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Forest biodiversity and

natural regeneration
Kalev Jgiste

Biodiversity

Deme is a term for a


local population of organisms of
one species that actively interbreed
with one another and share a
distinct gene pool

Encompasses genes, individuals, demes, metapopulations, populations, species, communities,


ecosystems, and the interactions between these
entities (Lindenmayer and Franklin 2002)
Stand: a patch of forest distinct in composition
or structure or both from adjacent areas
Landscape: many sets of stands, or patches,
that cover an area ranging from many hundreds
to tens of thousands hectares

Forest matrix
Landscape ecology: matrix is defined as dominant
and most extensive patch type
Conservation ecology: matrix is the set of areas
that are not devoted primarily to nature
conservation

Adopted definition: the matrix comprises


landscape areas that are not designated primarily
for conservation of natural ecosystems, ecological
processes and biodiversity regardless of their
current condition (i.e., whether natural or
developed)

Landscape matrix

Key habitat:
The forest site in commercial or protected
forest where probability for occurrence of
endangered or rare species is high. Also a
site where ecosystem has different (rare)
characteristics from surrounding areas and
serves as regeneration key. Has another
nature value.
Examples: small ponds, springs, old tree
groups, small openings, human artefacts,
cliffs,
Size???

Biodiversity
It is estimated that there are more that 13 million species
on Erath
In Estonia we have approximately 23 000 species (actual
number 40 000)
Estonian forest: more than 20 000 multicellular species

invertebrates >10 000 (mostly insects)

fungi 2500 species

lichens 500

vascular plants >450

vertebrates 150 species

Species diversity
Alpha diversity (-diversity) the mean species diversity
in sites or habitats at a more local scale (mean diversity
of one habitat type)
Gamma diversity (-diversity) number of species in
one region

Beta diversity (-diversity) diversity between different


habitats: (alpha diversity divided by gamma diversity;
example: if there is 5 tree species in the region [gamma
diversity] and habitat contains in average 1.3 species
[alpha diversity], then beta diversity is 1.3/5 = 0.26).

Oxalis site type

Shannon index

i=1
p

i=2
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.33
0.01
0.3

i=3
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.33
0.01
0.03

H'
0.3 0.094824
0.1 0.361192
0.1 0.306495
0.33 0.00995
0.01 0.105197
0.04 0.367873

STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY
Scale of the diversity
Systematics

Forest ecosystem structure and diversity (Franklin et al. 2002)

Needle

Crown

Gap,
stand

Forest

Forest
landscape

CONNECTIVITY
AND
FRAGMENTATION

Forest disturbances

Fire
Wind
Insects
Floods
Drought
Diseases
etc

Windthrow

Crown fire

Published 27.10.2012 kell 10:53


Rainy summer: no forest fires

The rainy summer of 2012 was exceptional: almost no fires (2.5 ha)!
Fire season in Estonia ends in September. The fire regime of hemiboreal forest varied a lot!

ASIO model (a absent; s seldom; i irregular; o often

Salumetsad, laanemetsad, palumetsad, nmmemetsad

S
A

3D model of disturbances: a natural forest; b


and c managed forest

Time

Type
Size

Stand development stages


Increase of the diversity (Frelich 2002)

Uuenemine

Konkurents

Jrelkasvu
teke

Vanamets

Development after disturbances


Reference for
management

Biological disturbance legacy


Forest disturbance legacy is relatively longlasting biological or physical structure in the
forest ecosystem the condition of which or
the environment of which was changed and
it was created by disturbance occurrence
(agent) of varying scale. Forest disturbance
legacy can be imported if those become a
functional part of the ecosystem.

Biological legacies
Organisms

Whole organisms
Perenating parts
Propagules
Organic matter
Dissolved and particulate organic matter
Structures
Snags
Logs and coarse woody debris
Large soil aggregates
Pattern (plant or animal)
Pits and mounds

Naturalness: A natural forest after fire; B


managed forest after clear-cut

Retention during harvest

Retention trees
Retention tree groups
Coarse woody debris
Stumps

Continuum at the management (harvest)


Retention
Harvest
Regeneration

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
NATURAL BIODIVERSITY
1. CONSERVATION (RESTORATION) TO ACHIEVE
NATURAL BIODIVERSITY + or 2. CONSERVATION TO MAINTAIN THE DIVERSITY
3. CONSERVATION (RESTORATION) TO ACHIEVE
NOVEL DIVERSITY +or -