Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State

of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

CONTENTS

Sl. No. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6. 7. INTRODUCTION

Description

Page No. Es-1 to Es-12 1-1 to 1-3 2-1 to 2-64 3-1 to 3-36 4-1 to 4-26 5-1 to 5-13 6-1 to 6-9 7-1 to 7-4

PROJECT DESCRIPTION SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE TRAFFIC PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT RESETTLEMENT ACTION PLAN INCLUDING MAGNITUDE OF SOCIAL IMPACT COST ESTIMATE

Project Report 2-1

Project Description

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND National Highways Authority of India has decided to take up the development, maintenance and management of various National Highway corridors/sections under NHDP Phase-III Programme of 4/6 laning of 10,000 km on BOT basis where the intensity of traffic has increased significantly and there is requirement for augmentation of capacity for safe and efficient movement of traffic. The present project study is concerned with Kannur (km 148.00) – Kuttipuram (km 318.00) section of NH-17 in the State of Kerala. The project road has almost continuous ribbon development through out the project corridor. The existing road has configuration of two lane wide highway which is proposed to be upgraded to four-lane divided carriageway with paved shoulders partially access controlled highway.

1.2

CONSULTANCY SERVICES M/s Intercontinental Consultants & Technocrats Pvt. Ltd., A-8, Green Park, New Delhi, India was appointed as Consultants vide letter no NHAI/BOT/11012/58/13/2006/369 dated 30.03.2006 to carry out the Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report (DPR) for 4/6 laning of the section from Kannur (km 148.00) to Kuttipuram (km 318.00) of NH-17. This work has been assigned as Contract Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13. Location of the project road is depicted in Index Map placed as Fig. 1.1. The main objective of the consultancy services is to establish the technical, economical and financial viability of the project. The scope and principal objective of the consultancy services is contained in the Terms of Reference (TOR) of the consultancy services, which is a part of the contract agreement.

1.3

PROJECT DESCRIPTION NH-17 a British era road, originally named as West Coast Road takes off at Panaval (near Mumbai) and terminates at Edappally in Cochin. The highway passes through Goa, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Kuttipuram and finally terminates at Edapally (in Cochin) and joins NH-47. The highway was re-organised with its ‘zero’ chainage point at Mangalore. The Mangalore – Edapally section of the road was declared as NH in 1972 and alignment was subsequently modified in 1974. Section of NH-17 between Km 18.050 – 438.827 with a length of about 420 km falls in the state of Kerala. The road passes through Kasaragod (Km 50), Kannur (Km 148), Kozhikode (Km 245), Kuttipuram (km 318) and joins NH-47 at Edapally at Km 438.827. The Kannur – Kuttipuram section of the road falls mainly in the State of Kerala covering three districts of Kannur, Kozhikode and Mallapuram with 1.505 km falling in district Mahe of Pondicherry State.

1.3.1

Construction Packaging As per policy of NHAI the road project into be on BOT basis. As decided in consultation with NHAI by the project has been divided in Two Construction Packages (i) Km. 148.00 to Km. 230.00 and (ii) Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00. Accordingly the Draft Preliminary Project Report has been prepared package wise. This report pertains to Package – II.
Project Report 2-2

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

The stretch of project road passes through 2 districts of Kerala State. i) District Kozhikode in Kerala state at chainage Km 230.00 to Km 261.900 and ii) District Mallapuram (Kerala State) at chainage km 261.900 to km 318.000.

Project Report 2-3

Project Description

Index Map 1.1 1.3.2 Present Status MOSRT&H is responsible for development and maintenance of NH-17, Kerala PWD (NH) is at present maintaining the stretch of the project road. 1.3.3 Salient Features Index map of the section of project road is shown in Fig. 1.1. The National Highway having continuous ribbon development on both sides is functioning as an urban road. Topography The project road corridor runs through plain and rolling terrain in general except a stretches of hilly terrain. A brief report about terrain with, design speed is tabulated below Table 1.1.

Table 1.1: Terrain Classification
Sl. No. 1 2 3 1.3.4 Type of Terrain Plain Rolling Hilly Chainage (km 230.00 to km 318.000)
km 230.00 to km 263.00

km 280.00 to km 318.00 km 263.00 to km 280.00

Existing Route (RoW) The exiting RoW between Kozhikode - Kuttipuram varies widely at different locations, 11.00 m to 20.00 m in general and also >30m to even 40m short stretches at Talappara (km 276.00), Randathani (km 297.00) and Kuttipuram near end of project, the RoW varies from 30m to 40m.

1.3.5

Existing Carriageway The project road in general has more than 7m carriageway with few reaches having 5m to 6m carriageway. Paved shoulders have been provided at several locations. Divided carriageway exists only in small stretches at some urban areas.

1.4

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN AND INCEPTION REPORT In accordance with para 10.2 of the TOR, the Quality Assurance Plan and the Inception Report were submitted vide ICT:451:3309 dated 12.04.2006 and 4445 dated 06.05.2006 respectively.

1.5

FUNDING OPTION This project is envisaged to be implemented on public private partnership (PPP) and viability on Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) will be examined in detailed.

1.6

UTILITIES Several utilities like electric lines telephone / OFC, water line existing with in the ROW

1.7
• • •

BYPASSES
Kozhikode bypass- km 231.000 to km 263.08 - 32.08 km long Kottakkal - Edarikkode bypass- km 290.00 to km 294.50 – 4.50 km long Valanchery bypass- km 306.700 to km 311.000 - 4.3000 km long.

7.8

CONCLUSIONS
Project Report 2-4

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

The existing road will be improved to 4-lane configuration with service road on either side. •••

2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2.1 PROJECT INFLUENCE AREA Kerala is the state situated at the southern most tip of India and is the most green part of Country. As regards climate is concerned the temperature ranges from 35°C to 21°C. The raining season lasts from June to October. June to July rains are heavy and quite continuous, where as August to October rains are comparatively lighter and intermittent. The Kerala State as per census of 2003 has quantum of 27,45,948 vehicles. The state is a economically / financially sound and up coming state having world’s attraction specially towards Tourism due to its scenenic beauty and IT also. The vehicular traffic movement is increasing fast. Consequently the highways are overloaded and the present system is not capable to sustain the traffic quantum. The statistics indicates (i) the road accidents are increasing day by day (ii) travel time is increasing (iii) vehicle maintenance cost per km run is increasing and (iv) Road side amenities are inadequate. The highway needs upgradation on priority. The Kerala state has only 1560 km length of National Highways against total length of 66590 km of National Highway network of the country. At present, there are 8 numbers National Highways in the state. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 2.2.1 NH-17 NH-47 NH-47 A NH-49 NH-202 NH-208 NH-212 NH-213 : : : : : : : : Thalapadi Walayer Kundanoor Bodimettu Kollam Kollam Kozhikode Palakkad – Edappally (Cochin) – Kaliyikkavila – Willingoton Island (only 6.1 km long NH) – Kundannoor – Kumily – Aryankavu – Muthanga – Kozhikode

The NH-47, NH-212 and Nh-213 directly contribute traffic on the project road NH-17. Historical Background of the Project Road NH-17 originally during British period, named as West Coast Road originates near Panvel (near Mumbai) and terminates at Edapally in Cochin. The highway passes through Goa, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Kuttipuram and finally terminates at Edapally and joins NH-47 as shown is Fig. 1.1.

NH-17 was re-organised with its ‘Zero’ chainage point at Mangalore. The Mangalore – Edapally section of the road was declared as NH in 1972 and alignment was subsequently modified in 1974. This section of NH-17 between km 18.050 to km 438.827 with a length of about 421 km falls in the State of Kerala. The road passes through Kasaragod (km 50), Kannur (Km 155), Kozhikode (Km 245), Kuttipuram (Km 318) and finally terminates and joins NH-47 at Edapally at km 438.827.

