# Chapter 18, Solution 1.

) 2 t ( ) 1 t ( ) 1 t ( ) 2 t ( ) t ( ' f − δ + − δ − + δ − + δ =

2 j j j 2 j
e e e e ) ( F j
ω − ω − ω ω
+ − − = ω ω
ω − ω = cos 2 2 cos 2

F(ω) =
ω
ω − ω
j
] cos 2 [cos 2

Chapter 18, Solution 2.

< <
=
otherwise , 0
1 t 0 , t
) t ( f

-δ(t-1)
δ(t)
f ”(t)
t
–δ’(t-1)
1
-δ(t-1)
0
1
f ‘(t)
t

f"(t) = δ(t) - δ(t - 1) - δ'(t - 1)

Taking the Fourier transform gives

2
F(ω) = 1 - e
-jω
- jωe
-jω

F(ω) =
2
j
1 e ) j 1 (
ω
− ω +
ω

or F

ω −
= ω
1
0
t j
dt e t ) (

But

+ − = c ) 1 ax (
a
e
dx e x
2
ax
ax

( )
= − ω −
ω −
= ω
ω −
1
0
2
j
) 1 t j (
j
e
) ( F ( ) | | 1 e j 1
1
j
2
− ω +
ω
ω −

Chapter 18, Solution 3.

2 t 2 ,
2
1
) t ( ' f , 2 t 2 , t
2
1
) t ( f < < − = < < − =

ω −
ω
− ω −
ω −
= = ω
2
2
2
2
2
t j
t j
) 1 t j (
) j ( 2
e
dt e t
2
1
) ( F

| | ) 1 2 j ( e ) 1 2 j ( e
2
1
2 j 2 j
2
− ω − − ω −
ω
− =
ω ω −

( ) | |
2 j 2 j 2 j 2 j
2
e e e e 2 j
2
1
ω − ω ω ω
− + + ω −
ω
− =

( ) ω + ω ω −
ω
2 sin 2 j 2 cos 4 j
2
1
2
− =

F(ω) = ) 2 cos 2 2 (sin
j
2
ω ω − ω
ω

Chapter 18, Solution 4.

1
–2δ(t–1)
2δ(t+1)
–1
g’
2
0
–2
t

–2δ’(t–1)
–2δ(t+1)
1
–2δ(t–1)
2δ’(t+1)
–1
g”
4δ(t)
0
–2
t

4 sin 4 cos 4
e j 2 e 2 4 e j 2 e 2 ) ( G ) j (
) 1 t ( 2 ) 1 t ( 2 ) t ( 4 ) 1 t ( 2 ) 1 t ( 2 g
j j j j 2
+ ω ω − ω − =
ω − − + ω + − = ω ω
− δ′ − − δ − δ + + δ′ + + δ − = ′ ′
ω − ω − ω ω

) 1 sin (cos
4
) ( G
2
− ω ω + ω
ω
= ω

Chapter 18, Solution 5.

1
0
h’(t)
–1

–2δ(t)
1
t

δ(t+1)
–δ(t–1)
1
0
h”(t)
–1

–2δ’(t)
1
t

ω − ω = ω − − = ω ω
δ′ − − δ − + δ = ′ ′
ω − ω
j 2 sin j 2 j 2 e e ) ( H ) j (
) t ( 2 ) 1 t ( ) 1 t ( ) t ( h
j j 2

H(ω) = ω
ω

ω
sin
j 2 j 2
2

Chapter 18, Solution 6.

dt e t dt e ) 1 ( ) ( F
t j
0
1
1
0
t j ω −

ω −
∫ ∫
+ − = ω

) 1 (cos
1
t sin
t
t cos
1
t sin
1
tdt cos t tdt cos ) ( F Re
2
1
0
2
0
1
0
1
1
0
− ω
ω
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
ω
ω
+ ω
ω
+ ω
ω
− =
ω + ω − = ω

∫ ∫

Chapter 18, Solution 7.

(a) f
1
is similar to the function f(t) in Fig. 17.6.

) 1 t ( f ) t ( f
1
− =

Since
ω
− ω
=
2
F ω
j
) 1 (cos
) (

= ω = ω
ω
) ( F e ) ( F
j
1

ω
− ω
ω −
j
) 1 (cos e 2
j

Alternatively,
)
)
2 t ( ) 1 t ( 2 ) t ( ) t ( f
'
1
− δ + − δ − δ =
e 2 e ( e e e 2 1 ) ( F j
j j j 2 j j
1
ω ω ω − ω − ω −
+ − = + − = ω ω

) 2 cos 2 ( e
j
− ω =
ω −

F
1
(ω) =
ω
− ω
ω −
j
) 1 e
j
(cos 2

(b) f
2
is similar to f(t) in Fig. 17.14.
f
2
(t) = 2f(t)

F
2
(ω) =
2
) cos 1 ( 4
ω
ω −

Chapter 18, Solution 8.

(a)
2
1
t j
2
2
1
t j
1
0
t j
2
1
t j
1
0
t j
) 1 t j ( e
2
e
j
4
e
j
2
dt e ) t 2 4 ( dt e 2 ) ( F
− ω −
ω −

ω −
+
ω −
=
− + = ω
ω − ω − ω −
ω − ω −
∫ ∫

ω − ω − ω −
ω +
ω

ω

ω
+
ω
+
ω
= ω
2 j
2
2 j j
2
e ) 2 j 1 (
2
e
j
4
j
2
e
j
2 2
) ( F

(b) g(t) = 2[ u(t+2) – u(t-2) ] - [ u(t+1) – u(t-1) ]

ω
ω

ω
ω
= ω
sin 2 2 sin 4
) ( G

Chapter 18, Solution 9.

(a) y(t) = u(t+2) – u(t-2) + 2[ u(t+1) – u(t-1) ]

ω
ω
+ ω
ω
= ω sin
4
2 sin
2
) ( Y

(b) ) j 1 (
e 2 2
) 1 t j (
e 2
dt e ) t 2 ( ) (
2
j
2
1
0
1
0
2
t j
t j
ω +
ω

ω
= − ω −
ω −

= − = ω
ω − ω −
ω −

Z

Chapter 18, Solution 10.

(a) x(t) = e
2t
u(t)

X(ω) = 1/(2 + jω)

(b)

<
>
=

0 t , e
0 t , e
e
t
t
) t (

∫ ∫ ∫
− −
ω − − ω ω
+ = = ω
1
1
0
1
1
0
t j t t j t t j
dt e e dt e e dt e ) t ( y ) ( Y

1
0
t ) j 1 (
0
1
t ) j 1 (
) j 1 (
e
j 1
e
ω + −
+
ω −
=
ω + −

ω −

ω +
ω − ω
+
ω −
ω + ω

ω +
=

j 1
sin j cos
j 1
sin j cos
e
1
2
1
2

Y(ω) = | | ) sin (cos e 1
1
2
1
2
ω ω − ω −
ω +

Chapter 18, Solution 11.

f(t) = sin π t [u(t) - u(t - 2)]

( )
∫ ∫
ω − π − π ω −
− = π = ω
2
0
2
0
t j t j t j t j
dt e e e
j 2
1
dt e t sin ) ( F

+

π + ω − π + ω − +
2
0
t ) ( j t ) ( j
dt ) e e (
j 2
1
=

π + ω −
+
π − ω −
π + ω −
π − ω − 2
0
t ) ( j
2
0
t ) ( j
) ( j
e
e
) ( j
1
j 2
1
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
ω + π

+
ω − π

ω − ω − 2 j 2 j
e 1 e 1
2
1
=

( )
ω −
π + π
ω − π
2 j
2 2
e 2 2
) ( 2
1
=

F(ω) = ( ) 1 e
2 j
2 2

π − ω
π
ω −

Chapter 18, Solution 12.

