NHOÂM – HÔÏP CHAÁT CUÛA NHOÂM

™ Sô ñoà toùm taét:
‰ Al
‰ Al2O3
‰ Al(OH)3

+ OH

‰ Muoái Al3+ + OH
2
(Cl ,NO3 ,SO4 )

CO2

AlO2

Al(OH)3↓
ƒ Al(OH)3↓
ƒ AlO2

Al(OH)3↓
Al(OH)3↓
Al3+
Al3+
Al(OH)3↓

‰ Muoái Al3+ + OH
2
(Cl ,NO3 ,SO4 )

AlO2

Al(OH)3↓
ƒAl(OH)3↓
ƒAlO2

™Giaùo khoa

3+
Al + 3 OH → Al(OH)

(1)
3
Sau (1) coøn OH – ,thì:

Al(OH)3 + OH → AlO2 + 2H2O (2)

™Giaùo khoa

3+
Al + 3 OH → Al(OH)
(1)
3↓

Sau (1) coøn OH ,thì:

Al(OH)3 + OH → AlO2 + 2H2O (2)

™Trong ñònh löôïng:

‰ Phaûn öùng: (1), (2) neân vieát laïi

3+
3
Al + OH → Al(OH)3↓ (1’)

3+
4
Al + OH → AlO2 + 2 H2O (2’)

™Trong ñònh löôïng:

‰ Phaûn öùng: (1), (2) neân vieát laïi

3+
3
Al + OH → Al(OH)3↓ (1’)

3+
Al + 4 OH → AlO2 + 2 H2O (2’)
‰ Baûng toùm taét saûn phaåm:
(1’), (2’) ⇒ baûng TTSP:

nOH –
nAl3+
Saûn
phaåm

3

4

Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
OH –
Al3+ Al(OH)3↓ AlO–2
(dö)
(dö)

‰ Ñöôøng bieåu dieãn löôïng keát tuûa

löôïng↓

Löôïng

m↓=ñeà
TH1

3

4

TH2

↓max

nOH –
nAl3+


OH
Khi cho
vaøo dd Al3+thaáy coù ↓, suy ra baøi

toaùn coù hai tröôøng hôïp:

TH1: Baøi toaùn chæ coù phaûn öùng

3+
3
Al + OH → Al(OH)3↓ (1)

TH2: Baøi toaùn goàm caùc phaûn öùng

Al3++

3 OH –→ Al(OH)3↓

(1)
Al(OH)3 + OH – → AlO2 + H2O (2)
Hoaëc:
Al3++ 3 OH –→ Al(OH)3↓ (1’)

3+
4
Al + OH → AlO2 + 2H2O (2’)

‰ Aùp duïng 1: (CÑSPTP.HCM - 2005)

Cho 11,04 gam Na
AlCl33 a (mol/l). Sau
thu ñöôïc 9,36gam
Na

Pöù (*)

11,04
(gam)
a =?

(ÑKC) vaøo 150 ml dd
khi pöù hoaøn toaøn ,
ke
keáát tu
tuûûa. Tính a.

150ml
ddAlCl3 a (mol/l)

9,36gam keát tuûa
Pöù (*)

2 TH

Na

11,04
(gam)
a =?

GÔÏI YÙ:

Pöù (*)

ƒ nNa=0,48 mol
150ml
ddAlCl3 a (mol/l) ƒ Theo ñeà keát
tuûa laø Al(OH)3

9,36gam keát tuûa
Pöù (*)

2 TH

⇒ n↓=0,12 mol
ƒ Theo ñeà ⇒baøi
toaùn coù 2 TH

™TH1:
Na + H2O → NaOH + ½ H2 ↑ (1)
0,48
(mol)
0,48
3NaOH + AlCl3 →Al(OH)3↓ + 3 NaCl (2)

nOH –
nAl3+
Saûn
phaåm

TH1

3

4


Al(OH)3↓
AlO2
Al(OH)3↓



3+
Al(OH)

AlO
AlO
OH
Al
3
2
2
(dö)
(dö)
NaOH HeáT

⇒ n↓=0,12 mol
ƒ Theo ñeà ⇒baøi toaùn coùLoa
2 TH
ïi TH1
™TH1:
Na + H2O → NaOH + ½ H2 ↑ (1)
0,48
(mol)
0,48
3NaOH + AlCl3 →Al(OH)3↓ + 3 NaCl (2)
0,48
O,16 ≠ n↓ (ñeà)=0,12 mol

Na

Pöù (*)

2 TH

ƒ nNa=0,48 mol
ƒ nNa=0,48 mol

150ml
ƒ Theo ñeà keát
11,04
ddAlCl3 a (mol/l) tuûa laø Al(OH)
3
(gam)
⇒ n↓=0,12 mol
9,36gam keát tuûa
ƒ Theo ñeà ⇒baøi
a =?
TH1: (khoâng ñaùp soá)
toaùn coù 2 TH
™TH2: Na + H2O → NaOH + ½ H2 ↑ (1)
0,48
0,48 (mol)
3NaOH + AlCl3 →Al(OH)3↓ + 3 NaCl (1’)

