submitted in p rescribed proforma given at Annexure-I on the letter head of the person/Propriet orship /Partnership Firm / Company/Cooperative Societies accompanied by Bank Dra ft for Rs. 5,000/- (Rupees Five Thousand Only) drawn in favor of MSAMB payable a t Pune. The amount of Rs. 5000/- is non-refundable. On scrutiny of the applicati on, registration number will be allotted to the Associate Shipper, which should be quoted in all future correspondence. Application for registration with MSAMB should be complete with following docume nts, which is minimum necessary. • Application for registration by person/company/cooperative society on le tterhead duly signed and stamped by authorised person. (Annexure –I) • Import Export Code (IEC) True copy. • Permanent Account Number allotted by Income Tax Authority. • Indemnity Bond duly notarized (Annexure – II), • Signature attestion by Bankers • Sealed envelope contains Confidential Report about person/company/cooper ative societies account operation with bankers and addressed to MSAMB, Pune. • Demand Draft favoring ‘MSAMB, Pune’ amounting to Rs.5,000/-. • Copy of ‘’Memorandum & Articles of Association’’ in case of Limited Comp any & copy of ‘’Partnership Deed “ in case of partnership firm. 3. FIXATION OF MINIMUM EXPORT PRICE (MEP) The export of onion will be subject to MEP as fixed by NAFED & DGFT from time to time which will be intimated by MSAMB Offices immediately to registered Associate Shippers. The crop prospects, its assessments and crop forecasts, mar ket intelligence and likely trends within the country and abroad, expenses invol ved in export, latest freight rates etc., are taken in account while fixing of M EP.
NO OBJECTION CERTIFICATE (NOC) : The exporter shall apply for NO OBJECTION CERTIFICATE (NOC) as per profo rma at Annexure-II to MSAMB for each export consignment. The exporter will furni sh to MSAMB the details such as quantity to be exported, export rate, port of sh ipment, shipment period & destination and details of Letter of Credit. The expor ter is also required to submit proforma invoice and copy of advance remittance o r irrecoverable Letter of Credit alongwith application for NOC. 5. SERVICE CHARGES : While granting the NOC, the MSAMB will be entitled to collect service ch arges from the Associate Shipper at the fixed rate of 1 % on invoice value. 6. REFUND OF SERVICE CHARGES : If shipment is not effected owing to reasons beyond control of Associate Shippers such as ban / restrictions imposed by Government of India on export, o bstruction in movement of cargo from up country to port / dock, shut-out cargo, cancellation of vessel, cancellation of order by the buyer, transport and labor strike or any other valid reason, service charges collected will be refunded or adjusted for the unshipped quantity, in future shipment subjects to providing su fficient documentary evidence by the Associate Shipper. Refund / adjustment of service charges will be made for the cases not le ss than a quantity of 10 MTs at a time. On rejection of this request, Associate Shipper can appeal to Managing Director, MSAMB, if felt necessary, who will take a view on such cases and his decision will be binding on all concerned. 7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUND : The associate Shippers are also to pay the fund known as "Research & Dev elopment Fund" @ Rs.20/- per metric ton while applying for the quota. This fund will be utilised for the purpose of Research and Development of production, qual ity, storage, handling etc., of export oriented agricultural commodities, partic ularly onion by National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation (NHRD F), Nashik. 8. EXTENSION OF VALIDITY : In case the shipping documents are passed on or before the last date of validity of the MEP but shipment could not be made due to late arrival, berthing and cancellation of the vessel, a grace period of 7 days for execution of the s uch shipment on the previous month MEP will be permitted. 9. DOCUMENTATION: The registered Associate Shipper will get the proper Letter of Credit es tablished in their favor by observing the following before effecting any shipmen t :I) The export of onion will be made against cent percent Letter of Credit ( L/C) payable at first sight in India or against advance remittance received thro ugh authorised banking channel. ii) The L/C should be irrevocable, without recourse to drawers and unrestric ted for negotiation. iii) The L/C should provide: a) Acceptance of State/Claused B/L. b) Permitting of part shipment, and on deck shipment. c) Transshipment prohibited. iv) The L/C should incorporate Reimbursement Clause permitting reimbursement of the full bill amount through T.T. on first presentation of the documents at the counters of negotiating Bank in India. 9.1 The execution of shipment against L/C will be the sole responsib ility of the Associate Shipper. In case any dispute arising between the exporter and importer about the quality, packing, period of shipment, non-shipment or an y other reason, the same will be settled between them mutually.
