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EEB419 Assessment 2

Indigenous Education Strategy


Isabel Horton 11477162

ABSTRACT
Professional Development Package explaining and
demonstrating the curriculum and pedagogy behind
cultural awareness, cultural inclusivity and cultural
competence. This package focuses on Australia As A
Nation, from the new NSW Stage 3 History syllabus.

EEB419 Paul Grover

Isabel Horton 11477162

Assessment Item 2

Professional Development
Package
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION

SYLLABUS CONTENT
RATIONALE FOR STAGE
RATIONALE FOR TOPIC
FOCUS & INTENT

3
3
3
4

CURRICULUM

EXPLANATION
EXAMINATION
SYLLABUS CONNECTIONS
OBJECTIVES
OUTCOMES
CONTENT
RESOURCES

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5
5
5
6
6
6

PEDAGOGY

TEACHING STRATEGIES
LEARNING ACTIVITIES
ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES
TEACHING & LEARNING RESOURCES
INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM PRACTICES
OUTLINE OF LESSON SEQUENCE
JUSTIFICATION OF PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH

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8
9
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10
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REFERENCES

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TURN IT IN SUBMISSION

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Introduction
Syllabus Content

History
Stage 3
Australia As A Nation

Rationale For Stage


All students, in all levels of schooling should understand and explore
the fact that Australia has an Aboriginal history, and should reflect
on and discuss Aboriginal viewpoints on social, cultural and
historical matters. It is vital that Aboriginal views are visible in
teaching and learning in Australian schools.
The term Aboriginal perspectives refers to Aboriginal points of view
on particular issues and events, and should be taught with
assistance from the local Aboriginal community. (NSW Government
Education & Communities, 2011)
The inclusion of Indigenous perspectives while teaching to stage
three students is highly important, as it is to the entire Australian
student body. As stated by John Gore, CEO HSIE (2008) Indigenous
perspectives recognise and affirm Aboriginal identity and cultures,
include Aboriginal viewpoints on events and issues, maintain
curriculum and cultural integrity, achieve a balance between
contemporary and historical content.
These points are important to be recognised in a primary school
context, as students may not have been exposed to many
Indigenous perspectives in their home lives. This means that in
discussing Australian history, students will not have a lot of
background knowledge, and would not be able to fully grasp the
concepts and key ideas regarding Aboriginal treatment in Australia.
Stage 3 students, meaning grades 5 and 6 are at an optimal age to
discuss important topics regarding Indigenous perspectives, as they
will be able to understand the concepts, while hopefully will have no
bias, as perhaps older students would.

Rationale For Topic


The integration of Aboriginal perspectives in teaching Australia As A
Nation is particularly important as the topic directly relates to the
past treatment and current effect Australian history has had on its
Indigenous population. The three outcomes outlined in the topic
focus strongly on the treatment of Aboriginal and Torres Straight
Islander people, with the second outcome (HT3-4) directly asking
students to describe and explain the struggles for rights and
freedom, that Indigenous Australians faced. (Board Of Studies NSW,
2012)
Australia As A Nation is a topic that broadly expands students
knowledge about the development of Australia, to the place it is
today. The importance of teaching Indigenous perspectives in this

area is undeniable, as the Indigenous people of Australia faced


many struggles and hardships throughout this development process.
The topic inquires into the reasons and way Australia became a
nation, the changes to Australian society over the 20th century, the
people who came to Australia and why and the contribution by
individuals and groups to the development of Australian society.

Focus & Intent


This package intends to connect theory with practice in the context
of Indigenous perspectives in education.
The section relating to curriculum, meaning what is taught to
students, is designed to provide comprehensive subject and
curriculum information to develop teachers knowledge and skills in
implementing Indigenous perspectives in their teaching of History,
specifically the stage 3 unit, Australia As A Nation.
The section relating to pedagogy, meaning how the content is
taught, is designed to provide substantial information to inform
teachers about the use of culturally appropriate methods in their
practice.
The package will include links to online and ICT sources, as well as
external resources that are appropriate in assisting teachers to
demonstrate cultural awareness, inclusivity and competence in their
classrooms.