(a) F = dt e dt e e ) (
0
2
0
t ) j 1 ( t j t
∫ ∫

ω − ω −
= ω

=
ω −
=
ω − 2
0
t ) j 1 (
e
j 1
1

ω −

ω −
j 1
1 e
2 j 2

(b)
∫ ∫

ω − ω −
− + = ω
0
1
1
0
t j t j
dt e ) 1 ( dt e ) ( H

( ) ( ) ) cos 2 2 (
j
1
1 e
j
1
e 1
j
1
j j
ω + −
ω
= −
ω
+ −
ω
ω − ω
− =

=
ω
ω −
=
j
2 / sin 4
2
2
2 /
2 / sin
j |
.
|

\
|
ω
ω
ω

Chapter 18, Solution 13.

(a) We know that )] a ( ) a ( [ ] at [cos + ω δ + − ω δ π = F .

Using the time shifting property,
) a ( e ) a ( e )] a ( ) a ( [ e )] a 3 / t ( a [cos
3 / j 3 / j a 3 / j
+ ω δ π + − ω δ π = + ω δ + − ω δ π = π −
π π − ωπ −
F

(b) sin t sin sin t cos cos t sin ) 1 t ( π − = π π + π π = + π

g(t) = -u(t+1) sin (t+1)

Let x(t) = u(t)sin t, then
2 2
1
1
1 ) j (
1
) ( X
ω −
=
+ ω
= ω

Using the time shifting property,

1
e
e
1
1
) ( G
2
j
j
2
− ω
=
ω −
− = ω
ω
ω

(c ) Let y(t) = 1 + Asin at, then Y )] a ( ) a ( [ A j ) ( 2 ) ( − ω δ − + ω δ π + ω πδ = ω
h(t) = y(t) cos bt

Using the modulation property,
)] b ( Y ) b ( Y [
2
1
) ( H − ω + + ω = ω

| | | | ) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a (
2
A j
) b ( ) b ( ) ( H − − ω δ − − + ω δ + + − ω δ − + + ω δ
π
+ − ω δ + + ω δ π = ω

(d) ) 1 4 j (
e
j
e 1
) 1 t j (
e
j
e
dt e ) t 1 ( ) (
2
4 j 4 j
2
4
0
2
t j
4
0
t j
t j
+ ω
ω

ω

ω
= − ω −
ω −

ω −
= − = ω
ω − ω − ω − ω −
ω −

I

Chapter 18, Solution 14.

(a) ) t 3 cos( ) 0 ( t 3 sin ) 1 ( t 3 cos sin t 3 sin cos t 3 cos ) t 3 cos( − = − − = π − π = π +
( f ) t ( u t 3 cos e ) t
t −
− =

F(ω) =
( )
( ) 9 j 1
j 1
2
+ ω +
ω + −

(b)

| | ) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( u t cos ) t ( ' g − − − π π =
g(t)
t 1
-1
-1
1

-1 1
g’(t)
t
π

) 1 t ( ) 1 t ( ) t ( g ) t ( " g
2
− πδ + + πδ − π − =
ω − ω
π + π − ω π − = ω ω −
j j 2 2
e e ) ( G ) ( G
( ) ω π − = − π − = ω ω − π
ω − ω
sin j 2 ) e e ( ) ( G
j j 2 2

G(ω) =
2 2
sin j 2
π − ω
ω π

Alternatively, we compare this with Prob. 17.7
f(t) = g(t - 1)
F(ω) = G(ω)e
-jω

( ) ( )
ω ω − ω

π − ω
π
= ω = ω
j j
2 2
j
e e e ) ( F G

2 2
sin 2 j
π − ω
ω π −
=

G(ω) =
2 2
sin j 2
ω − π
ω π

(c) t cos ) 0 ( t sin ) 1 ( t cos sin t sin cos t cos ) 1 t ( cos π − = π + − π = π π + π π = − π
Let e x = ) t ( h e ) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( cos ) t (
2 ) 1 t ( 2
− = − − π
− −
and ) t ( u ) t cos( e ) t ( y
t 2
π =

2 2
) j 2 (
j 2
) ( Y
π + ω +
ω +
= ω

) 1 t ( x ) t ( y − =

ω −
ω = ω
j
e ) ( X ) ( Y

( )
( )
2 2
j
j 2
e j 2
) ( X
π + ω +
ω +
= ω
ω

) ( H e ) ( X
2
ω − = ω

) ( X e ) ( H
2
ω − = ω

=
( )
( )
2
2
2 j
j 2
e j 2
π + ω +
ω + −
− ω

(d) Let x ) t ( y ) t ( u ) t 4 sin( e ) t (
t 2
− = − − =

) t ( x ) t ( p − =
where ) t ( u t 4 sin e ) t ( y
t 2
=

( )
2 2
4 j 2
j 2
) ( Y
+ ω +
ω +
= ω

( ) 16 j 2
j 2
) ( Y ) ( X
2
+ ω −
ω −
= ω − = ω

= ω − = ω ) ( X ) ( p
( ) 16 2 j
2 j
2
+ − ω
− ω

(e)
2 j 2 j
e
j
1
) ( 2 3 e
j
8
) ( Q
ω − ω −
|
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω πδ − +
ω
= ω

Q(ω) =
2 j 2 j
e ) ( 2 3 e
j
6
ω − ω
ω πδ − +
ω

Chapter 18, Solution 15.

(a) F = − = ω
ω − ω 3 j 3 j
e e ) ( ω 3 sin j 2

(b) Let g
ω −
= ω − δ =
j
e 2 ) ( G ), 1 t ( 2 ) t (

= ω) ( F F
\
|
|
.
|

∞ −
t
dt ) t ( g

) ( ) 0 ( F
j
) ( G
ω δ π +
ω
ω
=

) ( ) 1 ( 2
j
e 2
j
ω δ − πδ +
ω
=
ω −

=
ω
ω −
j
e
j
2

(c) F | | 1
2
1
) t 2 ( ⋅ = δ

= ω − ⋅ = ω j
2
1
1
3
1
) ( F
2
j
3
1 ω

Chapter 18, Solution 16.

(a) Using duality properly

2
2
t
ω

ω π →

2
t
2
2

or ω π − → 4
t
4
2

F(ω) = F =
|
.
|
\
2
t
4

|
ω π 4 −

(b)
t a
e

2 2
a
a 2
ω +

2 2
t a
a 2
+

ω −
π
a
e 2

2 2
t a
8
+

ω −
π
2
e 4

G(ω) = F =
|
.
|
\
+
2
t 4
8

| ω −
π
2
e 4

Chapter 18, Solution 17.

