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TNG HP CC NH L HNH HC TRONG CC K THI

HC SINH GII
(Ngun: Mathscope.org)
Nhng kin thc sau y gm mt s kin thc c s khm ph hnh hc olympiad hoc l
nhng kt qu p ni ting :hornytoro:.Bi vit ny c son ra nhm p ng nhu cu tra
cu ,hc hi ca nhiu bn c.
N s cn s chung tay ca nhiu thnh vin !.
u tin mnh s gii thiu mc lc v nu ai bit phn kin thc y th c th post ln , nhng
m bo cho tnh h thng , cht ch v d theo di ca bi vit ,mnh xin nu mt s quy c
nh sau:
1) Mi bi vit u phi v hnh minh ha.
2)Mi bi vit ch cp n 1 mc kin thc.
3) Phi m bo th t nu trong mc lc.
4)Chng ti ch gi li nhng trao i c ch k t sau khi hon thnh mc lc, iu c ngha
l nhng trao i chen gia khng b xa lc ny nhng s b xa khi mc lc c hon tt..
By gi s l ni dung chnh
A/ MC LC
I/ Mt s nh ngha ,nh l , im v ng c bit khng duy nht :
I.1)nh l Menelaus
I.2)M rng nh l Menelaus theo din tch
I.3)nh l Menelaus cho t gic
I.4)nh l Ceva
I.5)nh l Ceva dng sin
I.6)nh l Desargues
I.7)nh l Pappus
I.8)Mt trng hp c bit ca nh l Pappus qua gc nhn hnh x nh.
I.9)ng thc Ptolemy
I.10)Bt ng thc Ptolemy
I.11)nh l Pascal
I.12)nh l Brianchon
I.13)nh l Miquel
I.14)Cng thc Carnot
I.15)nh l Carnot
I.16)nh l Brokard
I.17)nh l Euler v khong cch gia tm 2 ng trn ni, ngoi tip ca tam gic
I.18)nh l Euler v khong cch gia tm 2 ng trn ni, ngoi tip ca t gic (nh l Fuss)
I.19)nh l Casey
I.20)nh l Stewart
I.21)nh l Lyness
I.22)nh l Lyness m rng (B Sawayama)
I.23)nh l Thbault

I.24)Cng thc Jacobi lin quan n tm t c,nh l Lebnitz


I.25)nh l Newton cho t gic ngoi tip
I.26)nh l Breichneider
I.27)nh l con nhm
I.28)nh l Gergonne -Euler
I.29)nh l Peletier
I.30)nh l Miobiut
I.31)nh l Viviani
I.32)Cng thc Lagrange m rng
I.33) ng thng Simson
I.34)ng thng Steiner
I.35) im Anti-Steiner (nh l Collings)
I.36)nh l Napoleon
I.37)nh l Morley
I.38)nh l con bm vi ng trn
I.39)nh l con bm vi cp ng thng
I.40)im Blaikie
I.41)nh l chm ng thng ng quy
I.42)ng trn Apollonius
I.43)nh l Blanchet
I.44)nh l Blanchet m rng
I.45) nh l Jacobi
I.46) nh l Kiepert
I.47)nh l Kariya
I.48)Cc trc giao
I.49)Khi nim tam gic hnh chiu ,cng thc Euler v din tch tam gic hnh chiu
I.50)Khi nim hai im ng gic
I.51)Khi nim t gic ton phn.
I.52)ng thng Droz-Farny
I.53) ng trn Droz-Farny
I.54)nh l Van Aubel v t gic v cc hnh vung dng trn cnh
I.55)H thc Van Aubel
I.56)nh l Pithot
I.57)nh l Johnson
I.58) nh l Eyeball
I.59) B Haruki
I.60)Bi ton Langley
I.61)nh l Paul Yiu v ng trn bng tip.
I.62)nh l Maxwell
I.63)nh l Brahmagupta v t gic ni tip c hai ng cho vung gc.
I.64)nh l Schooten
I.65)nh l Bottema
I.66)nh l Pompeiu
I.67)nh l Zaslavsky
I.68)nh l Archimedes
I.69) nh l Urquhart

I.70)nh l Mairon Walters


I.71)nh l Poncelet v bn knh ng trn ni tip,bng tip trong tam gic vung.
I.72)nh l Hansen
I.73)nh l Steinbart suy rng
I.74)nh l Monge & d'Alembert I
I.75)nh l Monge & d'Alembert II
I.76)nh l Steiner v bn knh cc ng trn.
I.77)nh l Bellavitis
I.78)nh l Feuer bach-Luchterhand:

II/Mt s im v ng c bit c xc nh duy nht vi tam gic v t gic,t im:


y nu khng gii thch g thm th yu t c hiu l trong tam gic.

II.1) ng thng Euler ca tam gic


II.2)ng trn v tm Euler
II.3)ng i trung, im Lemoine
II.4)im Gergone,im Nobb, ng thng Gergone
II.5)im Nagel
II.6)im Brocard
II.7)im Schiffler
II.8)im Feuerbach
II.9)im Kosnita
II.10)im Musselman,nh l Paul Yiu v im Musselman
II.11)Khi nim vng cc ca tam gic.
II.12)im Gibert
II.13)Trc Lemoine
II.14)Tm Morley
II.15) Tm Spieker v ng thng Nagel
II.16)Hai im Fermat
II.17)im Parry reflection.
II.18)ng trn Taylor ,tm Taylor
II.19)im Bevan
II.20)im Vecten
II.21)im Mittenpunkt
II.22)im Napoleon
II.23)ng trn Adam

II.24)Tam gic Fuhrmann ,ng trn Fuhrmann


II.25)Hnh luc gic v ng trn Lemoine th nht
II.26)Hnh lc gic v ng trn Lemoine th hai
II.27)im Euler ca T gic ni tip
II.28)ng thng Steiner ca t gic ton phn
II.29)ng thng Gauss ca t gic ton phn.
II.30) im Miquel ca t gic ton phn
II.31)ng trn Miquel ca t gic ton phn
II.32)Hnh bnh hnh Varignon ca t gic .
II.33)im Poncelet ca t gic.

III/Mt s mng kin thc quan trng.


III.1)T s kp, php chiu xuyn tm
III.2)Hng im iu ha v mt s h thc lin quan ,
III.3)Chm iu ha, t gic iu ha
III.4)Gc gia ng thng v ng trn, gia hai ng trn, ng trn trc giao
III.5) Cc v i cc
IV/Mt s nh l khng chng minh
y s gii thiu mt s nh l rt hay v d hiu ( nhng cch chng minh m mnh bit l
phc tp ) tuy nhin rt vui nu ai s gii thiu nhng chng minh ca n:hornytoro:

IV.1) nh l Aiyer
IV.2)ng trn Lester
IV.3)Tm Eppstein
IV.4)ng trn Neuberg-Mineur ca t gic
IV.5)Paracevian perspector

B/MT S KHI NIM,NH L.


I.1)nh l Menelaus

nh l: Cho tam gic ABC v 3 im M,N,P ln lt thuc BC,CA,AB.


Khi M,N,P thng hng khi v ch khi:
(1)
Chng minh:

a)Khi M,N,P thng hng.


Trn MN ly 1 im Q sao cho AQ//BC
Theo Thales ;

T d c ng thc (1)trn.
b)Ngc li ,khi c (1):
Gi s PN ct BC ti M'.
Theo phn trc ta c:

Kt hp vi (1) suy ra
Do M trng M' tc l M,N,P thng hng.

Vy ta c iu phi chng minh.


(Xem them : eeg-11.bdf; ge_G1.bdf; 6-concur-solns.bdf)
I.2)M rng nh l Menelaus theo din tch
nh l:Cho tam gic ABC v 3 im M,N,P ln lt nm trn BC,CA,AB.Khi ta c:

Chng minh :(thamtuhoctro post)

Gi
Ta c:

l vector ch phng ca

mt khc :

tng t:

Ta suy ra:

I.3)nh l Menelaus cho t gic:


nh l:Cho t gic ABCD v mt ng thng d ct AB,BC,CD,DA ln lt M,N,P,Q. Khi ta
c:

Chng minh:
Ta s lm ging cch chng minh tam gic
Trn d ly hai im I,J sao cho AI//BJ//CD
Theo Thales ta c:

T d c iu cn chng minh.

*Ch
1)Khi p dng cho t gic ,nh l Menelaus ch pht biu dng thun bi dng o ni chung khng
ng!
2) Cc bn th suy ngh xem vi dng thun nh th ny th c th m rng cho a gic c khng?
-Mt vn kh th v

I.4) nh l Ceva
nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC.Gi E, F, G l ba im tng ng nm trn BC, CA, AB. Ba ng thng AE, BF,
CG ct nhau ti mt im O khi v ch khi:

Chng minh:
Phn thun:
Gi s ba ng thng AE, BF, CG ct nhau ti mt im O. T A v C, k cc ng song song vi
BF, chng ln lt ct CG v AE ti K, I tng ng.
Ta c:

(S dng nh l Thales)

. Cc cp tam gic ng dng IEC v OEB, AKG v BOG :

Do :
Phn o:

Gi s ta c:
Qua giao im ca cc ng thng AE v BF, k ng thng

vi

nm trn cnh AB. Khi

, theo chng minh phn thun:


Suy ra

, hay

, ta c iu phi chng minh

I.5) nh l Ceva sin


nh l:
Gi E, F, G l ba im tng ng nm trn cc ng thng BC, CA, AB ca tam gic ABC. Ba
ng thng AE, BF, CG ct nhau ti mt im O khi v ch khi:

Chng minh:
Phn thun: Gi s AE, BF, CG ng quy ti O. Khi hai tam gic ABE v ACE c cng chiu cao
h t nh A.
Tng t
V
Nhn tng v ba ng thc trn c:
T suy ra pcm.

(Theo nh l Ceva)

Phn o: CM tng t phn o mc 4.

I.6) nh l Desargues
nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC v tam gic A'B'C'. Khi AA', BB', CC' ng quy khi v ch khi cc giao im
ca BC v B'C', CA v C'A', AB v A'B' thng hng.

Chng minh:
Gi X, Y, Z l ln lt l cc giao im ca cc cp cnh BC v BC, CA v CA, AB v AB .
Phn thun:
Gi s cc ng thng AA, BB, CC ng quy ti S. Ta chng minh X, Y, Z thng hng.
p dng nh l Menelaus cho tam gic SBC vi ct tuyn XB'C' ta c:
hay
Tng t, ta c:
v
Nhn tng v cc ng thc trn li vi nhau, v theo nh l Menelaus suy ra X, Y, Z thng hng.

10

Phn o:
Gi s cc im X, Y, Z thng hng. Ta chng minh cc ng thng AA, BB, CC ng quy.
Gi S l giao im ca AA v BB. SC ct ng thng AC ti C.
Xt 2 tam gic ABC v ABC c cc ng ni cc nh tng ng ng quy, do theo phn thun
giao im ca cc cnh tng ng cng ng quy.
Ta thy AB ct AB ti Z, AC ct AC ti Y (do A, C, C thng hng), suy ra giao im X ca BC
v BC phi thuc YZ. Tc l X l giao ca YZ v BC nn X trng vi X.
Suy ra C trng vi C, hay AA, BB, CC ng quy.

I.7)nh l Pappus
nh l: Cho ba im A,B,C nm trn ng thng a, X,Y,Z nm trn ng thng b.Gi M,N,P ln
lt l giao im ca cc cp ng thng (AY,BX) ,(AZ,CX),CY,BZ).
Khi M,N,P thng hng.
Chng minh:

nh l ny c mt cch chng minh dng Menelaus ,nu c iu kin mnh s post ln,cn sau y l
mt cch da trn kin thc c s v t s kp v php chiu xuyn tm.
Ta c b sau c chng minh d dng nh nhng hiu bit ban u v t s kp v php chiu
xuyn tm:
B : Cho gc xOy v cc im A,B,C thuc Ox; D,E,F thuc Oy.
Khi AD,BE,CF ng quy khi v ch khi: (OABC) =(ODEF) .
B trn bn c t chng minh, by gi ta s tr li bi ton.
K hiu
l php chiu xuyn tm E.

11

Gi T,Q ln lt l giao im ca BX v AZ; CX v BZ.


S dng b trn th ta s cn chng minh: (BTMX) =(BZPQ)
+)Trng hp a//b bn c hy chng minh nh Thales
+)Khi a khng song song vi b.Gi S l giao ca a v b.
Ta thy:
Vi :
Vi
T suy ra iu cn chng minh.

I.8)Mt trng hp c bit ca nh l Pappus qua gc nhn hnh x nh.


phn ny chng ti ch dng hnh x nh dn dt n kt qu cn ni dung nh l v cch chng
minh th hon ton ph hp vi kin thc hnh THCS!
Ta c kt qu sau lin quan n hnh x nh: Cc ng thng song song vi nhau th gp nhau ti mt
im v cc v ngc li .
Vn dng vo nh l Pappus trn , cho cc im A,B,C ra v cc th theo kt qu v hnh x nh ta
c
YM//ZN ( V YM,ZN cng i qua mt im (A) v cc )Tng t th :XN//YP,XM//ZP.
V khi y M,N,P vn thng hng. Ta pht biu li c mt nh l n gin v hu dng sau y:
nh l:Trn mt phng cho ba im X,Y,Z thng hng v ba im M,N,P tha mn
XN//YP,YM//ZN,XM//ZP.
Khi ta cng c M,N,P thng hng.
Chng minh:

12

Trng hp MP//XYZ th n gin,bn c t chng minh.


Ta s xt khi MP khng song song vi XYZ.
Gi S l giao im ca MP vi XYZ.
ng thng qua X song song vi YP ct MP N'. Bi ton s c gi quyt nu ta chng minh
c rng ZN' // YM (V khi y N' trng N).
Tht vy,ch YP//XN', ZP//XM nn theo Thales ta c:
n y theo Thales o ta suy ra ZN' //YM. Chng minh c hon tt.!

I.9)ng thc Ptolemy


nh l Vi t gic ni tip ABCD th:
AB.CD+AD.BC=AC.BD
Chng minh:

13

Ly im E thuc AC sao cho


ng dng
Tng t

ng dng

I.10) Bt ng thc Ptolemy


nh l:
Cho t gic ABCD. Khi c

Chng minh:
Ly E nm trong t gic ABCD sao cho
v

14

Khi
Hn na
Vy ta c

hay
~

.
hay
(pcm).

KHM PH NH L PT-L-M
I.

tc gi:Zai zai
M u:
Hnh hc l mt trong nhng lnh vc ton hc mang li cho ngi yu ton nhiu iu
th v nht v kh khn nht. N i hi ta phi c nhng suy ngh sng to v tinh t.
Trong lnh vc ny cng xut hin ko t nhng nh l, phng php nhm nng cao
tnh hiu qu trong qu trnh gii quyt cc bi ton, gip ta chinh phc nhng nh
ni ng gh v him tr . Trong bi vit ny zaizai xin gii thiu n cc bn mt vi
iu c bn nht v nh l Pt-l-m trong vic chng minh cc c tnh ca hnh hc
phng. D rt c gng nhng bi vit s khng th trnh khi nhng thiu xt
mong rng cc bn s cng zaizai b sung v pht trin n.
II, Ni dung - L thuyt:
1. ng thc Pt-l-m:
Cho t gic
ni tip ng trn

. Khi :

Hnh minh ha (hnh 1)

Chng minh:

15

Ly

thuc ng cho

sao cho

Khi xt
v
Nn
ng dng vi
Do ta c:

c:

. Li c:
Suy ra
T

nn

hay

suy ra:

Vy ng thc Pt-l-m c chng minh.


2, Bt ng thc Pt-l-m:
y c th coi l nh l Pt-m-l m rng bi v n khng gii hn trong lp t gic
ni tip .
nh l: Cho t gic

. Khi :

Hnh minh ha (hnh 2)

Chng minh:
Trong

ly im M sao cho:

D dng chng minh:


Cng t kt lun trn suy ra:
p dng bt ng thc trong tam gic v cc iu trn ta c:
Vy nh l Pt-l-m m rng c chng minh.
3, nh l Pt-l-m tng qut:
Trong mt phng nh hng cho a gic
im thuc cung
(Khng cha
Khi :
.

ni tip ng trn

. M l mt

16

Trong :
y l mt nh l ko d dng chng minh c bng kin thc hnh hc THCS. Cc
bn c th tham kho php chng minh trong bi vit nh l Pt-l-m tng qut ca
Tin s Nguyn Minh H, HSP , H Ni thuc Tuyn tp 5 nm Tp ch ton hc v
tui tr.
III, ng dng ca nh l Pt-l-m trong vic chng minh cc c tnh hnh
hc:
1, Chng minh quan h gia cc i lng hnh hc:
M u cho phn ny chng ta s n vi 1 v d in hnh v c bn v vic ng dng
nh l Pt-l-m.
Bi ton 1: Cho tam gic u
c cc cnh bng
Trn
ly im
di
ng, trn tia i ca tia
ly im
di ng sao cho
. Gi
l
giao im ca
v
. Chng minh rng:
( thi vo trng THPT chuyn L Qu n, th x ng H, tnh Qung Tr, nm hc
2005-2006)
Hnh minh ha (hnh 3)

Chng minh:
T gi thit
Xt
v

suy ra
c:

Li c
T:
Suy ra t gic
ni tip c ng trn.
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho t gic
ni tip v gi thit
c:
(pcm)

ta

y l 1 bi ton kh d v tt nhin cch gii ny ko c n gin lm.V nu mun


s dng ng thc Pt-l-m trong 1 k thi th c l phi chng minh n di dng b
. Nhng iu ch y l ta chng cn phi suy ngh nhiu khi dng cch trn
trong khi nu dng cch khc th li gii c khi li ko mang v tng minh.

17

Bi ton 2: Tam gic


vung c
. Gi
l mt im trn cnh
l
mt im trn cnh
ko di v pha im
sao cho
. Gi
l mt
im trn cnh
sao cho
nm trn mt ng trn.
l giao im th hai ca
vi ng trn ngoi tip
. Chng minh rng:
( thi chn i tuyn Hng Kng tham d IMO 2000, HongKong TST 2000)
Hnh minh ha: (hinh 4)

Chng minh:
Xt cc t gic ni tip

ta c:

(cng chn cc cung trn)


Mt khc
Xt
(do

c:
)

(do
)
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho t gic ni tip
T

ta c:

suy ra:
(pcm)

C th thy rng bi 1 l t tng n gin ta xy dng cch gii ca bi 2. Tc l da vo


cc i lng trong tam gic bng nhau theo gi thit ta s dng tam gic ng dng suy
ra cc t s lin quan v s dng php th suy ra iu phi chng minh. Cch lm ny t
ra kh l hiu qu v minh ha r rng qua 2 v d m zaizai nu trn. lm r hn
phng php chng ta s cng nhau n vi vic chng minh 1 nh l bng chnh Pt-l-m.
Bi ton 3: ( nh l Carnot)
Cho tam gic nhn
ni tip trong ng trn
v ngoi tip ng trn
ln lt l khong cch t
ti cc cnh tam gic. Chng minh rng:

Gi

18

Hnh minh ha (hinh 5)

Chng minh:
Gi
ln lt l trung im ca
T gic

. Gi s

ni tip, theo ng thc Pt-l-m ta c:

Do :
Tng t ta cng c :

Mt khc:
T

ta c:

y l 1 nh l kh l quen thuc v cch chng minh kh n gin. ng dng ca nh l ny


nh ni l dng nhiu trong tnh ton cc i lng trong tam gic. i vi trng hp tam
gic khng nhn th cch pht biu ca nh l cng c s thay i.
2, Chng minh cc c tnh hnh hc:
Bi ton 1: Cho tam gic
tip xc vi ng trn
gia ca cung

ni tip trong ng trn


v
ti
ct nhau
. Chng minh rng

. Cc ng thng
i qua im chnh

Hnh minh ha(hinh 6)

19

Chng minh:
Gi giao im ca
Xt

vi ng trn l
c:

. Ni

chung

Tng t ta cng c
Mt khc
( do l 2 tip tuyn ca ng trn ct nhau)
Nn t
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho t gic ni tip
T
Vy ta c iu phi chng minh.

ta c:
.

y c l l mt trong nhng li gii kh l ngn v n tng ca bi ny.Ch cn qua vi qu


trnh tm kim cc cp tam gic ng dng ta d dng i n kt lun ca bi ton. T
tng ban u khi lm bi ton ny chnh l da vo l thuyt trong cng mt ng trn hai
dy bng nhau cng hai cung bng nhau. Do c lin quan n cc i lng trong t gic ni
tip nn vic chng minh rt d dng.
Bi ton 2: Cho tam gic ABC c I l tm ng trn ni tip, O l tm ng trn ngoi tip
v trng tm G. Gi s rng

. Chng minh rng

song song vi

Hnh minh ha (hinh 7)

20

Ko di
Ta c:

ct

ti
. Khi
. Li c :

l im chnh gia cung

Do
suy ra
s cung
T
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho t gic ni tip

(khng cha

).

ta c:

T
p dng tnh cht ng phn gic trong tam gic v (5) ta c:

Vy
Mt khc G l trng tm ca tam gic suy ra
T
Suy ra IG l ng trung bnh ca tam gic

hay

song song vi

y l mt bi ton kh l hay t nht l i vi THCS v vi cch lm c v "ngn gn" ny


ta phn no hnh dung c v p ca cc nh l.
Bi ton 3:
Cho tam gic ABC ni tip ng trn (O), CM l trung tuyn. Cc tip tuyn ti A v B ca
(O) ct nhau D. Chng minh rng:

Hnh minh ha hinh 8)

21

Chng minh:
Gi N l giao im ca CD vi (O). Xt tam gic DNB v DBC c:
chung.

Tng t ta cng c :
M
nn t
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho t gic ni tip

ta c:

T (3) v gi thit
Xt

c:

Vy bi ton c chng minh.


C s ta gii quyt cc bi ton dng ny l to ra cc t gic ni tip p dng nh l
sau s dng l thuyt ng dng tm ra mi quan h gia cc i lng. y l mt li
suy bin ngc trong hnh hc.
3, Chng minh cc ng thc hnh hc:
Bi ton 1: Gi s

l cc im nm trong

sao cho

. Chng minh rng:

Hnh minh ha: (hinh 9)

Chng minh:

22

Ly im K trn ng thng BN sao cho

Mt khc d thy rng


.

Cng t

, t

suy ra:

dn n

ta c:

.
suy ra t gic
ni tip ng trn.
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho t gic
Nhng t

, lc

ta c:

th :

Nn ta c ng thc (3)
y l 1 trong nhng bi ton kh l c in ca IMO Shortlist. Ta vn c th gii quyt bi
ton theo mt hng khc nhng di v phc tp hn l s dng b : Nu M,N l cc
im thuc cnh BC ca

sao cho

th
. y l mt b m cc bn cng nn ghi nh.

Bi ton 2: Cho t gic ABCD ni tip trong ng trn (O). Chng minh rng:

Hnh minh ha hinh 10)

Chng minh:
Ly E v F thuc ng trn sao cho:
Khi :
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho hai t gic ni tip AECD v BCDF ta c:

Mt khc:
Do :
Suy ra:
T (1), (2), (3) ta c iu phi chng minh.
Bi ton 3: Cho tam gic ABC vi BE, CF l cc ng phn gic trong. Cc tia EF, FE ct
ng trn ngoi tip tam gic theo th t ti M v N. Chng minh rng:

23

Hnh minh ho (hnh 11)

Chng minh:
t
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho hai t gic ni tip

ta c:

T (1) v (2) ta c:
Mt khc ta li c:
Tng t :
T (4), (5) v tnh cht ng phn gic ta c:
Chng minh tng t ta c:
T (3), (6), (7) ta c iu phi chng minh.
C th d dng nhn ra nt tng ng gia cch gii ca 3 bi ton l vn dng cch v
hnh ph to ra cc cp gc bng cc cp gc cho sn t tm ra cc biu din lin quan.
Mt ng li rt hay c s dng trong cc bi ton dng ny.
4, Chng minh bt ng thc v gii ton cc tr trong hnh hc:
Bi ton 1: (Thi HSG cc vng ca M, nm 1987)
Cho mt t gic ni tip c cc cnh lin tip bng
minh rng:

v cc ng cho bng

Chng

Chng minh:
p dng nh l Pt-l-m cho t gic ni tip th

24

Vy ta cn chng minh
Bt ng thc ny chnh l mt bt ng thc rt quen thuc m c l ai cng bit l bt
ng thc Bunhiacopxki-BCS. Vy bi ton c chng minh.
Mt li gii p v v cng gn nh cho 1 bi ton tng chng nh l kh. tng y l
a bt ng thc cn chng minh v 1 dng n gin hn v thun i s hn. Tht th v l
bt ng thc li l BCS.
Bi ton 2:
Cho lc gic li ABCDEF tha mn iu kin
Chng minh rng:
HNH MINH HA (hinh 12)

Chng minh:
t

p dng nh l Pt-l-m m rng cho t gic


. V
nn suy ra:

ta c:

Tng t ta cng c:
T suy ra
Bt ng thc qui v dng chnh tc SOS :
D thy:

Nh vy
, nh gi tng t ta cng d dng thu c kt qu
Vy bt ng thc c chng minh. ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi
Tc l khi ABCDEF l mt lc gic u ni tip.