Curriculum
Explanation
Indigenous perspectives play a large role in the teaching of History,
as a major Key Learning Area (KLA) in Australian schools. In the NSW
syllabus there are three major cross-curricular priorities, the first of
which being Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander histories and
cultures which is represented by a hand symbol, allowing teachers
to easily identify where the links are in the curriculum.
The reasons for the inclusion of this link across the curriculums,
particularly in the history syllabus, include the need for a valued
engagement in and celebration of the experiences of Aboriginal and
Torres Straight Islander peoples, past and present, as part of the
shared history belonging to all Australians. (Board Of Studies NSW,
2012)
History is a subject that is designed well to develop students
knowledge and understanding about the differences and diversity of
people in Australia. Students should participate in learning to
identifying and empathising with the varied perspectives of
individuals and groups over time and attempting to understand the
actions, values, attitudes and motives of people from the past.
The major focus during History is on difference and diversity, and
provides students the opportunities to explore similarities and
differences between the past and present. This approach allows
students to investigate circumstances of those whom society has
marginalised, because of their beliefs, gender, race and socioeconomic status. This described the treatment of Indigenous people
throughout Australian history, and therefore means the teaching of
Indigenous perspectives will play a critical role in students
developing an in depth understanding of the topics they learn.

Examination
The teaching of Australia As A Nation requires teachers to
understand and implement Indigenous perspectives into their
classroom.
Allowing students to understand and appreciate the perspectives of
Indigenous people throughout their study of Australia As A Nation
gives them the chance to deeply engage in the underlying, and
sometimes forgotten history of Australias original inhabitants, as
well as the rest of the world.
It is also important for students to engage in Indigenous
perspectives for their development as an active community
member, and for their future explorations of reconciliation and the
development of their attitudes and beliefs towards Aboriginal
people.

Syllabus Connections
(Board Of Studies NSW, 2012)

Objectives
Knowledge Understanding & Skills
Early Stage 1 Stage 3 Students:
Develop knowledge and understanding about the nature of
history and key changes and developments from the past.
Develop knowledge and understanding about key historical
concepts and develop the skills to undertake the process of
historical inquiry.
Values & Attitudes
K 10 Students:
History as a study of human experience.
The opportunity to develop a lifelong interest in and
enthusiasm for History.
The nature of History as reflecting differing perspectives and
viewpoints.
The opportunity to contribute to a democratic and socially just
society through informed citizenship.
The contribution of past and present peoples to our shared
heritage.
Outcomes
A student:
Identifies change and continuity and describes the causes and
effects of change on Australian society. (HT3-3)
Describes and explains the struggled for rights and freedoms
in Australia, including Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander
peoples. (HT3-4)
Applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and
communication. (HT3-5)
Content
Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the
status and rights of Aboriginal people and/or Torres Straight
Islanders, migrants, women and children. (ACHHK114)
Students:
Examine Australian human rights, past and present, affecting
Aboriginal and/or Torres Straight Islander peoples, migrants,
women and children.
Explain how Australian society has changed throughout the
twentieth century for these groups.
Investigate the significance of ONE of the following in the
struggle for the rights and freedoms of Aboriginal and Torres
Straight Islander peoples.
The Stolen Generations.
The right to vote federally in 1962.
The 1967 Referendum.
The Mabo decision.

