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Democratic Voice Of Burma
P.O Box 6720
ST. Olavs Plass
N-0130 Oslo
NORWAY

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Assistance Association for Political Prisoners
(Burma)
P.O Box 93
MAESOT, Tak Province 63110, THAILAND

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pdwfeJY a&;ygw,f/

10

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11

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[kef;awmufapEdkifcJhygw,f/

12

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tif;pdefaxmifteD;

13

pma&;ol&JUtw¦KyÜwåd
14

1930? rwfv 12 &uf? 1291ck waygif;vqef; 14 &uf? Ak'¨[l;aeYarG;/
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1960-69 aMu;rkHowif;pm trIaqmift,f'Dwm/
1962 ck tjynfjynfqdkif&m owif;pmq&mrsm;tzJGUcsKyf (International Journalists
Organization-IOJ) jrefrmEdkifiHqkdif&mpnf;½kH;a&;rSL;/
1962-64 jrefrmEdkifiHowif;pmq&mtoif; twGif;a&;rSL;?
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1988 jrefrmEdkifiHqkdif&m pme,fZif;or*¾ 'kwd,Ouú|/
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2008 trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGUcsKyf A[dktvkyftrIaqmifaumfrwD0if/

&&dScJhaomqkrsm;pm&if;
(1) In 2001, UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNESCO/Guillermo_Cano_World_Press_Freedom_Prize>

(2) In 2001 World Association of Newspapers
(WAN) Golden Pen of Freedom Award
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Pen_of_Freedom_Award>

(3) In 2006 Dectember : RSF (Reporters Without Border) Journalist Prize
<http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=14726>)

(4) In 2008 October 8th in Leipzig, Germany
"prize for the freedom and the future of the media" Award

15

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16

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17

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EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif;(jrefrmEdkifiH)
rwfv 12&uf? 2010

18

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31

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32

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32

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33

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34

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35

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41

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42

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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43

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

44

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46

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47

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bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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49

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52

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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68

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

69

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69

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

70

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70

ykH pH cGuf xJ u Edkif iH a&; rkef wkdif; (2)

71

- ESpfqifh ESpfvTm eif ig rdwfaqG
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- Edk; oHajcusif; Edk; xrif;

72

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73

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74

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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75

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76

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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77

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78

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79

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79

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80

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81

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82

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84

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87

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

88

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88

Edk; oHajcusif; Edk; xrif;
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89

90

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90

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

91

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91

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92

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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93

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94

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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95

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98

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99

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100

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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101

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103

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uRefawmfwkdY w&m;cHawG ½kwf½kwfoJoJjzpfoGm;w,f/ b,fvdk
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ajymNyD; acgif;csif;½dkufMuw,f/ bmwwfEdkifrSmvJ/ avQmufvJp&m&dS
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aygif; 170ausmfw,f/ udpöjywfa&m/
w&m;½kH;a&mufvmwJh jzpfpOfav;udk ajymjycsifao;w,f/
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bl;/ rkd;vif;wmeJY 0efxrf;awGa&mufvmNyD; wpfcef;csif;zGifh&Smawmhwm
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udk tcef;jyifxu
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wGif;xJu oHwl&Gif;wkwfwkwfBuD;wpfawmifavmufudkvnf; awGUoGm;

104

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

105

w,f/ ('Dowif;udkMum;&wJh ppftmPm&Sif vufudkifabmyif(vufudkif
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aZmfjrifharmif? uefYbvltrwfa'gufwmjrifhEdkif? udkaX;atmifeJYuRefawmf
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wdkufydkYxm;ao;w,f/ aemufwpfaeYusawmh wpfae&ma&TUoGm;w,f/
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tJ'guawmh 'DZifbmvESif;awmxJrSm n 7 em&Davmufuae reuf

105

106

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4 em&Davmuftxd txl;aqmifapwDav;ab; ikww
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u b,fvpdk mvJ/ ar;raeeJY/ tMuHq;kd ÓPfq;kd awG pGe;f xif;aewJph maygh/
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qefYusifwkdufckdufovdkvdkjzpfatmif vkyfMuHzefwD;wmav/
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w&m;olBuD;eJYawGUawmh a&SUaeiSm;cGifhr&ao;wmudk uRefawmfwdkYwifjy
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tmPmydkifawGxHrSm wifjyygvdkY ñTefMum;w,f/
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a&SUaeiSm;ygwJ/h 'gjzifh tdref YJ awGUr,f? a&SUaeudpaö jymr,fqakd wmh axmuf
vSrf;a&;u axmif0ifpmawGydwfxm;ygao;w,f/ tdrfeJYrawGU&bl;wJh/
uRefawmfwdkYu w&m;½kH;udk jyefwifjyw,f/ w&m;½kH;u axmifudkvJT?
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106

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

107

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aygif;pkH yl;wJGvkyfief;aumfrwD J.A.C(Joint Action Committee) zJGUwmudk
t"duxm;w&m;pJGwmuwpfrI/ yxrtrIrSm w&m;cHpm&if;0ifolawGu
trsm;pk? 'kwd,trIrSm w&m;cHpm&if;0ifolawGu tenf;pk? ESpfrIpvkH;eJY
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107

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112

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113

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114

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115

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

116

b,folu b,folYudk rSwfua&mh ajym&r,frodyg/ uRefawmf
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116

aw;wkdufyJG
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117

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118

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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119

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121

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129

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130

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131

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axmifusaepOfu a&;zJGUcJhwJhpmaMumif;uav;udk jyefatmufarhrdw,f/
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132

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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141

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aemufawmuf ajymwwfoal wGu &dw
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wvmpD/ vm&Jvmprf;/ ESpfvkH;jyL;eJYudkypfr,fuG}}vdkY tajymiftysuf
ajym Muw,f/

143

taorpdwfapeJY
axmifxJuMum;cJhwJhpum;wpfcGef;udk 'DaeY'D&uftxd uRefawmf
rarhEdkifbl;/ b,fawmhrSvnf; arhrSmr[kwfbl;/
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bl;/ todÓPf&dSwJhowå0gawG/ ESvkH;om;&dSwJhowå0gawG/ OD;aESmuf&dS
wJh owå0gawG/ EdIif;csdefqifjcifwwfwJh owå0gawG/ pmemaxmufxm;
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144

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

145

wpfOD;udk owf½kHavmufyJ/ udpöNyD;a&m/ wpfZmwfodrf;a&m/ wpfpcef;
&yfa&m/ 'gyJ/
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u vlwpf&mudkowfwmrsKd;qdkwm &Sm;om;uvm;/ b,fvlom;rS tJ
uavmuf r½dkif;pdkif;ygbl;/ r&ufpufygbl;/ tNid§K;tmCmwrBuD;ygbl;/
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wJhpdwf? pmemwJhpdwf? ½dkif;yif;wJhpdwf? n§mwmwJhpdwf? axmufxm;wJhpdwf
yJ xm;ygw,f/
tJ'DvdkrsKd; uRefawmf ,kHMunfygw,fqdkayrJh uRefawmf xdwfvefY
wMum; vdyfjymvGifhpifrwwf jzpfcJh&wJhudp&ö yfrsKd; axmifxJrSm BuHKcJhbl;
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145

146

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

awmhwmudk;/ cHaevkduf½kHayghvdkY ajzwJhpdwf? azsmhwJhpdwf? ajywJhpdwf? aysmh
wJhpdwfeJY 'DvkdyJ rodvkduf rodbmom aevdkufMuwmygyJ/
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ememeJY ajym,l&r,fhpum;rsKd;As/

146

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

147

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&dSygao;w,f/

147

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

148

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- tpmraMubl; urÇmraMubl;
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tpmraMubl; urÇmraMubl;
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]]*sKdif;}}

151

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152

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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153

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154

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

155

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uRefawmfyg acgif;pGyfudk,fpDeJY/ olYtoH uRefawmf rSwfrdw,f/ axmif
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bufydwftcef;(10)rSm ae&w,f/ bDwDBuD;&JUowif;qdk;udkMum;&wJh
aeYrSm uRefawmf axmif0ifpm&w,f/ uRefawmf bmrSpm;csifpdwfaomuf
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qkHMuwmudk ydkrSwfrdaew,f/ rEÅav; [Hom0wDowif;pmu uRefawmf
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wdkY? udk0if;cufwdkY? uRefawmfwdkYqkHNyD; 'Drdkua&pDaMunmcsufxkwfwm
rSwfrdaew,f/ oleJYuRefawmf 'DcsKyfrSm twlvIyf&Sm;Muwm? rkH&Gm a&Tbdk