.
.

y l mt bi ton do zaizai pht trin t mt bi ton quen thuc. N cng xut pht t bi

25

Stronger than Nesbit inequality ca mnh. :lol:


C s khi gii bi ton ny l s dng phng php SOS lm mnh bi ton.
Vi bc chuyn t vic chng minh 1 bt ng thc hnh hc sang bt ng thc i s ta d
dng tm ra 1 li gii p. Nu chun ha bt ng th ny ta cng c kt qu rt th v.
Bi ton 3:
Cho lc gic li ABCDEF tha mn iu kin
cnh
bng
Chng minh rng:

v tng di ba

Li gii:
Ta chuyn vic chng minh bt ng thc trn v chng minh bt ng thc sau:

Bng cch s dng phng php h s bt nh ta d dng tm c bt ng thc ph ng:

Tng t vi cc phn thc cn li ta c iu phi chng minh.


Khi nh hng gii bi ny chc hn bn s lin tng ngay n SOS nhng tht s th n ko
cn thit trong bi ton ny bi ch lm phc ha bi ton. Dng phng php h s bt nh
gip ta tm ra 1 li gii ngn v rt p. Tuy nhin li gii ny ko d hiu lm i vi THCS.
Thc ra cch lm mi bi ton ny cng cc k n gin v xut pht im ca dng chun l
bt ng thc Nesbit quen thuc v vy d dng thay i gi thit bin i bi ton. M
cch thay i iu kin y chnh l bc chun ha trong chng minh bt ng thc i s.
Ni chung l dng ng bc bt ng thc thun nht. Vi t tng nh vy ta hon ton
c th xy dng cc kt qu mnh hn v th v hn qua mt vi phng php nh SOS, h
s bt nh, dn bin v chun ha. c bit sau khi chun ha ta c th dng 3 phng
php cn li chng minh.
Bi ton 4::
Cho ng trn
thuc cung ln

v
l mt dy cung khc ng knh ca ng trn. Tm im
sao cho
ln nht.

Li gii:
Gi D l im chnh gia cung nh BC.
t
khng i. Theo nh l Pt-l-m ta c:
Do
v ko i nn
i xng ca
qua tm

ln nht khi v ch khi


ca ng trn.

ln nht khi v ch khi

IV, Bi tp:
Bi 1 CMO 1988, Trung Quc)
l mt t gic ni tip vi ng trn ngoi tip c tm ) v bn knh
ct
ln lt ti
. Chng minh rng:

l im

. Cc tia

26

Bi 2:
Cho ng trn
v dy cung
khc ng knh. Tm im A thuc cung ln
ca
ng trn
t gi tr ln nht.
Bi 3:
Cho tam gic ABC ni tip ng trn
. ng trn
nm trong (O) tip xc vi (O) ti
T thuc cung AC (ko cha B). K cc tip tuyn
ti
. Chng minh rng:
Bi 4:
Cho luc gic
c cc cnh c di nh hn 1. Chng minh rng trong ba ng
cho
c t nht mt ng cho c di nh hn .
Bi 5:
Cho hai ng trn ng tm, bn knh ca ng trn ny gp i bn knh ca ng trn
kia.
l t gi ni tip ng trn nh. Cc tia
ln lt ct ng
trn ln ti
.
Chng minh rng: chu vi t gic
ln hn 2 ln chu vi t gic
.

I.11) nh l Pascal
nh l:
Cho 6 im A,B,C,D,E,F cng thuc mt ng trn. Khi cc giao im ca cc cp cnh AB
v DE, BC v EF, CD v FA thng hng.

Chng minh:
Gi P,M,N ln lt l giao im ca AF v CD, AB v DE, BC v EF. Gi P', M', N' ln lt l
giao im ca BC v DE, BC v AF, DE v AF.
p dng nh l Menelaus cho P'M'N' vi ct tuyn PCD:

Tng t ta c:
v

27

Nhn cc biu thc trn li kt hp vi cc biu thc phng tch sau:

Ta c :
.
p dng nh l Menelaus o ta c pcm.
Cc bn c th vo y xem thm:http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_...bur/v10_n3.pdf

I.12) nh l Brianchon
nh l:
Cho lc gic ABCDEF ngoi tip (O). Chng minh rng ba ng cho ln AD, BE, CF ng quy.

Chng minh:
Ta k hiu cc tip im ca (O) trn AB,BC,CD,DE,EF,FA ln lt l M,N,P,Q,R,S. Xt cc v
i cc i vi (O). Gi K,I,J ln lt l giao im ca cc cp ng thng (SM,PQ) ,(MN,QR),
(NP,RS). V SM v PQ l ng i cc ca A v D nn AD l ng i cc ca K. Tng t BE
v FC ln lt l ng i cc ca I v J.
Dng nh l Pascal cho lc gic ni tip MNPQRS ta c I,J,K thng hng. Nn ta c cc ng
i cc ca I,J,K (ln lt l BE,CF,AD) cng i qua cc ca ng thng ny (ng thng i
qua I,J,K) nn AD,BE,CF ng quy (pcm).
Tng t ngc li c th chng minh nh l pascal thng qua Brianchon v cc i cc(xem
thm cc i cc mc III.5 hoc xem http://mathscope.org/forum/showthread.php?t=5024).

I.13)nh l Miquel

28

nh l: Cho tam gic ABC v ba im M,N,P ln lt nm trn BC,CA,AB. Khi cc ng


trn ngoi tip cc tam gic APN,BPM v CMN ng quy.
Chng minh:

Gi S l giao im ca (BPM) v (CMN).Ta s chng minh S nm trn (APN).


Tht vy:

Suy ra iu cn chng minh.!

I.14) Cng thc Carnot


nh l:
Cho ABC ni tip (O,R). Gi x,y,z ln lt l khong cch t O n BC,AC,AB. Gi r l bn
knh ng trn ni tip tam gic ABC. Ta c:
a)Nu
nhn th cng thc carno l
.
b)Nu
th cng thc carno l
Chng minh:
a)Nu

nhn

29

Gi F, E, D ln lt l trung im ca BC,CA,AB. Nh vy ta c
. t
.
p ng bt ng thc Ptolemy cho t gic ni tip OFBD ta c:
hay
Tng t ta c

ta li c
Cng bn biu thc trn li ta c

b)Nu

chng minh tng t.

Vit di dng lng gic, cng thc Carnot chnh l h thc


h thc ny ng vi mi tam gic.

. Ch

I.15) nh l Carnot
nh l:
Cho
. Gi
ln lt l cc im thuc cc cnh
lt l cc ng thng i qua
v vung gc vi

.
.

ln
ng quy

30

khi v ch khi

Chng minh:
a)Phn thun:
Gi
PCM

ng quy ti O.

ng thc ny ng nn ta c iu phi chng minh.


b) Phn o
Gi giao im ca
ti O. Qua O h ng vung gc xung AB ti P'. p dng nh l
thun ta c
ng quy.

P trng vi P'

I.16/nh l Brokard
nh l:
Cho t gic li ABCD ni tip ng trn tm O.AD giao BC ti M,AB giao CD ti N,AC giao BD ti
I.Chng minh rng O l trc tm ca tam gic MIN.

31

Chng minh:
Gi H l giao th 2 ca hai ng trn ngoi tip cc tam gic AID,BIC.
Xt t gic DOHC,ta c:
T suy ra t gic DOHC ni tip.Tng t ta cng suy ra t gic AOHB ni tip.
D thy
suy ra N nm trn trc ng phng ca hai ng trn
Ta c:

-->

thng hng.

T suy ra
Tng t ta c:
Suy ra O l trc tm tam gic MIN (pcm)

I.17) nh l Euler v khong cch gia tm 2 ng trn ni,


ngoi tip ca tam gic

nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC ni tip (O;R) v ngoi tip (I;r). Chng minh rng

32

Chng minh:
Ko di AI ct (O) ti M. V ng knh MN ca ng trn (O).
H
. Ko di OI ct (O) ti E v F. Ta c
~
Mt khc d dng chng minh
Li c

.
nn ta c iu phi chng minh.

I.18)nh l Euler v khong cch gia tm hai ng trn ni


ngoi tip t gic!(nh l Fuss)
nh l :Cho t gic ABCD va ni tip (O,R) va ngoi tip (I,r). t d=OI. Khi ta c:

Chng minh

33

Gi tip im ca (I) trn AB,BC,CD,DA ln lt l M,N,P,Q.


BI,CI ct (O) ln lt E,F .
Ta thy:
Do E,O,F thng hng ,nn O l trung im ca EF.
Theo cng thc ng trung tuyn trong tam gic IEF ta c:
T suy ra:

(v

I.19)nh l Casey(nh l Ptolemy m rng)


nh l :Cho t gic ABCD ni tip (O,R). t cc ng trn
vi (O) ti cc nh A,B,C,D. t

l cc ng trn tip xc

l di on tip tuyn chung ca hai ng trn

Trong
l di tip tuyn chung ngoi nu hai ng trn
cng tip xc trong hoc
cng tip xc ngoi vi (O), v l di on tip xc trong nu trong trng hp cn li. Cc
on

, ... c xc nh tng t. Khi ta c:

Chng minh
Ta chng minh trng hp
cng tip xc ngoi vi (O). Cc trng hp cn li chng
minh tng t. Ln lt t tm cc ng trn trn l A',B',C',D' v bn knh ln lt l x,y,z,t.
t AB=a, BC=b, CD=c, DA=d, AC=m, BD=n.
p dng nh l Pythagore:

34

Mt khc li c: (theo nh l hm s cos)

Tng t vi
Ta c

, ...

(nh l Ptolemy)
Ngc li ta thy nh l Ptolemy l mt trng hp c bit ca nh l Casey khi x=y=z=t=0.

I.20)H thc Stewart


nh l:Cho ba im A,B,C thng hng. V mt im M bt k. Ta lun c h thc

Chng minh
Qua M h
Ta c:

(a v trng hp h thc Stewart cho 4 im thng hng (khi M nm trn ng thng cha
A,B,C))

Ta c pcm.

I.21)nh l Lyness
nh l:Nu ng trn tm O tip xc trong vi ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC ti T v tip

35

xc vi cc cnh AB,AC ca tam gic ln lt ti E v F th tm ng trn ni tip ca tam gic


nm trn EF.

Chng minh:
chng minh nh l ny ta cn chng minh 2 b sau:
B 1:AB l dy ca mt ng trn tm (O). ng trn (l) tip xc vi dy AB ti K v tip
xc trong vi (O) ti T. Chng minh L l trung im ca cung AB ko cha T v
B 2: im M l trung im cung BC ko cha A ca ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC.
im I thuc on MA sao cho MI=MB. Chng minh rng I l tm ng trn ni tip tam gic
ABC.
Vic chng minh 2 b ny l kh n gin.
Ta tip tc quay tr li vi vic chng minh nh l Lyness.
k TF giao (O) ti P; BP ct EF ti H.
Theo b 1 ta c BP l phn gic ca gc B.
Ta c:

nt

M
Theo b 1 ta li c
Theo b 2 ta c H l tm ng trn ni tip tam gic ABC (PCM)

I.22)nh l Lyness m rng(B Sawayama)


nh l:Cho tam gic ABC ni tip ng trn (O).M thuc BC (C cch pht biu khc l: cho t
gic ABDC v M l giao ca BC v AD; nhng hai cch pht biu ny l tng ng). Mt ng
trn (O') tip xc vi hai cnh MA v MC ti E v F ng thi tip xc vi c ng trn (O) ti K.
Khi ta c tm ng trn ni tip ca tam gic ABC nm trn ng thng EF.