Project Report 2-5

Project Description

The Kannur – Kuttipuram section of the road forms the stretch under the present project study and can be divided in three segments as district boundaries. The project road section falls under four districts Kannur, Mahe (Pondicherry), Kozhikode and Malappuram. 2.2.2 Project Influence Area i) Internal with in the state The traffic is generated from the following with in the Project Corridor. a) The project road section falls under three districts of Kerala State – Kannur, Kozhikode and Mallapuram and fourth district of Pondicherry State Mahe sandwiched between District Kannur of Kerala State. The road has urban development in the shape of ribbon development almost along the entire length i.e. more than 80% of the total length. NH-17 serves as the major pivotal road, which carries the generated traffic from its surroundings to other parts of the Kerala State and rest of the country. b) Traffic from other Highways
• • •

National Highways -

NH-212 and NH-213, NH-47

State Highways - SH-38, SH-36, SH-34, SH-30, SH-28 and MDRS Cochin Port - Cochin Port connectivity road intersecting NH-17 at km. 434.00.

ii) External from other states NHAI has developed the Golden Quadrilateral Corridor of NHDP connecting the four Metropolitan towns of Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, North-South and East West corridors. Salem – Kochi – Cherthalai -Thiruvananthapuram sections are under development as a spur to North South corridor. Development of NH-17 will attract more traffic from the region and will connect the Kerala State to Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra. NH-17 also connects these states to North south corridor at Salem through NH-47. 2.3 SALIENT FEATURES The reconnaissance of the project road section from Kannur to Kuttipuram was carried out during April 2006. Road and bridge inventory was done during April to June 2006. The project road starts from Valapattanam Bridge at km 148.000 North of Kannur town. The end point of project is at km 318.000 at Kuttipuram. Total Length is 170 kms. 2.3.1 Carriageway Width The road in general has two lanes carriageway with paved shoulders and total carriageway ranges between 7.00 m to 10.00 m wide in general. Detailed is given in Table 2.1. a) Undivided carriageway Table 2.1: Carriageway Width (Undivided) Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Chainage (km) 148.000 to 156.000 156.000 to 168.800 170.000 to 216.150 216.150 to 218.650 218.900 to 219.100 219.350 to 219.650 Configuration Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with out paved shoulders Two lane with out paved shoulders Two lane with out paved shoulders Width (m) 7.00 to 8.80 6.00 to 8.35 5.10 to 10.00 7.10 to 7.60 7.20 to 7.60 7.20

Project Report 2-6

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Sl. No. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Chainage (km) 219.900 to 258.600 259.600 to 269.500 270.200 to 290.800 292.600 to 318.000

Configuration Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders Two lane with and without paved shoulders

Width (m) 6.00 to 11.50 6.90 to 8.50 7.00 to 9.90 7.15 to 13.40

Project Report 2-7

Project Description

b) Divided Carriageway In the following reaches passing through urban/semi urban areas there is divided carriageway. Detailed is given in Table 2.2. Table 2.2: Carriageway Width (Divided) Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2.3.2 Location Chainage (Km) From 168.800 216.150 218.650 219.100 219.650 258.600 269.500 290.800 To 170.700 216.700 218.900 219.350 219.900 259.600 270.200 292.600 Carriageway Width (m) From 7.00 4.70 5.70 4.30 4.30 8.50 7.00 4.50 To 7.00 4.70 5.80 4.30 4.30 7.00 7.00 5.00 Centre Verge (m) 0.60 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.60 4.50 Shoulders (m) From 6.00 1.70 4.00 4.20 4.20 2.50 6.00 3.00 To 7.00 5.10 5.00 4.20 4.20 4.00 7.00 2.00

Shoulder Type and width

Existing road has earthen shoulders as well as paved shoulders. The earthen shoulders are in general 1 m wide except in a few reaches. Paved shoulders are not of uniform width ranging between 1.0 to 3.0 m. 2.3.3 Land Use
• • • •

Habitation close to the road almost along the entire length of the project corridor Religious structures Residential, commercial, institutional, Hospitals, markets etc. Agricultural having coconut plantation, paddy field in some reaches

2.3.4

River and Stream The project road crosses the following rivers and streams as given in Table2.3 below; Table 2.3: River and Streams on Project Road Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. Location Chainage (km) 149.000 172.000 174.000 175.000 203.500 233.000 248.000 24.000 (Kozhikode bypass) 282.000 319.000
Project Report 2-8

Name of River Valapatnam Anjarakandi Dharmadam Eranjolipuzha Kuttiady Korappuzha Kallai (A Diversion of Arappuzha)
Arappuzha

Kadalundipuzha Bharatapuzha

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

2.3.5

Crust Thickness of Existing Road

For the purpose of investigation, the road is divided into sections of 5 km stretch except where the condition changes. The detailed pavement thickness in different stretches are given in Table 2.4. Table No. 2.4: Pavement Crust Thickness Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Chainage (km) 145+000 150+000 155+000 160+000 165+000 170+000 175+000 180+000 185+000 190+000 (New Road) R/S 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 195+000 (New Road) 200+000 205+000 210+000 215+000 220+000 225+000 230+000 235+000 240+000 245+000 250+000 255+000 260+000 L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S 200 140 210 250 160 270 210 160 170 180 160 170 170 80 70 170 90 100 80 100 90 90 180 180 70 290 320 290 430 230 340 210 330 260 280 240 270 260 195 160 110 465 Location of Pit R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S 160 120 140 420 BC + DBM (mm) 110 115 120 130 180 200 260 150 140 70 160 WBM (mm) 110 160 140 160 100 80 WMM (mm) G.S.B (mm) 160 150 150 Morrom Total (mm) (mm) 130 120 220 275 260 290 440 430 410 350 420

Project Report 2-9

Project Description

Sl. No. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Chainage (km) 265+000 270+000 275+000 280+000 285+000 290+000 295+000 300+000 305+000 310+000 315+000

Location of Pit R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S L/S R/S

BC + DBM (mm) 160 200 180 135 120 150 190 210 185 200 200

WBM (mm) 150 90 100 80 100 110 70 100 90 100

WMM (mm) -

G.S.B (mm) -

Morrom Total (mm) (mm) 310 290 280 215 220 260 260 210 285 290 300

Rutting The sub-grade of the road is quite strong and maintenance is good, there are not much of rutting signs except at a few, locations. Rutting is a longitudinal depression or groove in the wheel tracks. The ruts are usually of the width of a wheel path. Swerving from a rutted wheel path at high speed can be dangerous. The depth of rut is measured by keeping the straight edge placing transversely across the wheel tracks and using graduated measuring wedge. The mean value for the wheel tracks is worked out. The observed rutting depth and the details about the stretches affected by Rutting are analysed. 2.3.6 Pot Hole Potholes are bowl shaped holes of varying sizes in a surface layer or extended into base layer, caused by the localized disintegrations of the usually thin bituminous surfacing material. The area covering majority of Pot holes was measured along with numbers and area in every 200m and the percentage area was worked out. The high way has potholes only at location of excessive braking before bridges, accident-prone areas at km 307.00 etc. Fig 2.1 shows such location. 2.3.7 Raveling

Fig 2.1: Road Condition at Bridge Approach - km 148.000

Raveling is characterized by the progressive disintegration of the surface due to the failure of the binder to hold the materials together. Raveling was measured at every 500m. 2.3.8 Loss of Materials

