Chapter Twelve


Trait Theory
Leadership Traits: represent the personal Traits

characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers.
Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by - intelligence - dominance - self-confidence - level of energy and activity - task-relevant knowledge Contemporary findings show that - people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and dominance - people want their leaders to be credible - credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent

Trait Theory (continued)
• Gender

and leadership

- men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively - women used a more democratic or participative style than men, and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women - men and women were equally assertive - women executives, when rated by their peers, managers and direct reports, scored higher than their male counterparts on a variety of effectiveness criteria

Behavioral Styles Theory

Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior. 1. Consideration: creating mutual respect and trust with followers 2. Initiating Structure: organizing and defining what group members should be doing University of Michigan Studies identified two leadership styles that were similar to the Ohio State studies - one style was employee centered and the other was job centered Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid represents four leadership styles found by crossing concern for production and concern for people

• Research shows that there is not one best style of leadership. The effectiveness of a particular leadership style depends on the situation at hand.

Skills and Best Practices: Tips for Improving Leader Effectiveness

Behavior Behaviors

Intensely listen to what others have to say. Determine the true cause of performance problems. Think through problems from all perspectives. Do not play favorites and find solutions that benefit everyone involved. Help others to learn from mistakes and errors. Explain the rationale for decisions and implement fair policies and procedures. Provide employees with the resources needed to do a job. Gently push people to advance into more demanding roles. Praise people for their good work. Focus on the positive whenever possible.

Examine Assist Develop Encourage Recognize

House’s Path-Goal Theory
Employee Characteristics - Locus of control - Task ability - Need for achievement - Experience - Need for clarity Leadership Styles Directive Supportive Participative Achievement oriented


Employee Attitudes and Behavior - Job satisfaction - Acceptance of leader - Motivation

Environmental Factors - Employee’s task - Authority system - Work group

Transactional versus Charismatic Leadership
Transactional Leadership: focuses on the
interpersonal interactions between managers and employees

Transactional Leaders

- use contingent rewards to motivate employees - exert corrective action only when employees fail to obtain performance goals

Transactional versus Charismatic Leadership (continued)

Charismatic Leadership: emphasizes symbolic
leader behavior that transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests

Charismatic Leaders

use visionary and inspirational messages rely on non-verbal communication appeal to ideological values attempt to intellectually stimulate employees display confidence in self and followers set high performance expectations

For class discussion: Should a leader be both

transactional and charismatic? Is charismatic leadership only critical for senior executives and not for entry level supervisors or managers?

Charismatic Model of Leadership
Individual and Organizational Characteristics
• Traits

Leader behavior

Effects on followers and work groups
•Increased intrinsic motivation, achievement orientation, and goal pursuit

•Personal commitmen t to leader and vision

•Leader • Organizational establishes a vision


Individual and Organizational Characteristics
• Traits

Charismatic Model of Leadership (cont)
Leader behavior Effects on followers and work groups Outcomes
•Selfsacrificial behavior •Increased identification with the leader and the collective interests of organizational members

•Leader establishes high • Organizational performance Culture expectations and displays confidence in him/herself and the collective ability to realize the vision •Leader models the desired values, traits, beliefs, and behaviors needed to realize the vision

•Increased cohesion among workgroup •Organization members al commitment •Increased selfesteem, self•Task efficacy, and meaningfulne intrinsic interests in ss and goal satisfaction accomplishment •Increased role modeling of charismatic leadership •Increased individual group, and

The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Model)

This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes. - in-group exchange: a partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect and liking - out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect and liking Research supports this model

Substitutes for Leadership

Substitutes for leadership represent

situational variables that can substitute for, neutralize, or enhance the effects of leadership. Research shows that substitutes for leadership directly influence employee attitudes and performance.

Substitutes for Leadership
RelationshipOriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Task-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is Unnecessary


Of the Subordinate
1. Ability, experience, training, knowledge 2. Need for Independence 3. “Professional” orientation 4. Indifference toward organizational rewards X X X X X X X

Of the Task
5. Unambiguous and Routine 6. Methodically invariant 7. Provides its own feedback concerning accomplishment 8. Intrinsically satisfying. X X X X

Substitutes for Leadership (cont)
Relationship- Task-Oriented or Oriented or Initiating Considerate Structure Leader Leader Behavior is Behavior is Unnecessary Unnecessary


Of the Organization
9. Formalization (explicit plans, goals, and areas of responsibility) 10. Inflexibility (rigid, unbending rules and procedures) 11. Highly specified and active advisory and staff functions 12. Closely knit, cohesive work groups 13. Organizational rewards not with the leader’s control 14. Spatial distance between superior and X X X X




Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful