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romis adreuli mozaikebi

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gamosaxulebiT taZris Semkoba did debatebs iwvevda. pirveli
qristianuli sazogadoeba yovelgvari WoWmanis gareSe Tanxmdeboda
erT sakiTxze, rom uflis saxlSi ar iyo adgili kerpebisTvis. qandakebebi
xo metad didi asociacias iwvevda warmarTul xelovnebasTan, romelic
bibliaSi gakritikebuli da akrZalulia. amdenad, sakurTxevelSi uflis
qandakebis an romelime wmindanis gamosaxva erTmniSvnelovnad
dauSvebeli
iyo.
Tumca,
qandakebis
erTsulovnad
uarmyofel
marTmorwmune qristianebs gansxvavebuli mosazreba qondaT
ferweruli saxeebis Taobaze. swore kedlis mxatvrobis meSveobiT iyo
SesaZlebeli
morwmunis
warmosaxvaSi
cocxlad
Semonaxuliyo
saxarebiseuli, sakraluri istoriebi. am Tvalsazrisma imperiis dasavleT
nawilSi (laTinur romSi) gaimarjva. misi damcveli gaxldaT papi grigol
didi, romelic VI saukunis bolos moRvaweobda. igi mowinaaRmdegebis
Tavdaxmas igeriebda im mosazrebiT, rom wera-kiTxvis ucodinari
morwmuneTaTvis, rwmenaSi gasaZliereblad iseve saWiroa es
gamosaxulebebi, rogorc dasuraTeba sabavSvo wignebisTvis. ferwera
kiTxvis ucodinarTaTvis _ ambobda igi _ igive rac werili
mkiTxvelisaTvis. aseTi avtoritetis mier
ferweris gamarTlebas
mniSvnelovani Sedegebi mohyva xelovnebis istoriaSi. papis sityvebs
moiSveliebdnen
yovel
jerze,
rogorc
ki
gamosaxulebis
mowinaaRmdegeTa talRa agordeboda. bunebrivia aseTma midgomam
xelovneba
garkveul
CarCoebSi
moaqcia.
papis
msjelobidan
gamomdinare, siuJeti warmodgenili unda yofiliyo rac SeiZleba ubralod
da gasagebad, radgan mnaxvelisTvis yuradRebis gadatana sxva nakleb
mniSvnelovan detalebze ar momxdariyo, aramed misi yuradReba
mTlianad mocemuli sakraluri sceniT gamsWvaluliyo. rogorc ukve
avRniSneT, pirvel xanebSi mxatvrebi elinistur- romaul gavlenebs ver
aRweven Tavs, magram droTa ganmavlobaSi isini srulad scildebian
stilizebul mxatvrobas da aqcentirebas axdenen ufro mniSvnelovan,
sulier sawyisebze.

sant apolinare nuovo


ravenaSi. ori Tevzisa da xuTi puris saswaulebrivi gamravlebis scena.

ravenis es mozaika naTlad asaxavs qristianuli xelovnebis sxvagvar


interess. elini ostati, siuJetis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, albaT
gamoiyenebda SesaZlebobas aesaxa dramatuli moZraobebi xalxis
uzarmazari nakadisa. sruliad sapirispiros akeTebs qristiani mxatvari.
pirvel rigSi aRsaniSnavia, rom is kedels ferweris nacvlad feradi qvebisa
da smaltebiT Sedgenili mozaikiT amkobs. mozaikis Tvisebaa
erTmaneTSi gadaRvrili ferebis sikaSkaSe ormagad gamoabrwyinos,
es detali taZars kide ufro met sakralurobas hmatebs. Tavad
gamosaxulebis wyoba iwvevs mnaxveliSi saswaulis gancdas. foni
warmoadgns mooqrovili minis natexebisgan Semdgar sibrtyes, oqros
fonze ki realuri moZraobebis Seqmna SeuZlebelia. qristes gaSeSebuli
figura kompoziciis centrSia gamosaxuli. igi axalgazrda, uwverulvaSo,
grZelTmiani saxiT warmodgina ostatma, rac
damaxasiaTebelia
adreqristianuli xanis xelovnebisaTvis. mewamulis fer samosSi
gamowyobil macxovars kurTxevis niSnad gawvdili aqvs xelebi
mociqulebisken, romlebsac xelT puri da Tevzi upyriaT. uflis es jesti
miuTiTebs saswaulebrivad maT gamravlebaze. Tumca es scena
mxatvris mier mxolod saxarebiseuli scenis mSral, sqematur
gadmotanas ar warmoadgens(iseve, rogorc yvela danarCeni scenis
SemTxvevaSi), aramed am gamosaxulebas igi Rrma SinaarsiT
msWvalavs. palestinaSi momxdari saswauli misTvis ara marto
gansacvifrebeli movlenaa, aramed es aris simbolo da niSani qristes
gardauvali siZlierisa, romelic Semdeg eklesiaze gardmovlinda. qristes

daJinebuli mzera mlocvelisaTvis, romelic miskenvea mimarTuli TiTqos


gacxadebaa macxovris xelwifebisa aseve saswaulebrivad daanayros
yoveli mSieri morwmunis suli.
erTi SexedviT SeiZleba kompozicia gayinuli, gaSeSebuli mogeCvenos.
aq Zveli berZnuli xelovnebis maRali miRwevebidan (moqnili
gamomsaxveli moZraobebisgan) araferia darCenili. am mkacrad
frontalurad warmodgenil figurebs aqvT saerTo bavSvTa naxatebTan.
magram mainc, eWvgareSea, rom qristini mozaikosebi safuZvlianad
icnobdnen berZnul antikur xelovnebas. mxatvarma zustad icoda rogor
gadmoeca samosis drapirebei (nakecebi), raTa mis qveS sxeulis forma
gamoekveTa. mas SeeZlo ise Caelagebina mcire zomis qvis natexebi,
rom mieRo CrdilTa da tonTa gradaciis saWiro Tanmimdevroba. am
konkretul SemTxvvaSi Cven vxedavT mxatvari rogor iTvaliswinebs
kompoziciaSi pirobiTad gamosaxul miwaze dacemul Crdilebs da rogor
ostaturad gamosaxavs mas. mozaikis primitiuloba, simartive ostatis
(epoqis)
gaazrebuli
surviliTvea
ganpirobebuli.
Zvel
egviptur
xelovnebaSi dayenebuli sakiTxi, simartivisa (ganzogadoebulobis)
bizantiur xelovnebaSi axali ZaliT gaJRerda, ramdenadac eklesiac
amisken iyo midrekili.
bizantiaSi mxatvrebisgan imdagvaradve mkacrad miTxovdnen tradiciis
dacvas, rogorc es aucilebeli gaxldaT Zvel egvipteSi. Tumca mainc, am
kanonizirebuli mxatvrobaSi gamoJonavs antikuri codna saxis, Jestis,
drapirebebis gadmocemisa. tans movlebul nakecebis plastikaSi,
gansakuTrebiT ki muxlsa da idyvis garSemo, saxisa da xelebisa SuqCrdilebiT modelirebaSi gansakuTrebiT aisaxeba bizantiel mxatvarTa
elinisturi wyaroebze dayrdnoba da sargebloba(sur.2). bizantiuri
xelovneba miuxedavad Tavisi statiurobisa mainc axlos idga natikuris
gamosaxvasTan, metad axlos vidre amave xanis dasavleT evropis
xelovneba. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom ukve mkacrad dadgenili da
gansazRvruli qristesa Tu RvTismSoblis saxeebis gamosaxvis miRma
ostati mainc inarCunebda Tavis individualurobas da qmnida ara
Stampirebul saxes, aramed sruliad Taviseburad gaazrebul xatebas.