Project Report 2 - 10

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

The thickness of the WBM on shoulder was checked at every 500m intervals to assess the loss of the material. During field investigation it was observed that, materials along the shoulder was lost and require re-graveling to be done as early as possible as the extent of loss varies from 5 to 15 % 2.3.9 Cracking A common defect in bituminous surface is the formation of cracks. The area affected by cracking was measured by encircling and the extent of cracking was assessed visually at 200m intervals or the places of defects. 2.3.10 Undulations/Settlement Undulations and settlements in the road have observed only a sharp bends e.g. at km 306.000 and prior to changed built up areas. The road maintenance and traffic management is quite good. 2.3.11 Patching During field inspection, patching was observed on the entire project road. 2.3.12 Edge Breaking Irregular breakage of pavement edge was noticed in some portion of the road. 2.3.13 Edge Drop The edge drop is the vertical difference in levels between the edge of the carriageway and abutting shoulders. 2.3.14 Inventory of all Road Side Facilities The details of the road side amenities and facilities like school, dhabas, telephone booths, bus stop, hospital, hotel, repair shops etc. 2.4 ROAD MEASUREMENT DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (ROMDAS)
The roughness has been carried out for the whole length of the project road using Road Measurement Data Acquisition System (ROMDAS). The calibration of the ROMDAS has been done as per the procedure given in World Bank’s Technical Paper Number 46 (WTP-46). The surveys have covered two runs along the wheel paths for each lane and results have been expressed in the terms of IRI (m/km) and BI (mm/km) in tabular as well as graphical forms. In addition video survey has also been conducted for digitisation of whole project road to have a better in-house assessments and rectifications. 2.4.1 ROMDAS Road Measurement Data Acquisition System (ROMDAS) has been developed as a generic system for collecting a variety of information. The vehicle mounted equipment includes: an axle mounted device called Bump Integrator for the measurement of roughness; a Video camera and an IBM compatible notebook PC which interacts with the instrumentation to store recorded data. The video camera is used to record all pertinent information concerning the existing roadway and Right-ofWay (though, whenever necessary, this information may also be verified by physical inspection).

Project Report 2 - 11

Project Description

2.4.1.1

Road Roughness Surveys

The axle-mounted ROMDAS Survey Module is used to measure pavement roughness. This is an indication of the surface irregularities influencing the riding quality and is a major determinant of vehicle operating costs. ROMDAS works as a response type road roughness measuring system. The system has been calibrated by recording its response (RAW values) and comparing the same with that of a ROMDAS Z-250 Reference Profiler. ROMDAS Z-250 reference Profiler has been developed by Data Collection Ltd (DCL). The Calibration sections called standard sections have been divided into a number of smaller subsections of 100m lengths each. A total of 12 such “standard” points have been collected consisting of 400 lengths each. “Standard” sections vary from “very smooth” to “very poor” and at each section the Z250 has been run along the selected lane and roughness has been noted in terms of IRI (m/km).
ROMDAS vehicle has been run at Constant Speed of 32+2 km/hr on the “standard” section along the same selected lanes and ROMDAS response (RAW values) have been recorded. Using the software-NLREG the calibration equation has been developed between ROMDAS Response (RAW/km) and IRI (m/km). Calibration equation at 32km/hr:

Y = 1.468+0.00041*X

[R^2 = 0.98]

Where X is ROMDAS Response (RAW/km) and Y is IRI (m/km). IRI Roughness values have been converted into Bump Integrator Index (BI) by means of the equation given in HDM-III: BI = (312.5 x IRI) 1.124

Field data collected and analysed subsequently along each lane of the stretch have been expressed in terms of IRI (m/km) and BI (mm/km) and have been presented in both tabular and graphical forms in the following pages.
Limitations as Per MOSRT&H/World Bank The following guidelines for road roughness in terms of IRI (m/km) and BI (mm/km) for different surface types have been considered for assessing the road condition.

a) Recommended Roughness values (BI units) by MORT&H Circulation No. RW/NH33044/10/2000-S&R dated 22nd May 2000

Surface Type
Bituminous Concrete Premix Bituminous Carpet Surface Dressing

Good (mm/km) 2000-2500 2500-4500 4000-5000

Average (mm/km) 2500-3500 4500-5500 5000-6500

Poor (mm/km) 3500-4000 5500-6500 6500-7500

Very Poor (mm/km) >4000 >6500 >7500

As per World Bank Technical Publication No. 46 the minimum and maximum range of BI and IRI for new pavements is as follows, but the type of surface has not been mentioned. Minimum IRI (BI) in m/km (mm/km) 1.5 (1000) Maximum IRI (BI) in m/km (mm/km) 3.4 (2500)

New Pavements

Project Report 2 - 12

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Observations

Based on the Roughness Measurement Studies the km-wise average roughness in IRI and BI Units of various lanes have been summarised in Table 2.5 (a) & 2.5 (b). The detailed 100mwise Roughness Measurement Studies have been given for project road main section and Kozhikode bypass. Table 2.5 (a): Roughness Measurement Studies (km 148.000 - km 318.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram Chainage (km) 148-149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 3.51 2613.16 4.20 3200.37 3.27 2414.35 3.21 2363.74 2.93 2133.62 3.27 2411.63 3.14 2309.52 3.34 2469.51 2.97 2161.82 3.79 2846.88 4.00 3027.59 4.23 3221.78 3.17 2330.17 2.67 1921.79 2.67 1918.15 3.16 2322.72 2.84 2061.29 3.91 2947.51 5.39 4229.24 5.56 4379.31 4.91 3809.79 5.05 3929.08 6.59 5306.77 4.52 3467.85 4.77 3684.48 3.66 2739.05 3.55 2649.90 3.56 2654.02 5.12 3991.22 6.31 5050.76 5.87 4657.37 4.64 3577.76 3.98 3010.85 Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 3.15 2311.89 3.33 2462.52 3.59 2676.02 3.89 2938.20 3.24 2387.50 3.26 2400.93 3.01 2202.18 3.11 2282.96 2.97 2165.18 2.95 2149.40 2.98 2177.28 3.13 2294.46 3.46 2567.57 3.30 2438.55 3.71 2780.12 3.52 2624.82 2.77 2003.23 2.87 2082.53 2.94 2137.31 3.36 2492.09 3.53 2627.92 3.76 2827.75 3.75 2814.69 3.99 3018.23 2.68 1930.75 2.93 2130.46 2.48 1767.30 2.57 1844.55 2.55 1827.54 2.61 1872.84 2.69 1939.71 2.93 2131.22 2.77 2002.57 2.81 2031.93 3.65 2731.12 3.78 2839.31 5.65 4458.93 5.52 4344.09 5.34 4183.32 5.45 4281.32 4.97 3859.89 4.94 3834.84 5.75 4551.83 5.40 4240.46 7.31 5959.44 6.95 5633.11 6.06 4827.74 5.29 4147.79 5.70 4507.72 5.23 4096.10 3.36 2491.34 3.51 2615.20 3.06 2239.92 3.31 2444.91 3.60 2684.97 3.58 2669.49 3.45 2566.55 4.29 3278.88 3.42 2540.20 4.87 3795.48 4.21 3202.83 5.04 3930.10 3.25 2393.96 3.94 2985.86 4.00 3023.05 3.99 3016.95

Project Report 2 - 13

Project Description

Chainage (km) 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 4.01 3032.82 4.24 3230.21 3.87 2919.36 3.79 2851.03 3.55 2646.80 4.40 3364.66 3.85 2899.23 3.68 2754.92 3.84 2890.90 3.26 2404.49 3.44 2554.91 3.21 2362.38 2.87 2084.03 4.59 3534.46 6.17 4922.19 5.65 4465.84 3.04 2224.75 3.09 2261.52 4.33 3307.92 4.17 3174.07 4.18 3175.82 4.09 3106.50 4.61 3549.36 4.15 3155.15 3.99 3018.52 3.61 2694.26 2.76 1997.90 2.58 1851.96 2.77 2005.90 2.60 1861.87 2.55 1824.90 2.45 1747.92 2.47 1758.43 4.04 3057.24 3.75 2813.31 3.13 2300.38 2.75 1984.25 2.85 2066.64 2.87 2082.36