164

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

165

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165

Edk;xolwdkYacgif;cHGrsm;
rMumcifu uAsmq&mBuD;wifrdk; uG,fvGefwmokH;ESpfjynfhw,f/
udkwifrdk;eJY uRefawmf aemufqkH;awGUvdkufwm[m tif;pdefaxmif
xJrSmyg/ uRefawmfu axmifwGif;aq;½kHtay:xyfu/ olu aq;½kHeJY
uyf&uf taqmif-5 pdkufcif;xJu/ olu vufjyw,f/ uRefawmfu
vufjyw,f/ ESpfa,mufpvkH; vufjyMuw,f/ ESpfa,mufpvkH;tzdkY
'g aemufqkH;awGUjcif;yJqkdwm ESpfa,mufpvkH; rodMubl;/ [kwfw,f/
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w,f/ pum;ajymrdrS olaewm taqmif-5 qdkwm od&w,f/ EdkifiHa&;
tusOf;om;trsm;qkH;&dSwJhtaqmif/
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167

168

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uom ta&;BuD;w,f r[kwfvm;/ (rdom;pkawGUcGifh&wJholuwpfqifh
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168

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169

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170

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170

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171

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172

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a,mufvnf; &dSao;owJh/ oluawmh olYudk,fol bk&ifhaemif0ifpm;wm
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173

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174

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

175

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oGm;Muw,f/ axmufvrS ;f a&;a&SUawmfarSmufukd tzl;ajrmfawmifra&muf
vdkufMubl;/ aemuf&ufawGrSmvnf; qufwkdufvGwfMuao;w,f/
uRefawmfu tcef;ydwfxm;cH&olqdkawmh jyifyavmu(udk,fh
tcsKyfcef;&JUjyifyavmu)taMumif; odyfrodvSbl;/ tjyifrSmuawmh
]]Zmwfvrf;½IyforQ a&TunpfeJYa&;um pmudkpD}}qdkwJh oDcsif;xJuvdk
Zmwfvrf;awG ½Iyfukefw,f/
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; tawmfrsm;rsm;? vlpifppfu vGwfaMumif
awG? awmif<uufawG jzpfukefwmu wpfjyóem/ axmiftmPmydkifawG

175

176

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

vGwfvlpm&if;awG csufcsif;jyKpkae&vdkY ajcrudkifrd vufrudkifrdjzpfukef
wmu wpfudp/ö axmufvSrf;a&;awG 0rfwD;wdefacgif;avmif; a'gif'if
xdk;aewmuwarSmifh/
acgif;avmif;oH em;pGifhaeolu vlwkdif;vdkvkd/ ta&;xJ ]]abmif
MuKwf}}awG wpfpcef;xw,f/ abmifMuKwfqdkwm bkwfaMumifudkac:
wm/ r[mbkwfwdkifxlNyD; a[mudef;xkwfwJh q&maA'ifawGuvnf;
&daS o;oud;k / aA'ifq&mawGuvnf; acrSwv
f Ykd ? olwYkd u wpfu,
kd af wmf
bkwfudkifjzpfaeMuwm r[kwfvm;/ aA'ifbkwfwJhav/
a[m tckvdk ]vGwfem} &Gydk;xdk;wJhtcsdef olwdkYwpfpcef;xMuwm
aygh/ [dkvl'Dvl? [dkAdkvfrSL;BuD; 'DAdkvfrSL;BuD;awG vGwfaMumqJGaecsdefrSm
vGwfaMumifawG? vGwfarQmfawG? vGwfrSef;awGuvnf; bk&m;ylaZmfyg\?
bd;k awmfyifyh g\eJY wuke;f uke;f wuGuv
G yk af eMuw,f/ abmifMuKwfawG
trdefYawmf&dSw,f/ ]]a[h rif;wdkYu bkd;awmfyifhw,fqdkawmh bdk;awmf
cif0if;udk uyfwmayghav/ tJ'Daumif bmem;vnfvdkYvJ/ igwkdYu bkwf
awmfuGa[haemf/ aA'ifbkwfawmfuG/ igwdkYudk ryifhMubl;vm;/ r&bl;
uG/ a[mrSmyJ a[mrSmyJ/ acgif;avmif;xdk;oH b,folYuHqdkwm Mum;zl;
&JUvm;/
paeaeYu AdkvfrSL;BuD;awGvGwfoGm;NyD/ wevFmaeYa&mufvmNyD/
rvGwfao;ayrJh raMumifao;wJh udk0Hou xkH;pHtwkdif; aeYv,faeYcif;
warS;tdyfw,f/ wdkif;ausmfjynfausmf abmifMuKwfBuD;a&mufvmw,f/
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'DaeYeufjzefyJ/ rMumbl;/ pdwfcs}}
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vnfyif; wpfawmifr&Snfyg&apeJY}}
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A[dkaumfrwD0if/ a0gNrdKUe,fjynfolYudk,fpm;vS,f/ udk0HoeJYtwlaewJh
Adv
k Bf uD;wif0if;('DcsKyf A[dak umfrwD0if? ppfuikd ;f wkid ;f pnf;½k;H a&;aumfrwD
Ouú|)u 0ifazmufw,f/

176

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

177

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]]ESpfemrnfpvkH; uufuif;"mwfusw,f/ at;Asm/ ESpfa,muf
pvkH;vnf; jzpfEdkifw,f}}
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ygbl;/ udpör&dS/ rvGwfrSef; uRefawmfodaewmyJ/ axmufvSrf;a&;u
uRefawmfhudk 0rfwD;rwdefbl;/ 1990 wkef;u txl;aqmifrSm &dS&dSorQ
axmifxJu EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDacgif;
aqmif ocifAodef;wiftaMumif; ½kyf&Sifjyw,f/ axmufvSrf;a&;u
uRefawmfhudk zdwfrEÅurjyKcJhbl;/ tckvnf; 0rfwD;rwdefbl;/
aemufwpfywfavmuftMumrSm b,foYl urkd S EIwrf quf? uokwf
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vdkufw,f/ olu ajcanmif;½kHeJY tmomrajy/ vufyganmif;vdkufcsif
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wmwm/ 0rf;xJvnf; [mwmwm/ acgif;xJvnf; bmwmwmjzpfvm
wmeJY uRefawmf ukef;vdkYcsnf;atmfypfvkdufw,f/
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177

178

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

atmfvdkY tmNyJrS igh[mr[kwfao;ygbl;/ awmfMum vli,fawGu
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udkif;... yg;pyfeJYratmf&&if abmyifeJYatmfr,fuGm/ yk'fr 401
cH0efcsufudpö uRefawmf pma&;atmfygw,f/
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;taygif;wdkY cH0efcsuf uRefawmf vufrSwf
rxdk;yg/ cH0efcsufvufrSwfxdk;wm rSm;ygw,f/ yDyDtm;vkH;udkvnf;
vuf rSwrf xd;k Mu&ef yefMum;ygw,f/ 'DcsKyfrmS b,forl ?S b,fc0H efcsuf
udkrS? b,ftajctaerSmrS vufrSwfrxkd;Mu&ef a':atmifqef;pkMunf
udk,fwkdif 1989 rwfvukef {NyDvqef;rSm vrf;ñTefwkdufwGef;cJhygw,f/
uRefawmfhoabmxm;ukdvnf; tJ'Dvdk azmfjyvdkufygw,f/
cH0efcsufvufrw
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at;vdkyJ uRefawmfwdkYudk EIwfqufroGm;yg/ uRefawmfuvnf; olYudk
EIwfqufatmfoH r[pfEdkifyg/ olaewmu wpfwkduf/ uRefawmfaewm
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]]vmvrf;cg;ovdk jyefvrf;csKdygapAsm;/ om"k om"k om"k}}
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rMum;&yg/
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xdk;oH b,folYuHwJhvm;/ ightzdkYuawmh oHacsmif;acgufoH tDpudkYuHvdkY
ajymr,fa[h/

178

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

179

axmufvSrf;a&;u ar;cGef;awGtrsm;BuD;ar;ygw,f/ tcsdefodyf
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yg/ tcsdefodyfrMumyg/ av;ig;&ufavmufaygh/
2008 rSm 0rfwD;rwdefbJ uRefawmf vGwfvmygw,f/ 0rfwD;wdef
acwfeJY uRefawmfvGwfcsdef 16 ESpfavmufjcm;ygw,f/
uRefawmfvGwfcsdefu tusOf;om;aygif; 9000 ausmfvGwfMuyg
w,f/ tJ'DESpfxJrSmyJ tusOf;om;aygif; 6000 ausmf vGwfMuygw,f/
uRefawmfvGwfcsdefrSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 10 a,mufavmufygw,f/
aemufwpfBudrfrSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 30 40 ausmfavmufygw,fvdkY
od&ygw,f/
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f al wG 0rfw;D wdeo
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&if vlcsif;awGUr,f}}vdkY b,folrS EIwfqufatmfoHvTifhcJhMu[efrwlyg/
b,folrS vufanmif;ajy aMunmcsufxkwfcJh[efrwlyg/ b,folrS ig
usefppfom;a[hvdkY atmfcJh[efrwlyg/ b,folrS aMu;pnf½dkuf arwåm
ydkYcJh[ef rwlyg/
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acgufoH usef&pfuHvdkY &ifzGifhoH atmfcJh[efrwlyg/
'DaeY ppftpdk;& tusOf;axmifawGxJrSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; ESpf
axmifausmf &dSaeygao;w,f/
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apownf;/}}

179

yifnJ½dk;&JU *sydk;[def;oH
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w,frrSwfrdcsifbl;/
yifn½J ;kd tif;pdeaf xmifxaJ &mufvmjyefw,f/ tif;pdeaf &mufw,f
qdkvdkY tusOf;om;rxifvkdufygeJY/ olu b&mZD;vlrsKd;? ukvor*¾&JU
vlYtcGifhta&;qdkif&m txl;tpD&ifcHoljzpfygw,f/ olY&JUt"dutvkyfu
axmifi&Jqdk;awG? axmifi&Jom;awG? axmifi&JemawGtaMumif; ukv
or*¾udk tpD&ifcHzdkYjzpfygw,f/

180

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

181

tJ'DaeYu yifnJ½dk;u axmifA[dk(rdef;a*s; Main Jail) rSm uRefawmfh
udk ac:awGUygw,f/ t&ifu 0efxrf;awG ½kH;xdkifwJhae&mrSmyg/ rdef;a*s;
acgif;wkid yf wfvnf ESpx
f yfwu
kd af qmufvu
kd af wmh 0efxrf;½k;H ae&muav;
ydkoGm;w,f/ tJ'gav;udk tjyifuMunfhvdkY rjrif&wJh rSefeufawGum&H
vdkufw,f/ taumif;pm; {nfhcef;aqmifjzpfoGm;w,f/ tJ'DaeYu yifnJ
½dk; tJ'DtaqmifrSm ½kH;xdkifw,f/
uRefawmf a&mufoGm;awmh yifnJ½dk;yef;a&mifrsufESmBuD; eD&J
wGwfaeNyD/ yg;pyfuvnf; AspfwD;AspfawmufeJY/ a'golykefxaeykHyJ/
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(tJ [def;vmw,fqdkygawmh/) yifnJ½dk; odvkdufNyD/ ighudk bug (bomb
r[kwfbl;aemf) axmifNyD/ axmufvSrf;a&; vufcsufvm;/ axmifvuf
&mvm;/
yifnJ½dk; ckefxvdkufw,f/ pm;yJGatmufudkavQmufprf;w,f/ awGU
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yifnJ½dk; ukef;atmfw,f/ axmift&m&dSawG ajy;vmw,f/ yifnJ½dk;
0dkif ,mBudK;awGvufrSmywfNyD; watmfatmfjzpfaew,f/
axmift&m&dSawGcrsmvnf; bmodrSmvJ/ axmufvSrf;a&;vkyf
wmudkifwm? pDwmrHwmudk axmifq&mawG rsufapmif;av;awmif xdk;
Munfh0HhwmrS r[kwfwm/

181

182

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

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owif;pmq&mwpfOD; &efukefuxkwfaewJh Myanmar Times *sme,frSm
ygvmw,f/ pmrsufESm-3 rSmyg/ axmifxJrSmvnf; owif;*,ufodyf
rjyif;vSygbl;/ rodolrsm;w,f/ wjznf;jznf;rS owif;udk&,fp&mudpö
wpfckvdk Mum;vmMuw,f/ axmifpum;0dkif;awGrSm [m;wdkufwJhowif;
jzpfygw,f/ yifnJ½dk; *sydk;udkufcH&w,fwJh/
uRefawmfuawmh 'Dowif;udk puk(Scoop) &xm;vdkY axmufvSrf;
a&;&yfuGufudk t&dyftuJapmifhMunfhaerdw,f/ owif;pmavmurSm
pukqdkwm owif;OD;udkac:wm/ owif;xl;wm rxl;wmxuf owif;
wpfyk'fudk apmapmpD;pD;? OD;OD;zsm;zsm;? BudKBudKwifwifa&;vdkufcsifw,f/
'g owif;axmufwdkif;&JUydk;yJ/ qE´aZmyJ/ {&mrxl;xl;jcm;jcm;owif;
wpfyk'fudk OD;OD;zsm;zsm; a&;vdkuf&vdkYrsm;uawmh udka&Towif;axmuf
arsmuftkef;oD;&ovdk ajrmuf<uajrmuf<uaygh/
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vSygbl;Asm/
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csKyf OD;ausmfNidrf;wdkY uJGMuNyJMuw,f/ oefY&Sif;wnfNrJ [ufwufuJGvdkY
emrnfausmfcJhwJh orkdif;0ifjzpf&yfyg/ 'DtuJGtNyJrSm oefY&Sif;eJYwnfNrJ
wdYk &UJ twGi;f owif;aygufraI wGu rD;avmifavyifah wGy/J tJ'o
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]avykyfxkwf}cJhovJ/
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w,f/ &Srf;jynfe,f awmifBuD;NrdKUrSmyg/ 0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek tpdk;&&JUygwDpkH
jynfaxmifpk'Drdkua&pDarmfuGef; pnf;a0;BuD;usif;ycJhw,f/ jrefrmhtoH
cef;rrSm vkyfwmyg/ awmfvSefa&;tpdk;& trnfcH ppftpdk;&wufvm

182

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

183

w,f/ tvHeDygwD? &ckdifuGefjrLepfygwD? autif,lu&ifygwD? Auy
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD? wkdif;&if;om;vufeufudkiftzJGUawG? awmwGif;
EdkifiHa&;tzJGUpkH Nidrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;zdkY &efukefNrdKUay:a&mufvmMuw,f/
tpd;k &bufu vlawGeYJ vnf;awGUw,f/ NrdKUay:ygwDvv
kd m;olawGeYJ vnf;
awGUw,f/
'DEdkifiHa&;vufñId;xdk;rIawG? vuf0g;½dkufrIawG? acgif;csif;½dkufrI
awG tm;vkH;vdkvdk qkyfpl; pm;½l; jzpfvdkjzpf&? qifao qdwfa&eJYzkH; jzpfvkd
jzpf&/ a&SUuzkH; aemufuay: jzpfvkdjzpf&? ,kefawmifajy;? acG;ajrmuf
vkduf jzpfvdkjzpf&/ orufolcdk;xif jzpfvkdjzpf&/ tJ'Dudpaö wGrSm b,fol
u b,fvkd ]*syd;k xd;k } ovJ/ b,fowif;rSm;? owif;vdraf wGukd b,fvkd
]avykyx
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'Dvdk aqmfyavmfwD;wmawGudk aysmfaysmfBuD;cHEdkifygw,f/ ta&;rBuD;
ygbl;/
ppfaMuma&;rSm uRefawmfhudk taxmuftxm;awGjyNyD; ppfvdkuf
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'Dvdk bifwD;wmawGudk &ifpnf;NyD;cHEdkifygw,f/
uRefawmf &ifemwm? tonf;emwm? ESvkH;emwm wpfckyJ&dSw,f/
uRefawmfhudkjywJh taxmuftxm;awGu r,kH&Jp&m? r,kH0Hhp&m? r,kH
aumif;p&mawG/ 'DcsKyfA[dktvkyftrIaqmiftzJGU tpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;
awGygw,f/ 'DcsKyf&JUaMunmcsufaygif;pkHawGygw,f/ a':pk ½kH;cef;xJu
pmawGygw,f/ a':pk okH;avh? rSwfavh? a&;avh? ay;avh&dSwJh pmwdkayp
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wmvJ/ b,fvdkowif;avykyfxkwfvdkY rukef;bJeJY zkH;wmawG tukefay:
&wmvJ/

183

184

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

awmfygNyDAsm/ 'Dvu
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udk &ifematmif vkyfaewJh jzpf&yf vkyf&yfawGyg/ wkdif;jynfwpfjynfvkH;
udkvnf; tonf;uJGatmifvkyfaewJh jzpf&yfvkyf&yfawGyg/
wkid ;f jynfrmS 'Dv*kd syd;k ,EÅ&m;awG vnfywfusdwef if;? csKd;zJah csrIe;f
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pmay&JU rdcifBuD;jzpfw,f/ owådajymifwJh owif;pmq&mrBuD;jzpfw,f/
ajymifajrmufwJh pmayynm&SifBuD;jzpfw,f/
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pmtarGa0qJ/
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202

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

203

a':a':vlxka':trm touf 90 jynfhwJharG;aeYudk &nfñTef;NyD;
'DuAsmudka&;w,f/ vlxka':trmqdkwJh yk*¾vOy"dudk a&;zJGUwmr[kwf
bl;/ awmfvSefa&;pdwf"mwf? awmfvSefwJhrmefawG? awmfvSefwJhÓPfawG?
awmfvSefa&;owådawG&JU Oy"dudka&;zJGUwmyg/
a':a':qdkwm uRefawmfwdkY&JUtar? uRefawmfwdkY&JU rmef ÓPf
owådawG&JU tarjzpfygw,f/ tar[m tar wm0efc&D;&SnfBuD;? EdkifiH
a&;wm0efc&D;&SnBf uD; qufEikd af wmhr,fqw
kd m uReaf wmf odaeNyD/ a':a':
touf 90 ausmfvmNyDav/ a':a':om awmifNzdKwJhjrpfBuD;wpfpif;
jzpfygw,f/ jrpfBuD;wpfpif;&JU tm;awG rmefawG owådawGeJY a':a':
c&D;qufayOD;awmh/ uRefawmf axmifxJu rxGuf&ao;bl;/ uRefawmf
tm;arG;aeygw,f/
uReaf wmfwYkd avQmufvrf;ay:rSm t[efYtwm;jzpfaewJh ppftmPm
&Sifpepfqkd; awmif½dk;awmifwef;awGudk uRefawmfwdkY NzdKoGm;ygw,f/
tarhudk uRefawmfwdkY uwday;ygw,f/ uRefawmfwdkYvufawGwef;wkef;?
oefrmwkef;? awmifhwif;wkef; &dSygao;w,f/ uRefawmfwdkYvufawG
pma&;csdefwefa&;r,f/ vufraxmifcsdefwef axmifr,f/ vufoD;qkyf
csdefwef qkyfr,f/ vufarmif;wef;csdefwef wef;r,f/ "m;0ifhcsdefwef
0ifhr,f/ cvkwfqJGcsdefwef qJGr,f/ avmavmq,fawmh vufxdyfawGudk
jzKwfae&ygao;w,f/ vufjyefBudK;awGudk jznfae&ygao;w,f/
]]ajcwpfvSrf; usrf;wpfapmif
ESpfwpfaxmif c&D;jyif;/
a&Ta'gif;awmif pdefuavmifeJY
awmifNzdKwJh jrpfwpfpif;/ /}}
'DuAsmvnf; a':a':raocif zwfoGm;&w,f/ a':a':ajymcJhvdkY
vm;rod/ a':a':acgif;csoGm;wJh jyifOD;vGifNrdKU ]]pdrf;vef;at;}}jcH vlxk
a':trm txdrf;trSwfausmufpmwdkifrSm 'DuAsmudk xGif;xkxm;w,f/
uavmifBuD; uavmifi,f b,fuavmifuxGux
f u
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yumoeDrsKd;[m tar vlxka':trmvdkyk*dK¾ vfrsKd;eJY trSefxkdufwefw,f/

203

204

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

2000 ckESpf 0ef;usifavmufrSm MopaMw;vsrSm&dSwJh orD;qD
uRefawmf pma&;cGifh&w,f/ urÇmMuufajceDtzJGUuwpfqifh? axmifu
wpfqifh? axmufvSrf;a&;uwpfqifh? aemufb,folawGrSef;rodwJh wpf
qifhuwpfqifh uRefawmf pmawGa&;w,f/ pmwpfapmifrSm uRefawmf
uAsmwpfyk'fa&;xnfhw,f/
yef;yifEG,fyif oD;ESHyifawG pdkufaewJhtaMumif; uRefawmf a&;
w,f/ rsufuGufjrifum oabma&;wmyg/ uAsmxJrSmygwmu uRef
awmfh&ifxJrSm&dSaewJh 'Drdkua&pDtawG;tajrmf/
]]pdkufvdkufprf;ruJGU
yef;a&mifpkH? oif;xkHysHUarT;/
'Dyef;awGzl;a0opfwJhcg
ajr;jrpfawG aemifwpfacwfrSm
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b,faxmifvuf? b,faxmufvuf? b,fajcvufurS uRef
awmfhuAsmxJu 'Dyef;('Drdkua&pDyef;)awGudk acR&aumif;rSef; rodcJhMu
ygbl;/ aus;Zl;urÇmvdkY ajym&rvm;/ aomuftçawGvdkY csD;rGrf;axmyem
&rvm;/ rod/
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awGudk jyefajymjywmyg/ ppfab;'ku©onfrdcif&JU trSwfw&? trSwfr&?
trSwfr&w&awGrsKd;ayghavvdkY uRefawmf pdwfajzygw,f/ ppfajy;c&D;rSm
usnfoifhaowJhom;/ iwfaowJhom;/ qJGowfcH&wJhom;/ avQmysuf
uscJh&wJhom;/ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm MumvmwJhtcg ppf'ku©rdcif[m om;awG
tm;vkH;udk b,fowd&EdkifawmhrvJ/ arhwmawGom rsm;vdrfhraygh/
1990 ausmfrSm uAsm&SnfBuD;awG tawmfrsm;rsm;a&;cJhw,f/
tm;vkH;vdkvdk rrSwfrdawmhbl;/ usm;&Jwpfa,mufyJvGwfvmw,f/ ouf
qkd;&SnfaeqJ&dSao;w,f/
bmtaMumif; bmacgif;pOfeJY a&;rdrSef;rodwJh uAsm&Snfwpfyk'f
xJu ]]EIwfcrf;arG;eJY irdk;? rEÅav;udk *dk;}}qdkwJh raoaumif; raysmuf

204

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

205

aumif; uAsmpmvkH;wpfvkH;wavudk q&marmifrdk;ol jyef&GwfjyvdkY rSwfrd
&w,f/
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uRefawmf a&;w,f/ oBuFefBudK oBuFefwGif; oBuFefvGefumv wpf
avQmufvkH; ESpfveD;yg; uRefawmf &GwfjycJhw,f/ wHcg;ydwftcef;a&SU
uGufvyfrSm vrf;avQmufcGifh&csdef &GwfcJhwmyg/ wpfaeY 15 rdepfyJ
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wpfyk'fwava&mufzdkY wpfcgwav wpfaeYwmcGifhjyKcsdef ukefoGm;w,f/
u&ifEdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; udkudkEdkifu pum;vufqifhurf;&awmh tcsdef
ukefwmaygh/
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acwfjyifEkdifzdkY a0vma0;/
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Zmwf½kyfawGu uRefawmfodorQ EkdifiHa&;orm;awG? ajratmufvIyf&Sm;
olawG? awmfvSefa&;orm;awG jzpfygw,f/ EdkifiHa&;jzpf&yfawG? t,l
tq? vIyf&Sm;rIawGu jyZmwfaemufcH jzpfygw,f/
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EkdifiHa&;t,ltqawGtaMumif;? wcsKdUae&mrSm Zmwf½kyfcsif; pum;ppf
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pmapmifxkwfol pma&;q&marmif0Ho/ vlopfarG;ckdif;olu t"duZmwf
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twkBuD;vkd jzpfaewJhvl/ olvdkvlrsKd;udk pufBudK;awGqifNyD; EdkifiHa&;