(a) Since H(ω) = F ( ) ( ) ( | |
0 0 0
F F
2
1
) t ( f t cos ω − ω + ω + ω = ω )

where F(ω) = F ( ) | | ( ) 2 ,
j
1
t u
0
= ω
ω
+ ω πδ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )

− ω
+ − ω πδ +
+ ω
+ + ω πδ = ω
2 j
1
2
2 j
1
2
2
1
H

( ) ( ) | |
( )( )

− ω + ω
− ω + + ω
− − ω δ + + ω δ
π
=
2 2
2 2
2
j
2 2
2

H(ω) = ( ) ( ) | |
4
j
2 2
2
2
− ω
ω
− − ω δ + + ω δ
π

(b) G(ω) = F | | ( ) ( | |
0 0 0
F F
2
j
) t ( f t sin ω − ω − ω + ω = ω )

where F(ω) = F ( ) | | ( )
ω
+ ω πδ =
j
1
t u

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )

− ω
− − ω πδ −
+ ω
+ + ω πδ = ω
10 j
1
10
10 j
1
10
2
j
G

( ) ( ) | |

+ ω

− ω
+ − ω δ − + ω δ
π
=
10
j
10
j
2
j
10 10
2
j

= ( ) ( ) | |
100
10
10 10
2
2
j
− ω
− − ω δ − + ω δ
π

Chapter 18, Solution 18.

Let f ( ) ( ) t u e t
t −
= ( )
ω +
= ω
j j
1
F

( ) t cos t f ( ) ( | | 1 F 1 F
2
1
+ ω + − ω )

Hence ( )
( ) ( )

+ ω +
+
− ω +
= ω
1 j 1
1
1 j 1
1
2
1
Y

( ) | | ( ) | |

+ ω + − ω +
− ω + + + ω +
=
1 j 1 1 j 1
j j 1 j j 1
2
1

1 j j j j 1
j 1
2
+ ω − − ω + + ω +
ω +
=

=
2 j 2
j 1
2
+ ω − ω
ω +

Chapter 18, Solution 19.

( ) ( )
∫ ∫

∞ −
ω − π − π ω
+ = = ω dt e e e
2
1
dt e ) t ( f F
t j
1
0
t 2 j t 2 j t j

( )
( ) ( )
| |

π − ω − π + ω −
+ = ω
1
0
t 2 j t 2 j
dt e e
2
1
F

( )
( )
( )
( )
1
0
t 2 j t 2 j
e
2 j
1
e
2 j
1
2
1

π − ω −
+
π + ω −
=
π − ω − π + ω −

( )
( )
( )
( )

π − ω

+
π + ω

− =
π − ω − π + ω −
2 j
1 e
2 j
1 e
2
1
2 j 2 j

But
π − π
= = π + π =
2 j 2 j
e 1 2 sin j 2 cos e

( )
|
.
|

\
|
π − ω
+
π + ω
|
|
.
|

\
| −
− = ω
ω −
2
1
2
1
j
1 e
2
1
F
j

= ( ) 1 e
4
j
j
2 2

π − ω
ω
ω −

Chapter 18, Solution 20.

(a) F (c
n
) = c
n
δ(ω)

F ( ) ( )
o n
t jn
n
n c e c
o
ω − ω δ
ω
=

F
|
= |
.
|
\

−∞ =
ω
n
t jn
n
o
e c ( )

−∞ =
ω − ω δ
n
o n
n c

(b) π = 2 T 1
T
2
o
=
π
= ω

( )
∫ ∫
|
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅
π
= =
π
− ω −
T
0 0
jnt t jn
n
0 dt e 1
2
1
dt e t f
T
1
c
o

( ) 1 e
n 2
j
e
jn
1
2
1
jn
0
jnt

π
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

π
=
π − π

But e
n jn
) 1 ( n cos n sin j n cos − = π = π + π =
π −

( ) | |

= − −
π
=
=
≠ =
π

even n , 0
0 n , odd n ,
n
j
n
n
1 1
n 2
j
c

for n = 0

π
=
π
=
0
n
2
1
dt 1
2
1
c

Hence

=

−∞ =
π
− =
odd n
0 n
n
jnt
e
n
j
2
1
) t ( f

F(ω) = ( )

=

−∞ =
− ω δ
π
− δω
odd n
0 n
n
n
n
j
2
1

Chapter 18, Solution 21.

Using Parseval’s theorem,

∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ −
ω ω
π
= d | ) ( F |
2
1
dt ) t ( f
2 2

If f(t) = u(t+a) – u(t+a), then
∫ ∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ − −
ω |
.
|

\
|
ω
ω
π
= = = d
a
a sin
a 4
2
1
a 2 dt ) 1 ( dt ) t ( f
2
2
a
a
2 2

or
a
a 4
a 4
d
a
a sin
2
2
π
=
π
= ω
|
.
|

\
|
ω
ω

∞ −
as required.

Chapter 18, Solution 22.

F | |
( )

∞ −
ω −
ω − ω

= ω dt e
j 2
e e
) t ( f t sin ) t ( f
t j
t j t j
o
o o

( ) ( )

− =
∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ −
ω + ω − ω − ω −
dt e dt e ) t ( f
j 2
1
t j t j
o o

= ( ) ( | |
o o
F F
j 2
1
ω + ω − ω − ω )

Chapter 18, Solution 23.

( )( ) ( )( ) ω + ω +
=
ω + ω +

j 15 j 6
30
3 / j 5 3 / j 2
10
3
1

F | | ( ) = − t 3 f
( )( ) ω − ω − j 15 j 6
30

(b) f(2t)
( )( ) ( )( ) ω + ω +
=
ω + ω +

j 10 j 4
20
2 / j 15 2 / j 2
10
2
1

f(2t-1) = f [2(t-1/2)]
( )( ) ω + ω +
ω −
j 10 j 4
e 20
2 / j

(c) f(t) cos 2t ( ) ( ) 2 F
2
1
2 F
2
1
+ ω + + ω

=
| | ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | | | 2 j 5 2 j 2
5
2 j 5 2 j 2 − ω + − ω +
+
+ ω + + ω +
5

(d) F | | ( ) ( )
( )( ) ω + ω +
ω
= ω ω =
j 5 j 2
10 j
F j t ' f

(e) ( )

f
∞ −
t
dt t
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ω δ π +
ω
ω
0 F
j
F

( )( )
( )
5 x 2
10 x
j 5 j 2 j
ω πδ +
ω + ω + ω
10
=

=
( )( )
( ) ω πδ +
ω + ω + ω j 5 j 2 j
10

Chapter 18, Solution 24.

(a) ( ) ( ) ω = ω F X + F [3]

= ( ) ( ) 1 e
j
ω
+ ω πδ
ω −
j
6 −

(b) ( ) ( ) 2 t f t y − =

( ) ( ) = ω = ω
ω −
F e Y
2 j
( ) 1 e
je
j
2 j

ω
ω −
ω −

(c) If h(t) = f '(t)
( ) ( ) ( ) = −
ω
ω = ω ω = ω
ω −
1 e
j
j F j H
j ω −

j
e 1

(d) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
ω + |
.
|

\
|
ω = ω |
.
|

\
|
.

\
|
=
5
3
F
5
3
x 10
2
3
F
2
3
x 4 ) ( G , t
3
5
f
3
f t + |
|
10 t
2
4 g

( ) ( ) 1 e
5
3
j 6
1 e
2
3
j
6
5 / 3 j 2 / 3 j

ω
+ −
ω
⋅ =
ω − ω −

= ( ) ( ) 1 e
10 j
1 e
4 j
5 / 3 j 2 / 3 j

ω
+ −
ω
ω − ω −

Chapter 18, Solution 25.