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 3.80 2859.35 3.91 2946.08 3.83 2885.00 4.04 3057.60 3.80 2854.84 3.84 2887.10 3.15 2311.21 3.47 2581.12 4.57 3512.83 4.06 3079.82 4.21 3207.74 4.30 3286.20 3.40 2516.95 3.62 2708.09 3.58 2670.18 3.63 2712.55 3.57 2666.74 3.71 2778.82 3.11 2278.41 3.18 2341.45 3.18 2339.66 3.31 2447.28 3.02 2209.25 3.12 2285.81 2.92 2121.21 2.89 2102.62 4.50 3457.94 4.55 3496.20 5.87 4656.27 6.02 4789.23 4.82 3732.62 5.24 4099.23 2.74 1979.93 2.89 2102.34 3.30 2440.55 3.19 2351.04 4.03 3053.40 4.18 3180.66 3.42 2536.09 3.80 2855.08 3.73 2801.55 3.95 2988.69 4.07 3085.88 4.08 3096.19 4.48 3434.24 4.54 3491.80 3.94 2977.77 4.05 3066.46 3.77 2829.57 3.88 2924.04 2.97 2165.85 3.29 2430.06 2.80 2024.90 2.78 2011.40 2.58 1849.98 2.58 1850.97 2.59 1853.28 2.68 1929.59 2.33 1649.12 2.46 1755.50 2.60 1865.84 2.58 1845.37 2.48 1765.65 2.47 1756.79 2.36 1676.21 2.42 1717.32 4.03 3052.00 4.03 3054.62 3.59 2681.18 3.67 2747.24 2.79 2015.23 2.96 2157.81 2.64 1898.26 2.69 1941.26 2.68 1928.76 2.76 1997.70 2.79 2018.23 2.83 2050.30

Project Report 2 - 14

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Chainage (km) 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 2.65 1902.24 3.03 2217.00 3.28 2423.88 2.64 1898.60 3.63 2711.13 3.04 2224.75 2.97 2161.82 2.63 1890.32 2.76 1996.90 2.66 1912.51 2.69 1935.73 3.00 2186.36 4.22 3211.60 4.25 3242.85 2.64 1896.94 2.77 2001.23 2.96 2157.79 3.31 2447.70 3.34 2473.61 2.78 2013.90 3.10 2275.03 3.00 2192.76 2.88 2090.06 2.92 2124.56 3.07 2249.70 3.01 2196.46 2.95 2151.75 3.15 2313.24 2.88 2095.08 2.92 2127.58 2.88 2092.74 2.73 1967.95 2.79 2019.90 3.05 2232.84 2.58 1848.33 2.75 1982.59 3.10 2272.66 3.18 2340.34 2.87 2087.71

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 2.72 1961.30 2.68 1931.77 3.10 2269.28 3.06 2243.14 2.91 2115.51 3.10 2269.69 2.77 1999.57 2.70 1949.08 3.45 2559.70 3.54 2635.42 2.73 1967.29 2.88 2096.02 2.86 2074.33 2.91 2118.08 2.57 1842.06 2.60 1866.19 2.74 1978.60 2.75 1987.75 2.65 1905.22 2.65 1908.87 2.61 1870.80 2.65 1903.26 2.91 2118.87 2.95 2152.61 3.53 2633.07 3.88 2922.33 4.53 3483.42 4.39 3363.14 3.40 2524.81 3.02 2210.88 2.67 1922.79 2.72 1962.01 2.68 1932.74 2.82 2045.27 3.25 2393.96 3.28 2420.83 3.00 2187.04 3.17 2330.32 2.79 2014.90 2.78 2014.40 2.86 2077.01 2.98 2176.02 2.87 2082.70 2.94 2137.73 3.10 2271.31 2.99 2180.68 2.98 2176.95 2.95 2150.76 3.02 2207.90 3.05 2228.80 2.80 2029.90 2.91 2113.18 4.53 3483.07 3.74 2817.41 3.14 2306.13 3.15 2309.69 2.83 2053.94 2.86 2074.51 2.73 1972.28 2.83 2049.93 2.79 2019.23 2.84 2055.98 2.91 2117.52 2.82 2042.74 2.83 2048.93 2.81 2034.41 2.70 1942.37 2.87 2087.60 2.80 2028.24 2.69 1938.28 2.82 2045.93 2.78 2014.26 2.54 1815.01 2.82 2043.84 2.80 2025.23 2.99 2182.79 2.72 1963.30 2.80 2025.51

Project Report 2 - 15

Project Description

Chainage (km) 260 261 262 263 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 2.82 2044.26 2.91 2119.20 2.66 1909.53 2.85 2068.65 3.11 2279.59 3.39 2510.96 2.89 2102.56 3.36 2490.21 3.40 2519.57 4.13 3135.92 3.45 2566.62 3.87 2914.50 3.29 2427.32 3.35 2478.48 3.24 2388.35 3.26 2400.81 3.44 2552.89 3.18 2341.28 3.39 2515.65 3.54 2639.74 3.29 2426.54 3.67 2745.49 3.94 2977.46 3.23 2378.22 3.47 2583.51 3.56 2657.07 3.36 2490.21 3.66 2736.39 3.22 2370.44 3.56 2657.86 3.66 2738.37 3.41 2528.58 3.08 2259.07 2.60 1867.18 2.73 1969.04 2.98 2174.49 2.72 1959.89 2.66 1913.09 2.85 2068.42

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 2.88 2093.74 2.85 2069.00 2.69 1939.05 2.80 2029.12 2.77 2001.90 2.71 1955.71 2.75 1985.92 2.80 2027.28 2.98 2174.11 3.04 2226.85 3.44 2551.71 3.41 2531.33 3.24 2384.06 3.06 2243.31 3.17 2333.90 3.27 2412.06 3.34 2474.96 3.37 2497.27 3.37 2496.08 3.75 2816.00 2.91 2113.70 3.18 2340.16 3.48 2586.65 3.67 2750.57 3.16 2323.80 3.22 2375.56 2.96 2159.08 3.16 2318.78 3.08 2258.68 3.16 2323.52 3.63 2713.87 3.44 2557.34 3.38 2506.26 3.41 2529.57 3.41 2525.84 3.29 2433.56 3.40 2521.53 3.40 2518.59 3.53 2628.72 3.54 2634.23 3.53 2632.26 3.41 2529.40 3.46 2567.02 3.56 2656.25 3.49 2594.51 3.72 2785.99 3.46 2571.33 3.34 2474.78 3.43 2543.48 3.45 2563.49 3.44 2554.46 3.50 2605.76 3.38 2503.13 3.37 2496.67 3.50 2607.08 3.58 2671.74 3.47 2578.79 3.34 2474.62 3.91 2949.55 3.74 2803.70 3.52 2620.85 3.59 2679.61 3.23 2381.34 3.32 2454.96 2.85 2064.97 2.97 2162.02 2.62 1878.55 2.61 1872.86 2.55 1821.39 2.64 1895.21 2.70 1948.47 2.84 2061.48 2.65 1901.32 2.68 1930.61 2.51 1793.82 2.59 1853.46 2.72 1965.23 2.79 2016.82

Project Report 2 - 16

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Chainage (km) 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 Average Max. Min.

First Run IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) per km per km 2.62 1884.62 2.93 2131.76 2.68 1929.06 2.69 1938.95 2.64 1899.42 2.48 1768.94 2.71 1951.89 3.33 2464.80 5.76 4558.66 2.98 2176.81 3.05 2233.16 3.14 2309.06 3.10 2274.56 3.14 2309.44 3.20 2358.38 3.26 2400.81 3.02 2207.28 3.04 2222.73 4.48 3433.96 3.50 2612.15 6.59 5306.77 2.45 1747.92

Second Run Average of both runs IRI BI IRI BI (m/km) (mm/km) (m/km) per (mm/km) per km per km km per km 2.84 2063.44 2.73 1974.03 2.97 2168.33 2.95 2150.05 2.70 1949.23 2.69 1939.14 2.69 1937.05 2.69 1938.00 2.84 2062.67 2.74 1981.05 2.64 1897.90 2.56 1833.42 3.10 2273.40 2.90 2112.65 4.67 3605.87 4.00 3035.34 4.35 3323.51 5.05 3941.09 2.78 2012.55 2.88 2094.68 3.19 2343.22 3.12 2288.19 3.07 2249.40 3.11 2279.23 3.23 2380.95 3.17 2327.75 3.18 2337.01 3.16 2323.23 3.35 2476.13 3.28 2417.26 3.23 2381.73 3.24 2391.27 2.86 2078.39 2.94 2142.83 3.07 2246.69 3.05 2234.71 4.17 3168.44 4.32 3301.20 3.35 2489.85 3.42 2551.00 7.31 5959.44 6.95 5633.11 2.33 1649.12 2.42 1717.32