205

206

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

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olYudkñTef;wJh ]udktawG;}qdkwJh pum;vkH;ygvdkYvm;/ acwfjyifzdkY
a0;ao;qdkwJh tjrifudk onf;ajcBudKufvkdYvm;rod/ tJ'Dpmydk'fuav;udk
owd&azmf&vdkY udk0Houdk aus;Zl;wif&ao;/ 'DuAsmjyZmwfudk ½kyf&Sif
½dkufzdkYaumif;w,f/ Zmwf&dSefjrifhwJh 'Dae&mavmufeJY&yfzdkY aumif;w,f
qdkNyD; 0gpmurmpum;eJY uAsm&GwfyJGudk vrf;ydwf(Read Block) cJhwJh
armifrkd;oludkvnf; aus;Zl;uef;rd&ao;/ olaumif;rIeJY uRefawmfuAsm
jyZmwf&SnfBuD; Zmwfodrf;qkd;cJh&w,f r[kwfvm;/
'DuAsmjyZmwfvdkyJ Zmwfodrf;rvSwJh uAsmwdk&SnfawG tawmf
rsm;rsm;udk uRefawmf a&;cJhw,f/ igomwapäjzpf&if tmPm&SifawG&JU
pHeef;awmfawG? bkHaqmifeef;jrifhawGudk aZmufxkd;arSmufypfr,fqdkwm
rsKd;yg/ ]],rrif;ig}} uAsm&SnfrsKd;a&;cJhw,f/ igom ,rrif;jzpf&if
tmPm&SifawGtwGuf i&Jwpfxyf wkd;r,f/ i&JBuD;udk;xyfzefqif;r,f/
udk;xyfi&Judk *sKd;ruyfwJhtkd; (Tefloncoated) vkyfr,f/ tmPm&SifawGudk
ESpfjyefokH;jyef tuRwfaMumfr,fqdkwmrsKd;yg/
vlBuD;olrawG ajymavhajymx&dSwJh pum;u i&Jtdk;*sKd;uyfr,f
qdw
k phJ um;yg/ wu,fawmh *sKd;uyf&if taMumfc&H wmjrefr,f/ *sKd;ruyf
wJhtdk;qdk&if tMumBuD; taMumfcH&r,f/ ('gaMumifh i&Jtdk;awG *sKd;ruyf
wJhtdk;rsKd; jzpfapcsifwmyg/)
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yg/ tEÅdqdkwm qefYusifbuf? qefYusifol(Anti) jzpfygw,f/ c&pf,mef
or®musrf;pmpum;jzpfygw,f/ c&pfawmfukdqefYusifol? c&pfawmftwk
ta,mif ponfwdkYudk tEÅdc&pfawmf(Anti Christ) vkdY okH;ygw,f/
w½kw'f @m&DrmS avmuudk rjrifrMum; rajymcsiw
f t
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ydwfxm;wJharsmuf? rMum;csifvdkY em;ydwfxm;wJharsmuf? rajymcsifvdkY

206

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

207

yg;pyfydwfxm;wJharsmufawGtaMumif; '@m&D&dSygw,f/ tJ'D'@m&Dudk
uRefawmf qefYusifw,f/
uRefawmfu '@m&DqefYusifolyDyD jynfoltrsm;cHpm;ae&orQudk
ydkxifxif&Sm;&Sm; jrifcsifw,f/ 'gaMumifh rSefajymif;eJYMunfhr,f/ jynfol
trsm; cHpm;Mu&orQudk ydkjywfjywfom;om;Mum;csifw,f/ 'gaMumifh
q&m0efokH; em;MuyfeJY &ifbwfuyfem;axmifr,f/ jynfoltrsm;cHpm;
Mu&orQudk ydkus,fus,fajymcsifw,f/ 'gaMumifh toHcsJUpuf(avmfpyD
um)eJYatmfr,f/
'Dvdk tEÅduAsmwkd&SnfawG uRefawmf trsm;BuD;a&;w,f/ puúL
r&dS? abmyifr&dSwJh tmPm&Sifacwf axmifb0xJu tcsdeftckduftwefY
wpfckrSma&;cJh&wJh uAsmawGudk;/ yvwfpwpfawGay:jzpf? yvwfpwpf
ay:aysmufaygh/ tedpo
ö abmeJY udpaö csmcJMh u&awmhwmayghav/ oHa,mZOf
rxm;awmhygbl;/
2000 ckausmfavmufrSm uAsma&;usJoGm;w,f/ EdkifiHa&;udpö
awGyJ tm½kHxJa&mufaew,f/ 1950 avmuf uRefawmfhacgif;xJrSm
owif;pmudpöu uAsmudpöudk 0kef;cscJhw,f/ ESpf 50 tMum cktcsdef
rSmvnf; EdkifiHa&;udpöu uAsmudpöudk 0kef;csjyefNyD/
aemufqkH;a&;cJhwJh uRefawmfhuAsmwcsKdUrSm tvuFmeJ-usJ-rJG
oGm;ygNyD/ EdkifiHa&;yJ uJaeygawmhw,f/
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ppfuRefawG ½kef;uefxrS
vGwfuRwfb0/ /}}

207

208

vlY i &J udk
jy ef v nf a v m if NrdK uf jc if ; ( 4 )

209

- oHwkdifoHwHcg;udkjzwf aoewfawGuGif;
- ½kyfrao; BudK;rudkif
- EdkifiHa&;o,HZmw&if;jrpf
- oHo&m0Jvnf apmifwpfxnf

210

oHwkdifwHcg;awGjzwf aoewfawGuGif;
axmifcsw,fqdkwm vGwfvyfcGifhawG ½kyfodrf;wmyJ/ 'gt"duyJ/
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w,f/ axmiftmPmydkifawG/ axmufvSrf;a&;vdk tmPmNydKifawG&JU
csKyfcs,frI? uefYowfrI? zdESdyfrI? tEdkifusifhrIawGu &dSao;w,f/ aemuf
qkH;awmh tusOf;om;tcGifhta&;qdkwm okntqifha&mufoGm;w,f/
tmPm&SifacwfrSmawmh tqdk;0g;qkH;tajctae a&mufoGm;w,f/ okn
rSm tEIwfvu©PmjyKvmawmhwmaygh/ rkd;av0ojyudef;awG oabmyg
yJ/ ESpfywfwpfcg(tcsKyfom;tzdkY wpfywfwpfcg) {nfhawGU? axmif0if
pmawGUcGifh&dSw,f/ 'gu csKd;azmufrcH&EdkifwJh tcGifhta&;yJ/ 'gudkaxmif
211

212

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

tmPmydkifawGu tmPmNydKifaxmufvSrf;a&;awG&JU trdefYeJY ½kwfodrf;
w,f/ zsufodrf;w,f/ tBudrfaygif;rsm;pGm? vaygif;rsm;pGm axmif0ifpm
ydwfcH&wmawGrsKd;awG &dSwwfw,f/ ppfacG;wdkuf ydkYxm;cH&uwkef;u
uRefawmf axmif0ifpm ajcmufvausmfydwfcH&w,f/
'DvdktcGifhta&;qkH;½IH;rI[m rMumcPomr[kwf ae&mwumrSm
BuHK&wwfw,f/ emruse;f jzpfvYkd aq;½kaH q;cef; wufa&mufuo
k cHae&wJh
tcsdef 'Dvdkta&;,lrIrSm rdom;pkudk todray;bl;/ rdom;pkodvkdY vkduf
vmvnf; awGUcGifhray;? awGUcGifhay;vnf; tBudrfuefYowf/ tcsdef
uefYowf/ [dkvl 'Dvl uefYowf/ [dk[mr,l& 'D[mr,l&uefYowf/
1995 rSm cJGpdwfukorIwpfck uRefawmf vkyf&w,f/ &efukef
aq;½kHBuD;*wf0yf(Guard Ward) &JtcsKyfcef;rSm uRefawmf a&mufaew,f/
ig;ESpfvkH;vkH; tluRHa&m*gudk AdkufrSm ydkufxm;cJh&w,f/ a0'emqdk;qkd;
0g;0g; cHpm;aecJh&w,f/ aemufqkH; tlacgufoGm;awmhrS aq;½kHBuD;ydkY
w,f/ csufcsif;ydkY csufcsif;cJG&w,f/ rydkYrcJGvdkYvnf; rjzpfawmhbl;/
tlacgufwm ESpf&ufausmfoGm;NyD/ okH;&ufqdkaor,f/ 'geJY trdk;yGifh
avmf&u
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yef;yJcef;txd ac:oGm;ao;w,f/ wlwjyifjyif ayay:wifxkawmhrvdkY/
uRefawmf tBuD;tus,fuefYuGufw,f/ csufcsif;cJGpdwf&r,fhvlem oH
ajcusif;cwfOD;rSmvm;/ oHajcusif;cwf&if roGm;bl;/ q&m0efawG 0if
ajymrS ajcvGwfvufvGwf aq;½kHa&mufw,f/
cJGNyD;NyD;csif; &JtcsKyfrSm ydwfxm;vdkufw,f/
&JtcsKyfcef; (Guard Ward) qdkwm 24 ay 16 ayavmuf tcef;/
rD;vkH;wpfvkH;wnf; xGef;xm;w,f/ rD;vkH;eDusifusifu wpfcef;vkH;&JU
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wpfcgyJay;w,f/ ESpfcgpm;csif ydk,lxm;/ odk;wmeHwm vmrajymeJY/

212

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

213

uRefawmf aq;½kHa&mufwm tdrfu rodbl;/ wpfae&m&mu
owif;Mum;vdkY pm;p&mav;awG ydkY&w,f/ &JawGudk vufzuf&nfzdk;
t&ufz;kd aq;vdyzf ;kd ay;&ao;ovm;rod/ vmawGUwJo
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udk uRefawmf rar;vdkufawmhygbl;/
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0ifcGifh awGUcGifh qHkcGifh r&dSwJholawG uRefawmfhqD wpfa,mufNyD; wpf
a,muf a&mufvmw,f/
udkaxG; a&mufvmw,f/ udkaxG;u udkarmifarmifcif&JUti,fqkH;
om;/ tcsKd&nfbl;awG,lvmw,f/ (tJ'Dtcsdefu tkef;xGef;wpfa,muf
yJ axmif0ifpmawGUcGifh&dSw,f/) pum;wkd;wdk;wdwfajymNyD; udkaxG; jyef
oGm;w,f/ udkaxG;u MuHwwfzefwwf xdk;wwf xGif;wwfwJhaumif/
*wf0yf&t
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wpfa,muf&JU tod&JU tod&JU tod&JU tod&JUtod qkdovdkrsKd; owif;
ay;olwpfa,mufeJY awGU? uRefawmfhowif;Mum;? pm;p&mav;awG odkodk
odyfodyf ,lvm/ uRefawmfeJY pum;wdk;wkd;ajym? vlrod olrod jyefoGm;/
'gygyJ/
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jyefw,f/ 'Daumifrav;u uRefawmfaxmifxJa&mufcsdefu i,fi,f?
tck uav;ESpfa,mufeYJ om;wJGvJ orD;wJGvJ/ olu trsKd;orD;tapmifh
trsKd;orD;&JxJuwpfa,muf&JU tod&JU tod&JU tod&JU todeJYodw,f/
atmifrm olu ajymw,f/ ol wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwf r[kwfbl;/ wif;wif;
yJ/ uav;ESpfa,mufyg ac:vmvdkufao;/ olYtazaowJhtaMumif;?
olYtar bk&m;zl;c&D;xGufaMumif;? usKduúqH&yfuGuf pdefjc,fvrf;u
uRefawmfhOD;av;rdom;pkawGtaMumif; pum;wazmifazmifajymjyaecsnf
ao;/ udkBuD;ausmfu b,fvdk/ rsKd;OD;eJY rsKd;atmifu b,fhES,f/ cifrsKd;
Munf? cifrsKd;at;? rdw;l ? cifrsKd;tke;f u b,fEh ,
S /f udrk aJ v;u b,fenf;
olYrdef;r u&ifru b,fykHawG ajymoGm;ao;/
olwdkY 'Dvdk xdk;xdk;xGif;vkyfMuovdkyJ wjcm;vlawGvnf; tJ'Dvdk

213

214

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

oHwkdif oHwHcg;awGjzwfausmf? aoewfawGuGif;a&SmifNyD; uRefawmfhudpö
awG vkyfudkifay;cJhMuygao;w,f/
1989 uRefawmhu
f kd w&m;pJaG wmh tjyifval wGt0ifrcHb;l / tydwf
tyifawGu rsm;ovm;rar;eJY/ *sDo&D;awGudkifxm;wJh ppfom;awG ppf&J
awG w&m;½kH;udk [efYwm;qD;qdkY aewmuvnf; Murf;ovm;rar;eJY/
'DvdkMum;xJu udkarmifarmifcif&JUrdef;r t&Du ra&mufa&muf
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214

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

215

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215

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217

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wpfckaygh/

268

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269

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271

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271

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272

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

273

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273

274

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OD;at;omatmifu tJ't
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274

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

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275

276

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tusOf;om; vkyftm;ay;awG cGifhjyKxm;w,f/ xrif;csuftzJGUwJh/ Aswf
xdk;tzJGUwJh/(cl;cyfauR;arG;wJholawG) vufwdkvufawmif;tzJGUwJh/ (vdk
wmckdif;zdkYvlawG)/
'DacwfrSmawmh omreftusOf;om;awGudk tNrJqif;(tNrJtvkyf
qif;&wJhol)qkdNyD; wkdufwpfvkH;udk av;a,mufavmufay;xm;w,f/
aomufa&cyfvnf;olwYkd/ xrif;a0vnf;olwYkd/ t0wfveS ;f vnf; olwYkd/
vufwYkd vufawmif;vky&f wmvnf; olwYkd yaJ yghav/ olwYkd u tjyifbuf
rSm vrf;ovm;aeMu/ uRefawmfwdkYu oHwkdifaemufu tcef;xJrSm ikwf
wkwfxdkifMu/ pum;rajym&/ ypönf;tay;t,lrvkyf&/ naeapmif;ydwf
awmh olwYkd ae&if;taqmifukd jyefMuayghav/ aemufwpfaeYreuf rk;d vif;
awmhvnf; 'DvkdyJ vmvdkufjyefvkdufaygh/
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bmomraeMuygbl;/ csdwpf &m&dw
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vnf; 0dkif;tkHx<uMuwmygyJ/
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k -f ok;H ? tcef;
(2)rSmaew,f/ omreftusOf;om; vli,fav;wpfa,muf uRefawmfwdkY
wdkufrSm tNrJqif;wm0efusw,f/ reufwkdif; a&cyfw,f/ aomufa&
udk wkdufokH;eJYwdkufESpfMum;u a&uefBuD;ua&ydkufrSm oGm;cyf&w,f/
ol aomufa&cyfcsdefrSm wdkufESpf wm0efus0efxrf;uvnf; wdkufESpf
tusOf;om;awG a&csKd;csEdkifzdkY a&uefjrefjrefjynfhapcsifw,f/ tNrJqif;
uvnf; wkdufESpftcef;aph aomufa&jrefjrefjynfhapcsifw,f/