(a) ( )
( )
ω =
+
+ =
+
= j s ,
2 s
B
s 2 s s
s
A 10
F

5
2
10
B , 5
2
10
A − =

= = =

( )
2 j
5
j
5
F
+ ω

ω
= ω

f(t) = ( ) ( ) t u e 5 t
2
t 2 −
− sgn
5

(b) ( )
( )( ) 2 j
B
1 j
A
2 j 1 j
4 j
F
+ ω
+
+ ω
=
+ ω + ω
− ω
= ω

( )
( )( )
ω =
+
+
+
=
+ +

= j s ,
2 s
B
1 s
A
2 s 1 s
4 s
s F

A = 5, B = 6

( )
ω +
+
ω +

= ω
j 2
6
j 1
5
F

f(t) = ( ) ( ) t u e 6 e 5
t 2 t − −
+ −

Chapter 18, Solution 26.

(a) ) t ( u e ) t (
) 2 t ( − −
= f

(b) ) t ( u te ) t (
t 4 −
= h

(c) If
ω
ω
= ω ÷→ ÷ − − + =
sin
2 ) ( X ) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( u ) t ( x

By using duality property,

t
t sin 2
) t ( g ) 1 ( u 2 ) 1 ( u 2 ) ( G
π
= ÷→ ÷ − ω − + ω = ω

Chapter 18, Solution 27.

(a) Let ( )
( )
ω =
+
+ =
+
= j s ,
10 s
B
s 10 s s
s
A 100
F

10
10
100
B , 10
10
100
A − =

= = =

( )
10 j
10
j
10
F
+ ω

ω
= ω

f(t) = ( ) ( ) t u e 10 t sgn
t 10 −
− 5

(b) ( )
( )( )
ω =
+
+

=
+ −
= j s ,
3 s
B
s 2
A
s 3 s 2
s 10
s G

6
5
30
B , 4
5
20
A − =

= = =

( )
3 j
6
2 j
4
G
+ ω

+ ω − =
= ω

g(t) = ( ) ( ) t u e 6 t u e
t 3 t 2 −
− − 4

(c) ( )
( ) ( ) 900 20 j
60
1300 40 j j
60
H
2 2
+ + ω
=
+ ω + ω
= ω

h(t) = ( ) t u ) t 30 sin( e
t 20 −
2

( )
( )
( )( )

∞ −
ω
= ⋅ π =
+ ω ω +
ω ω δ
π
=
2
1
2
1
1 j j 2
d e
2
1
t y
t j
π
4
1

Chapter 18, Solution 28.

(a)
∫ ∫

∞ −
ω

∞ −
ω
ω
ω + ω +
ω πδ
π
= ω ω
π
= d
) j 2 )( j 5 (
e ) (
2
1
d e ) ( F
2
1
) t ( f
t j
t j

= = =
20
1
) 2 )( 5 (
1
2
1
0.05

(b)

∞ −

ω
+ − − π
= ω
+ ω ω
+ ω δ
π
=
) 1 2 j )( 2 j (
e
2
10
d e
) 1 j ( j
) 2 ( 10
2
1
) t ( f
t 2 j
t j

=
− π
=

2 j 1
e
2
5 j
t 2 j

π
+ −

2
e ) j 2 (
t 2 j

(c)

∞ −
ω
+ + π
= ω
ω + ω +
− ω δ
π
=
) j 3 )( j 2 (
e
2
20
d
) 5 3 )( j 2 (
e ) 1 ( 20
2
1
) t ( f
jt t j

=
+ π
=
) j 5 5 ( 2
e 20
jt

π

jt
e ) j 1 (

(d) Let ) ( F ) ( F
) j 5 ( j
5
) j 5 (
) ( 5
) (
2 1
ω + ω =
ω + ω
+
ω +
F
ω πδ
= ω

∞ −
ω
= ⋅
π
π
= ω
ω +
ω πδ
π
= 5 . 0
5
1
2
5
d e
j 5
) ( 5
2
1
) t ( f
t j
1

1 B , 1 A ,
5 s
B
s
A
) s 5 ( s
5
) s (
2
− = =
+
+ =
+
= F

5 j
1
j
1
) ( F
2
+ ω

ω
= ω

t 5 t 5
2
e ) t ( u
2
1
e ) t sgn(
2
1
) t ( − + − = − =

f

= + = ) t ( f ) t ( f ) t ( f
2 1
u
t 5
e ) t (

Chapter 18, Solution 29.

(a) f(t) = F
-1
[ + ω δ )] ( F
-1 | | ) 3 ( 4 ) 3 ( 4 − ω δ + + ω δ

π
+
π
=
t 3 cos 4
2
1
= ( ) t 3 cos 8 1
2
1
+
π

(b) If ) 2 t ( u ) 2 t ( u ) t ( h − − + =

ω
ω
= ω
2 sin 2
) ( H

) ( H 4 ) ( G ω = ω
t
t 2 sin 8
2
1
) t ( ⋅
π
= g

g(t) =
t
t 2 sin 4
π

(c) Since
cos(at) ↔ ) a ( ) a ( − ω πδ + + ω πδ
Using the reversal property,
) 2 t ( ) 2 t ( 2 cos 2 − πδ + + πδ ↔ ω π

or F
-1 | | = ω 2 cos 6
) 2 t ( 3 ) 2 t ( 3 − δ + + δ

Chapter 18, Solution 30.

(a)
ω +
= ω
ω
= ω ÷→ ÷ =
j a
1
) ( X ,
j
2
) ( Y ) t sgn( ) t ( y

)] t ( u ) t ( u [ a ) t ( 2 ) t ( h
j
a 2
2
j
) j a ( 2
) ( X
) ( Y
) ( H − − + δ = ÷→ ÷
ω
+ =
ω
ω +
=
ω
ω
= ω

(b)
ω +
= ω
ω +
= ω
j 2
1
) ( Y ,
j 1
1
) ( X

) t ( u e ) t ( ) t ( h
j 2
1
1
j 2
j 1
) ( H
t 2 −
− δ = ÷→ ÷
ω +
− =
ω +
ω +
= ω

(c ) In this case, by definition, ) t ( u bt sin e ) t ( y ) t ( h
at −
= =
Chapter 18, Solution 31.

(a)
ω +
= ω
ω +
= ω
j a
1
) ( H ,
) j a (
1
) ( Y
2

) t ( u e ) t ( x
j a
1
) ( H
) ( Y
) ( X
at −
= ÷→ ÷
ω +
=
ω
ω
= ω

(b) By definition, ) 1 t ( u ) 1 t ( u ) t ( y ) t ( x − − + = =

(c )
ω
= ω
ω +
= ω
j
2
) ( H ,
) j a (
1
) ( Y

) t ( u e
2
a
) t (
2
1
) t ( x
) j a ( 2
a
2
1
) j a ( 2
j
) ( H
) ( Y
) ( X
at −
− δ = ÷→ ÷
ω +
− =
ω +
ω
=
ω
ω
= ω

Chapter 18, Solution 32.

(a) Since
1 j
j
+ ω
ω −
e

( )
) 1 t ( u e
1 t

− −

and F f(-t) ( ) ω −

( )
1 j
e
j
1
+ ω −
= ω
ω
F ( )
( )
( ) 1 t u e t f
1 t
1
− − =
− − −

f
1
(t) = e
( )
( ) 1 t u
1 t
− −
+

(b) From Section 17.3,

1 t
2
2
+

ω −
πe 2

If ( ) , e 2 F
2
ω −
= ω then

f
2
(t) =
( ) 1 t
2
2
+ π

(b) By partial fractions
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 j
4
1
1 j
4
1
1 j
4
1
1 j
4
1
1 j 1 j
1
F
2 2 2 2
3
− ω

− ω
+
+ ω
+
+ ω
=
− ω + ω
= ω

Hence ( ) ( ) ( ) t u e te e te
4
1
t
t t t t
3
− + + =
− −
f

= ( ) ( ) ( ) (t u e 1 t
4
1
t u e 1 t
4
t t
− + +

)
1

(d) ( ) ( )
( )
∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ −
ω
ω
ω +
ω δ
π
= ω ω
π
=
2 j 1
e
2
1
d e F
2
1
t f
t j
t j
1 4
=
π 2
1

Chapter 18, Solution 33.

(a) Let ( ) ( ) ( ) | | 1 t u 1 t u t sin 2 t x − − + π =

From Problem 17.9(b),

( )
2 2
sin j 4
X
ω − π
ω π
= ω
Applying duality property,

( ) ( )
( )
2 2
t
t sin j 2
t X
2
1
t f
− π

= −
π
=

f(t) =
2 2
t
t sin j 2
π −

(b) ( ) ( ) ( ) ω − ω
ω
− ω − ω
ω
= ω sin j cos
j
2 sin j 2 cos
j
F

( )
ω

ω
= −
ω
ω ω −
ω − ω
j
e
j
e
e e
j
2 j j
j 2 j
=

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 t sgn
2
1
1 t sgn
2
1
t f − − − =

But sgn( 1 ) t ( u 2 ) t − =

( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2 t u
2
1
1 t u t f + − − − − =

= ( ) u ( 2 t u 1 t − − − )

Chapter 18, Solution 34.

First, we find G(ω) for g(t) shown below.

( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | 1 t u 1 t u 10 2 t u 2 t u 10 t g − − + + − − + =
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | 1 t 1 t 10 2 t 2 t 10 t ' g − δ − + δ + − δ − + δ =

The Fourier transform of each term gives

20
t
g(t)
10
0

–2 –1 1 2

10δ(t+2) 10δ(t+1)
–1 –2 1 2
t
g ‘(t)

0

–10δ(t-2) –10δ(t-1)

( ) ( ) ( )
ω − ω ω − ω
− + − = ω ω
j j 2 j 2 j
e e 10 e e 10 G j
ω + ω = sin j 20 2 sin j 20

( ) =
ω
ω
+
ω
ω
= ω
sin 20 2 sin 20
G 40 sinc(2ω) + 20 sinc(ω)

Note that G(ω) = G(-ω).
( ) ( ) ω − π = ω G 2 F

( ) ( ) t G
2
1
t f
π
=

= (20/π)sinc(2t) + (10/π)sinc(t)

Chapter 18, Solution 35.

(a) x(t) = f[3(t-1/3)]. Using the scaling and time shifting properties,’’

) j 6 (
e
e
3 / j 2
1
3
1
) ( X
3 / j
3 / j
ω +
=
ω +
= ω
ω −
ω −

(b) Using the modulation property,

− ω
+
+ ω
=

− ω +
+
+ ω +
= − ω + + ω = ω
3 j
1
7 j
1
2
1
) 5 ( j 2
1
) 5 ( j 2
1
2
1
)] 5 ( F ) 5 ( F [
2
1
) ( Y

(c )
ω +
ω
= ω ω = ω
j 2
j
) ( F j ) ( Z

(d)
2
) j 2 (
1
) ( F ) ( F ) ( H
ω +
= ω ω = ω

(e)
2 2
) j 2 (
1
) j 2 (
) j 0 (
j ) ( F
d
d
j ) ( I
ω +
=
ω +

= ω
ω
= ω

Chapter 18, Solution 36.

( )
( )
( ) ω
ω
= ω
i
o
V
V
H

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
ω +
ω
= ω ω = ω
j 2
V 10
V H V
i
i o

(a) v
i
= 4δ(t) V
i
(ω) = 4

( )
ω +
= ω
j 2
40
V
o

( ) t u e 40 ) t ( v
t 2
o

=
v
o
(2) = 40e
–4
= 0.7326 V

(b) ( ) t u e 6 v
t
i

= ( )
ω +
= ω
j 1
6
V
i

( )
( )( ) ω + ω +
= ω
j 1 j 2
60
V
o

( )
( )( )
ω =
+
+
+
=
+ +
= j s ,
2 s
B
1 s
A
1 s 2 s
60
s V
o

60
1
60
B , 60
1
60
A − =

= = =

( )
ω +

ω +
= ω
j 2
60
j 1
60
V
o

| | ) t ( u e e 60 ) t ( v
t 2 t
o
− −
− =
| | ( ) 01831 . 0 13533 . 0 60 e e 60 ) 2 ( v
4 2
o
− = − =
− −

= 7.021 V

(c) v
i
(t) = 3 cos 2t

V
i
(ω) = π[δ(ω + 2) + δ(ω- 2)]

( ) ( ) | |
ω +
− ω δ + + ω δ π
=
j 2
2 2 10
V
o

( )

∞ −
ω
ω ω
π
= d e V
2
1
) t ( v
t j
o o

( ) ( )
∫ ∫

∞ −
ω

∞ −
ω
ω
ω +
− ω δ
+ ω
ω +
+ ω δ
= d
j 2
e 2
5 d e
j 2
2
5
t j
t j

( ) (
| |
° − ° − −
+ −
+ =
+
+

=
45 t 2 j 45 t 2 j
t 2 j t 2 j
e e
2 2
5
2 j 2
e 5
2 j 2
e 5
)

( ) ° − = 45 t 2 cos
2
5

( ) ( ) ( ) ° − ° = ° − = 45 18 . 229 cos
2
5
45 4 cos
2
5
2 v
o

v
o
(2) = –3.526 V

Chapter 18, Solution 37.

ω +
ω
= ω
j 2
2 j
j 2

By current division,

( )
( )
( ) ω + + ω
ω
=
ω +
ω
+
ω +
ω
=
ω
ω
= ω
4 j 8 2 j
2 j
j 2
2 j
4
j 2
2 j
I
I
H
s
o

H(ω) =
ω +
ω
3 j 4
j

Chapter 18, Solution 38.

( ) ( )
ω
+ ω πδ = ω
j
1
V
i

( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
ω
+ ω πδ
ω +
= ω
ω +
= ω
j
1
j 5
5
V
2 j 10
10
V
i o

Let ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ω + ω
+
ω +
ω πδ
= ω + ω = ω
j 5 j
5
j 5
5
2 1 o
V V V

( )
( ) 5 s
B
s
A
5 s s
5
V
2
+
+ =
+
= ω A = 1, B = -1, s = jω

( )
ω +

ω
= ω
j 5
1
j
1
V
2
( )
t 5
2
e ) t sgn(
2
1
t

− = v

( )
ω +
ω πδ
=
j 5
5
V
1
( )
( )

∞ −
ω
ω
ω +
ω πδ
π
= d e
j 5
5
2
1
t v
t j
1

v
1
(t) 5 . 0
5
1
2
5
= ⋅
π
π
=

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
t 5
2 1 0
e t sgn 5 . 0 5 . 0 t v t v t v

− + = + =
But ( ) ( ) t u 2 1 t sgn + − =

( ) ( ) ( ) = − + − + =

t u e t u 5 . 0 5 . 0 t
t 5
o
v ( ) ( ) t u e t u
t 5 −

Chapter 18, Solution 39.