romis adreuli mozaikebi


italiis adreqristianul, monumentur ferweraze saubrisas Tavidanve
aRsaniSnavia, rom romis skolis gverdiT arsebobdnen milanisa da
ravenis skolebic. es qalaqebi garkveuli drois manZilze daqucmacebuli

romis imperiis dedaqalaqebi iyvnen. Tavisi mozaikuri skola hqonda


kidev erT mniSvnelovan italiur centrs _ neapols. ase rom, yvela italiuri
skolis romTan gaigiveba marTebuli ar iqneboda. roms ar ekava
adreqristianuli xelovnebis istoriaSi mniSvnelovani adgili, Tumca
zogadad am qalaqis istoriuli mniSvneloba CvenTvis cnobilia _ didi xnis
manZilze is gvianantikuri xelovnebis erT-erT msxvil, tradiciis
gamgrZelebel centrad rCeboda. mosazreba romlis mixedviTac mis
fesvebze aRmocenebuli mozaikebsa da freskebs aRmosavlel ostatebs
miakuTvnebs- gaumarTlebelia. Tumc am ZeglebSi aRmosavluri
gavlenebi mnSvnelovan rols asruleben, magram es faqti maT ar
miakuTvnebs bizantiuri wris mozaikebs.
romi erT-erTi pirveli qalaqi iyo, sadac qristianuli taZris Sesamkobad
mozaika farTod gavrcelda. am teqnikas iyenebdnen ara marto iataks
zedapirze, aramed kedlebze, kamarebsa da gumbaTSi. mozaika
farTodaa gavcelebuli antikuri xanis saero nagebobebSi, sadac es
gamosaxulebebi imperatorTa saomar movlenebis aRwerasa da maT
gandidebasa emsaxureboda. swored aqaa misi Zirebi saZiebeli,
magram samwuxarod mas Cvenamde ar mouRwevia. rogorc a.
grabarma daamtkica swored am mxtvrobas miuZRvis mniSvnelovani
wvlili qristianuli ikonografiis CamoyalibebaSi. Tu imperatoris kulti Tavis
TavSi mniSvnelovnad aRmosavlur elementebs atarebda (ufro metad
sasanidurs), formis daxvewil gamomsaxvelobas man miaRwia romSi _
msoflio imperiis dedaqalaqis fesvebze. da maSin roca axal
dedaqalaqad konstantinepoli yalibdeboda, misi samefo karis
warmomadgenlebma ver SeZles romis triumfaluri Tematikis uaryofa.
romis wvlili bizantiur xelovnebaSi Zalian didi iyo, da es romauli
gamoZaxili kidev didxans gahyveba bizantur ferwerasa da skulpturas,
rac gansazRvravs kidec saero pirTa gamosaxvis ikonografil xasiaTs.

gamarjvebuli qristianuli eklesiis winaSe idga sakiTxi _ qristes, mTeli


qristainuli xelovnebis amomavali wertilis, didebiTa da pativiT
Semkobisa, amdenad mas mouwia gamoeyenebina antikuri saero
triumfaluri Tematika. ase daiwyo gamoJonva qristianul ikonografiaSi
Zveli, saero triumfaluri xasiaTis Tematikam. rogorc Cans, romi iyo is
qalaqi, sadac am procesis ganviTarebis pirveli etapi Zalze intesiurad
daiwyo. qriste-triumfatoris, samyaros marTvelisa da sikvdilis
damTrgunvelis saxe-xateba uaxlovdeboda imperator-triumfatoris saxes,
ufro xSirad gamosaxaven macxovrs taxtze dabrZanebuls. kanonis