Project Report 2 - 17

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Roughness Measurement Studies (km 148.000 - km 208.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 151 153 155 157 159 161 163 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 181 183 185 187 189 191 193 195 197 199 201 203 205 148-149 207

IRI-(m/km)

Chainage-(km)

Project Report 2- 13

Project Description

Roughness Measurement Studies (km 209.000 - km 269.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram
5 5 4 4

IRI-(m/km)

3 3 2 2 1 1 0 209 211 213 215 217 219 221 223 225 227 229 231 233 235 237 239 241 243 245 247 249 251 253 255 257 259 261 263 266 268

Chainage-(km)

Project Report 2- 14

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Roughness Measurement Studies (km 270.000 - km 318.000) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram

6

5

IRI-(m/km)

4

3

2

1

0 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318

Chainage-(km)

Project Report 2- 15

Traffic

Table 2.5 (b): Roughness Measurement Studies (Kozhikode Bypass) Direction: Kannur to Kuttipuram First Run Chainage (km) IRI (m/km) per km 2.67 2.45 2.51 2.72 2.64 2.60 2.62 2.50 3.25 3.09 2.56 2.51 2.72 2.68 3.25 2.45 BI (mm/km) per km 1923.45 1741.03 1788.67 1963.96 1896.28 1863.86 1881.05 1786.69 2393.96 2264.22 1831.50 1788.67 1961.97 1929.64 2393.96 1741.03 Second Run IRI (m/km) per km 2.74 2.69 2.48 2.70 2.71 2.52 2.55 2.46 3.11 3.19 2.65 2.56 2.63 2.69 3.19 2.46 BI (mm/km) per km 1975.27 1935.40 1768.61 1945.69 1956.98 1803.15 1828.53 1755.80 2281.45 2348.81 1905.55 1833.48 1891.31 1940.77 2348.81 1755.80 Average of both runs IRI (m/km) per km 2.70 2.57 2.49 2.71 2.68 2.56 2.59 2.48 3.18 3.14 2.60 2.53 2.68 2.69 3.18 2.48 BI (mm/km) per km 1949.36 1838.21 1778.64 1954.83 1926.63 1833.50 1854.79 1771.25 2337.70 2306.52 1868.52 1811.07 1926.64 1935.20 2337.70 1771.25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Average Max. Min.

Roughness Measurement Studies (Kozhikode Bypass) Direction: Kozhikode Bypass

4 3 3 IRI-(m/km) 2 2 1 1 0 0-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Chainage-(km) 13

Project Report 4-16

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

2.4.2

Deflection Survey Methodology Benkelman Beam Deflection (BBD) Test
BBD Test has been done as per the requirements stipulated in TOR and in accordance with guidelines given in IRC: 81 – 1997. For measuring pavement deflection, the CGRA procedure, which is based on testing under static load, was adopted. Results of BBD test are summarised in Table 2.6.

Table 2.6: Summary of Pavement Condition Survey Chainage (km) From 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 148.00 149.00 150.00 151.00 152.00 153.00 154.00 155.00 156.00 157.00 158.00 159.00 160.00 161.00 162.00 163.00 164.00 165.00 166.00 167.00 168.00 169.00 170.00 171.00 172.00 173.00 To 149.00 150.00 151.00 152.00 153.00 154.00 155.00 156.00 157.00 158.00 159.00 160.00 161.00 162.00 163.00 164.00 165.00 166.00 167.00 168.00 169.00 170.00 171.00 172.00 173.00 174.00 Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 0.965 0.986 0.932 1.021 1.020 0.958 0.883 0.959 1.092 0.840 0.913 1.029 0.910 0.979 0.912 0.659 0.932 1.009 1.154 1.406 1.366 0.969 0.756 1.175 1.299 1.516 Right 1.005 0.838 0.850 0.932 0.869 0.866 0.883 0.874 0.898 0.876 0.976 1.184 1.089 1.029 1.074 0.766 0.965 1.355 1.139 0.891 1.289 1.182 1.337 1.033 0.991 1.100 Maximum 1.005 0.986 0.932 1.021 1.020 0.958 0.883 0.959 1.092 0.876 0.976 1.184 1.089 1.029 1.074 0.766 0.965 1.355 1.154 1.406 1.366 1.182 1.337 1.175 1.299 1.516 0.985 0.912 0.891 0.977 0.944 0.912 0.883 0.916 0.995 0.858 0.945 1.106 0.999 1.004 0.993 0.713 0.949 1.182 1.146 1.148 1.328 1.076 1.046 1.104 1.145 1.308 Average Deflection

S. No.

Project Report 4-17

Traffic

S. No. From 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Chainage (km) To 175.00 176.00 177.00 178.00 179.00 180.00 181.00 182.00 183.00 184.00 185.00 186.00 187.00 188.00 189.00 190.00 191.00 192.00 193.00 194.00 195.00 196.00 197.00 198.00 199.00 200.00 201.00 202.00 203.00 204.00 205.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 2.340 2.442 1.513 0.933 0.835 0.930 0.822 0.820 1.282 0.866 2.063 0.666 1.219 1.531 1.401 1.394 1.538 1.418 0.939 0.958 1.395 0.996 1.286 0.975 1.670 1.337 1.432 1.936 1.736 1.139 0.877 Right 0.995 1.890 1.599 1.276 0.863 0.977 1.076 1.180 0.816 1.152 0.832 0.669 1.316 0.668 1.301 1.406 1.426 1.286 1.141 0.691 0.984 1.168 0.916 1.192 0.867 1.435 1.091 2.085 1.213 1.005 1.488 Maximum 2.340 2.442 1.599 1.276 0.863 0.977 1.076 1.180 1.282 1.152 2.063 0.669 1.316 1.531 1.401 1.406 1.538 1.418 1.141 0.958 1.395 1.168 1.286 1.192 1.670 1.435 1.432 2.085 1.736 1.139 1.488

Average Deflection 1.667 2.166 1.556 1.104 0.849 0.954 0.949 1.000 1.049 1.009 1.448 0.668 1.267 1.100 1.351 1.400 1.482 1.352 1.040 0.825 1.189 1.082 1.101 1.083 1.269 1.386 1.262 2.010 1.475 1.072 1.182

174.00 175.00 176.00 177.00 178.00 179.00 180.00 181.00 182.00 183.00 184.00 185.00 186.00 187.00 188.00 189.00 190.00 191.00 192.00 193.00 194.00 195.00 196.00 197.00 198.00 199.00 200.00 201.00 202.00 203.00 204.00

Project Report 4-18

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

S. No. From 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Chainage (km) To 206.00 207.00 208.00 209.00 210.00 211.00 212.00 213.00 214.00 215.00 216.00 217.00 218.00 219.00 220.00 221.00 222.00 223.00 224.00 225.00 226.00 227.00 228.00 229.00 230.00 231.00 232.00 233.00 234.00 235.00 236.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 0.926 1.051 0.855 0.540 0.913 1.229 1.135 0.952 1.675 1.392 1.247 1.341 1.224 1.438 1.371 1.050 0.900 1.027 1.185 1.477 2.519 1.872 2.037 1.220 1.020 1.136 1.186 1.349 1.333 1.952 1.881 Right 1.178 0.972 0.798 0.895 0.940 1.015 1.051 1.121 1.172 1.446 2.342 1.622 1.470 2.150 1.451 1.238 1.181 1.803 1.270 1.058 1.468 1.387 1.132 1.249 1.111 0.853 0.725 1.135 1.820 1.365 1.272 Maximum 1.178 1.051 0.855 0.895 0.940 1.229 1.135 1.121 1.675 1.446 2.342 1.622 1.470 2.150 1.451 1.238 1.181 1.803 1.270 1.477 2.519 1.872 2.037 1.249 1.111 1.136 1.186 1.349 1.820 1.952 1.881

Average Deflection 1.052 1.012 0.826 0.717 0.927 1.122 1.093 1.036 1.424 1.419 1.794 1.481 1.347 1.794 1.411 1.144 1.041 1.415 1.227 1.267 1.994 1.630 1.584 1.234 1.065 0.994 0.956 1.242 1.576 1.658 1.576

205.00 206.00 207.00 208.00 209.00 210.00 211.00 212.00 213.00 214.00 215.00 216.00 217.00 218.00 219.00 220.00 221.00 222.00 223.00 224.00 225.00 226.00 227.00 228.00 229.00 230.00 231.00 232.00 233.00 234.00 235.00

Project Report 4-19

Traffic

S. No. From 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119

Chainage (km) To 237.00 238.00 239.00 240.00 241.00 242.00 243.00 244.00 245.00 246.00 247.00 248.00 249.00 250.00 251.00 252.00 253.00 254.00 255.00 256.00 257.00 258.00 259.00 260.00 261.00 262.00 263.00 264.00 265.00 266.00 267.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 1.549 1.699 1.682 1.293 1.692 1.160 0.963 1.037 1.504 1.105 1.282 1.282 1.154 1.201 1.749 1.792 1.318 3.418 0.836 0.953 1.813 1.452 0.815 1.139 0.714 0.975 0.975 0.855 0.972 1.117 1.015 Right 1.102 1.036 1.923 1.346 1.456 1.812 1.422 1.364 1.038 1.478 1.390 1.118 0.992 1.036 0.880 1.220 1.601 1.142 0.761 0.896 1.191 1.291 1.199 0.882 0.856 0.883 0.883 0.875 0.848 1.370 0.996 Maximum 1.549 1.699 1.923 1.346 1.692 1.812 1.422 1.364 1.504 1.478 1.390 1.282 1.154 1.201 1.749 1.792 1.601 3.418 0.836 0.953 1.813 1.452 1.199 1.139 0.856 0.975 0.975 0.875 0.972 1.370 1.015

Average Deflection 1.326 1.367 1.802 1.319 1.574 1.486 1.193 1.201 1.271 1.193 1.336 1.200 1.073 1.119 1.315 1.506 1.460 2.280 0.799 0.925 1.502 1.372 1.007 1.011 0.785 0.929 0.929 0.865 0.910 1.244 1.005

236.00 237.00 238.00 239.00 240.00 241.00 242.00 243.00 244.00 245.00 246.00 247.00 248.00 249.00 250.00 251.00 252.00 253.00 254.00 255.00 256.00 257.00 258.00 259.00 260.00 261.00 262.00 263.00 264.00 265.00 266.00

Project Report 4-20

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

S. No. From 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

Chainage (km) To 268.00 269.00 270.00 271.00 272.00 273.00 274.00 275.00 276.00 277.00 278.00 279.00 280.00 281.00 282.00 283.00 284.00 285.00 286.00 287.00 288.00 289.00 290.00 291.00 292.00 293.00 294.00 295.00 296.00 297.00 298.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 1.044 0.974 1.275 1.052 1.072 1.050 0.939 1.061 0.995 1.088 1.023 1.062 0.691 0.821 1.504 1.243 0.920 0.928 1.061 1.170 0.968 1.101 1.029 0.802 0.895 0.809 0.511 0.845 0.537 0.494 0.835 Right 1.021 0.782 1.383 0.821 1.576 1.029 1.117 0.866 0.658 1.156 0.801 1.032 1.125 1.059 0.956 0.989 1.168 0.806 1.160 1.035 0.661 1.020 1.046 1.118 0.794 0.502 0.658 0.585 0.804 0.950 1.053 Maximum 1.044 0.974 1.383 1.052 1.576 1.050 1.117 1.061 0.995 1.156 1.023 1.062 1.125 1.059 1.504 1.243 1.168 0.928 1.160 1.170 0.968 1.101 1.046 1.118 0.895 0.809 0.658 0.845 0.804 0.950 1.053

Average Deflection 1.033 0.878 1.329 0.936 1.324 1.039 1.028 0.963 0.826 1.122 0.912 1.047 0.908 0.940 1.230 1.116 1.044 0.867 1.111 1.103 0.814 1.060 1.038 0.960 0.844 0.656 0.584 0.715 0.670 0.722 0.944

267.00 268.00 269.00 270.00 271.00 272.00 273.00 274.00 275.00 276.00 277.00 278.00 279.00 280.00 281.00 282.00 283.00 284.00 285.00 286.00 287.00 288.00 289.00 290.00 291.00 292.00 293.00 294.00 295.00 296.00 297.00

Project Report 4-21

Traffic

S. No. From 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171

Chainage (km) To 299.00 300.00 301.00 302.00 303.00 304.00 305.00 306.00 307.00 308.00 309.00 310.00 311.00 312.00 313.00 314.00 315.00 316.00 317.00 318.00 319.00

Benkelman Beam Deflection (mm) Left 0.717 1.094 0.557 0.414 0.721 0.775 0.744 0.565 1.057 0.916 0.598 0.448 1.521 0.729 1.080 1.170 0.467 0.767 0.739 1.660 0.823 Right 0.784 1.239 0.679 0.784 0.674 0.947 0.985 0.943 1.053 0.919 0.647 0.729 1.371 1.228 0.779 0.854 0.446 0.322 0.688 1.361 0.420 Maximum 0.784 1.239 0.679 0.784 0.721 0.947 0.985 0.943 1.057 0.919 0.647 0.729 1.521 1.228 1.080 1.170 0.467 0.767 0.739 1.660 0.823

Average Deflection 0.750 1.167 0.618 0.599 0.698 0.861 0.865 0.754 1.055 0.918 0.623 0.589 1.446 0.978 0.929 1.012 0.456 0.544 0.713 1.511 0.621

298.00 299.00 300.00 301.00 302.00 303.00 304.00 305.00 306.00 307.00 308.00 309.00 310.00 311.00 312.00 313.00 314.00 315.00 316.00 317.00 318.00

Delineation of Homogenous Sections For analysis and design of pavements, project roads was divided into sections which can be considered homogeneous with respect to traffic, terrain, pavement condition, existing pavement crust, subgrade soil and BBD. Cumulative difference approach (CDA), as described in AASHTO guide for pavement design (1993), was used for delineating homogenous sections w.r.t. BBD. Homogenous sections as per BBD results are tabulated in Table 2.7 below
Table 2.7: Homogeneous Section Sl. No.

From (km) 230.000 257.000

To (km) 257.000 319.000 Total Length
Project Report 4-22

Length (m) 27 61 88

1. 2. 3.

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

2.5

RAILWAY CROSSINGS 9 nos. railway crossings on the project road are presented in Table 2.8 Table 2.8: List of Railway Crossing Kannur to Kuttipuram Section Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Name of ROB Kannur Kannur Muzhuppilangari Chorode Nantai Bazar Chengottukavo Vengnam Vengali Kuttipuram Chainage (km) 161.600 166.700 171.200 196.300 214.500 224.000 231.300 237.500 317.500 Present Status Level Crossing Level Crossing ROB Under construction ROB ROB Under construction ROB ROB Under construction ROB ROB No. of lanes 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2.6

SUBGRADE AND MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS

2.6.1 SUB-GRADE CHARACTERISTICS
This section describes the field and laboratory investigations to determine the subgrade characteristics beneath existing pavement and also to characterize the foundation soils in the project corridor, in the existing ROW, proposed ROW and bypasses.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS
The objective of material investigations is to locate potential sources of borrow soils, sand, gravel and rock quarries with in the project vicinity, and to examine the engineering properties of the materials.
The Survey and Investigations of subgrade soil and highway construction materials were taken-up to identify strength characteristics of existing subgrade soil and suitability of the other available materials of construction for embankment, subgrade, sub-base, base and top layers (bituminous/concrete) of road pavement. The other object of the study is to determine the engineering properties of: Subgrade soil of the existing road pavement Borrow areas material such as soil for use in the embankment and subgrade Quarries for locating suitable stone aggregates for use in Wet Mix Macadam (WMM), Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM), Bituminous Concrete (BC) and Cement Concrete works Sand for use in bituminous mixes and cement concrete works Sources of Water for construction The investigation comprised of visiting the site, discussions with the local PWD officers, collection of samples and testing the samples in the field as well main laboratory. The tests included checking field density of the sub-grade, field moisture content, thickness of pavement and DCP (Dynamic Cone Penetration) test as per TRRL (UK) Road No. 8 to