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277

wdkufESpfwm0efus0efxrf;u wm;w,f/ olu aomufa&cyfNrJ
cyfw,f/ aemufqkH;awmh wkdufESpf0efxrf;u wdkufokH;xJvdkufvmNyD;
tNrJqif;udk xdk;w,f/ ydefcsdcsdtusOf;om; aemufaumufusoGm;w,f/
uRefawmfwdkYa&SUwif jzpfwmqdkawmh uRefawmfwdkY0dkif;atmfMuwm
aygh/ wm0efcHt&m&dSawG a&mufvmw,f/ zsefajzay;w,f/ vufoD;
orm;0efxrf; jyKwfoGm;w,fqdkvm;/ a&GUoGm;w,fqdkvm; owif;Mum;
&w,f/ &ckdiftusOf;om;armifarmifoef;qdkwJh 0efxrf;wJh/
1995 avmufrSmvnf; 'DvdkudpBö uHK&jyefw,f/ wdkufokH;rSm ouf
BuD;&G,ftdk tNrJqif;wpfa,muf&dSw,f/ OD;vIdifvkdYac:Muw,f/ bvIdif
vdkYvnf; ac:Muw,f/ oefvsifbufwJh/ olu tbkd;BuD;rdkY tvkyfodyf
rvkyf&bl;/ EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG&JU vIyf&Sm;rIawGudk owif;ay;&
w,f/
wpfaeY uRefawmf a&csKd;qif;csdefrSm a&SUaeBuD; OD;xGef;wif('DcsKyf
A[dkaumfrwD0if? &efukefwkdif;pnf;½kH;a&;aumfrwD0if) tcef;a&SUoGm;
pum;ajymw,f/ OD;vIdifu wdkufokH;a&SUu opfyifwpfyifatmufrSm &yf
NyD;aew,f/ uRefawmfwdkYudk rjrifcsifa,mifaqmifaew,f/ wdkufwkduf
qkdifqkdif tJ'DtcsdefrSm axmifrSL;rdk;[def; wdkufa&SUwef;uavQmufvm
w,f/ wdkufqdkifrIyJvm;/ wrif acsmif;zrf;wmvm;awmh rodbl;aygh/
olu emrnfq;kd eJYausmMf um;ol/ olYukd rodb;l rMum;bl;olr&db
S ;l / axmif
t&m&dSrjzpfcifu olu tusOf;OD;pD;Xme 'kwd,ñTefMum;a&;rSL;csKyf
Adv
k rf LS ;BuD;tke;f [ef&UJ armfawmfum;armif;ol/ aiGuek af Mu;ustawmfcNH yD;
axmifrSL;jzpfvmw,fvdkY owif;ausmfw,f/
rqdk;ygbl;/ OD;vIdifudk wdkuf½kH;uac:w,f/ ppfw,f? ar;w,f/
NyD;awmh olYudk wdkifwpfwdkifrSm BudK;wkyfNyD; aeylvSrf;w,f/ aevSrf;w,f
qdw
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ay;rIjzpfygw,f/ 'DtvkyfrsKd;udk b,fEdkifiHrSmrS rokH;bl;/ 'kwd,urÇm
ppfBuD;twGif;u zufqpf*syefppfaxmufvSrf;a&;awGomokH;cJhw,f/
OD;vIdifowif;udk uRefawmfwdkY csufcsif;Mum;w,f/ uRefawmfwdkY
qlyluefYuGufMuw,f/

277

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

278

rMumvdu
k b
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apmifha&SmufrI usifh0wf pdwf"mwfawGudk EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;wkdif; pJGpJG
NrJNrJusifhokH;cJhMuw,f/
vlqdk;vl,kwfawGu i&Jcef;udk zefwD;aecJhMuw,f/ vlaumif;
vljrwfawGu arwåmbkHudk wnfaqmufaecJhMuw,f/

278

EdkifiHa&;tarGBuD;cHrsm;
axmifxJa&mufoGm;awmh olvdkudk,fvdk tusOf;om;csnf;r[kwf/
olaX;ol<u,fBuD;awG? 0efi,f0efBuD;awG? AdkvfrSL;AdkvfcsKyfawG?
0gEk 0g&ifhEdkifiHa&;orm;awG? awmfvSefa&;orm;awG? olykefoluefawG?
bkef;BuD;&[ef;awG? ausmif;om;vli,fawG? pma&;q&m? uAsmq&m?
owif;pmq&mawG? jynfolYudk,fpm;vS,fawG? oHBuD;wrefBuD;awG?
vlrsKd;jcm;awG/
aMomf pkHvdkYyguvm;/ taMumif;trsKd;rsKd;eJY vltrsKd;rsKd;axmifxJ
a&mufvmaeMuyguvm;/ ywf0ef;usifopfudk MunfhNyD; uRefawmf awG;
aerdw,f/

279

280

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

taMumif;trsKd;rsKd;eJYvdkY uRefawmf ajymayrJh t"dutaMumif;
uawmh ppftmPm&SifawG&JU w&m;vufvGwf EdkifiHa&;zdESdyfrI? csKyfcs,f
rI? ywfMurf;wkdufrI? &efNid§K;tmCmwBuD;rI? wefqmcHvkyfrI? eifr[kwf
eifhtazvkyfrI pwJh EdkifxufpD;eif;rIawGyJ jzpfygw,f/
wpfenf;pOf;pm;awmh ppftmPm,EÅ&m;BuD;[m zdESdyfcHjynfol
vlxkxJu jypf'PfoifholawGomru olwdkYaoG;xJom;xJuvlawG?
olwdkYtodkif;t0dkif;xJuvlawG? olwdkYvufyg;apawG? tvdkawmf&dawG?
½SL;wkdufacG;awGudkvnf; pdwfrxif&if axmifxJuefoGif;aewmygyJvm;
vdkY em;vnfvm&ygw,f/
uRefawmfu axmifxJrSm ESpfaygif; 20 eD;yg; usifvnfcJh&w,f
qdkayrJh todtjrif? tBuHKtqkH tvGefenf;yg;w,f/ axmufvSrf;a&;
uvm;? axmifuvm;awmh rodbl;/ uRefawmhfudk wul;wu *½dkYcsKd;
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axmiftapmydkif;ESpfawGrSm uRefawmf acG;ae&mr&qdkovdk jzpfae
cJh&w,f/ b,fae&mrS zifaEG;atmif rxdkif&/ ausmaEG;atmif rtdyf&/
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taqmifwpfcx
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aeYMum&uf&Snf oGm;&ao;/ aq;½kHwufvdkuf&ao;/
'DvdkeJY udk,fhvlcsif;vnf; rBuHK&rqkH&/ omreftusOf;om;awG
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'DMum;xJuyJ pdwf0ifpm;p&m tusOf;om;tcsKdUudk uRefawmf jrif
cJh&w,f/ tusOf;om;tcsKdUtaMumif; uRefawmf Mum;cJh&w,f/ 'Dvdk
qkcH hJ jrifchJ Mum;cJ&h w,fomqdw
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avmufygyJ/
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awmh wcsKdUwavudk tom;ay;ajymcsifwmawG &dSvmw,f/ tJ'DwcsKdU

280

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

281

qdkwmu EdkifiHa&;rdom;pkBuD;awGxJu aygufzGm;vmolawGjzpfygw,f/
wcsKdUqdk&if olwdkYudk,fwkdifvnf; xif&Sm;olawG jzpfygw,f/
1991 rSm uRefawmf wdkuf-3 a&mufoGm;w,f/ [dktcef; 'Dtcef;
ajymif;ae&mu tcef;-2udk a&mufoGm;w,f/ tcef;-1rSm OD;&JxGef;
&dSw,f/ olYudk vl&dyfawmif rjrif&cifuwnf;u olYowif;rsKd;pkHudk
Mum;ae&w,f/ aeYwkdif; pD;u&ufwpfbl;oGif;owJh/ pm;aumif;aomuf
zG,fawG pkHowJh/ a&csKd;csdef olrsm;xufydk&owJh/ vrf;avQmuf½SL;zdeyf
(Walking Shoes) oGif;pD;owJh/
olYtoHawGudkvnf; Mum;ae&w,f/ olu tcef;jyifMumMum
xGufcGifh&vdkYvm;/ MumMumxGufcGifh&atmif ]]MuH}}EdkifvkdYvm;rod/ rMum?
rMum vli,fawGeJY pum;ajymaeoHawGudk Mum;&w,f/ ol tar&duef
rSmaecJhwJhtaMumif;? wuúpDarmif;orm;vkyfcJhbl;wJhtaMumif;/ tpöa&;
ukrÜPDeJY w,fvDzkef;vkyfief; vkyfwJhtaMumif;/ toHawGu tawmfpkH
w,f/
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MumMumpm;&if aowwfw,fuG}}
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olYudkcifykHay:w,f/ txifBuD;ykHvnf;&w,f/
rif;udkEdkifwdkY? rif;aZ,smwdkY? udkudkBuD;wdkYqdkwm oleJYtawmf&if;
w,fw/hJ ta&;awmfyu
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281