gadacemis scena ( ) erTgvar gamoZaxilad


SeiZleba CaiTvalos antikuri kompoziciisa _ wodebis miniWeba
imperatorisadmi, xolo mowafeTa mier qristes Tayvancema da deisusi 1 _
rogorc imperatoris Tayvancemis antikuri scena; gamosaxuleba qriste
mowafeebs Soris, rac simbolurad qristianuli eklesiis gamarjvebas
aRniSnavs paralelebs hpovebs
xalxiT garSemortymuli imperatoris
gamosaxulebasTan;
mogvTa
Tayvaniscemis
scena
asocirdeba
imperatorisadmi barbarosTa ZRvenis mirTmevis scenasTan; ierusalimSi
Sesvlis kompoziciuri struqtura bevr saerTos poulobs antikur siuJetTan _
imperaturis triumpalur, sazeimo svalasTn, taxti ganmzadebuli
_simbolizirebuli qriste ki pirdapir prototips warmoadgens imperatoris
Zalauflebis gamomsaxvel emblemasTan: taxti gvirgviniT.
yvela es faqti TvalnaTliv aCvenebs Tu
qristianuli ikonografia antikuri siuJetebidan.

ramdenad

sargeblobda

IV-VI ss. mozaikuri Zeglebi xasiaTdeba ramdenadme gazviadebuli


monumenturobiTa
da
mZime
plastikuri
formebiT,
maTTvis
damaxasiaTebelia saxis mkafio da energiuli gamosaxva, sadac
xazobrivi aqcentebi dominirebs. es mozaikebia santa konstancas or
gverdiTa afsidebSi Traditio legis ( ) da Traditio
clavium
(
)IVs
dasasruli;
mozaika
santa
pudenciaSi, sadac gamosaxulia qriste mociqulebs Soris (401-417ww);
mozaika santa sabinaSi warmodgenilia gansaxiereba
eklesiis
gamocalkavebis sinagogidan da warmarTobidan (432-440). zemoT
CamoTvlili mozaikebi, droiTi sxvaobis miuxedavad, atareben saerTo
niSan-Tvisebebs, rac maT romauli skolis qveS aerTianebs.
santa maria majore _ es aris romis oTx mTavar bazilikaTagan erTerTi. miuxedavad gviani gadakeTebebisa, taZris interieri gviqmnis naTel
warmodgenas uSvelebel, adreqristianul bazilikaze. igi gamoirCeva
afsolituri proporciebiT, TiToeuli elementis erTmaneTTan harmoniuli
kavSiri sazeimo, didebuli ganwyobilebas qmnis. gansakuTrebul interess
warmoadgens
taZris
mozaikuri
Semkuloba.
centralur
navSi
gamosaxulia V s-iT daTariRebuli, mkveTri ferebiTa da silamaziT
gamorCeuli freskebi, sadac warmodgenilia Zveli aRTqmis siuJetebi.
triumfalur TaRze ki mozaikuri kompoziciebi _ xarebis, Sobis da
1

() . () - ,
, ,
.