Resources

NSW Syllabus K-10 History New NSW syllabus, developed


for the Australian curriculum, provides links to all relevant
content and information, as well as cross-curricular links.
http://syllabus.bos.nsw.edu.au/hsie/history-k10/
Curriculum Suppport K-6 HSIE Website providing an
introduction to teaching HSIE to primary school students, as
well as additional resources including books, worksheets and
facts.
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/h
sie/index.htm
Board Of Studies Aboriginal Education Page Webpage
providing information about Aboriginal context in Australian
schools, as well as many online resources including units of
work to link Indigenous perspectives to the subject content.
http://ab-ed.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au
Mapping Aboriginal Perspectives & Cross-curriculum Content
K10 Document Provides advice to teachers about the
sensitive topic of Indigenous perspectives in the Australian
curriculum, identifies links to multiple subjects and their
content. http://ab-ed.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/mappingaboriginal-perspective-and-cross-curriculum-content-k-10.pdf
A Shared History Webpage Provides a rationale for teaching
Indigenous perspectives in K-6 HSIE, provides guidelines in
implanting NSW DET policies, provides teaching ideas and
resources relevant to History.
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/shared/in
dex.htm
Indigenous perspectives Teach-Ec page Provides Indigenous
teaching and learning practices that are designed to benefit
all participants, provides resources to present knowledge and
appreciation Indigenous perspectives in teaching to Australian
students. http://www.csu.edu.au/special/teachec/RESOURCES/html/Perspective.html
K-12 Curriculum Support Campfire webpage An interactive
webpage providing information for students regarding
different Aboriginal languages spoken throughout Australia.
Would be useful for teachers to develop cultural awareness in
having a stronger knowledge base of Indigenous languages.
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary
/languages/languages/aboriginal/campfire/
What Works. The Works Program Online resource designed
to improve achievement and understanding with the
Indigenous students in their classroom. Provides steps to
work through in order to gain the greatest levels of awareness,
inclusivity and competence in teaching Indigenous students.
http://www.whatworks.edu.au/dbAction.do?cmd=homePage

Scootle An online resource centre, collating many valuable


resources that may be used by teachers in developing lessons
that explore Indigenous perspectives.
https://www.scootle.edu.au/ec/search?q=aboriginal
%2beducation&field=title&field=text.all&field=topic
Kids Matter Aboriginal & Torres Straight Islander Resource
Portal Provides professional development resources, and
lesson planning resources to inform teachers about the social
and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous students.
https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/atsi-resources/search
Aboriginal Studies Scoop It By Glenda Gregory A collection
of resources, using the platform Scoop It to group together
articles and information regarding Indigenous Australians.
http://www.scoop.it/t/aboriginal-studies
Ngurra Bu Cultural Awareness Training A training camp
offering full day cultural awareness activities to develop
teachers understanding of the Indigenous culture, and
increase their ability to teach to Indigenous students through
increased skills and knowledge. http://www.ngurrabu.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/05/Cultural-Awareness-Training.pdf

Pedagogy
Teaching Strategies
All students should be exposed to different strategies to allow them
to become immersed in cultural awareness, inclusivity and
competence. Some strategies that may be used in the classroom to
enhance these qualities in students are waiting for students to think
about the work they are doing, and questions before asking them to
answer, or avoiding direct questioning all together by directing
questions to the entire class, rather than individual students, asking
students to work in pairs rather than displaying their knowledge to
the entire class, encouraging students to read information they are
given for meaning, rather than just reading the words on the page,
avoiding shaming students and working to build strong
relationships in order to have them enjoy school and actively work
to be there. (Harrison, 2011) The use of these strategies, though
traditionally thought of as Aboriginal Teaching Strategies would be
useful in developing non-Indigenous students understanding and
acceptance of their Indigenous peers, and their differing needs as
well as an appreciation of their special skills and abilities.

Learning Activities
There are many learning activities that will encourage students to
develop their cultural awareness, cultural inclusivity and cultural
competence, as well as assisting Indigenous students in mainstream
society. Some of the activities that could be used as to assist both
Indigenous and non-Indigenous students are learning through

narrative, meaning sharing personal stories to build understanding


and application to class work.
Planning and visualizing explicit processes is another learning
activity of benefit, meaning to visual the work that students are
being asked to focus on.
Another activity could be based on working non-verbally with self
reflective hands on methods, meaning working on creating relevant
physical work samples rather than focusing most of the time in class
on discussion.
Students may also learn through images, symbols and metaphors,
allowing them to share knowledge using art and objects.
Learning through place-responsive, environmental practice is a basis
for strong ecological lessons, which draw on the living landscape for
profound ancestral and personal relationships.
The use of indirect, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches to
learning activities, including utilising a non-linear way of learning,
being complementary, not oppositional, allows students to think
laterally.
Modelling and scaffolding by working from wholes to parts means
students are able to make holistic, global and independent learning
orientations.
By connecting learning to local values, needs and knowledge
students are not only able to bring their Indigenous knowledge into
the classroom, but able to take what they learn home as valuable
information for their families and the community. (Edith Cowen
University, 2012)

