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schools in the united states

in the united states, the states and the district of columbia have their own
system of education. There is no central authority such as exists in many
other countries. There is no national system of education. Each town, city or
school district has its Board of Education whose members are elected by the
people of the district who hire a man or a woman to direct the activities of
the schools as a Superintendent of school. He/She carries out the general
policies of the Board of Education and has a representative in each school in
the district as the Principal of the school.

This man or woman has to administrate the school itself and is responsible
for the success of that particular school.

In addition to these public school organizations, there are a number of


private schools, academies, colleges and universities. The constitution of the
United States allows these schools complete freedom of activity. The Federal
Goverment of the United States does not interfere in any way with
education within the states.

A north American boy or girl usually begins school at the age of five when
he or she enters kindergarten. After a year of kindergarten, the child enters
the first grade. When he reaches the seventh grade, he begins junior high
schoo, which is usually composed of the seventh and eighth grades. When
he enters the ninth grade, usually at the age of fourteen, he is in his first
year of senior high school and is called a freshman. In the tenth grade he is
called a sophmore. When he begins the eleventh grade, he is a junior. In his
last year in high school, he is a senior.

When a student finishes his senior year, he receives a diploma or a


certificate which shows that he has sucessfully completed his high school
studies.
He may then attend a college or a university.

Boys and girls in junior high school generally study the following subjects:
English, history, arithmetic, general science and social science. The girls
may take home economics and the boys may take manual training which
teaches them to do mechanical work.

In the ninth grade, in addition to English and history which are usually
required in grade nine, ten, and eleven, the student may take algebra,
business training, biology, home economics, manual training, Spanish,
French or Latin.

In the last three years of high school, boys and girls choose subjects which
will help them to satisfy all the requirements for graduation and will prepare
them for what they expect to do when they have finished high school. They
may take advanced mathematics, chemistry, physics, manual training,
home economics, languages, shorthand or typewriting. In addition to these
subjects, most schools provide courses in physical education and music.
TRADUCCIN

escuelas en los estados unidos


en los estados unidos, los estados y el Distrito de Columbia tienen su propio
sistema de educacin. No existe una autoridad central, como existe en
muchos otros pases. No existe un sistema nacional de educacin. Cada
pueblo, ciudad o distrito escolar tiene su Consejo de Educacin cuyos
miembros son elegidos por el pueblo de la comarca que contratan a un
hombre o una mujer para dirigir las actividades de las escuelas como
Superintendente de la escuela. l / Ella lleva a cabo las polticas generales
de la Junta de Educacin y cuenta con un representante en cada escuela en
el distrito como el director de la escuela.

Este hombre o una mujer tiene para administrar la escuela misma y es


responsable del xito de esa escuela en particular.

Adems de estas organizaciones escolares pblicos, hay una serie de


escuelas privadas, academias, colegios y universidades. La constitucin de
los Estados Unidos permite que estas escuelas completa libertad de
actividad. El Gobierno Federal de los Estados Unidos no interfiere de
ninguna manera con la educacin dentro de los estados.

Un nio o nia norteamericana generalmente comienza la escuela a la edad


de cinco aos cuando l o ella entra en el jardn de infantes. Despus de un
ao de jardn de infancia, el nio entra en el primer grado. Cuando llega el
sptimo grado, comienza la escuela secundaria, que por lo general se
compone de los grados sptimo y octavo. Cuando l entra en el noveno
grado, por lo general a la edad de catorce aos, est en su primer ao de la

escuela secundaria superior y se llama un estudiante de primer ao. En el


dcimo grado se le llama un estudiante de segundo ao. Cuando comienza
el undcimo grado, l es un junior. En su ltimo ao en la escuela
secundaria, l es una persona mayor.

Cuando un estudiante termina su ltimo ao, recibe un diploma o certificado


que demuestra que ha completado con xito sus estudios de secundaria.
A continuacin, puede asistir a un colegio o una universidad.

Los nios y las nias en la escuela secundaria general, estudian los


siguientes temas: Ingls, historia, aritmtica, la ciencia en general y de las
ciencias sociales. Las nias pueden tomar de economa domstica y los
chicos pueden tomar el entrenamiento manual que ensea que ellos hagan
el trabajo mecnico.

En el noveno grado, adems de Ingls y la historia que por lo general se


requieren en el grado nueve, diez y once, el estudiante puede tomar el
lgebra, la formacin empresarial, la biologa, la economa domstica, la
formacin manual, espaol, francs o latn.

En los ltimos tres aos de la escuela secundaria, los nios y las nias
eligen temas que les ayudarn a satisfacer todos los requisitos para la
graduacin y se prepare para lo que esperan hacer cuando han terminado la
escuela secundaria. Pueden tomar las matemticas avanzadas, la qumica,
la fsica, la capacitacin Manual, economa domstica, idiomas, taquigrafa o
mecanografa. Adems de estos temas, la mayora de las escuelas ofrecen
cursos de educacin fsica y msica.

boys and girls choose subjects which will help them to satisfy all the
requirements for graduation and will prepare them for what they expect to
do when they have finished high school. They may take advanced
mathematics, chemistry, physics, manual training, home economics,
languages, shorthand or typewriting. In addition to these subjects, most
schools provide courses in physical education and music.