9.2 The Associate Shipper will furnish within 7 days from the date o f shipment the details of shipment for which the NOC obtained alongwith a set of non-negotiable documents to MSAMB Office. 10. Associate Shippers shall be entitled to all export benefits accruing fro m their export of onion. 11. Export of onion to the countries where the respective Governments regula te imports will be undertaken exclusively by MSAMB. 12. The associate shippers shall comply and continue to comply with the prov isions of other laws applicable to Associate Shippers or any other person on who se behalf the application for registration as Associate Shipper is submitted to MSAMB. The registration of contracts does not also confer any immunity, exemptio n or relaxation at any time from obligation or compliance of any requirement to which the Associate Shippers are bound or required to fulfill under various laws /regulations of the country. 13. These guidelines have been issued in supersession to all earlier guideli nes, instructions or administrative orders on the subject by any other equivalen t authorities/agencies. 14. MSAMB reserves right to change the above guidelines as and when the need arises and also reserve rights for interpretation of these guidelines. Always in your service, Authorised Officer, MSAMB, Pune. ANNEXURE - I To, The Authorised Officer, Canalized Onion Export Promotion Cell, Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board, Pune. Dear Sir, Sub : Registration of our Company / Firm for Export of Onion under canalizatio n scheme as Associate Shipper of MSAMB. The Govt. of India has canalized the export of Onion from the state of M aharashtra through your Board, the designated canalizing agency of the Govt. of Maharashtra. We request you to kindly register us as your Associate shipper for the said exports. The particulars about our firm / company is as under for you r information and consideration :1. Name of firm / company and date of establishment 2. Status of the applicant (Public/ Partnership/ Proprietor-ship /C ooperative/ HUF) (copy of Memo-random of Articles Partnership deed is enclosed) (Name of the partners/Directors /Managing Directors/ Proprietor is furnished wit h their permanent address): 3. Address of Registered Office and Branches alongwith Tel/Telex/Fa x No. 4. Name and designation with specimen signature of authorised repre sentative(s) (to be got attested from the Bank authorities) 5. Name and Address of Bankers (Attach Banker s certificate, certi fying financial position). 6. Import/Export code number (Copy enclosed) 7. Particulars of registration with any export promotion Councils, if any 8. Commoditywise Statement of exports for the last two years.
9. Permanent Income Tax A/c number indicating the issuing authority 10. Whether the Organisation is Export House, Trading House etc. (Pl ease attach certificate) 11. Last 3 years export performance for onion - Quantitywise & Price wise We attach herewith a Demand Draft of Rs. 5,000/- in favor of MSAMB, Pune payable at Pune. We also attach herewith Indemnity Bond as required by you as per Anne xure -II; We have carefully read the guidelines issued by MSAMB for the purpose and we her eby solemnly undertake unconditionally to abide by all the terms and conditions, laid down by MSAMB and also to comply with any addition/alteration to be made t herein from time to time and also provisions of any laws / rules regulations aff ecting the canalization of export of onion. We shall be bound by clause regardin g the settlement of dispute through arbitration. We further understand that our registration is liable to be cancelled in the eve nt of breach of any of the undertakings mentioned above. We do hereby certify th at all information furnished above and documents submitted herewith are true and correct. Thanking you, Yours fa ithfully,
(Autho rised Signature) Office seal ANNEXURE - II PROFORMA OF INDEMNITY BOND TO BE FURNISHED ON STAMP PAPER OF RS.100/(Duly attested by Notary Public) 1. I (Name of authorised signatory) ___________________ on behalf of my / o ur firm________________________ having our registered Office at _______________ hereinafter referred to as the OBLIGOR which expression shall include our heir s, successors and assigns, furnish this indemnity Bond in favor of Maharashtra S tate Agricultural Marketing Board, Pune - 37 hereinafter referred to as MSAMB 2. Whereas the Government of India has canalized the Export of Onions from the country to all-permissible destinations vide Import / Export Policy declared for the period 2002-2007. 3. And whereas, the obligor has to enter into a Contract / Agreement with v arious buyers of permissible destinations hereinafter referred to as the BUYER f or the export of the Indian onion to permissible destinations and whereas in con sideration of said, MSAMB having agreed to allow us to effect the shipment of ou r contracted order(s) under canalized scheme, we hereby undertake and bind ourse lves for the total and faithful performance of the terms and conditions of the c ontract entered into by & between the buyer and ourselves. 4. Notwithstanding any breach in the performance of the contractual obligat ions and discrepancy(ies) in the draft/documents and the terms of contracts whic h may be discovered/objected by the buyer and or any other port authority, the O