36

Chng minh
KF ct ng trn (O) ti G. p dng b 1 ti bi vit ca chu t tung v nh l Lyness trn,
ta c G l im chnh gia cung BC. Gi I l giao ca AG vi EF. Ta c
ni tip
~
~
Li cng theo b 1 ta c
I l tm ni tip ca
b 2)
Xem thm cc h qu ca nh l Lyness ti bo ton tui th 2 s 42 v 43

(theo

I.23) nh l Thbault
nh l: Cho tam gic
trn tm

ni tip ng trn

tip xc vi 2 on

vi 2 on
v tip xc trong vi
thng hng.
Chng minh

l mt im nm trn cnh

v tip xc trong vi
. Gi

. ng trn tm

l tm ni tip tam gic

. ng
tip xc
. Ta c:

37

Gi
ln lt l tip im ca
vi
. Gi
l giao im ca
v
. Theo
nh l lyness m rng( c trong bi ca trung anh),
l tm ni tip tam gic
.
Vy ta ch cn chng minh
thng hng. Tht vy, gi
ln lt l giao im ca
v
;
hng(dpcm)

. p dng nh l Thales ta c:

. Vy ,

thng

I.24)Cng thc Jacobi lin quan n tm t c,nh l Lebnitz


1)Cng thc Jacobi:
Nu I l tm t c ca h im
trn mt phng ta u c:

ng vi cc h s

th vi mi im M

Chng minh:

(do I l tm t c ca h im nn
->pcm.

2)nh l Lebnitz y l trng hp c bit ca cng thc trn khi n=3


3)H qu khc:
Gi tr nh nht ca biu thc
(vi cc k hiu nh phn trn) t c khi
.
(phn ny thun v tnh ton nn chc khng cn v hnh phi khng anh ma29?)

I.25)nh l Newton cho t gic ngoi tip


nh l
Cho t gic ABCD ngoi tip ng trn O.Khi trung im hai ng cho AC,BD v tm O
thng hng.
Hnh: (v bng Cabri hi xu):rokeyrulez:

38

Chng minh
Gi P,Q,R,S ln lt l cc tip im ca cc on thng AB,BC,CD,DA i vi ng trn
.
t
.p dng nh l con nhm
cho t gic ABCD ta c:

<->
<->
<->
T suy ra hai vecto

cng phng->O,M,N thng hng (pcm)

I.26)nh l Breichneider

(nh l hm s cos cho t gic)

nh l
Cho t gic ABCD c di cc cnh AB, BC, CD, DA ln lt l a, b, c, d v di hai ng
cho AC, BD l m, n. Khi ta c:

39

Chng minh
Trn cnh AB ra pha ngoi dng tam gic ABN ng dng vi tam gic CAD, v dng ra pha
ngoi cnh AD tam gic ADM ng dng vi tam gic CAB. Khi d thy:
v BDMN l hnh bnh hnh.
ng thi c
p dng nh l hm s cos cho tam gic NAM, ta c

I.27)nh l con nhm:


nh l:Cho a gic li
cnh
gic.Th th :

v cc vecto
l cc vecto c di bng cc
,tng ng vung gc vi cc cnh y v hng ra pha ngoi a

40

Chng minh:
Khng gim tnh tng qut ,gi s a gic
Xt php quay vecto:

c hng dng.

T suy ra iu cn chng minh.

I.28)nh l Gergone-Euler.
nh l:Xt tam gic ABC v mt im S trong mt phng.AS,BS,CS ln lt ct BC,CA,AB
D,E,F.Khi ta c:

Chng minh:

41

K hiu
Ta thy :

ch din tch i s ca a gic.

(1)
Tng t ta c:
(2)
(3)
Cng theo v (1),(2)v (3) ta c iu cn chng minh.

I.29)nh l Peletier
I.30)nh l Miobiut

nh l:Cho ng gic li
Chng minh:

I.31)nh l Viviani
nh l: Trong tam gic u ABC ta ly 1 im S .Ta s c tng cc khong cch t im S ti ba
cnh s c di bng 1 ng cao ca tam gic.
Chng minh:

42

K SD,SE,SF ln lt vung gc vi BC,CA,AB.


t di cnh tam gic ABC l a, di ng cao AH l b.
Ta c :
Gin c hai v cho a ta c iu cn chng minh.

I.32)Cng thc Lagrange m rng.


nh l:
Gi I l tm t c ca h im

ng vi cc h s

th vi mi im M:

Chng minh:
T h thc Jacobi (c th xem mc I.24) th ta ch cn chng minh rng:

Do I l tm t c ca h im nn:

<->

<->

43

<->

<->

(pcm)

I.33) ng thng Simson

nh l:Cho
v im
nm trn ng trn ngoi tip tm
ln lt l hnh chiu vung gc ca M trn cc ng thng
cng thuc mt ng thng (y gi l ng thng Simson).
Chng minh:

ca tam gic. Gi
th chng

Dng gc nh hng
Ta c:

Vy

thng hng.

(Xem them riegelmj[1].bdf; 00045.bdf)

44

I.34) ng thng Steiner


nh l:Cho

v im
nm trn ng trn ngoi tip tm
ca tam gic. Gi
ln lt l im i xng vi ca D qua cc ng thng
th chng
cng thuc mt ng thng v ng thng ny i qua trc tm H ca tam gic ABC. ng
thng c gi l ng thng steiner ng vi im D ca tam gic ABC. Cn im D c gi
l im anti steiner.

Chng minh:
D thy nu gi
trung im ca on
Ta c

ln lt l hnh chiu ca D xung ba cnh ca tam gic ABC th


v tng t ta c
thng hng.

(mod
)
Vy ng thng steiner i qua H.
T ta c c tnh cht rng ng thng simson ng vi im D i qua trung im ca on
DH.

I.35) im Anti Steiner(nh l Collings)


nh l:Cho
v ng thng i qua H trc tm ca tam gic ABC . Gi
ln
lt l ng thng i xng ca d qua BC,AC,AB. Cc ng thng ng quy ti mt im
nm trn ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC(im anti steiner ca d). V d c gi l ng
thng steiner ca im (gi l G).

45

Chng minh:
Gi
ln lt l hnh chiu ca H qua ba cnh \Rightarrow ba im ny thuc (O)
ngoi tip tam gic ABC v
ln lt thuc
(mo
d
)
Vy nu gi giao im ca d_a,d_b l G th G thuc ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC. Tng
t ta c pcm
Theo hnh ca bi ng thng steiner ta d thy
vi
Vy ta c d ng l ng thng steiner ca G.

i xng vi

i xng

Ta c mt tnh cht khc ca im Anti Steiner nh sau:


nh l 2:
Gi P l mt im thuc ng thng d.
ln lt l im i xng vi P qua cc
cnh ca tam gic ABC. Ta c cc ng trn
qua im G

cng i

Chng minh :
D thy
(mod

46

Li c theo chng minh trn c:


(mod
Suy ra G thuc

. Tng t c pcm

I.36)nh l Napoleon
nh l:Dng ra pha ngoi tam gic ABC cc tam gic u BMC,CNA,APB v gi D,E,F ln lt l
tm ca ba tam gic y. Khi ta c tam gic DEF u.
Chng minh:

Bi ny c nhiu cch gii,nu thun li mnh s gii thiu ,tuy nhin y mnh s trnh by mt
chng minh ngn gn da trn php quay vecto nh sau:
T c iu cn chng minh.

Napoleon's Theorem, Two Simple Proofs


On each side of a triangle, erect an equilateral triangle, lying exterior to the
original triangle. Then the segments connecting the centroids of the three
equilateral triangles themselves form an equilateral triangle.
By Dr. Scott Brodie, M.D., Ph.D.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY

47

Proof #1 ("Hammer and Tongs"


trigonometry)
In the following, we use standard notations: in the
the vertex A and the correposnding

ABC, A denotes both

A, a is both BC and its length. In

addition, let G denote the centroid of the equilateral triangle on side AB,
and I denote the centroid of the equilateral triangle on side AC, etc. Let s
denote the length of segment GI, t the length of segment AG, and u the
length of segment AI. (Geometer's SketchPad illustration.)
Since

IAC =

GAB = 30o, we may apply the Law of Cosines to compute


s2 = u2 + t2 - 2utcos(A + 60o).

(1)

Since the centroid of a triangle lies along each median, 2/3 of the distance from the vertex to the
midpoint of the opposite side, we have
t = (2/3)sqrt(3)/2 c = c/sqrt(3)
u = (2/3)sqrt(3)/2 b = b/sqrt(3),
and (1) becomes
3s2 = b2 + c2 - 2bccos(A + 60o).

(2)

Expanding(*) the cosine of the sum, and recalling that cos(60 o) = 1/2; sin(60o) = sqrt(3)/2, we have
cos(A + 60o) = cos(A)/2 - sin(A)sqrt(3)/2.

(3)

Substituting (3) into (2) yields


3s2 = b2 + c2 - bccos(A) + sqrt(3)bcsin(A).
Now apply the Law of Cosines to

(4)

ABC:
a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bccos(A).

(5)

and recall (as in the derivation of the Law of Sines):

48

2Area(

(6)

ABC) = bcsin(A).

Substituting (5) and (6) into (4) gives

3s2 = (1/2)(a2 + b2 + c2) + 2sqrt(3) Area(

ABC).

(7)

Since (7) is symmetrical in a, b, and c, it follows that the triangle connecting the three centroids is
equilateral, QED.

(*)
Michael Lambrou has suggested a different way to proceed after obtaining (2).
Apply the Law of Cosines to triangles ABE and BCE to express the side BE in two different ways:
b2 + c2 - 2bccos(A + 60o) = a2 + b2 - 2abcos(C + 60o)
By (2), the left hand side equals 3 times GI. Similarly, the right hand side equals 3 times IH, wherefrom GI
= IH. Considering triangles ACD and ABD instead, we also obtain IH = HG, which furnishes the proof.
As a bonus, we get AD = BE = CF.

49

Proof #2 (an argument by


symmetrization)
Notations are the same as before: let ABC be the original
triangle. Choose D, E, and F exterior to

ABC so that

ADB, BEC, and AFC are equilateral triangles, with


centroids G, H, and I, respectively. (Geometer's SketchPad
illustration.) We proceed to show that

HIG = 60o.

Fix I as a center of rotation, and rotate the entire figure


by 120o, and superimpose the rotated copy on the original
figure. Under the rotation, the

CAF maps to itself (C

maps to A, A to F, F to C, while I maps into itself.) Denote


by BB, DD, EE, GG, and HH the images of points B, D, E,
G, and H, respectively.
Connect D to EE and G to HH. By the rigidity of the
rotation,

GHI =

GG.HH.I. In particular, GH = GG.HH.

(Geometer's SketchPad illustration.)


Now consider the six triangles that converge on point A. Three of them (ABD, ACF, and A.EE.BB) are
equilateral. Recollect that the angles of a triangle sum to 180 o, while the angles around a point sum to
360o. Since

BB.A.F is a copy of

BCA, it follows that

D.A.EE =

ABC. Finally,

D.A.EE =

ABC,

and the pentagon A.BB.EE.D.B is congruent to the pentagon BECAD. It follows that G.HH = GH. And thus
G.HH = GH = GG.HH.

50

Repeating the rotation by 120o once more, and


connecting the tips of the equilateral triangles as
above, we obtain the figure on the right.
(Geometer's SketchPad illustration.) Arguing as
above, it is clear that the central hexagon is
equilateral, and that the six triangles which meet
at the center of rotation are congruent. Therefore,
6

HIG = 360o, and

HIG = 60o. Since (among the

points G,H,I) the choice of the centroid I was


arbitrary, we have shown that

GHI is

equiangular, hence equilateral, QED.

I.37)nh l Morley
nh l:
Trong tam gic ABC. D,E,F ln lt l giao im ca cc ng chia ba gc trong v cng k cc
cnh tam gic ABC. Khi ta c tam gic DEF u v c gi l tam gic Morley.