Assessment Activities
Assessment techniques to be used in classrooms need to be
differentiated and relevant to each outcome and activity the
students participate in. Indigenous students are often stereotyped to
be easily assessed under one strategy, but each individual student
is different, whether Indigenous or non-Indigenous.
The purpose of assessment in classrooms is to diagnose learning,
monitor progress, predict future activities and achievements,
motivate and grade students and diagnose teaching and inform
parents. (Marsh & Hart, 2011) Some assessment techniques that
could be used to fairly and accurately assess student work are
teacher observation, peer and self-assessment and collaborative
activities. These techniques are outlined further on the Kindergarten
6 Assessment Strategies webpage. (Board Of Studies NSW, 2012)

Teaching & Learning Resources


There are exceptional sources available to teachers to enhance
students cultural awareness, inclusivity and competence, and many
of these can easily be found online, making them accessible to
students in classrooms all over the country.
The National Museum of Australia (accessible at:
http://www.nma.gov.au/engage-learn/schools/classroomresources/by_subject/indigenous_culture_and_history) is an excellent

resource for the learning and teaching of Indigenous culture and


history. The website provides some first hand resources, that
students could use for in-depth studies and research in building
their cultural knowledge, as well as multimedia and more that are
available for use in classrooms as engaging and informative
resources.
Another valuable resource, in the form of a museum is the Museum
of Australian Democracy, at Old Parliament House (accessible at:
http://moadoph.gov.au/learning/school-resources/getting-it-togetherfrom-colonies-to-federation/). The museum would be an excellent
addition to the excursion to Canberra that most students make
during their primary school careers.
The NSW Reconciliation Council website (accessible at:
http://www.nswreconciliation.org.au/home#) is a very valuable
resource in developing students understanding of the meaning of
reconciliation, and how this affects not only Indigenous Australians,
but Australian society as a whole. The website included information
and current news on reconciliation, as well as events, local groups
and campaigns and projects in many local areas.

Inclusive Classroom Practices


Inclusive schools are effective schools. (State Government Victoria
Department Of Education, 2012) For schools and classrooms to be
inclusive, and thereby assist and facilitate all learners, there needs
to be fair access to all resources, as well as teaching staff and
participation needs to be valued from all students, ensuring
diversity in the classroom.
The inclusive classroom allows the teacher and students to identify
learning needs and make adjustments to suit the school context
where possible. Planning teaching and reporting are completed in a
way which ensures appropriate adjustments for success of all
students. Parents, caregivers, teachers, learning support teams,
school administration and district personnel all participate in the
classroom practices, and work together to ensure the classroom
remains inclusive. Flexibility is a key factor in an inclusive
classroom, and means there can be more creative ways to teach,
organise and support student learning investigated and
implemented in the classroom.
Specifically, an inclusive classroom will be one where all students
input is valued, and teachers show no favouritism, whether students
are at the top or bottom of the class. Students who are struggling
should not take all of the teachers time, leaving the students at the
top of the class to perform busy work.

Outline Of Lesson Sequence


Over a six week period teaching the topic Australia As A Nation
there will be approximately 18 to 24 lessons to be taught and
engaged in with students. The unit will teach the development of
Australia as a nation, particularly after 1901 and will allow students
to explore the factors that led to the federation of Australia. These

factors cannot be taught unless in conjunction with the Indigenous


perspectives of the Aboriginal people, and would include
experiences of democracy and citizenship, and the struggles for
rights and freedoms.
Students will learn about the migration of people to Australia, and
the contributions made by these people to Australias economic and
social development. (Board Of Studies NSW, 2012)
During the six week period, the chosen outcome may be ACHHK114,
where students are expected to achieve the three indicators of
examine rights, explain changes to Australian society and
investigate the significance of the struggle for rights and freedoms
of Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander people.
Students would begin the five weeks by exploring the rights that all
Australian people have today, and how these differ to that of the
Australian people in during early Federation, specifically Indigenous
peoples.
During the following lessons students would research and identify
how Australian society changed throughout the twentieth century
for Indigenous peoples, and discuss how they went from having
complete freedom to the invasion of their land of European
migrants.
The final indicator for this outcome is for students to Investigate the
significance of either the Stolen Generations, the right to vote
federally in 1962, the 1967 referendum or the Mabo decision to the
rights and freedoms of Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander
people, which would be explored and met during the final weeks of
study.