bligor hereby solemnly and unconditionally agrees to bind itself/himself for all the repercussions and consequences, arising out of its /his executing this tran saction and also hereby further undertakes to reimburse to the said MSAMB upon d emand, for the aggregate amount of claims, including costs, legal or otherwise w hich the MSAMB may be called upon and/or compelled to and/or bound to pay for an d/or on behalf of the obligor/on account of the obligor in connection with the a bove said shipments, including any guarantee, and/or indemnities given / require d to be given, together with interest at rate determined by MSAMB plus all other expenses of whatsoever nature incurred by MSAMB inconnection with any claim and /or claims/penalties, relating to its buyer and/or ship agents or any other pers ons connected with the said shipment and the same shall be accepted by the Oblig or, without equivocation, dispute and/or delay, as correct and just. 5. The Obligor hereby waives all its/his rights to contest the amount or an y of claims paid under such guarantee and/or Indemnity (ies) should there be any valid reason, then the Obligor should settle the outstanding with buyer within one month or earlier under advice to MSAMB. The OBLIGOR shall inform the said M SAMB about shipment of the order mentioned hereinabove and shall also furnish to them a copy of the non-negotiable set of shipping documents for their informati on and records as soon as the shipment has been effected to the satisfaction of all concerned including surveyors if appointed either by MSAMB or by the buyers. 6. The Obligor hereby further does indemnify MSAMB unconditionally absolvin g it from risks, damages, costs and or any other claims/penalties, etc., of the Reserve Bank of India Jt. Chief Controller of Imports and Exports, Customs Depar tment, the buyers and ship agents and/or any other concerned party(ies)/authorit y(ies) either in India or abroad arising due to non-fulfillment of the contractu al obligations and / or any sort of complication whether pecuniary or otherwise and/or on account of non-realisation of the export proceeds into Indian Currency in an approved manner and it is understood and accepted by the Obligor that the said MSAMB does not entail any responsibility whatsoever in regard to the shipm ent of the said contracted order(s) under the canalization scheme referred to he rein above. 7. That the Obligor affirms that the present Indemnity Bond shall remain va lid and subsisting even after the execution of the shipment by the Obligor and M SAMB s entitled to seek its enforcement at any time in case of any of the eventu alities enumerated herein above. (Authorized Signatory) Name of the Authorised Signatory Name of the firm in Block Letters Address in Full Office Seal Signed, sealed and delivered by within named Obligor on this day of the ________ ________ of 200 _____ in the presence of Witness No.1 _ Address in full ________________________ __ Signature ______________________________ Name in full ___________________________
Witness No.2 _
Signature ______________________________ Name in full ___________________________ Address in full ________________________
ANNEXURE - III To, The Authorised Officer, Canalised Onion Export Promotion Cell, Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board, Mumbai / Pune. Dear Sir, Re : Export of Fresh Onion Variety ________________ Ref : Our Registration No. _______________________ We request you to please issue No Objection Certificate addressed to Cus toms ______________________ (name of the port ) for export order of onion secure d by us, details of which are given below: a) b) S $ iii FOB value in US $ iv Total C & F / CIF value in US $ c) Shipment period d) Packing e) Mode of payment Advance remittance(FIRC)/L/C No Date amount f) Validity of L/C for shipment and negotiation g) Port of shipment h) Port of destination As desired we send herewith a proforma invoice & copy of Advance remittance cert ificate / LC from the authorised bank for above shipment: a. ____ Bank Draft No. ________________ Date ___________ For Rs. _______________ Quantity MT Price per MT in FOB/C&F/CIF i Fright in US $ ii Insurance in IRS (Converted on average custom’s exchange rate) U
Drawn on in your favor being service charges, development fund and secur ity deposit is enclosed. We also undertake that Consignment shall be shipped to the destination mentioned above and no high sea sales or diversion of this cargo shall be made by ourselv es or by our buyers without prior approval from MSAMB. Yours faithfully,
(Authorised person with seal) Encl : As above
REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON COMMODITY EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN S OUTH AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA (BANGKOK, 3-5 APRIL, 2001) ORGANIZED BY UNCTAD IN COOPERATION WITH ESCAP
Export Potential of Onion: A Case Study of India By V. C. Mathur Senior Scientist Division of Agricultural Economics Indian Agricultural Research Institute Agriculture occupies an important position in India as it contributes ne arly 30 per cent of the gross domestic product and provides employment to around two-thirds of the nation’s population. A large variety of tropical, sub-tropica l and temperate crops are cultivated in the country supported by a climatically conducive growing environment, highly skilled manpower, extensive irrigation sys tem, a well-developed extension and research and development network, and a larg e market for agro- products. The total net sown area in the country is around 14 3 million hectares, which is around 43 per cent of the geographical area. The ne t irrigated area is around 55 million hectares or 39 per cent of the net sown ar ea. However, one important emerging feature of Indian agriculture is the increas ing number of marginal (less than 1 ha) and small size holdings (1.0 to 2.0 ha). Between 1985-86 and 1990-91, the number of marginal holdings increased from 56. 147 million to 63.389 million, while the small size holdings went up from 17.922 million to 20.092 million. Even the number of semi-medium size holdings increas ed during the same period from 13.252 million to 13.923 million. According to th e 1990-91 Agricultural Census, 91.3 per cent of the total holdings in the countr y comprise marginal, small and semi-medium holdings which together account for 5 5.6 per cent of the operated area. This decreasing size of operated area often d iminishes the efficiency of production and the bargaining power of the individua l farmers in the market.
Agricultural commodity exports account for nearly 20 per cent of the total expor t earnings of the country. Coffee, tea and mate, oil cakes, tobacco, cashew kern els, spices, raw cotton, rice, fish and fish preparations, meat and meat prepara tions, fresh fruits and vegetables, and processed fruits and vegetables constitu te the major export items among agro-products from the country. Among the hortic ultural commodities, processed fruits and vegetables accounted for the largest s hare of exports followed by fresh fruits and vegetables. Among fresh vegetables, onion, tomato and mushroom are reported to be highly export competitive (Kumar, 1996; Paroda, 1999). Onion is one of the important vegetable crops grown in India. In terms o f area, India ranks first in the world with over 480 thousand hectares accountin g for around 21 per cent of the world area planted to onion. Globally, the count ry occupies the second position after China in onion production with a productio n share of around 14 per cent. Productivity, however, is low at around 11.4 mt/h a, which is lower than the world average of 17.3 mt/ha. Besides India and China, the other major onion producing countries are Turkey, Pakistan, Brazil, United States of America, Iran, Spain and Japan. In India, onion is extensively cultiva ted over a large area spread almost throughout the country. It is produced for b oth domestic consumption as well as exports. Domestic Production Onion is a crop of national importance and considerable attention has be en paid by the National Agricultural Research System of the country to the impro vement of this crop. The National Horticultural Research Development Foundation, sponsored by the apex level cooperative called the National Agricultural Cooper ative Marketing Federation of India (NAFED), and the National Research Center on Onion and Garlic of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) are enga ged in systematic efforts for the improvement of onion. Besides these two organi zations, several other crop research institutes of the ICAR and state agricultur al universities are also involved in research on onion. In 1995, a National netw ork scheme was initiated at 15 centers by the ICAR Research Network for the prom otion of hybrid research in vegetable crops to develop F1 hybrids for 9 importan t vegetables among which onion is also one of the important crops (Singh and Pal , 1996). India produces all three varieties of onion – red, yellow and white. Th e different institutes engaged in research on onion have developed 34 varieties of the common and multiplier onion. Besides these some local varieties, especial ly Nasik Red, Patna Red, Bombay Red, Poona Red, and Bahadurgarh Local, are also grown by the farmers. A large variety of vegetables are grown in India. In the agricultural ye ar 1998-99, onion accounted for around 8 per cent of the area and 3 per cent of the production of vegetables in the country (Table 1). Although onion is cultiva ted almost all over the country, the major onion growing states are Andhra Prade sh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu a nd Uttar Pradesh. These nine states together account for over 90 per cent of bot h the area and production of onion in the country (Table 2). In the northern par t of the country, onion is usually grown in winter (rabi) season. However, in th e southern and western States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Maharashtra, it is grown in winter (rabi) as well as in the rainy (kharif) s easons. A red onion variety, N 53, has been successfully developed for the north ern Indian plains and the National Horticultural Research Development Foundation has taken up this technology on a large scale at farmers’ fields in Harlan, Pun jab, eastern Uttar Prudish, Bizarre and Rajasthan. Thus onion is cultivated and is available to domestic consumers, as well as for the exports, throughout the y ear.