282

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vlu jzLjzLoefYoefY cefYcefYacsmacsm/ abmif;bDwt
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uRefawmfu EdkifiHa&;awG bmawG odyfem;vnfwmr[kwfygbl;/ a':pk
t&Sdeft0gaemufu vdkufvSdrfhaewmyg}}
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awmfuvnf; [kwfuJh [kwfuJh qdkNyD; 0efxrf;qJGac:&mygcJhw,f/
OD;&JxGef;u a&SUaecsKyfOD;csefxGef;&JUom;/ OD;csefxGef;u 1947
tajccHzJGUpnf;ykHOya'udk a&;qJGcJhol/ vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGacwfu emrnf
ausmf 0wfvkHawmf&BuD;/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdkYeJYtwl vufwJGvIyf&Sm;
cJhwJhol/
OD;&JxGef;u MuH&nfzef&nfawmfawmfaumif;wJholyJ/ reufxrif;
a0NyD;&if ol tjyifxGuf&NyD/ uRefawmfhqDawmh wpfcgrSa&mufrvm/
tcef;-13u aA'ifq&mrif;odcFtcef;a&SUrSm oGm;xdkifw,f/ xrif;pm;
w,f/ pum;ajymw,f/ tcef;wkdif;aomhcwfydwfxm;csdef/ olu av
[mjyifrSm xrif;pm;? pum;ajymEdkifw,f/ wkduf½kH;u avQmufvmwJh
axmifrSL;u aomhyGifhaewJh olYtcef;-1udk awGUw,f/ qufavQmuf
w,f/ tcef;-13rSm olYudkawGUw,f/ qufavQmufoGm;w,f/ b,fqD
b,f0,frod/ aysmufoGm;w,f/ OD;&JxGef; qufNyD; pum;azmifw,f/
1996 rSm axmufvSrf;a&; ppfaMumpcef; tajcpdkufwJh txl;

282

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283

aqmifudk uRefawmf a&mufoGm;w,f/ 12 ESpfausmf wpfa,mufwnf;
wdu
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wkdY? AdkvfBuD;0if;xdefwdkY? u&ifAdkvfrSL;udkudkEdkifwdkY? Auy,l*sDudkoufckdif
wkdY? udkwifatmifwdkY? rif;udkEdkifwdkY? 'DcsKyfu OD;cifarmifaqGwdkY? udkrdk;ol
wdkY? udk0HowdkY? OD;ausmfqef;wdkY? bdk;awmfcif0if;wdkY pwJh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;
om;awGeJY tcef;ausmf? pum;atmf? acsmif;Munfh qdkwmrsKd;eJY BuHKvdkuf?
qkHvdkuf? ajymvdkuf? qdkvkduf&w,f/
1999 oBuFefrSm uAsmjyZmwf&SnfBuD;wpfyk'f uRefawmf atmf
w,f/ axmufvSrf;a&;tcef;-5 txl;aqmifrSmyg/ tcef;-10 u
tcef;-8 txd uAsmpmvkH;awG aygufaygufBuJaew,f/ yJhwifxyfae
w,f/ &ufuef;vGef;cwfovdk/ wdkufwpfzufpGef;u wpfzufpGef;udk 'dk;
a'guf ½dkufcwfa&GUvsm;aew,f/
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tcef;uawmh tcef;-4yJ/ em;axmif½kH em;axmifaeovm;rod/ 'grS
r[kwf em;raxmifraebl;wmvm; rod/
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OD;b0if;&JUom;/ uRefawmf r&dSawmhwJhaemuf ol 'DcsKyfrSm (a':pktem;
rSm) 0ifulvkyfw,fvdkY Mum;&w,f/ aemufawmh axmifxJa&mufvm
a&m/ tck tcef;-4 rSm/
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qD a&mufvmw,f/ vlawGtm;vk;H qkaH wGUzdYk MuufajceDtzJUG acgif;aqmif
rpöwmvD,Gefudk uRefawmf ]]ylqm}}w,f/ wjcm;vlawGuvnf; 0dkif;
ajymMu[efw&l UJ / tm;vk;H wpfaygif;wnf; awGUMu&w,f/ vlawGuawmh
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w,fxifw,f/ OD;at;0if;awmh rygbl;/
OD;at;0if;u olwpfa,mufwnf; oD;jcm;awGUcGifhawmif;w,f/

283

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vm; ajymcGifh&vdkufvdkY OD;at;0if; 0rf;omrSmyg/
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'DwkdufxJrSm aevmcJhwm MumyJMumaygh/ wpfcgrS rsufESmcsif;rqkdifcJh
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qkHbl;rvm;rod/ uRefawmfuawmh odyfrrSwfrd/ olu yxr rauG;
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uRefawmfvnf; A[dktvkyfawGeJY 0vcsD;v,f/ ckrSyJ opfyif&dyfatmuf
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284

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a&ma&maESmaESmaewwfw,f/ olYtazvdkyJ/
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tif;pdefaps;a&SU vlpkMuw,f/ xdkifMuw,f/ pum;ajymMuw,f/ a':pk
bufawmfom;awG awmfawmfrsm;w,f/ 'Drdkua&pDvIyf&Sm;tiftm;pkawG
awmfawmfrsm;w,f/ aps;olaps;om;? &yfol&yfom;awG awmfawmfrsm;
w,f/ 'DcsKyfuvnf; vmw,f/ uRefawmfeJY ESpfa,muf okH;a,muf
avmuf &dSr,fxifw,f/ udkcsKdvnf;ygwwfw,f/
uRefawmf ausmufukef;tdrfrSm aewJh&ufqdk&if ol tdrfwkdif&m
a&muf vkdufydkYwwfw,f/ 'DvIyfawG('Drdkua&pDvIyf&Sm;olawG)uawmh
oleJYuRrf;ol vGrf;ol vGef;ol rsm;w,f/ olu vlwkdif;eJY NyHK;NyHK;yJ/
]]q&ma& uRefawmfuawmh 'DvlawGtaMumif; aemausaeawmh

285

286

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

owdxm;w,f}}vdkY uRefawmfhudk wdk;wdk;ajymwwfw,f/ 'DvlawGqdkwm
olYtem;uvlpdrf;awG ajymwmvm;/ axmufvSrf;a&;awGudk ajymwm
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&efukefaq;½kHBuD;rSm uRefawmf qkH&jyefw,f/ a':MunfMunfyg/ uG,f
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jrifheJY uRefawmfu rrMunfvdkYac:Muw,f/ olu ysOf;rem;olqdkawmh
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]]rrMunf 'kur© &SmeJY/ uRefawmfu wpfaeYwpfxyfpm;wm/ reuf
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wpf&uf uRefawmfhudk vlvTwfac:w,f/ a&mufawmh ajymvdkuf
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ygao;/

286

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

287

olwdkYEdkifiHa&;tEG,f? uRefawmfh&Jabmfwpfa,muf&JU ESvkH;om;
a&;&mac:rvm;/ ESpftdrfom;a&;&m ac:rvm;rod/ olu tdrfola[mif;
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&ao;/ EdkifiHwumMuufajceDawGvmawmh wpf&uf oleJYuRefawmf twl
pum;ajymvdkuf&ao;/ 0rf;omwmaygh/ oleJYuRefawmfu owif;pmvkyf
zuf/ ol ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifb0uwnf;u odcJhwm/ 1957
'wfcsfoH½kH;a&SU qE´jyyJGrSm 'wfcsftvHudk ol rD;½IdUw,f/ olYvufrD;avmif
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qE´jyykHu wu,fMurf;oudk;/
287

288

[Hom0wD OD;0if;wif

ysKdwkef;u ombef;vdkyJ tdkvmwJh ombef;uvnf; Murf;wkef;yJ/
tck olu 0g&ifhEdkifiHa&;vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm; tzJGU0ifav/ &ckdiftzJGU 'kOuú|/ nDñTwfaomwdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; r[mrdwftzJGUacgif;aqmif
wpfOD;qdkwJh *kPf&nfyk'fawGeJY vIyf&Sm;aeoljzpfaeNyD/
axmifuxGufcgeD; wpfESpftvdk 2007 rSm txl;aqmifyGifhw,f/
touf½SLacsmifvmwmudk ajymwmyg/
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avQmufcGifh&w,f/ wpfa,mufxGuf wpfa,muf0if tcsdefvJT? tcsdef
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t0if udk,ftxGuf 0efxrf;rjrifuG,f&mrSm pum;wpfcGef;p ESpfcGef;p
ajym? Mumvmawmh pum;rsm;rsm;ajym? pmapmifpmtkyfzvS,faygh/
udkat;ae0if;u touf 30 avmuf &dSa&mhr,f/ ,lau(UK)
oGm;NyD; ynmoifbl;w,f/ tck uRefawmfwdkYeJYtwl axmifus/ twl
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288

bmvJ[Jh . . . vlYi&J

289

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289

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290

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