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9 science ICT task.

Holli and Darcy

Definitions
Infectious diseases

Non-infectious diseases

Are caused by pathogenic


microorganisms like bacteria,
viruses and parasites.
They can be spread directly
or indirectly between humans.

Occur inside the body as a


result of certain hereditary
conditions or other causes
like dietary issues.

Infectious diseases.
Pathogens responsible for
infectious diseases include:

Diseases caused by these


pathogens include:

.Bacteria
.Viruses
.Fungi
.Protozoa
.Parasites

.Bacteria - Chlamydia
.Viruses - Hepatitis
.Fungi - Tinea
.Protozoa - Malaria
.Parasites - Cysticercosis

Immune
response

The main response of the immune system towards disease is to primarily stop disease from entering your
body in the first place. However, in the event of a disease actually gaining access into your body your
immune system will identify and attack the disease that is causing harm to your body.

Transmission Infectious disease can be


spread both directly and
indirectly. Some ways of
transmitting an infectious
disease include:
-Through the air
(airborne diseases)
eg. The flu
-Blood secretions
eg. Ebola
-Sexual contact
eg. Chlamydia
-Contact with contaminated food
and/or water
eg. Salmonella

Pathogens
Prevention Catching an infectious disease
can easily be prevented by
doing very simple things like
washing your hands, preparing
meats on different to
vegetables and practicing safe
sex.
The easiest way to stay
infection free though is to
regularly receive vaccinations
from your doctor.

Treatments Majority of bacterial infections


can generally be treated with
antibiotics, however this is not
the case for other types of
infections.
Although bacterial infections
can be fought with medicine
we cant treat viral infections,
we can only treat their
symptoms.
Other than that, the immune
system has to fight of the
infection itself.

Defence lines.
First line of defence -

Second line -

The purpose of the first line of defence


is to stop pathogens entering the body.
The first line of defence is crucial to the
immune system.

The purpose of the second line of defence is to fight


infections once they are inside the body. This is a non
specific immune response that fights off the infection,
usually with white blood cells that envelope and destroy
pathogens. Other defences include: blood clotting to stop
further infection, fever that lets the body to destroy
pathogens and inflammation to increase blood trying to
reach the infected area.

eg. The hairs that surround your eyes


and ears that act like nets to catch the
pathogens and prevent them from
entering your body.
Third line of defence -

When the second line of defence fails and pathogens still


remain in our system the third line of defence then creates
antibodies to target and destroy pathogens. Antibodies are
protein molecules that bind to specifically to target antigens,
these antigens could be the pathogen itself or molecules on
the surface of the pathogen.

Vaccinations
A Vaccination is treatment to make the body stronger to
fight against particular infections.
The immune system fights the infection. The immune
system is made up of millions of cells including T cells
and B cells. The immune system is much stronger when
fighting a disease if it has already fought against the
same disease before.
Vaccination includes showing the immune system
something very similar to a virus or disease, which helps
the immune system be stronger when fighting against
the actual disease, infection or virus.

Non-infectious diseases
Types -

Causes -

.Cancer - mutated cells that form


tumors.

.Cancer - has many possible causes including genetics,


smoking, sun exposure and radiation exposure.

.Diabetes - pancreas doesnt


release insulin

.Diabetes - diabetes develops when the body (pancreas) cant


create enough insulin

.Narcolepsy - chronic sleeping


disorder

.Narcolepsy - the cause of narcolepsy is still unknown but


researchers have a number of ideas on which gene causes the
disorder

.Osteoporosis - bones lack


essential minerals and nutrients

.Osteoporosis - occurs when there is a deficiency in calcium and


phosphate which, in which the body fails to create new bone.

.Fibromyalgia - chronic fatigue


with pain in joints and muscles

.Fibromyalgia - although there is no confirmed cause for this


disease it is believed to be related to genetics or chemical
imbalances in the body.

Fact file: Ebola- infectious disease


Ebola, also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an extremely deadly and infectious disease
that is usually fatal to humans and nonhuman primates like monkeys and chimpanzees.
There are five known ebola viruses, four of which (Ebola virus, Sudan virus,Tai forest virus
and Bundibugyo virus) are lethal to humans, the fifth only affects nonhuman primates.
Ebola infections are found in a number of African countries and while the original host of the
Ebola viruses remain unknown researchers believe that it is an animal-borne disease that
originates from bats.
Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood,
secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals that can either be dead or alive.
Symptoms Fever, severe headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal
(stomach) pain
and unexplained hemorrhages (bleeding or bruising).
It causes high fevers with serious internal bleeding that is usually fatal.

Fact file: Diabetes- infectious disease


Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high
blood sugar levels, either because their insulin levels are too low or the body cells do not respond to the
insulin properly. People that have diabetes will often experience frequent urination and become very hungry
and thirsty frequently. Diabetes is caused by high blood sugar levels and not having enough insulin.
Common symptoms of diabetes:

Urinating often
Feeling very thirsty
Feeling very hungry - even though you are eating
Extreme fatigue
Blurry vision
Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal
Weight loss - even though you are eating more (type 1)
Tingling, pain, or numbness in the hands/feet (type 2)

Quick links

Watch the video and take the quiz!


https://www.brainpop.com/science/diversityoflife/bacteria/
Video explaining the immune system.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQGOcOUBi6s