Onion Exports India is a traditional exporter of fresh onion. Immediately after indepe ndence in 1951-52 the country was exporting over 5000 tonnes of onion per annum. Exports of onion started expanding rapidly during the sixties and reached a pea k level of 427 thousand tonnes in 1996-97. Over the years there has been a progr essive increase in the exports of onion from India. Table 3, however shows that although there has been an increasing trend in the quantum and value of exports of onion from the country, there also are apparent wide fluctuations in both fro m year to year. This may be attributed to the fact that the exports of onion hav e not been free but are canalized through NAFED and now also some other agencies . One over-riding concern of the canalizing agencies has been the protection of the domestic consumer and producer from unduly high prices and gluts. Exports ha ve been allowed only after domestic requirements have been met which may be a ca use of the fluctuations in exports from year to year. Exports of onion have fetc hed for the country valuable foreign exchange and have earned for the producers a high price per tonne. In terms of dollars, the decline in the unit value after 1990 may be attributed to the devaluation of the rupee. The profitability and t he potential offered by the exports of onion are evident from the fact that, on a national basis, the are under onion is steadily increasing, having almost doub led between 1980-81 and 1998-99 (Table 4). The increase in area has been particu larly significant after the initiation of the economic and trade policy reforms beginning in 1990 –1991 which have helped to liberalize trade in agricultural co mmodities. The export market mix for onions changes from year to year, but India’s onion exports cater mainly to the neighboring South East Asian countries and som e Middle East nations. Malaysia, UAE, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Singapore and Saudi Arabia account for the major share of exports from India (Table 5). In 1997-98, India exported onions to 36 countries. The Marketing System: Institutional Support for Marketing and Trade Exports of onions from India are not free but are permitted only through certain designated canalizing agencies. Foremost among these agencies is the Na tional Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India, Limited (NAFED), which was from 1974-75 till January 1999, the sole canalizing agency for onion e xports. NAFED, located in New Delhi, was set up in October 1958 to provide marke t support to agricultural producers. This market support to producers is provide d by NAFED through various state level marketing federations, primary agricultur al marketing societies and the National Cooperative Development Corporation. In order to provide marketing support to producers and ensure a better price to the m, and also to maintain the availability of the commodities in the domestic mark et at reasonable prices, NAFED undertakes internal trade in agricultural commodi ties especially food grains, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, jute, spices, fruits, veg etables and eggs. NAFED also engages in external trade and a variety of agricult ural commodities are exported by NAFED. In fact the exports of agricultural comm odities through the cooperative system in India developed only after NAFED came into existence. As a part of its external trade activities, NAFED also undertake s imports of agricultural commodities as and when requested by the government. Price support programs Since NAFED is responsible for providing marketing support to producers and ensu re that they receive a remunerative price for their product, it also undertakes support price purchases of various commodities for the government. It is the key agency for implementing the price support policy program in respect of oilseeds and coarse grains. For onion, NAFED intervenes in the domestic marketing whenev
er there is glut in the market and prices reach uneconomical levels. Prices prev ailing in major markets all over the country are reviewed every day in this proc ess. Procurement prices of onion are decided by NAFED on the basis of cost of pr oduction and procurement is initiated in the markets and from the farmers direct ly. This benefits the producers, particularly the small producers, who have low carrying capacity and are constrained to sell immediately after harvest on accou nt of financial constraints. In case of external trade, NAFED is responsible for fixing the minimum export pr ice (MEP) of onions, which is done on a monthly basis. The Price Fixation Commit tee of NAFED decides this price. Factors such as market trends, world prices and domestic prices, and margins are considered for arriving at