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Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel-making company

in India. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and
special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway,
automotive and defense industries and for sale in export markets.

Ranked amongst the top ten public sector companies in India in terms of
turnover, SAIL manufactures and sells a broad range of steel products,
including hot and cold rolled sheets and coils, galvanised sheets, electrical
sheets, structurals, railway products, plates, bars and rods, stainless steel and
other alloy steels. SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and
three special steel plants, located principally in the eastern and central regions
of India and situated close to domestic sources of raw materials, including the
Company's iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The company has the
distinction of being India‟s largest producer of iron ore and of having the
country‟s second largest mines network. This gives SAIL a competitive edge in
terms of captive availability of iron ore, limestone, and dolomite which are
inputs of steel making in the every integrated plant of SAIL.

SAIL's wide range of long and flat steel products are much in demand in the to
clients world-wide domestic as well as the international market. This vital
responsibility is carried out by SAIL's own Central Marketing Organization
(CMO) and the International Trade Division. CMO encompasses a wide
network of 34 branch offices and 54 stockyards located in major cities and
towns throughout India .

With technical and managerial expertise and know-how in steel making gained
over four decades, SAIL's Consultancy Division (SAILCON) at New Delhi
offers services. SAIL has a well-equipped Research and Development Centre
for Iron and Steel (RDCIS) at Ranchi which helps to produce quality steel and
develop new technologies for the steel industry. Besides, SAIL has its own in-
house Centre for Engineering and Technology (CET), Management Training
Institute (MTI) and Safety Organization at Ranchi. Our captive mines are under
the control of the Raw Materials Division in Kolkata. The Environment
Management Division and Growth Division of SAIL operate from their
headquarters in Kolkata. Almost all our plants and major units are ISO

Integrated Steel Plants
• Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh
• Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in West Bengal
• Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa
• Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand
• IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) in West Bengal

Special Steel Plants

• Alloy Steels Plants (ASP) in West Bengal
• Salem Steel Plant (SSP) in Tamil Nadu
• Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant (VISL) in Karnataka

• Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Limited (MEL) in Maharashtra
Joint Ventures
SAIL has promoted joint ventures in different areas ranging from power plants
to e-commerce.

NTPC SAIL Power Company Pvt.Ltd

A 50:50 joint venture between Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) and
National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC Ltd.), it manages the captive
power plants at Rourkela, Durgapur and Bhilai with a combined capacity of 314
megawatts (MW).

Bokaro Power Supply Company Pvt.Limited

This 50:50 joint venture between SAIL and the Damodar Valley Corporation
formed in January 2002 is managing the 302-MW power generation and 1880
tonnes per hour steam generation facilities at Bokaro steel plant.

Ownership and management

The Government of India owns about 86% of SAIL's equity and retains voting
control of the Company. However, SAIL, by virtue of its „Navratna‟ status,
enjoys significant operational and financial autonomy

SAIL today is one of the largest industrial entities in India. Its strength has been
the diversified range of quality steel products catering to the domestic, as well
as the export markets and a large pool of technical managerial and today, the
accent in SAIL is to continuously adapt to the competitive business
environment and excel as a business organization, both within and outside India


Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL), situated in the coal belt of Eastern India Symbolizes
India‟s advancement in the design; engineering and equipment suppliers have
played a major role in its construction, making it the first indigenous public
sector integrated steel plant in India.

History of the company

Bokaro Steel Plant - the fourth integrated plant in the Public Sector – started
taking shape in 1965 in collaboration with the Soviet Union. It was originally
incorporated as a limited company on 29th January 1964, and was later merged
with SAIL, first as a subsidiary and then as a unit, through the Public Sector
Iron & Steel Companies (Restructuring & Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1978.
The construction work started on 6th April 1968.The Plant is hailed as the
country‟s first Swadeshi steel plant, built with maximum indigenous content in
terms of equipment, material and know-how. Its first Blast Furnace started on
2nd October 1972 and the first phase
of 1.7 MT ingot steel was completed on 26th February 1978 with the
commissioning of the third Blast Furnace. All units of 4 MT stage have already
been commissioned and the 90s' modernization has further upgraded this to 4.5
MT of liquid steel. The new features added in modernization of SMS-II include
two twin-strand slab casters along with a Steel Refining Unit. The Steel
Refining Unit was inaugurated on 19th September, 1997 and the Continuous
Casting Machine on 25th April, 1998. The modernization of the Hot Strip Mill
saw addition of new features like high pressure de-scalars, work roll bending,
hydraulic automatic gauge control, quick work roll change, laminar cooling etc.
New walking beam reheating furnaces are replacing the less efficient pusher
type furnaces.