Chng minh:
ngn gn ta t

v tng t vi cc gc kia

Nh hnh v k cc

51

ng chia trong B v C v ln lt ct ti D,I. D thy ID l phn gic ca gc

. Ti D

dng gc
sao cho Di l phn gic ca gc DEF v E thuc CI v F thuc BI
DEF
u.
Ly
v
ln lt l im di xng vi D qua CI v BI
v d dng
c/m c
l hnh thang cn vi
V nh l Morley ch c mt trng hp nn em xin php ch s dng gc thng cho n n gin:

Ta li c

l hnh thang cn v
th s

trong ng trn ngoi tip

A thuc ng trn

. T ta c pcm

nh l Morley c th m rng cc ng chia trong thnh cc ng chia ngoi, v c th l giao


ca ng chia trong vi ng chia ngoi(mi trng hp ny li cho ta mt tam gic Morley
khc nhau v theo thng k c 36 tam gic Morley nh vy). Sau bi ton cn c pht trin
v tng ng c t thm nhiu nh ngha mi nh "gc lng", "tam gic ngoi lai", "tp hp
ng cu", ...
Sau y l bi ton m rng nht nh l Morley:
Nu chia n (n nguyn dng, n
3) tt c cc gc ca mt a gic m cnh, th tt c cc giao
ca cc ng thng l cc nh phn bit ca mt h

a gic n cnh u, c

th phn chia lm
h, mi h c
a gic c tm thng hng.
Cch chng minh v cc khi nim lin quan xin xem thm ti sch "Lng mn ton hc" tc gi
Hong Qu nh xut bn gio dc
(Ai c ebook ca quyn ny up ln th tt qu.

I.38)nh l con bm vi ng trn


nh l:
Cho ng trn (O) v dy cung AB. I l trung im ca AB. Qua I v hai dy cung ty MN v
PQ sao cho MP v NQ ct AB ti E,F. Khi I l trung im ca EF.

Chng minh:
Gi K,T l trung im MP v NQ. Nn OIEK, OIFT l t gic ni tip

52

(mod

(mod

Ta li c
trung im EF

(mod

cn ti O

I l

I.39)nh l con bm vi cp ng thng


nh l:Cho tam gic
. Ly
ti
, ng thng
ta c
l trung im ca
Chng minh:

l trung im ca
ct
ti

p dng nh l menelaus trong tam gic

. Qua
. Gi

k cc ng thng
ct
ti

ct
. Khi

ta c cc h thc sau:

(1)
(2)
t (1) v (2) ta c:

Vy

l trung im ca

. (PCM)

I.6) nh l Desargues
nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC v tam gic A'B'C'. Khi AA', BB', CC' ng quy khi v ch khi cc giao im
ca BC v B'C', CA v C'A', AB v A'B' thng hng.

53

Chng minh:
Gi X, Y, Z l ln lt l cc giao im ca cc cp cnh BC v BC, CA v CA, AB v AB .
Phn thun:
Gi s cc ng thng AA, BB, CC ng quy ti S. Ta chng minh X, Y, Z thng hng.
p dng nh l Menelaus cho tam gic SBC vi ct tuyn XB'C' ta c:
hay
Tng t, ta c:
v
Nhn tng v cc ng thc trn li vi nhau, v theo nh l Menelaus suy ra X, Y, Z thng hng.
Phn o:
Gi s cc im X, Y, Z thng hng. Ta chng minh cc ng thng AA, BB, CC ng quy.
Gi S l giao im ca AA v BB. SC ct ng thng AC ti C.
Xt 2 tam gic ABC v ABC c cc ng ni cc nh tng ng ng quy, do theo phn
thun giao im ca cc cnh tng ng cng ng quy.
Ta thy AB ct AB ti Z, AC ct AC ti Y (do A, C, C thng hng), suy ra giao im X ca BC
v BC phi thuc YZ. Tc l X l giao ca YZ v BC nn X trng vi X.
Suy ra C trng vi C, hay AA, BB, CC ng quy.

54

I.40 nh L Blaikie
nh l: Cho tam gic ABC v ng thng d sao cho d ct BC,CA,AB ln lt M,N,P. Gi S l 1
im bt k trn d. Gi M',N',P' ln lt l im i xng ca M,N,P qua S. Khi AM',BN',CP'
ng quy ti mt im P v ta gi P l im Blaikie ca d v S i vi tam gic ABC.

Chng Minh :
C th cho
nm gia
.
Gi s
ct
ti
. Ta chng mnh
thng hng .
Xt tam gic
vi im
. Ta cn cm :

Xt tam gic

vi im thng hng

trn cnh :

(1)
Xt tam gic

vi im thng hng

trn cnh :

(2)
Nhn v (1),(2) v rt gn , ch
Ch l

ta c :
nn ta c pcm.

I.41)nh l chm ng thng ng quy.


nh l 1: Ba ng thng ng quy th nh ra trn hai ng thng song song nhng on

55

thng t l.
Chng minh:

I.42)ng trn Apollonius


nh l:Cho hai im A v B c nh. Khi qu tch im M sao cho
ng trn c nh c gi l ng trn Apollonius.

l mt

Chng minh:
Ly D,E thuc ng thng AB sao cho
a\Phn thun
Ta c
ng knh DE.
b\Phn o

ME l phn gic ca

Ly M' thuc ng trn ng knh DE


Li c

ME l phn gic ca

M thuc ng trn

.
pcm

I.43)nh l Blanchet

nh l:Cho tam gic ABC c AH l ng cao ng vi cnh BC. Gi I l mt dim ty thuc


on AH.cc on thng BI,CI ct cc cnh tam gic ti E v F.Chng minh rng HA l phn gic
ca gc EHF

56

Chng minh:
Qua I k ng thng song song vi BC ct AB,HF,HE,AC ln lt ti M,N,P,Q.
Ta ch cn chng minh IN=IP l xong !!
Theo Thales:

Do :

Hin nhin
Nn IN =IP ---------------> dpcm

I.44)M rng ca nh l Blanchet


nh l:Cho tam gic ABC, ly
ln lt thuc cc on
thng
ng quy ti mt im.Gi
l giao im ca
chiu ca
xung
Chng minh:

. Chng minh rng

sao cho 3 ng
v
.Gi H l hnh

l phn gic ca

57

S dng Ceva v Menelaus ta chng minh c


Theo nh l v chm iu ha ta li c
------>pcm (h qu ca chm iu ha)

I.45) nh l Jacobi:
nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC v cc im
,

trn mt phng sao cho:


.Khi

,
ng quy ti im

Jacobi N.

Chng minh:
Do

ng quy ti

v tng t cho

nn p dng nh l Ceva dng Sin

58

ta c:

->
Xy dng hai ng thc tng t cho

Nh vy

ri nhn 3 ng thc trn vi nhau ta c:

ng quy theo nh l Ceva dng Sin.

I.46)nh l Kiepert
nh l:Dng ra pha ngoi tam gic ABC cc tam gic cn ng dng
BCM,CAN,ABP(Cn M,N,P).Khi y ta c AM,BN,CP ng quy
Chng minh

Do cc tam gic BCM,CAN,ABP cn v ng dng nn d thy:


Theo nh l Jacobi ta c iu cn chng minh.

I.47)nh l Kariya
nh l :
Cho tam gic ABC nhn (I) l ng trn ni tip. pha ngoi tam gic ly cc im M,N,P sao

59

cho IM =IN=IP v IM,IN,IP tng ng vung gc BC,CA,AB.Khi ta c AM,BN,CP ng quy.


Chng minh:

T gi thit bi ton d suy ra:


(c.g.c)
Do :
=>
Tng t:
Theo nh l Jacobi ta c iu cn chng minh.

I.48)Cc trc giao


y l mt khi nim m rng kt qu v trc tm tam gic.
nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC. d l mt ng thng bt k trong mt phng. Gi
ln lt l hnh
chiu ca A,B,C trn d. Gi
ln l l hnh chiu ca
trn BC,CA,AB. Khi
ng quy ti mt im gi l cc trc giao ca ng thng d i vi
ABC.

60

Chng minh:
p dng nh l carnot ta c pcm

Trc tm l trng hp khi d trng vi mt trong ba cnh ca

(hin nhin ng)


ABC

(Xem them FG200406.bdf)

I.49)Khi nim tam gic hnh chiu ,cng thc Euler v din tch
tam gic hnh chiu
nh l:
Cho
l ng trn ni tip tam gic ABC.Cho im M nm trong tam gic.Gi
l
hnh chiu ca M ln ba cnh BC,AC,AB. Khi ta gi
l tam gic hnh chiu ca im
M i vi tam gic ABC. Ta c cng thc Euler v din tch ca tam gic hnh chiu:

61

Chng minh:(Mashimaru)
Ta c t gic
ni tip ng trn ng knh
nn
th
.
Gi
l giao im ca
vi ng trn ngoi tip tam gic
v

Mt khc:

Xt tam gic

, tng t
. Ta c:

, theo nh l sin ta c:

Suy ra:

. T ta c:

Mt khc, ta li c:
nn:

(Xem them pedal(2).bdf)

I.50)Khi nim hai im ng gic


nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC. M l mt im nm trong tam gic.
1/Khi cc ng thng i xng vi AM,BM,CM qua tia phn gic ng quy ti M'. M' c gi
l im ng gic ca M.
2/Ln lt t D,E,F v D',E',F' l chn cc ng cao h t M v M' xung BC,AC,AB.
a/Khi D,E,F,D'E',F' cng thuc mt ng trn tm O. V O l trung im ca M v M'.
b/Khi cng c

62

Chng minh:
1/(hnh 1)

Tng t p dng nh l Ceva thun v o ta c pcm1


2/
a/(hnh 2)

(mod

)
(mod

63

(mod

)
(mod

(mod
)
ni tip. Trung trc FF' v DD' gp nhau ti trung im O ca MM'(t/c ng trung
bnh hnh thang)
F,F'D,D' thuc ng trn tm O.
Tng t ta c pcm.
b/(hnh 3)

li c
Tng t ta c pcm

(g.g)

Trng hp M l trng tm th M' l im i trung (AM,BM,CM ln lt c gi l cc ng i


trung) c tnh cht rng:

min

I.51)Khi nim t gic ton phn .


Khi nim:
Mt t gic ton phn l mt hnh c to nn bi bn ng thng, tng i mt ct nhau
nhng khng c ba ng no ng qui. Mt hnh t gic ton phn c 4 cnh l 4 ng thng
y, c 6 nh l 6 giao im ca chng v 3 ng cho l 3 on i qua nh i din (ch hai
nh ny khng cng thuc mt cnh).
Chng ta c mt kt qu c bn v th v v t gic ny nh sau:
nh l :Trong hnh t gic ton phn cp nh i din nm trn mt ng cho v cp giao
im ca ng cho vi hai ng cho cn li lp thnh mt hng im iu ha.

64

Xem hnh v sau:

I.52)ng thng Droz-Farny


nh l:
Cho hai ng thng bt k vung gc vi nhau ti trc tm ca tam gic ABC. Chng tng ng
ct cc cnh BC, AC, AB ti X, X'; Y, Y'; Z, Z'. Khi ta c
tng ng l cc trung
im ca

thng hng

65

Chng minh:(dch t bi vit ca Jean-Louis Ayme)


t C l ng trn ngoi tip
ABC.
l ng trn ngoi tip HXX' v
l im i xng
vi H qua BC. Tng t vi cc ng trn khc.
c tm ln lt l
.XX' l ng knh ca ng trn
nm
trn ng trn ny
l giao ca C v
v
.
p dng nh l Collings(trong bi vit im Anti-steiner) vi ng thng XYZ i qua H, ta c
ng quy ti N trn C. p dng nh l Miquel cho tam gic XNY vi cc im
cng i qua M. Tng t
cng i qua M.
Nh vy
cng i qua H v M (ng trc). Nn tm ca chng thng hng.
Cc ti liu c lin quan:
(Xem them FG200426.bdf; FG200427.bdf)

I.53)ng trn Droz-Farny


nh l:
Cho im P bt k v tam gic ABC. im Q l im ng gic vi P i vi tam gic ABC. Chn
cc ng vung gc vi cc cnh BC,AC,AB ca P l
. Ly
lm tm v ng trn
i qua Q ct BC ti
.
nh ngha tng t. Khi
cng thuc ng trn tm P.