the MEP of onion. Technological and extension support A National Horticultural Research Development Foundation has been set up by NAFED to undertake research on development of varieties of onion suitable fo r cultivation in different agro-climatic regions of the country as well as the d evelopment of suitable production practices. NAFED has also set up units for the production of bio-fertilizers and rhizobium culture. Besides NAFED, other publi c research agencies are also involved in technology development and upgradation for onion. The technologies and package of practices developed are passed on to the produce rs through an extensive system of extension. Seed, and, at times, other critical inputs are provided to farmers by NAFED. Plant protection operations have also been undertaken to provide protection against pest and disease infestations. Tec hnical know how is extended to farmers to improve production and productivity. S eed production is undertaken by the NAFED sponsored National Horticultural Resea rch Development Foundation and seed is sold by NAFED under its own name. External trade support From 1974-75 to January 1999, the NAFED was the sole canalizing agency f or external trade and exports of onions from India. In January 1999, the new exp ort - import policy of the Government of India introduced certain changes in the system of onion trade by including some other agencies as additional canalizing agencies for onion trade. These were the Maharashtra Agricultural Marketing Boa rd and the Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation. In December 1999, the list was e xtended with the inclusion of Karnataka State Cooperative Marketing Federation, Andhra Pradesh Marketing Federation, Spices Trading Corporation, Limited, Nation al Consumers Cooperative Federation, and Andhra Pradesh State Trading Corporatio n as canalizing agencies for onion exports. The reasons for allowing other agenc ies to enter into the canalized exports of onion is that the Government does not want any agency to acquire a monopoly position in this respect and also to faci litate the easy procurement, distribution and exports of the commodity from the widely distributed producing centers of the country. However, NAFED continues to be a monitoring agency. Each canalizing agency is allocated a quota for exports. An inter-ministerial gr oup comprising representatives of the Ministries of Commerce, Consumer Affairs, and Agriculture and NAFED decide the quotas for exports to be allocated to each canalizing agency. These quotas are decided for varying periods of say 15 days t o a month and generally not for a long period. The share of NAFED in the total quantity exported is around 50 per cent, with th e remaining being shared by the other co-canalizing agencies. Having been respon sible for exports of onions since its inception, NAFED has been able to establis h markets for Indian onion abroad, which is evident from the increasing volume o f onion exports.
NAFED has set rat and Tamil cilities that hessian bags distance are ea vessels in
up modern state-of-the-art storage facilities in Maharashtra, Guja Nadu near its major procurement centers. Onions require storage fa require sufficient inflow of fresh air. Consignments are packed in which allow air to pas through. Export consignments meant for long transported by NAFED’s associated shippers in specially equipped s which air is blown in storage areas through fans and blowers.
India grows three types of onions – red, white and yellow. The bulk of t he country’s exports are of the red variety. Generally only ‘A’ grade onions are exported. Grading is done manually on the basis of bulb size by trained people deployed by NAFED who are well versed with the requirements of different export markets. Occasionally ‘B’ grade onions are also exported but the market for such onion is only Dubai. Tastes and preferences of consumers vary and the Bangalore rose variety, a small variety of onion, is preferred in and exported to Singapo re and Malaysia. Marketing channels In the case of private trade in onions for domestic consumption, produce rs sell onions to commission agents in assembling regulated markets which are no w in operation extensively throughout the country. The commission agents sell th e onion to sub-wholesalers or directly to retailers, who in turn, sell to the co nsumers. A second channel is the cooperative channel in which producers market their onio n through cooperative marketing societies at the village level. NAFED and the ot her canalizing agencies procure their requirements from cooperative societies an d rarely buy from commission agents or wholesalers in markets. This benefits the small producers as they collectively receive a better price for their product.