A new hydraulic coiler has been added and two of the existing ones revamped.
With the completion of Hot Strip Mill modernization, Bokaro is producing top
quality hot rolled products that are well accepted in the global market. Bokaro is
designed to produce flat products like Hot Rolled Coils, Hot Rolled Plates, Hot
Rolled Sheets, Cold Rolled Coils, Cold Rolled Sheets, Tin

Mill Black Plates (TMBP) and Galvanized Plain and Corrugated (GP/GC)
Sheets. Bokaro has provided a strong raw material base for a variety of modern
engineering industries including automobile, pipe and tube, LPG cylinder,
barrel and drum producing industries. Bokaro Steel values its people as the
fulcrum of all organizational activities. The saga of Bokaro Steel is the story of
Bokaroans erecting a gigantic plant in the wilderness of Chhotanagpur, reaching
milestones one after another, staving off stiff challenges in the liberalized era,
modernizing its facilities and innovating their way to the top of the heap.Bokaro
Steel is working towards becoming a one-stop-shop for world-class flat steel in
India. The modernization plans are aimed at increasing the liquid steel
production capacity, coupled with fresh rolling and coating facilities. The new
facilities will be capable of producing the most premium grades required by the
most discerning customer segments. Brand Bokaro will signify assured quality
and delivery, offering value for money to the customers.


 To be a respected world Class Corporation and the leader in Indian steel
business in quality, productivity, profitability and customer satisfaction.

 Consistent with the corporate vision and core values, Bokaro steel plant
strives to create sustainable long term competitive advantages by
managing, mobilizing, inspiring and motivating its employees for
continuous growth in productivity, quality and profitability leading to
total customer satisfaction.
 Bokaro steel plant recognizes that through the process of competences
building, people involvement, unleashing and leveraging the creative
energies of our people, we can create value for organization and exceed
the needs and expectation of our stakeholders.
 Bokaro steel plant committed to safety, health and environment friendly
operation and practices for its people as well as personal touch in all
people initiative and interaction to bring since of togetherness and pride
we believes people create value when they feel valued.

Customer satisfaction
Concern for people
Consistent profitability
Commitment to excellent


The process of producing steel starts from extracting the iron ore and ends at
rolling the sheets of steel of various dimensions. In the process of production of
steel a major part of HUMAN RESOURCE of BOKARO STEEL PLANT is
used. In the plant there are a total of 5 blast furnaces for the purification of iron.
The capacity of 1 blast furnace is 2640-3000 tones for 1 day. So Bokaro Steel
Limited produces about 15000 tones of steel/day.

In the first step of production of steel first of all iron-ore (bauxite) is mixed
with sinter, lime-stone and coke. Now this mixture of iron – ore is being filled
in blast-furnace and from the lower part of the blast-furnace hot air is
blowed.Due to the effect of this hot air the coke which was being filled in the
blast-furnace starts to burn and at this burning of coke produces near about 1350
degree Celsius to 1400 degree Celsius temperature. Due to this huge
temperature the iron-ore which is inside the furnace starts to melt an dmany
chemical reactions takes place . Now due to this melting of iron-ore and by the
effect of chemical reactions the iron-ore is separated from the mixture and the
melted form of iron is taken out in the bottom of furnace.
The waste material which is present in the melted form of iron is called slag.
This slag is lighter than the iron and this slag is being separated by the process
of physical separation.

In the second step the melted form of iron is taken into a “V” shaped container
which is called LADLES. The capacity of these ladles is near about 100 tons
each. These ladles are attached to railway engines, in this step the ladles are

Now in third step, the melted iron is being charged to a container which is
called CONVERTER. In these converters the iron is being mixed with oxygen
and the converter is rotated in 360 degree rotation, here the temperature is near
about 2000 degree Celsius. In Bokaro Steel Limited there are two steel melting
shops. These SMS‟s are known as SMS-1 and SMS-2.The capacity of steel
produced from SMS-1 is 400 MTand SMS-2 is near about double of SMS-
1.Here the steel which is being produced is called the crude steel. This crude
steel is now taken into containers which are called as ingots.