4NaOH + AlCl3 →NaAlO2↓ + 3 NaCl + 2H2O (2’)

nOH –
nAl3+
Saûn
phaåm

TH1

3

TH2

4

Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
OH –
Al3+ Al(OH)3↓ AlO–2
(dö)
(dö)
NaOH HeáT

Coù Keát tuûa
Thì: NaOH HEÁT

TH2: NaOH HEÁT ƒ Ñeà coù: n↓=0,12 mol
Na + H2O → NaOH + ½ H2 ↑ (1)
0,48
0,48 (mol)
3NaOH + AlCl3 →Al(OH)3↓ + 3 NaCl (1’)
x
x
3x
4NaOH + AlCl3 →NaAlO2↓ + 3 NaCl + 2H2O (2’)
4y
y
Vôùi x, y ( mol) laàn löôït laø soá mol cuûa AlCl3 pöù
Theo (1), (2) vaø ñeà coù:
n NaOH= 3x + 4y = 0,48

n↓= x =0,12

⇒ x = 0,12; y =0,03
⇒Σn AlCl3= x + y = 0,15 mol

TH2: NaOH HEÁT ƒ Ñeà coù: n↓=0,12 mol
Na + H2O → NaOH + ½ H2 ↑ (1)
0,48
0,48 (mol)
3NaOH + AlCl3 →Al(OH)3↓ + 3 NaCl (1’)
x
x
3x
4NaOH + AlCl3 →NaAlO2↓ + 3 NaCl + 2H2O (2’)
4y
y
n NaOH= 3x + 4y = 0,48

n↓= x =0,12

⇒ x = 0,12; y =0,03
⇒Σn AlCl3= x + y = 0,15 mol
Vaäy a = [ AlCl3 ]= 0,15 =
0,15 (l)

1 (mol/l)

‰Aùp duïng 2:

Cho 200ml dd Al2(SO4)3 0,1M phaûn öùng
vôùi 150ml dd NaOH 1M
Tính khoái löôïng keát tuûa thu ñöôïc.
200
.
0,1
Ta coù: n
= 0,02 mol
=
1000
Al2(SO4)3
n
=150 . 1 = 0,15 mol
NaOH 1000

- Theo ñeà ta coù pöù:
Al2(SO4)3+6NaOH → 2Al(OH)3↓+3Na2SO4(1)
(mol)
0,15
0
Bñ: 0,02
Pöù: 0,02

O,12

0,04

(mol)

Sau: 0

0,03

0,04

(mol)

(2)
NaOH+ Al (OH)3 → NaAlO2↓+ 2H2O
Bñ: 0,03
0,04
⇒n
=0,01
Al(OH)3↓
O,03 (mol)
Pöù: 0,03

Sau:

0

0,01

(mol)

nOH –
nAl3+
Saûn
phaåm

n

3

3,75

4

Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
OH –
Al3+ Al(OH)3↓ AlO–2
(dö)
(dö)
=0,02⇒ soá mol Al3+ = 0,04

Al2(SO4)3

n
= 0,15 ⇒ soá mol OH = 0,15
NaOH

nOH – =
nAl3+

0,15
=3,75 Baûng toùm taét treân
0,04

nOH –
nAl3+
Saûn
phaåm

3,75

3

4

Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
Al(OH)3↓
AlO–2
OH –
Al3+ Al(OH)3↓ AlO–2
(dö)
(dö)
Neân baøi toaùn coù 2 phaûn öùng:

Al3++ 3 OH –→ Al(OH)3↓
x

3x

x

(1’)

Al3+ + 4 OH –→ AlO2 + 2H2O (2’)
y
4y
nOH = 3x + 4y =0,15

Theo (1’), (2’), ñeà ta coù:
⇒n
=x = 0,01
Al(OH) ↓
3

mol Al3+ = x + y = 0,04

Al3++ 3 OH –→ Al(OH)3↓
x

3x

x

(1’)

Al3+ + 4 OH –→ AlO2 + 2H2O (2’)
y
4y
nOH = 3x + 4y =0,15

Theo (1’), (2’), ñeà ta coù:
⇒n

=x
=
0,01

Al(OH)3

Vaäy m

mol Al3+ = x + y = 0,04

= 0,01 . 78 =

Al(OH)3↓

0,78 gam

™ Aùp duïng
ngï 3:
(Trích ñeà ÑHSö phaïm TP HCM-2001)
Cho V lít khí CO22 ño ôû 54,6ooc vaø 2,4 atm
haáp thuï hoaøn toaøn vaøo 200 ml dd hh KOH
1M vaø
vaø Ba(OH)
Ba(OH)22 0,75M
0,75M thu ñöïôc 23,64 g
1M
keát tuûa. Tìm V lít?

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