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correlate the result of penetration (mm) per blow with the field CBR. Collection of sub-grade soil and construction material samples for the following laboratory tests. Sieve Analysis Atterberg Limits Modified Proctor Compaction test Laboratory CBR and Swell Percentage. 2.7 COLLECTION OF SAMPLES Samples of soil/construction materials were collected from subgrade of existing road, borrow areas, stone metal / sand quarries and water source. The following procedure was followed: i) ii) iii) iv) v) 2.8 Sub grade soil samples from existing road. Soil samples from borrow areas Stone metal samples crushers/quarries Fine Aggregates Water sample from : : : : : One sample for every 5 km along the project road was collected. One sample from the middle of each borrow area was collected. Samples of various sizes of each source of material from respective crushers. One sample from each respective source. One from each source (Pond/boring water/well /river)

TESTS AND TESTING PROCEDURES Test and testing procedures adopted for various field and laboratory tests are given below. Soils Water Content Determination Sieve Analysis Atterberg Limits Laboratory Compaction Test(Modified Proctor Test) CBR at 3 energy levels Aggregates Sieve Analysis Flakiness and Elongation Index Specific Gravity and Water Absorption Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) Soundness by Sodium Sulphate / Magnesium Sulphate Water Ph Value, Chlorides, Sulphate (SO3), Acidity, Alkalinity, Organic, Inorganic impurities Field Tests
Project Report 4-24

: : : : : : : : : :

IS 2720 (Part – 2) IS 2720 (Part – 4) IS 2720 (Part – 5) IS 2720 (Part – 8) IS 2720 (Part – 16) IS 383 – 1997 IS 2386 (Part – 1) IS 2386 (Part – 3) IS 2386 (Part – 4) IS 2386 (Part – 5)

MORST&H Specification Clause 1010, IS:456

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Field Density of Subgrade Field moisture content of subgrade DCP (Dynamic Cone Penetration Test)

IS:2720 (Part 28) IS:2720 (Part 2) As per TRRL (U.K.) Road Note No. 8

ISC (Indian Soil Classification System) IS 1498-1970 has been adopted for classifying soil into various groups. 2.9 INVESTIGATION OF SUBGRADE SOIL For Feasibility study, test pits were dug and field tests done at 5 km intervals (staggered). A total of 37 samples were collected along the project road and soil samples from these pits were tested in Laboratory established by the consultant Intercontinental consultants & technocrats Pvt. Ltd. at Calicut. A detailed investigation with three samples for each homogenous section or three samples for each soil type encountered along the project road (whichever is more) shall be done and reported in the Detailed Project Report. The size of test pit was 60 cm x 60 cm and depth extending up to subgrade level. The following field tests were conducted in each pit. Visual identification of soil Field density of the sub-grade with sand replacement method/core cutter Field moisture content Dynamic Cone Penetration test (DCP) of sub-grade extending up to about 80 cm depth Checking total thickness of the pavement After performing the test in each pit, about 40 kg of soil sample was collected in a gunny bag. The identification mark and location of the sample were recorded and sent to the laboratory, established at site for conducting the following tests Particle size analysis Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Modified AASHTO Compaction test California Bearing Ratio test (CBR) in unsoaked and 4 days soaked conditions at three energy levels corresponding to 10, 35 & 65 blows of heavy compaction rammer. The test data Table 2.9 shows that all the 37 nos. of sample are coarse grained in nature and belongs to GW-GM, GM, GC, SM & SC category as per IS soil Classification System (IS: 1498-1970). Fine fraction (passing 75 micron) varies from 8.0% to 41.1%. The Plasticity Index varies from NP to 12.4%. Laboratory Maximum Dry Density varies from 1.96 gm/cc to 2.18 gm/cc and Optimum Moisture Content is in the range of 7.4% to 13.3%. The CBR of the subgrade was determined for un-soaked and 4 days soaked conditions for three energy levels corresponding to 10, 35 & 65 blows of heavy compaction rammer. CBR of soil samples at 97% of Laboratory Maximum Dry Density was interpolated from the curve drawn between degree of compaction and CBR. It will be seen from the results that CBR value at 97% of Laboratory Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content varies from 9.4% to 22.4% for soaked condition and from 18% to 41% for un soaked condition. The field-test results of subgrade soil at 5 km interval along the project road is presented in Table 2.9. The degree of compaction of the subgrade varies from 88.5% to 94.5% of Laboratory Maximum Density and field moisture content is in the range 2.3% to 15.8%. DCP equipment as recommended by TRRL (U.K) vide Road Note No. 8 comprising 60º cone with a base diameter of 20 mm and 8 kg hammer dropping from a height of 575 mm was used for the DCP test. Number of blows and corresponding values of penetration in mm were
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recorded to a depth of about 826 mm. The DCP values (mm/blow) were then interpreted to insitu CBR by using the following TRRL equation: Log10 CBR = 2.48 – 1.057 log10 DCP (Penetration rate in mm/blow) It will be seen from the results that there is vast variation in the CBR value of sub-grade soil ranging from 10.80 to as high as 22.

Project Report 4-26

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.9

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2.10

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION

The materials commonly used in highway construction comprise of soil, gravel, hard stone metal, sand, cement, steel, bitumen and water. It is therefore very essential to identify the potential source of these materials near the project site so as to economize on the cost of construction besides early completion of the project. Borrow Area Soil Extensive survey was conducted to locate the potential source of borrow area soil required for the construction of embankment and subgrade. As many as 16 borrow areas located on both sides along the project road were identified. The locations, lead, ownership and quantity of borrow soil available are given in Table 2.10. The distance of these borrow areas from the road site vary from 100 m to 15.0 km as shown in the borrow areas Lead Chart placed in Fig. 2.2. The laboratory tests results of all the 16 samples are reported in Table 2.11. Summaries of the Laboratory results of samples are as follows. All the 16 samples are coarse grained in nature and falls in GC, SM, SM-SC & SC group as per IS: Soil Classification System) with fine fraction (passing 75 micron) varying from 10.5% to 48.3% and Plasticity Index varying from NP to 13.8%. Laboratory Maximum Dry Density varies from 1.87 gm/cc to 2.04 gm/cc and Optimum Moisture Content is in the range of 9.6% to 14.2%. Its soaked CBR at 97% Laboratory Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content is in the range 10.6% to 18.0%. All the borrow areas are suitable for construction purposes. Survey of Stone Quarry Extensive survey was conducted to locate the availability of stone metal near the project site. As a results of local enquiries and discussion with the local PWD officials, stone metal quarries were identified. Table 2.12 and Table 2.13 give list of stone metal Quarries and stone metal crushers. The location details and approximate quantity of material available are given in Fig. 2.3. Samples from different quarries have been collected from their respective crushers. One bag of each size of aggregate including stone dust has been collected from each of the crusher. The following Laboratory tests were conducted on Stone quarries samples. Sieve Analysis Specific Gravity Water Absorption Aggregate Impact value Combined Flakiness & Elongation Indices Soundness The results of the above tests are presented in Table 2.14 It can be seen from the results that stone metal from all the quarries is having AIV varying from 18.7% to 35.6%, specific gravity varies from 2.64 to 2.83 with water absorption from 0.5% to 0.8% and combined Flakiness and Elongation indices in the range of 21.7 to 44.8. The value of combined flakiness & elongation is exceeding the specified limit of 30%(MORST&H specification) in some stone samples. The sample limit can be achieved with in the specified limit by adjusting the crushing system. The value of soundness is varying from 2.8% to 3.4%.