Now in fourth step, this steel which is produced till now from Steel Melting
Shop is in melted form. This melted form of steel is taken to strip yard where
the steel is being hardened by keeping the ingots in open atmosphere.
In the fifth step, the hardened steel is taken up to the Slabbing Mill. Here the
Slabbing Mill the ingots are being rolled and converted in the form of slabs. The
dimension of slab which we get from the Slabbing Mill is as follows:
a) Length: 200-210 meters
b) Thickness: 1.5 mm – 4.6 mm
c) Breadth: 7.5 mm-12 mm

In the sixth step now the steel which we get from the Slabbing Mill is being
shaped according to deemed of the customers. For example if the demand of the
steel is that whose thickness is 1mm – 4.5 mm.Then the slab of steel is being
taken to the Hot Strip Mill. Here the steel is being rolled and the dimension of a
single slab is charged into
a)Length:1.00 Kms – 1.5 Kms
b)Thickness:1.5 mm – 1.6 mm
c) Breadth: 7.5m – 12 m
Now, we get the steel which is saleable form and lastly the steel is being
transferred to the Marketing Department.

Raw Materials & Material Handling Plant

The Raw Materials and Material Handling Plant receives blends, stores and
supplies different raw materials to Blast Furnace, Sinter Plant and Refractory
Materials Plant as per their requirements. It also maintains a buffer stock to take
care of any supply interruptions.
Some 9 MT of different raw materials viz. Iron ore fines and lumps, Limestone
(BFand SMS grade), Dolomite lumps and chips, hard Coal and Manganese ore
are handled here every year. Iron ore and fluxes are sourced from the captive
mines of SAIL situated at Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bhawanathpur, Tulsidamar
and Kuteshwar. Washed coal is supplied from different washeries at Dugda,
Kathara, Kargali and Giddi, while raw coal is obtained from Jharia coalfields.

Coke Oven and By Product Plants

The Coke Oven Complex at Bokaro converts prime coking coal from Jharia,
Dugda and Moonidih and medium coking coal form Kargali, Kathara and
Mahuda, blended with imported coal, into high quality coke for the Blast
Furnaces, recovering valuable by-products like Anthracene Oil, Benzene,
Toluene, Xylene, Light Solvent Naphtha, Ammonium Sulphate and Extra-hard
Pitch in the process. Bokaro is situated in the prime coal belt of the country. The
Coke Oven battery has 8 batteries with 69 ovens each, maintained meticulously
in terms of fugitive emission control, use of phenolic water and other pollution
control measures.

Blast Furnaces

Bokaro steel plant has five 2000-cubic metre Blast Furnaces that produce
molten iron - Hot Metal - for steel making. Bell-less Top Charging, modernised
double Cast Houses, Coal Dust Injection and Cast House Slag Granulation
technologies have been deployed in the furnaces. The process of iroin-making is
automated, using PLC Charging System and Computer Controlled Supervision
System. The wastes products like Blast Furnace slag and gas are either used
directly within plant or processed forrecycling re-use.

Steel Melting Shops

Hot Metal from the Blast Furnaces is converted into steel by blowing 99.5%
pure Oxygen through it in the LD converter. Suitable alloying elements are
added to produce different grades of steel.Bokaro has two Steel Melting Shops -
SMS-I and SMS-II. SMS-I has 5 LD converters of 130T capacity each. It is
capable of producing Rimming steel through the ingot route. SMS-II has 2 LD
converters, each of 300 T capacity, with suppressed combustion system and
Continuous Casting facility. It produces various Killed and Semi-Killed steels.

Continuous Casting Shop

The Continuous Casting Shop has two double-strand slab casting machines,
producing high quality slabs of width ranging from 950 mm to 1850 mm. CCS
has a Ladle Furnace and a Ladle Rinsing Station for secondary refining of the
steel. The Ladle Furnace is used for homogenising the chemistry and
temperature. The concast machines have straight moulds, unique in the
country,to produce internally clean slabs.

Argon injection in the shroud and tundish nozzle prevent re-oxidation and
nitrogen pick-up, maintaining steel quality. The eddy current based automatic
mould level control, unique in the country, gives better surface quality. The air
mist cooling and continuous straightening facilities keep the slabs free from
internal defects like cracks. The casters are fully automated with dynamic
cooling, on-line slab cutting, de-burring and customised marking. The shop is
equipped with advanced Level-3 automation and control systems for
scheduling, monitoring and process optimisation.
CCS produces steel of Drawing, Deep Drawing, Extra Deep Drawing, Boiler
and Tin Plate quality. It also produces low alloy steels like LPG, WTCR,
SAILCOR and API Grade.