Tayvancemis scenebi, aseve Vs-Si Sesrulebuli, Tumca albaT ufro gviani


vidre centraluri navis TaRze gamosaxuli _ maTSi igrZnoba bizantiis
gavlena. afsidis mozaika _ RvTismSoblis koronacia amave periodis
nawilad iTvleba, Tumca am kompozicias XIIIs-Si papis miTiTebiT
absoluturad ucvales saxe, swored am periods ganekuTvneba yvela
figura.
IV-Vss konstantinepolSi mravali taZari Tu sasaxle igeboda da imkoboda.
cxadia
adgilobrivi
mozaikosebi
da
fermwerebi
etapobrivad
ayalibebdnen sakuTar skolas. Tanac konstantinepolis, rogorc samyaros
axali centris politikur mniSvnelobasac Tu gaviTvaliswinebT sxvagvarad
warmoudgenelia
yofiliyo.
Vs-Si
aq
Camoyalibda
sakuTriv
konstantinepolisTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxatvruli tradiciebi, sadac
daileqa mis garSemo mezobel qveynebSi ukve arsebuli elementebi. am
urTierTkavSirSi ibadeba kiTxva: aris Tu ara SemorCenili italiur fesvebze
aRmocenebuli Zegli, romelSic SeiZleba konstantinepoluri ferweris
pirdapiri gavlena dainaxo? eseT Zeglebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos santa
maria majore romSi da gala placidead wodebuli mavzoleumi ravenaSi.
mTavari navis triumfaluri TaRis mozaikebi ganekuTvneba erT periods _
432-440ww pap siqst III-is moRvaweobis periods. maTSi jer kidev
igrZnoba antikuri samyaros gavlenebi. sivrcis gadmocemaSi igrZnoba
gadmonaSTi iluzonuri stilisa, figurebis proporciebi da saxis tipi aseve
antikuri tradiciebis matarebelia. marTalia kompoziciaSi frontaluroba
wamyvania, mainc saerTo toni ieratulobis gancdiT aris gaJRenTili.
Sua navis mozaikebi miekuTvneba pap siqste III(432-440), im periods
rodesac trumfaluri TaRi Seamkes mozaikiT. mkveTri gansxvavebebi am
mozaikur kopozicebs Soris aixsneba imiT, rom mTavari navis
mozaikosebi
(sadac
gamosaxulia
Zveli
aRTqmis
scenebi)
xemZRvaneloben
IV
saukunis
miniaturebiT,
trimfaluri
TaRis,
RvTismSoblis madidebeli mozaikebi ki warmoadgenen V s-Si Seqmnil
ikonografiuli principebze damyarebul kompoziciebs. rogorc Cans santa
maria majore pirveli eklesia iyo romSi, romelic RvTismSobls mieZRvna.
centraluri navis kedlebze gamosaxulia Zveli aRTqmis (abraamis,
iakobis, moses da iesu naves Zis) amsaxveli scenebi; centraluri TaRze
ki qristes yrmobis siuJetebi; ierusalimi da beTlemi; hetimasia - garSemo
oTxi maxareblis simboloTi, xolo aqeT-iqiT mociqulebis petresa da
pavles figurebi. macxovris cxovrebis amsaxvel scenebSi yrmobis Temis
gaCena (rogorc grabarma daadastura), momdinareobs, palestinis

martiriumebida, aq am scenebs xSirad gamosaxavdnen. Tumca santa


maria majoreSi am ciklma miiRo sazeimo naratiuli(sagangebod
xazgasmuli) xasiaTi, rac miuTiTebs triumfaluri TemaTikis win
wamowevaze. qristes pirveli mosvla aq gandidebulia imperatoris
triumfis msgavsad. Tavad scenebi arCeulia ara istoriuli TanmivderobiT,
aramed maTi simboluri mniSvnelobis mixedviT. pirvel registrSi mTavari
aqcenti keTdeba wm. svimonis, wm. anasa da qristes mSoblebisa mier
misi (qristes) RmerTad aRiarebaze; meore registrSi _ qristes aRiareba
mefeebis mier, xolo mesame registrSi herodes Zaladoba RvTiuri
yrmis Zalis winaaRmdeg. mTeli cikli Cafiqrebulia rogorc mkveTri uaryofa
nestorianuli2 moZRvrebisa. nestori amtkicebda, rom qriste iyo
Cveulebrivi adamiani da mxolod naTlisRebis Semdeg gaxda igi RmerTi.
amitomac nestorianelebi mariams RvTismSoblad ar aRiarebdnen.
maTTvis daujerebeli iyo ori-sami Tvis Cvili, romelic dedis rZiT ikvebeba
RmerTi yofiliyo; dauSveblad Tvlidnen bavSvis Tayvancemas, romelis
gadasarCenadac egviptes miiltvis mSoblebi. efesoso krebam, nestoris
sawinaaRmdegod sazeimod daadgina mariami ara marto rogorc qristes
deda, aramed rogorc RvTis mSobeli. am momentidan daiwyes
RvTismSoblis kultis gandideba (Tavidan aRmosavleTSi, mogvianebiT
dasavleTSi) ewyoboda RvTismSoblis saxelobis dResaswaulebi. udaoa,
rom
santa
maria
majores
mozaikosebmac
ikonografiis
Semdgenlebisgan miiRes davaleba, rom mxatvrobaSi gansakuTrebiT
xazi gaesvaT yrma qristes RvTiuri bunebisTvis, da ganedidebinaT
mariami, rogorc RvTismSobeli. amitomac xarebis scenaSi RvTismSobeli
Semosilia samefo samosiT: Tavze diademiT, Zvirfasi yursakidebiT, yelze
margalitis sakidiTa da mkerdi mooWvili Zvirfasi qvebiT. mis garSemo
xuTi angelozia gamosaxuli, Tavze monavarde mtredi, mTavarangelozi
gabrieli ki zemodan mofrenili, mariams auwyebs uflis saswauls. misi
(angelozis) gamosaxuleba aRiqmeba, rogorc antikuri viqtorias saxe.
Tavmdabali, mokrZalebuli mariami aq gadmocemulia mefuri didebiT. es
tendencia, RvTiuri gandideba kidev ufro gamZafrebulia mwyemsebis
TayvancemaSi, sadac yrma ieso gamosaxulia ara mariamis kalTaSi,
aramed calke taxtze mjdomi, rogorc namdvili mefe, igi angelozebiT,
mwyemsebiTa da ori qalis figuriTaa garSemortymuli erT-erTi maTgani,
romelic warmodgenilia samefo samosSi, RvTismSobelia. da bolos,
egvipted ltolvis scena, sadac avtorma antinestorianuli moZRvreba ufro