ω − ω −

∞ −
ω

ω
+
ω
= − = ω

j
2 2
t j
s
e
1 1
j
1
dt e ) t 1 ( ) ( V

|
|
.
|

\
|
ω

ω
+
ω
ω +
=
ω +
ω
= ω
ω −

j
2 2 6
3
3 3
s
e
1 1
j
1
j 10
10
10 x j 10
) ( V
) ( I

Chapter 18, Solution 40.

) 2 t ( ) 1 t ( 2 ) t ( ) t ( v − δ + − δ − δ =

2 j j 2
e e 2 1 ) ( V
ω ω −
+ − = ω ω −

( )
2
2 j j
e e 2 1
V
ω −
+ −
= ω
ω − ω −

Now ( )
ω
ω +
=
ω
+ = ω
j
2 j 1
j
1
2 Z

( )
( ) ω +
ω

ω
− −
=
ω
ω
=
ω ω
2 j 1
j 1 e e 2
Z
V
I
2
2 j j

( )
( )
ω − ω −
− +
ω + ω
j 2 j
e e 5 . 0 5 . 0
j 5 . 0 j
=
1

But
5 . 0 s
B
s
A
) 5 . 0 s ( s
1
+
+ =
+
A = 2, B = -2

( ) ( ) ( )
ω − ω − ω − ω
− +
ω +
− − +
ω
= ω
j 2 j j 2 j
e e 5 . 0 5 . 0
j 5 . 0
2
e e 5 . 0 5 . 0
j
2
I

i(t) = ) 1 t ( u e 2 ) 2 t ( u e ) t ( u e ) 1 t sgn( ) 2 t sgn(
2
1
) t sgn(
2
1
) 1 t ( 5 . 0 ) 2 t ( 5 . 0 t 5 . 0
− − − − − − − − +
− − − − −

Chapter 18, Solution 41.

2

ω + j 2
1

+

1/s
0.5s
+
V

2

( )
ω +
ω + ω −
=
ω +
ω
+ ω = + ω − ω
= −
ω
+ ω +
ω +

j 2
9 j 4
j 2
j
4 j V 4 2 j
0 2
j
V 2
V j
2
j 2
1
V
2
2

V(ω) =
) j 2 4 )( j 2 (
) 2 j 5 . 4 ( j 2
2
ω + ω − ω +
ω + ω

Chapter 18, Solution 42.

By current division, ( ) ω ⋅
ω +
= I
j 2
2
I
o

(a) For i(t) = 5 sgn (t),

( )
) j 2 ( j
20
j
10
j 2
2
I
j
10
I
o
ω + ω
=
ω

ω +
=
ω
= ω

Let 10 B , 10 A ,
2 s
B
s
A
) 2 s ( s
20
o
− = =
+
+ =
+
I =

( )
ω +

ω
= ω
j 2
10
j
10
o
I

i
o
(t) = 5 A ) t ( u e 10 ) t sgn(
t 2 −

(b)

) 1 t ( 4 ) t ( 4 ) t ( ' i − δ − δ =
4
i(t)
t
1
–4δ(t–1)
4δ(t)
i’(t)
t
1
( )
ω −
− = ω ω
j
e 4 4 I j

( )
( )
ω

= ω
ω −
j
e 1 4
I
j

( )
( )
ω −
ω −

|
|
.
|

\
|
ω +

ω
=
ω + ω

=
j
j
o
e 1
j 2
1
j
1
4
) j 2 ( j
e 1 8
I

ω +
+
ω

ω +

ω
=
ω − ω −
j 2
e 4
j
e 4
j 2
4
j
4
j j

i
o
(t) = ( )A 1 t u e 4 ) t ( u e 4 ) 1 t sgn( 2 ) t sgn( 2
) 1 t ( 2 t 2
− + − − −
− − −

Chapter 18, Solution 43.

ω +
= ÷→ ÷ =
ω
=
ω
=
ω
÷→ ÷

j 5
1
I e 5 i ,
j
50
10 x 20 j
1
C j
1
mF 20
s
t
s
3

ω =
+ +
=
ω

ω
+
= j s ,
) 5 s )( 25 . 1 s (
50
j
50
I
j
50
40
40
V
s o

+ ω

+ ω
=
+
+
+
=
5 j
1
25 . 1 j
1
3
40
5 s
B
25 . 1 s
A
V
o

) t ( u ) e e (
3
40
) t ( v
t 5 t 25 . 1
o
− −
− =

Chapter 18, Solution 44.

1H jω

We transform the voltage source to a current source as shown in Fig. (a) and then
combine the two parallel 2Ω resistors, as shown in Fig. (b).
(a)
+
V
o

1
V
s
/2
2
I
o
+
V
o

2
V
s
/2
(b)

I
o

, 1 2 2 Ω =
2
V
j 1
1
s
o

ω +
= I

) j 1 ( 2
V j
I j V
s
o o
ω +
ω
= ω =

( ) ) 2 t ( 10 t 10 ) t ( v
s
− δ − δ =
( )
ω −
− = ω ω
2 j
s
e 10 10 V j

( ) = ω
s
V
( )
ω

ω −
j
e 1 10
2 j

Hence
( )
ω −
ω −
ω +

ω +
=
ω +

=
2 j
2 j
o
e
j 1
5
j 1
5
j 1
e 1 5
V

) 2 t ( u e 5 ) t ( u e 5 ) t ( v
) 2 t ( t
o
− − =
− − −
= − − =

0 1 e 5 ) 1 ( v
1
o
1.839 V

Chapter 18, Solution 45.

) t ( u te 2 ) t ( v
) 1 j (
2
) 2 (
j
1
j 2
j
1
V
t
o
2
o

= ÷→ ÷
+ ω
=
ω
+ ω +
ω
=

Chapter 18, Solution 46.

F
4
1

ω

=
ω
4 j
4
1
j
1

2H jω2
3 ) t ( 3δ

) t ( u e
t −
ω + j 1
1

The circuit in the frequency domain is shown below:

2 Ω
V
o

I
o
(ω)

+

3

+

1/(1+jω)
–j4/ω

j2ω

At node V
o
, KCL gives

ω
=
ω

+

ω +
2 j
V
4 j
V 3
2
V
j 1
1
o o
o

ω
− = ω − ω + −
ω +
o
o o
V 2 j
V j 3 j V 2
j 1
2

ω
− ω +
ω +
ω +
=
2 j
j 2
3 j
j 1
2
V
o

( )
|
.
|

\
|
ω
− ω + ω
ω +
ω − ω +
=
ω
= ω
2 j
j 2 2 j
j 1
3 3 j 2
2 j
V
I
2
o
o

I
o
(ω) =
) 2 8 ( j 6 4
3 j
3 2
2 2
ω − ω + ω −
ω − ω + 2

Chapter 18, Solution 47.

Transferring the current source to a voltage source gives the circuit below:

1/(jω)
2 Ω
+ −
V
o

+

1 Ω

8 V
jω/2

Let
ω +
ω +
=
ω
+
ω
+ =
ω
+ =
j 2
3 j 4
2
j
1
2
j
2
2
j
1 2
in
Z
By voltage division,
( )
( )
ω +
ω + ω
+
=
ω +
= ⋅
+
ω
ω
= ω
j 2
3 j 4 j
1
8
Z j 1
8
8
Z
j
1
j
1
V
in
in
o

=
( )
2
3 4 j j 2
j 2
ω − ω + ω +
8 ω +

=
( )
2
3 5 j 2
j 2
ω − ω +
8 ω +

Chapter 18, Solution 48.