Slabbing Mill:-

Slabbing Mill transforms ingots into slabs by rolling them in its 1250 mm
Universal Four-High Mill. The rolling capacity of the Mill is 4 MT per annum.
The shop has Hot and Cold Scarfing Machines and 2800 T Shearing Machine.
Controlled heating in Soaking Pits, close dimensional accuracy during rolling
and hot and cold scarfing help produce defect-free slabs.

Hot Strip Mill

Slabs from CCS and Slabbing Mill are processed in the state-of-the-art Hot
Strip Mill. The fully automatic Hot Strip Mill with an annual capacity of 3.363
million tonnes has a wide range of products - thickness varying from 1.2 mm to
20 mm and width from 750 mm to 1850 mm. The mill is equipped with state-of-
the-art automation and controls, using advanced systems for process
optimisation with on-line real time computer control, PLCs and technological
control systems.
Walking Beam Reheating Furnaces provide uniform heating with reduction in
heat losses, ensuring consistency in thickness throughout the length. High-
pressure De-scaling System helps eliminate rolled-in scale. Edgers in the
roughing group maintain width within close tolerance. The roughing group has
a roughing train of a Vertical Scale Breaker, one 2-high Roughing Stand and
four 4-high Universal Roughing Stands. The finishing group consists of a
Flying Shear, Finishing Scale Breaker and seven 4-high Finishing Stands.
Hydraulic Automatic Gauge Control system in the finishing stands ensures
close thickness tolerance. The Work Roll Bending System ensures improved
strip crown and flatness. The rolling speed at the last finishing stand is between
7.5-17.5 metres per second. The Laminar Cooling System is a unique feature to
control coiling temperature over a wide range within close tolerance. The
Hydraulic Coilers maintain perfect coil shape with On-line Strapping system.
On-line Robotic Marking on the coil helps in tracking its identity.

Hot Rolled Coil Finishing

All the Hot Rolled coils from the Hot Strip Mill are received in HRCF for
further distribution or despatch. HR Coils rolled against direct shipment orders
are sheared and finished to customer-required sizes and despatched to
customers. The material is supplied as per Indian specifications and many
international/ foreign specifications. The shop has two shearing lines with
capacities of 6,45,000 Tonnes/ year and 4,75,000 Tonnes/ year respectively.

Cold Rolling Mill :

The Cold Rolling Mill at Bokaro uses state-of-the-art technology to produce

high quality sheet gauge material, Tin Mill Black Plate and Galvanised
Products. Cold rolling is done to produce thinner gauge strips of very smooth
and dense finish, with better mechanical properties than hot rolling strips.
Rolling is done well below re-crystallization temperature without any prior
heating of the material. The products of CRM are used for deep drawing
purposes, automobile bodies, steel furnitures, drums and barrels, railway
coaches, other bending and shaping jobs and coated steels. The CRM complex
comprises of two Pickling Lines (including a high speed Hydrochloric Acid
Pickling Line with re-generation facilities), two Tandem Mills, an Electrolytic
Cleaning Line, a Continuous Annealing Line, Bell Annealing Furnaces, two
Skin-Pass Mills, a Double Cold Reduction Mill (DCR), Shearing Lines, Slitting
Lines and a packaging and despatch section. The 5-stand Tandem Mill is
capable of rolling sheet gauges upto 0.15 mm thickness. It has sophisticated
Hydraulic Automatic Gauge Control, computerised mill regulation and
optimization control.

Hot Dip Galvanizing Complex

The Hot Dip Galvanizing Complex integrated with the CRM produces zinc-
coated Cold Rolled strips resistant to atmospheric, liquid and soil corrosion. The
Continuous Coil Corrugation Line in the HDGC produces corrugated sheets and
the Galvanised Sheet Shearing Line produces galvanised plain sheets for a
variety of applications. The first shop of Bokaro Steel to get the SO-9001
certification way back in 1994, this complex has maintained a high-standard of
coating quality and its SAILJYOTI branded products enjoy a loyal market.This
complex made certain innovations for higher productivity to help re-build
earthquake-ravaged Gujarat.
Services- a valuable support network

The service departments like Traffic, Oxygen Plant, Water Management and
Energy Management provide invaluable support to this gigantic plant. Bokaro
Steel has a vast networked of railway tracks and over 40 diesel locos to
smoothly run its operations. The Oxygen Plant provides Oxygen, Nitrogen and
Argon for processes like steelmaking and annealing. Water Management looks
after the huge water requirements of the plant and the township, providing
different grades of water and taking care of recycling needs. Energy
Management juggles the supply and demand of by-product gases and their
demand as process fuel.