, ,
(). 431 III
.

mkafiod asaxa, gamoiyena ra apokrifuli 3 wyaro


saxareba), sadac aRwerilia Tu rogor sca Tayvani
mTavarma da misma axloblebma WeSmarit RmerTs,
gamoCenis
Semdeg
warmarTul
taZrebSi
ormocdaTxuTmeti kerpi.

(fsevdo maTe IV
egvipturi qalaqis
vinaidan Cvili uflis
daemxo
samas

ikonogafiuli gadawyvetiT ara mxolod triumfaluri TaRis mozaikebze


aisaxa aRmosavluri gavlenebi. maTi kvali aRbeWdilia mTavari navis
mozaikebzec. dadasturebulia, rom mozaikosebs xelT hqondaT
adrebizantiuri xelnawerebi, miniaturebi romlebic monumenturi xasiaTis
matareblebi iyvnen. maTi damokidebuleba xelnawerebze aSkaraa _
gamosaxuleba xSirad iyofa or registrad, mcire maStabiani figurebi
mnaxvelisTvis ar aris srulad aRsaqmeli. monumenturoba, rac ase
damaxasiaTebelia ganviTarebuli bizantiis xelovnebisTvsi -aq jer kidev ar
aris mxatvrebis mier aTvisebuli.
santa maria majores mozaikebi erTgvari amovardnaa romauli
monumentaluri ferweris ganviTarebis xazidan. stiluri analogiebis Zieba
sufTa romaul mozaikebTan (santa konstanca, santa pudenciana, santa
sabina) amao iqneba. isini ara mxolod ikonografiul safuZvlebze avlenen
msgavsebebs, aramed stiluri TvalsazrisiTac, aRsaniSnavia ferweruli
Tavisufleba. am mozaikebSi aisaxa antikuri impresionizmi, rac aseTi
sufTa saxiT SenarCunda Vs-Si konstantinepolis fesvebze aRmocenebul
nawarmoebebSi. santa maria majres mozaikebi Tavisi saerTo mxatvruli
saxiT exmianeba konstantinepolur ferweruli stils. Tumca es
erTmniSvnelovnad ar gulisxmobs, rom aq konstantinepolidan mosuli
fermwerebi muSaobdnen. amis sawinaaRmdegos adasturebs mTeli
CamonaTvali romauli ikonografiuli detalebisa (mag. mirqmis scenaSi
gamosaxulia klasikuri taZris (Urbs) romauli forumi, masze romis
personifikaciis gamosaxulebiT). es freskebi Seqmnili iyo adgilobrivi
ostatebis mier, romlebic ganicdidnen Zlier konstantinepoluri ferweris
gavlenas.

apokryphos - ", "; ,


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