Justification Of Pedagogical Approach


The reasons for the pedagogical approach outlined in this package
are very broad, as they aim to ensure the inclusive nature of all
students in all classrooms. The use of teaching strategies such as
the avoidance of direct questioning, and allowing sufficient waiting
time for students to answer questions is supported by Harrison
(2011) in his exploration of effective teaching and learning in
Aboriginal education. Though the strategies specified are known to
assist Indigenous students, the inclusion of them in any classroom
will allow non-Indigenous students to develop further cultural
acceptance and inclusivity of their peers, by not differentiating them
from the class and having them work separately to a different set of
instructions than everyone else.
The use of activities such as students learning through narrative,
where the teacher allows students to share personal stories and
develop relevant understandings that link their home and school
lives is a known strategy for increasing students cultural
awareness, and can be used in any classroom, at any stage and all
students benefit from the use of contextual knowledge.
The differentiation of assessment strategies in the classroom is not
only massively important for the teaching and learning of Aboriginal
students, but also for that of non-Indigenous students. All students

appreciate and acknowledge the idea that they cannot be taught in


the same way, and therefore not many appreciate the same forms
of assessment. For many students written tests do not demonstrate
their true abilities, as their understanding of the language used may
not relate to how they learnt the content, many other contributing
factors demonstrate that objective tests do not allow for inclusion of
all students.

References
Board Of Studies NSW. (2012). Australia As A Nation. Retrieved from
NSW Syllabuses For The Australian Curriculum:
http://syllabus.bos.nsw.edu.au/hsie/history-k10/content/805/
Board Of Studies NSW. (2012). Kindergarten - 6 Assessment
Strategies. Retrieved from NSW Syllabuses For The Australian
Curriculum: http://syllabus.bos.nsw.edu.au/support-materials/k-6assessment-strategies/
Board Of Studies NSW. (2012). Learning Across The Curriculum.
Retrieved from NSW Syllabuses For The Australian Curriculum:
http://syllabus.bos.nsw.edu.au/hsie/history-k10/learning-across-thecurriculum/
Board Of Studies NSW. (2012). Programing. Retrieved from NSW
Syllabuses For The Australian Curriculum:
http://syllabus.bos.nsw.edu.au/hsie/history-k10/programming/
Edith Cowen University. (2012). 8 Aboriginal Ways Of Learning Fact
Sheet. Retrieved from 8 Aboriginal Ways Of Learning:
http://intranet.ecu.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/510073/8Aboriginal-ways-of-learning-factsheet.pdf
Gore, J. (2008). A Shared History. Retrieved from Curriculum Support
K - 12:
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/shared/rationale
.htm
Harrison, N. (2011). Teaching & Learning In Aboriginal Education.
Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Marsh, C., & Hart, C. (2011). Teaching The Social Sciences And
Humanities In An Australian Curriculum. Frenchs Forest: Pearson
Australia.
National Museum Of Australia. (2013). Indigenous Culture & History.
Retrieved from National Museum Of Australia - Engage & Learn:

http://www.nma.gov.au/engage-learn/schools/classroomresources/by_subject/indigenous_culture_and_history
NSW Government Education & Communities. (2011). Aboriginal
Perspectives. Retrieved from HSIE Curriculum Support:
http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/hsie/cro
sscurriculum/aboriginal/
NSW Reconcilliation Council. (2014). Retrieved from New South
Wales Reconcilliation Council:
http://www.nswreconciliation.org.au/home#
Old Parliament House. (2014). Getting It Together - From Colonies To
Federation. Retrieved from Museum Of Australian Democracy:
http://moadoph.gov.au/learning/school-resources/getting-it-togetherfrom-colonies-to-federation/
State Government Victoria Department Of Education. (2012).
Developing Inclusive Environments For Students With Additional
Learning Needs. Retrieved from Inclusive Schools Are Effective
Schools:
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/research/inclusiv
eschool.pdf

Turn It In Submission
First submission of 36% is compared to initial submission of
Assessment 2, as I was unable to resubmit after the original due
date, I had to do my final submission under a different account.