Conclusions and Recommendations The exports of onions from India have been a success story. The country has been able to export large quantities of onions after ensuring that the domes tic requirements are met. The canalizing agencies, especially NAFED, have been a ble to establish markets for Indian onions abroad as they take good care to main tain the quality of the produce for the export market. For this purpose, storage and grading facilities have been created. Large scale facilities created for pa ckaging of onions by the exporting agencies help in the quick handling of export consignments. However, while markets have been established for Indian onions ab road (India exported onions to 36 markets in 1997-98), exports are concentrated to neighboring countries in South and South East Asia and the Middle East. In or der to improve unit value realization, it is necessary to tap the potential of m arkets in the European Union and other developed countries. These countries impo rt large quantities of onion and it is important that India should quickly try t o penetrate these markets. This will require the production of onions possessing the traits desired by consumers in these potential markets but the Indian resea rch system is well equipped to develop such varieties. References Kumar, Praduman. 1996. Market Prospects for Upland Crops in India. CGPRT Centre, Working Paper Series No. 20 Paroda, R. S. 1999. Towards Sustainable Agricultural Exports – New Paradigms. Presidential Address, Fourth Agricultural Science Congress, Jaipur, India.
Singh, Narendra and Netra Pal. 1996. Bulb and Root Vegetables. In Fifty Years of Crop Science Research in India, R. S. Paroda and K. L. Chadha (eds.), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
Table 1: Area and production of vegetables in India Year 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 Area (‘000 ha) Production (‘000 mt) Onion Vegetables Onion Vegetables 331.8 5593 4705.8 58532 380.2 5045 5704.7 63806 367.5 4876 4006.4 65787 378.6 5013 4036.1 67286 395.5 5335 4080.0 71594 410.0 5515 4180.0 75074 340.0 5607 3140.0 72683 480.6 5866 5466.7 87536
Source: Indian Horticulture Database Millenium 2000, National Horticulture Board , Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Gurgaon, India. 2000.
Table 2: State-wise area and production of onion in India (TE 1998-99) State Area (‘000 ha) Andhra Pradesh 27.03 Bihar 19.87 159.67 Gujarat 30.73 837.37 Karnataka 84.80 Madhya Pradesh 21.30 Maharashtra 87.97 Orissa 45.27 270.00 Tamil Nadu 29.07 Uttar Pradesh 28.67 Others 35.50 273.73 India 683.53 6702.23 Production (‘000 mt) 392.67 486.13 295.53 981.20 246.57 319.37
Source: Indian Horticulture Database Millenium 2000, National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Gurgaon, India. 2000.
Table 3: Onion exports from India Year Quantity (tones) (000 rupees) Unit Value Rs./tonne Unit Value Dollars /tonne 1980 193700 277600 1433 1981 169800 294300 1733 1982 181300 311700 1719 1983 181500 354200 1952 1984 251100 543000 2162 1985 157500 292100 1855 1986 265900 584600 2199 1987 141000 421300 2988 Value
181 193 178 189 182 152 172 230
1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
214200 214200 240200 370900 271900 357100 401000 351000 427000 333000 216000
641700 641700 908800 1495900 1193600 1826700 2050000 2310000 2650000 2020000 1760000
2996 2996 3784 4033 4390 5115 5112 6581 6206 6066 8148
207 207 211 165 143 163 163 197 175 163 194
Table 4: Area planted to onion in India (million hectares) Year 1980-81 1985-86 1990-91 1995-96 1998-99 Area 0.25 0.28 0.30 0.40 0.48
Table 5: Major importers of fresh onions from India – 1997-98 Country Quantity (tonnes) Value (‘000 Rs.) Malaysia 78376 509586 UAE 85532 466339 Singapore 32441 302055 Sri Lanka 57208 288731 Bangladesh 50035 259739 Saudi Arabia 13114 92264 Mauritius 5096 29257 Kuwait 5067 26980 Bahrain 1633 12873 Maldives 807 4365 Others 3691 32421 Total number of markets: 36 Source: Export Statistics for Agro and Food Products, India, 1997-98. Agricultur al and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), 1999.
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