0.2F
ω
− =
ω
5 j
C j
1

As an integrator,

4 . 0 10 x 20 x 10 x 20 RC
6 3
= =

− =
t
o
i o
dt v
RC
1
v

( )

ω δ π +
ω
− = ) 0 ( V
j
V
RC
1
V
i
i
o

( )
( )

ω πδ +
ω + ω
− =
j 2 j
2
4 . 0
1

( )
( )

ω δ π +
ω + ω
− = =
j 2 j
2
125 . 0 mA
20
V
I
o
o

( ) ω πδ −
ω +
+
ω
− = 125 . 0
j 2
125 . 0
j
125 . 0

( ) ( )

ω −
ω πδ
π
− + − = dt e
2
125 . 0
t u e 125 . 0 ) t sgn( 125 . 0 ) t ( i
t j t 2
o

2
125 . 0
) t ( u e 125 . 0 ) t ( u 25 . 0 125 . 0
t 2
− + + =

i
o
(t) = mA ) t ( u e 125 . 0 ) t ( u 25 . 0 625 . 0
t 2 −
+ −

Chapter 18, Solution 49.

Consider the circuit shown below:

2 Ω

i
2
i
1

+

j2ω

1 Ω
+
v
o

V
S

( ) ( | | 2 1 V
s
− ω δ + ) + ω δ π =

For mesh 1, ( ) 0 I j I 2 I 2 j 2 V
2 2 1 s
= ω − − ω + + −
( ) ( )
2 1 s
I j 2 I j 1 2 V ω + − ω + = (1)

For mesh 2, ( )
1 1 2
I j I 2 I j 3 0 ω − − ω + =

( )
( ) ω +
ω +
=
2
I 3
I
2
1
(2)

Substituting (2) into (1) gives

( )( )
( )
2
2
s
I j 2
j 2
I j 3 j 1 2
2 V ω + −
ω +
ω + ω +
=

( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2
2 2
s
I 4 j 4 4 j 3 2 2 V ω − ω + − ω − ω + = ω +
( )
2
2
4 j 2 I ω − ω + =

( )
ω =
+ +
+
= j s ,
2 s 4 s
V 2 s
I
2
s
2

= =
2 o
I V
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) 2 4 j j
1 1 2 j
2
+ ω + ω
− ω δ + + ω δ π + ω

( )

∞ −
ω
ω ω
π
= d e v
2
1
) t ( v
t j
o o

( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )

∞ −
ω ω
+ ω + ω
ω − ω δ + ω
+
+ ω + ω
ω + ω δ + ω
=
2 4 j j
d 1 e 2 j
2
1
2 4 j j
d 1 e 2 j
2
1
2
t j
2
t j

( ) ( )
2 4 j 1
e 2 j
2
1
2 4 j 1
e 2 j
2
1
jt jt
+ + −
+
+
+ − −
+ −
=

( )( ) ( )( )
17
e 4 j 1 j 2
2
1
e
17
4 j 1 j 2
2
1
) t ( v
jt
jt
o
− −
+
+ −
=

( ) ( )
jt jt
e 7 j 6
34
1
e 7 j 6
34
1
− + + =

( ) ( ) ° − ° − −
+ =
64 . 13 t j 64 . 13 t j
e 271 . 0 e 271 . 0

v
o
(t) = 0 V ) 64 . 13 t cos( 542 . ° −

Chapter 18, Solution 50.

Consider the circuit shown below:

i
2
i
1

+

+
v
o

1 Ω
1 Ω
j0.5ω

V
S

For loop 1,
( ) 0 I 5 . 0 j I j 1 2
2 1
= ω + ω + + − (1)
For loop 2,
( ) 0 I 5 . 0 j I j 1
1 2
= ω + ω + (2)
From (2),

( ) ( )
ω
ω +
− =
ω −
ω +
=
j
I j 1
2
5 . 0 j
I j 1
I
2 2
1

Substituting this into (1),

( )
2
2
I
2
j
j
I j 1 2
2
ω
+
ω
ω + −
=

2
2
I
2
3
4 j 4 j 2 |
.
|

\
|
ω − ω + − = ω

2
2
5 . 1 4 j 4
j 2
I
ω − ω +
ω
=

( )
2
2 o
j 5 . 1 4 j 4
j 2
I V
ω + ω +
ω −
= =

( )
2
o
j
3
8
j
3
8
j
3
4
V
ω +
ω
+
ω
=

2
2
2
2
3
8
j
3
4
3
16
3
8
j
3
4
j
3
4
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
ω +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
ω +
|
.
|

\
|
ω + −
=

= ) t ( V
o
V ) t ( u t
3
8
sin e 657 . 5 ) t ( u t
3
8
cos e 4
3 / t 4 3 / t 4
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −

Chapter 18, Solution 51.

ω +
=
ω
+
ω
=
ω
=
j 1
1
j
1
1
j
1
j
1
// 1 Z

ω =
+ +
=
ω + ω +
=
ω +

ω +
+
ω +
=
+
=
j s ,
) 5 . 1 s )( 1 s (
1
j 1
2
j 2 3
1
j 1
2
j 1
1
2
j 1
1
V
2 Z
Z
V
o o

) t ( u ) e e ( 2 ) t ( v
5 . 1 s
2
1 s
2
5 . 1 s
B
1 s
A
V
t 5 . 1 t
o o
− −
− = ÷→ ÷
+

+
=
+
+
+
=

− − −
− − −

∞ −

− −

∫ ∫
|
|
.
|

\
|
− +

= + − =
− = =
0
0
t 3 t 5 . 2 t 2
t 3 t 5 . 2 t 2
0
2 t 5 . 1 t 2
3
e
5 . 2
e
2
2
e
4 dt ) e e 2 e ( 4
dt ) e e ( 4 dt ) t ( f W

J 1332 . 0 )
3
1
5 . 2
2
2
1
( 4 W = + − =

Chapter 18, Solution 52.

J =
∫ ∫
∞ ∞
ω ω
π
=
0
2
0
2
d ) ( F
1
dt ) t ( f 2

=
2 3
1
) 3 / ( tan
3
1
d
9
1 1
0
1
0
2 2
π
π
= ω
π
= ω
ω + π

= (1/6)

Chapter 18, Solution 53.

J =
∫ ∫

∞ −

π = ω ω dt ) t ( f 2 d ) ( F
2
0
2

f(t) =
0 t , e
0 t , e
2
t 2
>
<
− t

J =

+ π =

+ π

∞ −

∞ −
∫ ∫
0
t 4
0
t 4
0
t 4
0
t 4
4
e
4
e
2 dt e dt e 2 = 2π[(1/4) + (1/4)] = π

Chapter 18, Solution 54.

W
1Ω
=

∞ −
− = =
∫ ∫
0
t 2
0
t 2 2
e 8 dt e 16 dt ) t ( f = 8 J

Chapter 18, Solution 55.

f(t) = 5e
2
e
–t
u(t)

F(ω) = 5e
2
/(1 + jω), |F(ω)|
2
= 25e
4
/(1 + ω
2
)

W
1Ω
=

∞ ∞
ω
π
= ω
ω + π
= ω ω
π
∫ ∫
0
1
4
0
2
4
0
2
) ( tan
e 25
d
1
1 e 25
d ) ( F
1

= 12.5e
4
= 682.5 J

or W
1Ω
= 12.5e = =
∫ ∫

∞ − 0
t 2 4 2
dt e e 25 dt ) t ( f
4
= 682.5 J

Chapter 18, Solution 56.