Project Report 4-28

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.10

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Fig 2.2

Project Report 4-30

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.11

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Figure 2.3

Project Report 4-32

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.12

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Table 2.12

Project Report 4-34

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.13

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Table 2.13

Project Report 4-36

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.13

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Table 2.14

Project Report 4-38

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.15

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Sand Sand can be obtained from the river details given below: DETAILS OF RIVER SAND 1 River Name Village Dist Quantity K.M. Moidoapalam River Sand Marapilangdi Kannur 3000X200X2.0m=1200000m3 172+200

2 Name of the River Village Dist Quantity K.M.

Chalapara River Sand Chalapara Malappuram 5000X100X2.0m=1000000m3

3 Name of the River Village Dist Quantity K.M.

Bharthapuzha River Sand Kuttipuram Kuttipuram 3000X500X2m=3000000m3 319+000

Location chart of sand source is shown in Fig 2.4. The following tests have been conducted in the laboratory: Sieve Analysis Fineness Modulus Deleterious material percent The results are enclosed in Table 2.15. It will be seen from the results all the sample falls in Zone II. The fineness modulus varies from 2.59 to 2.71. The sand from all sources is recommended for use in DBM, BC and cement concrete works. The deleterious material percent is below 4 percent. Water Water samples were collected from four sources. One from river water, one from pond, one from boring and one from well, as detailed below. SOURCES OF WATER 1 River water Name of ther river K.M. Village Bharatha Puzha River 319+000 Kuttipuram

Project Report 4-40

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

2 Pond Water Name of the pond Village K.M. Lead from Size Koyilandi Pond Koyilandi 218+800 R/S 50 m. to NH-17 Length-200m. Birth -200m. Depth-5m. 3 Borings Water Depth CH. Dist 4 Well Water K.M. Quantity 280+000 L/S Depth-50 Ft. Birth-8 Ft. Lead NH-17 to 100 m. The following tests were conducted in the laboratory: Ph Value Acidity Alkalinity Chlorides CL Sulphate SO4 Organic and Inorganic The laboratory results of the above tests are tabulated in Table 2.16. From the results of the test data, it will be seen that water sample from well (Ch.280+000) left side is falling beyond the specified limit in terms of acidity. Rest of the samples are recommended for use in construction. Cement Ordinary Portland cement of grade 43 and 53, manufactured by various manufacturers are locally available. Portland Pozzolona Cement (Fly ash based) is also available locally. The material approved by DGSD can be procured directly from the local market. Structural Steel High strength deformed bars manufactured by various steel manufacturing companies confirming to IS 1786 are available with few stockiest. Majority of the retailers are selling re-rolled steel bars. Bitumen Bitumen is proposed to be brought from Kochi Refinery and Mangalore Refinery. 300 Ft. 245+000 L/S, Lead - 1Km. Calicut

Project Report 4-41

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Fig 2.4

Project Report 4-42

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

Table 2.16

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RIGHT OF WAY (ROW) The exiting RoW between Kannur – Kuttipuram varies widely at different locations, which is 11.00 m to 20.00 m in general and >30m to even 40m at some location in short stretches. Mahe town in Pondicherry records the narrowest RoW of 8 to 10m and 30m and above at near Edakkad (km 171.00) Vadakara (km 189.00 to 199.00). For the existing road widening to 4-lanes land as per actual requirement at site is proposed to be acquired. The project corridor passes through a heavily built up ribbon development the widening of the road will cause acquisition of large nos. structures and demolitions considering the scenario of State of Kerala the RoW for proposed project road has been proposed as 45m. It is proposed to acquire additional land for bus bays, Truck lay bys, Trauma Centre, Highway Petrol Police Centre, Toll Plazas PIU offices / residences etc. 2.11.1 Land Acquisition There are 3 bypasses on that project road in Construction Package-I. Two bypasses at Thalassery & Mahe, Koilandy towns have already been proposed by Kerala PWD and alignment approved by MOSRT&H, land acquisition for these 2 bypasses is at different stages of progress. The position regarding requirement of additional land along the Project road to make-up 45m ROW is given below: i) Existing Alignment Land acquisition along existing alignment to make up 45m land width-86.50 Hectares. ii) Kannur Bypass The land acquisition for Kannur bypass is to be done afresh. As there are built up structures all along ROW=45m has been proposed to affect minimum demolition of structures as per policy of NHAI in Kerala State. Land Acquisition is proposed for 45m-land width. From km 148.00 to km 167.000 for the bypass which is on the left of existing road. Total land requirement for the bypass is 76.95 hectares. iii) Thalassery & Mahe Bypass Position of land acquisition along this bypass ie km 171.00 to km 187.00 for acquiring 45m land width is as follows: From km 0.000 to km 9.742 land has been acquired and the land in balance of stretch is under acquisition. The MOSRT&H approved alignment has been followed in the project study. Total land required 81.14 Hector, land acquired – 44.10 Hector, land to be acquired – 37.04 Hector. iv) Koilandy Bypass Position of land acquisition along this bypass ie km 214.00 to km 225 for 45m land width as follows: The stretch of this bypass is as good as the existing road, the stretch is full of built up structures. MOSRT&H has approved alignment for RoW=30m, but the Consultants propose RoW of 45m along the alignment approved by MOSRT&H except with modification of the alignment at km 214.000 due to a Mosque and due to the approach of the ROB at km 214.200, which came up after the approval of alignment of the bypass. Land Required 45m ROW- 49.50 Hector. 2.12 ROAD GEOMETRY 2.12.1 General The design standards have been given in the Volume-II Design Report. The design of the road geometry for this project is based on the following general principles. • A uniform application of design standards for any area is essential from the viewpoint of road safety and the smooth flow of traffic. The selection of optimum design
Project Report 4-44

2.11

Consultancy Services for Feasibility Study and DPR for 4/6 lane Divided carriageway of NH-17, Kannur to Kuttipuram in the State of Kerala (Package No. NHDP-III/DL5/13) PKG-II (Km. 230.00 to Km. 318.00)

standards reduces the possibility of early obsolescence of the facility, which can be brought about by any inadequacy in the original standards.

Faulty geometric standards, after construction, are frequently difficult to rectify at a later date and they are always costly and create big inconvenience to the road user while rectification. Both horizontal and vertical geometry should be accorded due importance at the initial design stage itself and selected standards should not be compromised without the most careful deliberation. The design should thus be consistent within any area and the standards proposed for the different elements should be compatible with one another. It is sometimes necessary to reduce the selected design speed for economic reasons but any abrupt changes in the design speed must be avoided. The selected design should minimize the total transportation cost, including initial construction costs, costs for the maintenance of the facility and the costs borne by the road users. Safety should form an integral part of the design elements. “Ruling” standards will be followed as a matter of routine. “Limiting/Exceptional” standards will be followed only where serious restrictions are imposed by technical or economic considerations.

• •

2.12.2 Design Speed Choice of design speed depends on the function of the road and the terrain conditions. It is the basic parameter, which determines all other geometric design features. The ruling design speed for this project is proposed as 100 km/hr for plain terrain and 80km/hr for rolling terrain, 50 km/hr for hilly terrain & these speeds are generally used to determine the various geometric design features. Where site conditions or economic considerations do not permit the use of the ruling design speed, the design speed will be reduced in consultation with the client. The minimum design speed for National Highways in plain terrain is 80 km/hr and in rolling terrain 65 km/hr as stipulated in IRC:73-1980. Hill stretches are almost avoided and redesigned. If changes in the design speed prove unavoidable, such changes are introduced gradually by means of successive sections of increasing/decreasing design speed so that road users become progressively conditioned to the changes. At unavoidable locations substandard curves have been provided with reduced speed to save sensitive buildings / areas. Speed limit signboards will be installed at these locations. The need for warning signs has also been considered wherever reductions in design speed are unavoidable. The design speed w