Chng minh:
O l trung im ca PQ
Ta bit O cch u
M :

Hon ton tng t ta s c cc im


(iu cn chng minh).

(cng thc ng trung tuyn)


cch u P

66

I.54)nh l Van Aubel v t gic v cc hnh vung dng trn


cnh.
nh l:V pha ngoi t gic ABCD ta dng cc hnh vung ABUI,BCQP,CDJW,DAFE vi cc tm
tng ng l T,N,V,M.Khi ta c TV v MN vung gc vi nhau.
Chng minh:

Gi O l trung im on AC.
Ta thy:

Do vy:
Ch F l php ng dng gc
gc
. (1)
Nh vy :
(2)
Tng t ta c:
(3)

vi t s 1 c O l im bt ng tc l F l php quay tm O

T (1) ,(2) v (3) ta c iu cn chng minh.

67

I.2 M rng nh l Menelaus theo din tch.


nh l:Cho tam gic ABC v 3 im M,N,P ln lt nm trn BC,CA,AB.Khi ta c:

Chng minh
Gi
l vector ch phng ca
Ta c:

mt khc :

tng t:

Ta suy ra:

I.55)H thc Van Aubel


nh l:Cho tam gic ABC v cc im D,E,F ln lt thuc BC,CA,AB sao cho AD,BE,CF ng quy
S.Khi ta c:

V 2 h thc tng t.
Chng minh:

68

Cch chng minh di y rt c o mnh c trong mt file ca anh Darij Grinberg(xem cui
bi)
Chng ta s dng nh l Gergonne -Euler(mc I.28)cho im A vi tam gic SBC.
Ta c:

=>

=>
(Xem them GergonneEuler.bdf)

I.56)nh l Pithot
nh l: T gic li ABCD l t gic ngoi tip khi v ch khi :AB+CD =BC+DA
Chng minh:
+)Chiu thun: ABCD l t gic ngoi tip th: AB+CD=BC+DA
Phn ny chng minh hon ton n gin xin dnh cho bn c.
+)Chiu o:Nu t gic li ABCD tha mn : AB+CD=BC+DA (*)th n l t gic ngoi tip.

69

Khng gim tng qut gi s :


,khi y t (*) cng suy ra:
Khi y trn AD,DC tng ng tn ti hai im N,M sao cho:AN=AB,CM=CB.
T (*) s c: DN=DM.

Do cc ng phn gic ca cc gc ti nh A,D,C s l ba ng trung trc ca tam gic


BMN nn chng ng quy ti mt im (m ta k hiu l O).
Nhn thy O cch u 4 cnh t gic nn ta c iu cn chng minh.

I.57)nh l Johnson
nh l:Cho ba ng trn c cng bn knh R vi tm ln lt l M,N,P v cng i qua mt im
A.Khi y ba giao im khc A ca ba ng trn y cng nm trn mt ng trn c bn knh l
R.
Chng minh:

70

Mnh gp nh l ny v khng h bit chng minh ca n , y mnh trnh by mt php chng


minh m mnh ngh ra nh sau m theo mnh n l mt chng minh di.
Chng ta k hiu cc giao im khc A l B,C,D nh hnh v v gi Q l tm (BCD).
Ta thy : PA=PB=MA=MB nn MAPB l hnh thoi
=>M l im i xng ca P qua AB.
Ch bn knh ca (P) v (M) l bng nhau nn suy ra (P) v (M) i xng vi nhau qua AB.(1)
Tng t (P) v (N) i xng vi nhau qua AC (2).
(P) l ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC (3)
T (1) ,(2) v (3) ta s suy ra D l trc tm tam gic ABC.
n y cng vic cn li rt n gin........................

I.58)nh l Eyeball
nh l: Cho hai ng trn(O) v (O') ngoi nhau.Hai tip tuyn k t O ti (O') ct (O') ti
C,D.Hai tip tuyn k t O' ti (O) ct (O) ti A,B.Khi ta c : AB =CD.
Chng minh:
Chng ta k hiu cc im A,B,C,D nh hnh v.
OM,O'N tng ng l cc tip tuyn ca (O') v (O).
AD ct li (O') P.
Ta thy:
(1)
(2)
Cng theo v (1) v (2) ta c:

Do CP l ng knh ca (O').
V vy s c:
Hon ton tng t ta cng c cc ng thc gc khc nn s c ABCD l hnh ch nht =>
AB=CD.

I.59)B Haruki
B :Cho AB v CD l hai dy cung khng ct nhau ca cng mt ng trn v P l mt im
bt k trn cung AB khng cha CD ca ng trn y.Gi E v F ln lt l giao im ca PC,PD
vi AB.Th th gi tr biu thc sau l khng i:

71

Chng minh:

(AED) ct li AB G.
Ta thy:

(Khng i) => G c nh => BG khng i (1)

Mt khc :

(2)
T (1) v (2 ) suy ra dpcm.
(Xem them FG200809.bdf)

I.60)Bi ton Langley


Bi ton:Cho

cn ti A c
,

.Tnh

. Trn cnh

ly im

sao cho

Li gii:

72

t
Trn cnh

ly im

Mt khc

cn ti

sao cho

.Khi

(do

cn ti
)

Suy ra
Do

u(

Li c

cn ti

Ta suy ra
cn ti
=

I.61)nh l Paul Yiu v ng trn bng tip


nh l:Cho
qua

cc ng trn bng tip gc


tip xc vi 3 cnh ln lt ti
.Cc ng thng qua
giao nhau ti
.Cc ng thng
giao nhau ti
.Chng minh rng cc b ba im
thng hng v cc ng thng qua chng ng quy.

Chng minh:

73

Gi

l giao im ca

vi

p dng nh l Menelaus cho b 3 im


tng ng vi

tng ng vi

v b 3 im

ta c:

Nhn (1) v (2) cho ta:

Mt khc
p dng nh l Menelaus cho

vi b 3 im

ta c:

Nhn (1) vi (2) ta c:

Ta suy ra:

Vy 3 im

thng hng

74

Cc b 3 im cn li chng minh tng t.


Chng minh 3 ng thng ng quy
Gi
l ln lt l giao im ca
Nh chng minh trn ta c:

tng t vi

vi

th:

Ta suy ra:

Do

thng hng

Mt khc theo nh l Desagues th cc ng thng


dpcm

ng quy.Ta suy ra

I.62)nh l Maxwell
nh l: Cho
ABC v mt im P, cc cnh ca
A'B'C' song song vi cc ng thng i qua
mt nh
ABC v im P. Qua A',B',C' k cc ng thng song song vi cc cnh ca
ABC.
Khi ta c cc ng thng ny ng quy ti mt im P'.

Chng minh:
D dng c/m c cc gc
Ceva Sin ta c pcm.

. Tng t p dng nh l

Projective Proof of Maxwell's Theorem

75

Maxwell's theorem links the sides and cevians in one triangle to the cevians and side lines in another:

Given two triangles ABC and MNP. Assume that the cevians in ABC parallel to the
sides of MNP are concurrent. Then the cevians in MNP parallel to the sides of
ABC are also concurrent.
Michel Cabart came up with a generalization that shows that Maxwell's theorem is of projective nature.
The main tool is the projective reformulation of Ceva's theorem.

By Michel Cabart
9 May, 2008
Recollect the projective formulation of Ceva's theorem: Given an arbitrary line L, the cevians in ABC
concur iff
(1)

R = (CBA'A0)(ACB'B0)(BAC'C0) = -1

where (WXYZ) denotes the cross-ratio YW/YX : ZW/ZX and the points A', B', C', A0, B0, C0 are defined as in
the diagram below, where L is an arbitrary straight line.

76

In addition, let A1, B1, C1 be the intersection with L of the cevians AA', BB', and CC'.
Projection from A to the line L send the first quadruple in (1) onto B0, C0, A1, A0:
(CBA'A0) = A(B0C0A1A0)
Similarly,
(ACB'B0) = B(C0A0B1B0),
(BAC'C0) = C(A0B0C1C0)
Thus the condition (1) can be written (cross-ratios being unchanged):
(2)

R = (A0B0C1C0)(B0C0A1A0)(C0A0B1B0) = -1

Proof of Maxwell's theorem

77

Assume there are two triangles ABC and MNP and two triples of points on L such that A0, B0, C0 are
intersections of L with sides of ABC and also with cevians of MNP; A1, B1, C1 are intersections of L with
sides of MNP and also with cevians of ABC.
For ABC, we calculate
R0 = (A0B0C1C0)(B0C0A1A0)(C0A0B1B0).
For MNP, we calculate
R1 = (A1B1C0C1).(B1C1A0A1).(A1B1C0C1)
We have the identity R0R1 = 1 (as can be seen by developing cross-ratios). Hence R 0 = -1 iff R1 = -1, or: the
cevians in ABC concur iff the cevians in MNP concur. Choosing the infinite line as line L gives Maxwell's
theorem as a particular case. The case where sides and cevians in MNP are taken perpendicular (or in
fact any angle) to ABC is straightforward via an homography (in projective terms) or a rotation (in
Euclidean terms).
Note: a dynamic illustration is available on a separate page.

78

Maxwell Theorem via the Center of Gravity


Michel Cabart
30 April, 2008
Below we offer a proof of Maxwell's theorem that is based on the notion of barycenter. Maxwell's theorem
states the following fact:

Given ABC and a point G, the sides of MNP are parallel to the cevians in ABC
through G. Then the cevians in MNP parallel to the sides of ABC are concurrent.

Below, the vector joining point A to B will be written in bold, so that, for example, AB = - BA.
In ABC with A', B', C' on sides opposite the vertices A, B, and C, the fact that the cevians AA', BB', CC'
concur in point G is equivalent to either of the two conditions:
There is a triple of real numbers (a, b, c), unique up to a non-zero factor, such that
(1)

aGA + bGB + cGC = 0

There is a triple of real numbers (a, b, c), unique up to a non-zero factor, such that
A' = Z(B, b; C, c)
(2)

B' = Z(A, a; C, c)
C' = Z(A, a; B, b),

79

where Z(X, x; Y, y) denotes the barycenter of two material points X and Y with masses x at X and y at Y.
Let's suppose lines AA', BB' and CC' intersect.
Step 1: NP, PM, MN are parallel to GA, GB, GC means there exists x, y, z such that NP = xGA, PM = yGB,
MN = zGC. As NP + PM + MN = 0, xGA + yGB + zGC = 0. A comparison with (1) shows that (x, y, z) is a
multiple of (a, b, c). We can assume (x, y, z) = (a, b, c). Thus NP = aGA, PM = bGB, MN = cGC.
Step 2: MM', NN', PP' are parallel to BC, AC, AB meaning there is (m, n, p) such that MM' = mBC, NN' = nAC,
PP' = pAB. The first equality yields

MM' = m(GC - GB) = (m/c)MN + (m/b)MP


so that
M' = Z(N, 1/c; P, 1/b) = Z(N, b; C, c)
by multiplying by bc. Similarly,
N' = Z(M, a; P, c) and
P' = Z(M, a; N, b).
This proves the theorem thanks to (2).