W
1Ω
=

∞ −
=
0
2 t 2 2
dt ) t 2 ( sin e dt ) t ( f

But, sin
2
(A) = 0.5(1 – cos(2A))

W
1Ω
=

+ −
+

= −
0
t 2
0
t 2
0
t 2
)] t 4 sin( 4 ) t 4 cos( 2 [
16 4
e
2
e
2
1
dt )] t 4 cos( 1 [ 5 . 0 e

= (1/4) + (1/20)(–2) = 0.15 J

Chapter 18, Solution 57.

W
1Ω
=
0
t 2
0
t 2 2
e 2 dt e 4 dt ) t ( i
∞ − ∞ −

∞ −
= =
∫ ∫
= 2 J

or I(ω) = 2/(1 – jω), |I(ω)|
2
= 4/(1 + ω
2
)

W
1Ω
=
2
4
) ( tan
4
d
) 1 (
1
2
4
d ) ( I
2
1
0
1
2
2 π
π
= ω
π
= ω
ω + π
= ω ω
π

∞ −

∞ −
∫ ∫
= 2 J

In the frequency range, –5 < ω < 5,

W = ) 373 . 1 (
4
) 5 ( tan
4
tan
4
1
5
0
1
π
=
π
= ω
π
− −
= 1.7487

W/ W
1Ω
= 1.7487/2 = 0.8743 or 87.43%

Chapter 18, Solution 58.

ω
m
= 200π = 2πf
m
m
= 100 Hz

(a) ω
c
= πx10
4
= 2πf
c
c
= 10
4
/2 = 5 kHz

(b) lsb = f
c
– f
m
= 5,000 – 100 = 4,900 Hz

(c) usb = f
c
+ f
m
= 5,000 + 100 = 5,100 Hz

Chapter 18, Solution 59.

ω +

ω +
=
ω +

ω +
=
ω
ω
= ω
j 4
3
j 2
5
2
j 4
6
j 2
10
) ( V
) ( V
) ( H
i
o

ω =
+ +

+ +
=
ω +
|
|
.
|

\
|
ω +

ω +
= ω ω = ω
j s ,
) 4 s )( 1 s (
12
) 2 s )( 1 s (
20
j 1
4
j 4
3
j 2
5
) ( V ) ( H ) ( V
i o

Using partial fraction,

ω +
+
ω +

ω +
=
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
= ω
j 4
4
j 2
20
j 1
16
4 s
D
1 s
C
2 s
B
1 s
A
) ( V
o

Thus,
( ) V ) t ( u e 4 e 20 e 16 ) t ( v
t 4 t 2 t
o
− − −
+ − =

Chapter 18, Solution 60.

2

1/jω jω
+
V

I
s

ω + ω −
ω
=
ω + +
ω
ω
ω =
2 j 1
I j
j 2
j
1
j
1
I j V
2
s
s

° − ∠ =
+ −
° ∠
=
π + π −
° ∠ π
= 92 . 71 2418 . 1
566 . 12 j 48 . 38
90 27 . 50
4 j 4 1
8 90 2
V
. component DC no is there , inductor the across appears voltage the Since
2
1

° − ∠ =
+ −
° ∠
=
π + π −
° ∠ π
= 9 . 80 3954 . 0
13 . 25 j 91 . 156
90 83 . 62
8 j 16 1
5 90 4
V
2
2

mV ) 1 . 129 t 4 cos( 3954 . 0 ) 92 . 41 t 2 cos( 2418 . 1 ) t ( v ° + π + ° − π =
Chapter 18, Solution 61.

lsb = 8,000,000 – 5,000 = 7,995,000 Hz

usb = 8,000,000 + 5,000 = 8,005,000 Hz

Chapter 18, Solution 62.

For the lower sideband, the frequencies range from

10,000 – 3,500 Hz = 6,500 Hz to 10,000 – 400 Hz = 9,600 Hz

For the upper sideband, the frequencies range from

10,000 + 400 Hz = 10,400 Hz to 10,000 + 3,500 Hz = 13,500 Hz

Chapter 18, Solution 63.

Since f
n
= 5 kHz, 2f
n
= 10 kHz

i.e. the stations must be spaced 10 kHz apart to avoid interference.

∆f = 1600 – 540 = 1060 kHz

The number of stations = ∆f /10 kHz = 106 stations

Chapter 18, Solution 64.

∆f = 108 – 88 MHz = 20 MHz

The number of stations = 20 MHz/0.2 MHz = 100 stations

Chapter 18, Solution 65.

ω = 3.4 kHz

f
s
= 2ω = 6.8 kHz
Chapter 18, Solution 66.

ω = 4.5 MHz

f
c
= 2ω = 9 MHz

T
s
= 1/f
c
= 1/(9x10
6
) = 1.11x10
–7
= 111 ns

Chapter 18, Solution 67.

We first find the Fourier transform of g(t). We use the results of Example 17.2 in
conjunction with the duality property. Let Arect(t) be a rectangular pulse of height A and
width T as shown below.
Arect(t) transforms to Atsinc(ω
2
/2)

–ω
m
/2
G(ω)
ω
ω
m
/2
F(ω)
ω
–T/2
A
f(t)
t
T/2

According to the duality property,

Aτsinc(τt/2) becomes 2πArect(τ)

g(t) = sinc(200πt) becomes 2πArect(τ)

where Aτ = 1 and τ/2 = 200π or T = 400π

i.e. the upper frequency ω
u
= 400π = 2πf
u
or f
u
= 200 Hz

The Nyquist rate = f
s
= 200 Hz

The Nyquist interval = 1/f
s
= 1/200 = 5 ms

Chapter 18, Solution 68.

The total energy is

W
T
=

∞ −
dt ) t ( v
2

Since v(t) is an even function,

W
T
=

=
0
t 4
0
t 4
4
e
5000 dt e 2500

= 1250 J

V(ω) = 50x4/(4 + ω
2
)

W =

ω
ω + π
= ω ω
π
5
1
2 2
2
5
1
2
d
) 4 (
) 200 (
2
1
d | ) ( V
2

|
1

But C ) a / x ( tan
a
1
a x
x
a 2
1
dx
) x a (
1
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
+

+
+
=
+

W =
5
1
1
2
4
) 2 / ( tan
2
1
4 8
1 10 x

ω +
ω +
ω
π

2

= (2500/π)[(5/29) + 0.5tan
-1
(5/2) – (1/5) – 0.5tan
–1
(1/2) = 267.19

W/W
T
= 267.19/1250 = 0.2137 or 21.37%

Chapter 18, Solution 69.

The total energy is

W
T
=
∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ −
ω
ω + π
= ω ω
π
d
4
400
2
1
d ) ( F
2
2 2
2 1

= [ ]
2
100
) 4 / ( tan ) 4 / 1 (
400
0
1
π
π
= ω
π

= 50

W = [ ]
2
0
1
2
0
2
) 4 / ( tan ) 4 / 1 (
2
400
d ) ( F
2
1
ω
π
= ω ω
π

= [100/(2π)]tan
–1
(2) = (50/π)(1.107) = 17.6187

W/W
T
= 17.6187/50 = 0.3524 or 35.24%