Maxwell's Theorem
The applet suggests the following theorem [Prasolov, 11.48, Pedoe, 6.1, 8.3, 28.4]:

Given ABC and a point P, the sides of A'B'C' are parallel to the cevians in ABC
through P. Prove that the cevians in A'B'C' parallel to the sides of ABC are
concurrent.
A similar statement is true if the lines are taken to be perpendicular, instead of parallel. Furthermore, the
two are clearly equivalent. We'll prove the latter.
Triangles A'B'C' with sides parallel to the given set of cevians are all similar. It therefore sufficient to
establish the theorem for any one of those triangles. Consider the circumcenters O A, OB, and OC, of
triangles PBC, PAC, PAB, respectively. The circumcircles of triangles PBC and PAC share chord PC, so that

80

OAOB is perpendicular to PC. Similarly, OAOC PB and OBOC PA, which means that OAOBOC is one of the
family A'B'C'. The lines through its vertices perpendicular to the sides of ABC are exactly the
perpendicular bisectors of the latter, which are known to meet at a point.
Two triangles ABC and A'B'C' are said to be orthologic if perpendiculars from A, B, C to B'C', A'C', A'B' are
concurrent. The point of concurrency is known as the orthologic center of ABC with respect to A'B'C'.
Maxwell's theorem justifies the symmetry of the definition: if the perpendiculars from the vertices of one
of the triangle to the sides of the other are concurrent, then the perpendiculars from the vertices of the
latter to the sides of the former are also concurrent. As an example, in any triangle, the associated medial
and contact triangles are orthologic.
We can use complex variables and the real product [Andreescu, 4.1] of complex numbers to easily
establish the perpendicular case of Maxwell's theorem. For two complex numbers u and v define the real
product as
uv = (uv* + vu*)/2,
where the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate. Assuming u = u 1 + iu2 and v = v1 + iv2,
uv = u1v1 + u2v2.
In other words, the real product of two complex numbers is exactly the scalar product of the 2D-vectors
represented by these complex numbers. It follows that for four complex numbers u, U, v, V the lines
joining them pairwise are perpendicular iff
(U - u)(V - v) = 0.
Assume now the complex coordinates of the vertices of triangles ABC and A'B'C' are a, b, c and a', b', c'.
The perpendicular from A to B'C' has the equation
(1)

(z - a)(c' - b') = 0.

Similarly the perpendiculars from B and C are given by the equations

(2)

(z - b)(a' - c') = 0 and


(z - c)(b' - a') = 0.

Adding the three up eliminates z:

81

(3)

a(c' - b') + b(a' - c') + c(b' - a') = 0,

which is the condition for the perpendiculars from A, B, C to B'C', A'C', A'B' to be concurrent. Indeed, if (3)
holds then, for any z,

(4)

(z - a)(c' - b') + (z - b)(a' - c') + (z - c)(b' - a') = 0.

Now let's see if we can choose z the right way. First, for any z on the perpendicular from a to b'c', the first
term in (4) vanishes. The choice of z as the intersection of the perpendiculars from a and b, eliminates the
first two terms, which makes the third term also 0.
Importantly, (3) can be regrouped into
(3')

a'(c - b) + b'(a - c) + c'(b - a) = 0,

in which the triangles switched the roles. (3') is the condition for the concurrency of the perpendiculars
from A', B', C' onto the sides of triangle ABC. Q.E.D.

As an example, the pedal triangle of any point is orthologic to the base triangle. Also, Gergonne and
medial triangles associated with the given one are orthologic.

Remark 1
The theorem bears name of James Clerk Maxwell, a famous physicist. His proof is different from anything
above yet beautifully simple. He drew 4 pairwise intersecting circles centered at A, B, C and P. Taken by
three, the circles define 4 radical centers. Let A' be the radical center of the circle centered at B, C, P. B',
C', P' are defind cyclically. Then, say, A' and P' lie on the common chord of the circles B and C, which
makes A'P' perpendicular to BC, etc.

Remark 2
There is another proof of Maxwell's theorem based on the notion of barycenter and another one of a
generalization that shows surprisingly the projective nature of the theorem.

References

82

1. T. Andreescu, D. Andrica, Complex Numbers From A to ... Z, Birkhuser, 2006


2. D. Pedoe, Geometry: A Comprehensive Course, Dover, 1970
3. V. V. Prasolov, Problems in Planimetry, v 1, Nauka, Moscow, 1986 (Russian)

I.62)nh l Maxwell
nh l: Cho
ABC v mt im P, cc cnh ca
A'B'C' song song vi cc ng thng i qua
mt nh
ABC v im P. Qua A',B',C' k cc ng thng song song vi cc cnh ca
ABC.
Khi ta c cc ng thng ny ng quy ti mt im P'.

Chng minh:
D dng c/m c cc gc
Ceva Sin ta c pcm.

. Tng t p dng nh l

I.63)nh l Brahmagupta v t gic ni tip c hai ng cho


vung gc.
nh l:Cho t gic ni tip ABCD c AC vung gc vi BD ti S. Khi on ni trung im mt
cnh vi S s vung gc vi cnh i din.
Chng minh:

83

Ta chng minh i din,chng hn gi M l trung im BC ta cn chng minh MS vung gc vi


AD.
Tht vy,MS ct AD H.
Ta c:
Do :

,M l trung im BC nn MS=MC.

D =>dpcm

I.64)nh l Schooten
nh l: Cho tam gic u ABC nhn (O) l ng trn ngoi tip.Khi vi mi im S nm trn
(O) th mt trong 3 on SA,SB,SC c mt on c di bng tng di hai on cn li.
Chng minh:

84

Khng gim tng qut ,gi s S thuc cung BC nh.


Ta s chng minh SA=SB+SC.Tht vy:
Gi I l mt im trn on SA sao cho SI=SC.
n y cng vic ca chng ta l chng minh AI=SB (*) m iu ny th kh n gin ,ch cn
mt cht:
D thy tam gic SIC u nn
(1)
M:CA=CB (2) v
T (1),(2) v (3) ta d suy ra (*)

(3)

I.65)nh l Bottema
nh l:V pha ngoi tam gic ABC ta dng hai hnh vung ABDE, ACFG .Gi M l trung im
DF.Th th V tr im M khng ph thuc vo v tr im A v tam gic MBC vung cn ti M.
Chng minh:

85

Chng ta s chng minh hai bi t iu cng suy ra ngay mt.


Vy cng vic ca chng ta l chng minh tam gic MBC vung cn ti M.
Bi ny c nhiu cch gii, y ma 29 xin trnh by bng pp php bin hnh
K hiu:
Ta thy:

l ch php quay tm

gc quay ,gi s chiu dng l ngc chiu kim ng h.

M F l php quay vi gc quay


nn tm php quay ny chnh l M. Da vo
cch xc nh tm ca tch hai php quay ta d c dpcm

I.66)nh l Pompeiu
nh l;Cho tam gic ABC u ,v mt im D trn mt phng tam gic.Khi lun tn ti mt
tam gic vi di cc cnh l DA,DB,DC.
Chng minh:

Chng ta s dng bt ng thc Ptolemy (Xem mc I.10) gii quyt bi ny mt cch cc k


nhanh gn!
By gi,theo nguyn l khi u cc tr trong ba on DA,DB,DC s c mt on c di ln
nht.
Khng gim tng qut ,gi s l DA.
n y ta ch cn chng minh
($)l xong.
K hiu a l di cnh tam gic u ABC

86

S dng bt ng thc Ptolemy ta c:


n y th thy tin ($)ri

I.67)nh l Zaslavsky
nh l:Cho tam gic
v im .Tam gic
l nh ca tam gic
i xng tm
.T
k cc ng thng song song vi nhau ct
.Chng minh rng
thng hng.

qua php
ti

Chng minh:
T

k ng thng song song vi

V
nn

ct

ti

l nh ca
qua php i xng tm
l nh ca
qua php i xng tm

suy ra
Ta c:

Ta suy ra dpcm

I.68)nh l Archimedes
nh l:Cho
l trung im
.Chng minh rng

, im

chuyn ng ty trn

.T

87

Chng minh:
Trn tia
dng im

sao cho

Ta c:
ng thi suy ra
Vy
ng thi l ng cao, ng trung tuyn tam gic
nn tam gic
cn ti M suy ra
do
l trung im cnh
hay ni cch khc
(dpcm)

I.69) nh l Urquhart
nh l:Cho hai b ba im thng hng
.Chng minh rng

v
,
khi v ch khi

l giao im ca

v
.

88

Chng minh:
u tin ta cn chng minh b sau:Trong tam gic ABC ta c
na chu vi v a=BC.

vi p l

Ta c:
mt khc
.
nn suy ra

do

nn nghch o hai v ta c dpcm

Tr li bi ton gi cc gc nh trn hnh v ta c:

(dpcm)

I.70)nh l Mairon Walters

nh l:Cho tam gic ABC v cc ng thng chia 3 cnh i din nh hnh v.Chng minh rng

89

Chng minh::
Trc tin ta cn chng minh b sau:Cho tam gic
thng
chia on
Gi s

sao cho
theo t s

im
.Gi s

di ng trn ng
giao nhau ti

th

th ta c:

m
li do
cng phng vi
nn tn ti mt s sao cho
Mt khc cch biu din ny l duy nht nn ta c ng nht thc:

suy ra:
.
Quay li bi ton ban u ta p dng b nhiu ln lin tip ta c(y ch l k nng tnh
ton nn mnh ch ghi kt qu cc bc thng cm)

90

suy ra:
(dpcm)

I.71)nh l Poncelet v bn knh ng trn ni tip,bng tip trong


tam gic vung.
nh l:Cho tam gic
gc

ln lt l bn knh cc ng trn ni tip, bng tip

.Chng minh rng: tam gic ABC vung ti A khi v ch khi

Chng minh::
Ta c:

tam gic

vung ti

I.72)nh l Hansen
nh l:Cho tam gic
1)Tam gic
vung

(dpcm)

.Chng minh rng cc iu kin sau tng ng:

2)
3)

Chng minh:
u tin ta chng minh mt vi h thc ph sau:

91

1)
2)
3)
Ta c:

Tr li bi ton ban u ta c:

Do

nn chia c hai v cho

ta c"

(1)
t
(1)
tam gic

ta suy ra

do d

vung.

92

(2)
tng t thay
(2)

nh trn vi ch

ta c:

(3)
do
(3)

tam gic

ln hn nn
vung.

*ch thch:

I.73)nh l Steinbart m rng


nh l:.Cho tam gic
ni tip
.Cc tip tuyn ca ng trn ti
.Trn (O) ly cc im
.Chng minh rng
khi v ch khi
ng quy hoc cc giao im ca
tam gic thng hng.

giao nhau ti
ng quy
vi 3 cnh

93

Chng minh:
Gi

Ta c:

nn

94

Tng t ta suy ra:

do nu v phi bng
ni cch khc
thng hng

th biu thc trong ngoc v tri bng hoc


ng quy khi v ch khi

v ngc li hay
ng quy hoc

I.74)nh l Monge & d'Alembert I


nh l:Cho 3 ng trn
c bn knh khc nhau v khng cha
nhau.Tip tuyn chung ngoi ca mi ng trn giao nhau ln lt ti
.Chng minh
rng:
thng hng.

Chng minh:
V cc ng trn c vai tr nh nhau nn khng mt tnh tng qut ta gi s:
.Khi ta c th chng minh c:

Suy ra:
Theo nh l Menelaus ta suy ra dpcm

95

*Ch thch:
l php v t tm

t s

bin

thnh

I.75)nh l Monge & d'Alembert II


nh l:Cho 3 ng trn
c bn knh khc nhau v khng cha
nhau.Tip tuyn chung trong ca (A) v (C), (B) v (C) giao nhau ln lt ti
, tip tuyn
chung ngoi ca

giao nhau ti

.Chng minh rng:

thng hng.

Chng minh:
V cc ng trn c vai tr nh nhau nn khng mt tnh tng qut ta gi s:
.Khi ta c th chng minh c:

Suy ra:

Theo nh l Menelaus ta suy ra dpcm

96

*Ch thch:
l php v t tm

t s

bin

thnh

I.76)nh l Steiner v bn knh cc ng trn


nh l:Chng minh rng trong tam gic ta c:

Chng minh:
Ta c:

(hin nhin) suy ra dpcm

I.77)nh l Bellavitis
nh l::Cho t gic

l t gic iu ho k hiu
.Chng minh rng:

97

Chng minh:
Gi ng trn ng knh
l ng trn Apollonius ca tam gic
ng vi nh
.
V
l t gic iu ho nn
do
thuc ng trn Apollonius
ca tam gic
.
Dng
i xng vi
qua phn gic
.
Ta suy ra:

Vy

(dpcm)

I.78)nh l Feuer bach-Luchterhand:

II/Mt s im v ng c bit c xc nh duy nht vi


tam gic v t gic
II.1) ng thng Euler ca tam gic.
nh l:Cho tam gic
gi
minh rng:
thng hng.

l trc tm, trng tm, tm ng trn ngoi tip.Chng

98

Chng minh:
Gi
l trung im
Ta c

do
suy ra

thng hng

II)ng trn v tm Euler


Kt qu : Trong mt tam gic ,trung im cc cnh ca tam gic ,chn cc ng cao v trung
im cc on thng ni trc tm vi cc nh cng nm trn mt ng trn gi l ng trn
Euler ca tam gic y.
Ch dn chng minh:

Thc ra y ch l mt trng hp c bit ca hai im ng gic (Xem mc I.50)

99

II.3)ng i trung, im Lemoine


Kt quCho tam gic
ca tam gic.

th 3 ng i trung ca tam gic ng quy ti im

Ch dn chng minh::
ng i trung ca tam gic ng vi 1 nh l ng thng i xng vi trung tuyn qua phn
gic tng ng ca nh .
T nh ngha trn p dng nh l Xeva dng sin ta c:
sin( AB; AA 2 ) sin( BA; BB 2 ) sin(CA; CC 2 )
sin( AA 1 ; AC) sin( BB1 ; BC) sin(CC1 ; CB)
.
.

.
.
1
sin( AC ; AA 2 ) sin( BC ; BB 2 ) sin(CB; CC 2 )
sin( AA 1 ; AB) sin( BB1 ; BA) sin(CC1 ; CA )
Suy ra
*Ch thch: k hiu

ng quy ti im

ca tam gic.
tng ng vi

II.4)im Gergonne,im Nobb, ng thng Gergone


1)Kt qu v im Gergonne:Tam gic ABC vi ng trn ni tip (I).Tip im ca (I) trn
BC,CA,AB ln lt l D,E,F.Khi AD,BE,CF ng quy ti mt im gi l im Gergonne ca tam
gic ABC.

100

Ch dn chng minh:
Ch cn dng nh l Ceva v cc kt qu n gin : DB=DC,EA=EC,FA=FB l ra.
2)Kt qu v im Nobb v ng thng Gergonne(Vn vi cc k hiu trn)Mt tam gic
khng cn c 3 im Nobb tng ng l giao im ca cc cp ng thng EF v CB ,DE v
AB ,DF v AC. V 3 im Nobb cng nm trn mt ng thng gi l ng thng Gergonne ca
tam gic ABC.
Ch dn chng minh:
Xt cc v i cc i vi (I).
ng i cc ca A l EF i qua M,nn ng i cc ca M i qua A.
Mt khc d thy ng i cc ca M i qua D nn suy ra ng i cc ca M l AD.
Hon ton tng t ta c:
ng i cc ca N l BE v ng i cc ca P l CF
Theo trn ,do AD,BE,CF ng quy nn s c iu phi chng minh.
Bnh lun: Kt qu trn c th m rng nh sau:
Cho tam gic ABC v 3 im D,E,F theo th t thuc BC,CA,AB sao cho
AD,BE,CF ng quy v D,E,F khc trung im on thng.Gi M,N,P ln lt l im chung ca
cc cp ng thng (EF,BC) ,(DF,CA) ,(DE,AB).Khi M,N,P thng hng
Bn c th chng minh kt qu trn bng nh l Menelaus nhng thm ch bi ton m rng ny
cng ch l trng hp c bit ca nh l Desargues m thi!!!!
(Xem them hai file : FG200821.bdf ; jcgeg200722.bdf)

II.5)im Nagel
Kt qu:.Cho tam gic
. Cc ng trn bng tip xc vi 3 cnh tng ng nh ln lt
ti
th ta c 3 ng thng
ng quy ti im
ca tam gic.

101

Ch dn chng minh:
Ta c:

Suy ra dpcm
*Ch thch:

II.6) im Brocard
nh ngha:Trong mt tam gic ABC cho trc c hai im Brocard M,N c xc nh sao cho:
v

II.7)im Schiffler

nh ngha:Cho tam gic


Euler ca tam gic

l tm ng trn ni tip tam gic.Khi 4 ng thng


v
ng quy ti im
ca tam gic.

102

Ch dn chng minh:
Gi
l tm ng trn ngoi tip tam gic,

l trng tm tam gic,

l trung im

l trng tm tam gic


ct
ti
ct
ti
tip xc vi cnh
ti
ct
ti
, ct
ti
.
R rng
l tm ng trn ngoi tip tam gic
.Do
l ng thng Euler ca tam
gic
.
p dng nh l Menelaus cho tam gic
vi ct tuyn
ta c:
.
Suy ra:
Ap dng nh l Menelaus cho tam gic

Do

vi ct tuyn

ta c:

l trng tm tam gic IBC nn

Do :

Tng t ta thy cc ng thng Euler ca cc tam gic


xc nh bi h thc
)
Vy cc ng thng Euler ca 4 tam gic

cng ct
v

ti

(c

ng quy ti

(Xem them FG200312.bdf)

103

II.8)im Feuerbach
Kt qu:Trong mt tam gic ,ng trn Euler tip xc vi ng trn ni tip ca n,v tip
im c gi l im Feuerbach ca tam gic trn.

Ch dn chng minh:(leductam post)


Gi
l tm ng trn Euler, ngoi tip, ni tip ca tam gic
l ng knh vung gc vi
l hnh chiu ca
ln
ngoi tip, ni tip.
l chn ng phn gic gc

.
l trc tm,
l bn knh ng trn

1.ng trn Euler tip xc trong vi ng trn ni tip.


Ta d dng chng minh c
V

104

suy ra
Chng minh tip:
V
nn
m
cn ti
do
Vy
Chiu h thc trn ln

(1)

theo phng vung gc vi

ta c:

(2)
T (1) v (2) ta suy ra:
(3)
Ta c:

(4)
T (3) v (4) ta c:
Vy

suy ra dpcm.

Hon ton tng t ta cng c:


2.ng trn Euler tip xc ngoi vi cc ng trn bng tip
T
k
vung gc vi
do
nn
T (2) ta c:
Vy
Mt khc:

(5)
nn:
(6)

T (5) v (6) ta c:
T
k

(7)
. Trong tam gic vung

ta c:

(8)
T (7) v (8) ta c:

105

Vy

suy ra dpcm

(Xem them BalticFeuer; GenFeuerPDF; FG200117)

II.4)im Gergonne,im Nobb, ng thng Gergone


1)Kt qu v im Gergonne:Tam gic ABC vi ng trn ni tip (I).Tip im ca (I) trn
BC,CA,AB ln lt l D,E,F.Khi AD,BE,CF ng quy ti mt im gi l im Gergonne ca tam
gic ABC.

Ch dn chng minh:
Ch cn dng nh l Ceva v cc kt qu n gin : DB=DC,EA=EC,FA=FB l ra.
2)Kt qu v im Nobb v ng thng Gergonne(Vn vi cc k hiu trn)Mt tam gic
khng cn c 3 im Nobb tng ng l giao im ca cc cp ng thng EF v CB ,DE v
AB ,DF v AC. V 3 im Nobb cng nm trn mt ng thng gi l ng thng Gergonne ca
tam gic ABC.
Ch dn chng minh:
Xt cc v i cc i vi (I).
ng i cc ca A l EF i qua M,nn ng i cc ca M i qua A.
Mt khc d thy ng i cc ca M i qua D nn suy ra ng i cc ca M l AD.
Hon ton tng t ta c:
ng i cc ca N l BE v ng i cc ca P l CF
Theo trn ,do AD,BE,CF ng quy nn s c iu phi chng minh.
Bnh lun: Kt qu trn c th m rng nh sau:
Cho tam gic ABC v 3 im D,E,F theo th t thuc BC,CA,AB sao cho
AD,BE,CF ng quy v D,E,F khc trung im on thng.Gi M,N,P ln lt l im chung ca
cc cp ng thng (EF,BC) ,(DF,CA) ,(DE,AB).Khi M,N,P thng hng

106

Bn c th chng minh kt qu trn bng nh l Menelaus nhng thm ch bi ton m rng ny


cng ch l trng hp c bit ca nh l Desargues m thi!!!!

II.9)im Kosnita
nh ngha.Cho tam gic
l tm ng trn ngoi tip tam gic.Gi
cc ng trn ngoi tip tam gic
.Khi ba ng thng
ng quy ti im
ca tam gic.

Ch dn chng minh:
Gi
tng ng l giao im ca
Ta c:

Tng t vi im

l tm
v

vi

ri sau nhn cc t l thc vi nhau ta c dpcm

II.8)im Feuerbach
Kt qu:Trong mt tam gic ,ng trn Euler tip xc vi ng trn ni tip ca n,v tip
im c gi l im Feuerbach ca tam gic trn.

107

Ch dn chng minh:(leductam post)


Gi
l tm ng trn Euler, ngoi tip, ni tip ca tam gic
l ng knh vung gc vi
l hnh chiu ca
ln
ngoi tip, ni tip.
l chn ng phn gic gc

.
l trc tm,
l bn knh ng trn

1.ng trn Euler tip xc trong vi ng trn ni tip.


Ta d dng chng minh c
V
suy ra
(1)
Chng minh tip:
V
nn
m
cn ti
do
Vy
Chiu h thc trn ln
theo phng vung gc vi
ta c:

T (1) v (2) ta suy ra:


(3)
Ta c:

(2)

108

(4)
T (3) v (4) ta c:
Vy
suy ra dpcm.
Hon ton tng t ta cng c:
2.ng trn Euler tip xc ngoi vi cc ng trn bng tip
T {I}_{a} k {I}_{a}{X}_{a} vung gc vi BC do {I}_{a}S = SI nn {X}_{a}M = MN
T (2) ta c:

Vy
Mt khc:

(5)
nn:
(6)

T (5) v (6) ta c:
T
k

(7)
. Trong tam gic vung

ta c:

(8)
T (7) v (8) ta c:

Vy

suy ra dpcm

B sung mt chng minh khc bng php nghch o :


Xt

c:

+ ng trn ni tip
+ ng trn

bng tip trong gc

+ ng trn Euler
K tip tuyn chung
v

). Gi

tip xc vi

theo th t ti
tip xc vi

ti

qua trung im 3 cnh


ca

tip xc vi chng ln lt ti

l tm v t trong ca

.
.
. (ch l

Ta c:

109

Nu

th hin nhin

tip xc vi

Khi ,

nn ta ch quan tm n trng hp

nn theo h thc Newton,

, li c

nn suy ra

.
Cui cng, xt php nghch o cc

, phng tch
. Nhng

tip xc vi

cn bn thn 2 ng trn ny bt bin qua php nghch o ang xt nn ta cng c

cng tip xc vi

Lp lun tng t cho thy

.
tip xc vi

Kt thc chng minh!


B :
1, tam gic

l phn gic. im

2, t gic
ni tip c, khi
v
ng quy.

nm trong mt phng tam gic th


phn gic gc

II.10)im Musselman,nh l Paul Yiu v im Musselman


Kt qu: Cho tam gic

. Cc im

ln lt l im i xng vi

qua

cc cnh i din v
l tm ng trn ngoi tip. Khi
v
cng
i qua 1 im l nh ca im
qua php nghch o ng trn ngoi tip tam gic
.
Ch dn chng minh:

110

Gi
v
ln lt l nh ca im
gic
.
Khi ta c:

qua php nghch o ng trn ngoi tip tam

Suy ra
By gi ta cn chng minh 3 im

thng hng.

Ta c b tm t c ca im
v tm ng trn chn im
do im
v tm ng trn chn im l 2 im ng gic ca tam gic
Mt khc
- tm ng trn ngoi tip v
- trc tm cng l 2 im ng gic ca tam gic
nn suy ra
Ta cng d dng chng minh c
Vy

hay ni cch khc 4 im

cng nm trn 1 ng trn

Tng t vi cc ng trn cn li ta suy ra dpcm


im
c gi l im
ca tam gic
nh l Paul Yiu v im Musselman: Vi gi thit nh trn th 3 ng trn
v
Ch dn chng minh:

cng i qua im

111

V nh l ny em xin trch dn trc tip li gii ca Darij Grinberg:


Theo chng minh trn th im

nm trn

nn ta c:

Ta c:

Mt khc:
Vy
hay
v
cng nm trn ng trn.
Tng t vi cc ng trn khc ta suy ra dpcm

112

II.11)Khi nim vng cc ca tam gic.


Khi nim::Cho tam gic t
. Chn cc ng cao i din cc nh l
Khi vng cc ca tam gic l ng trn c tm l
v bn knh xc nh vi
Trong :
- bn knh ng trn ngoi tip
- di 3 cnh tam gic
- 3 gc tam gic

Ngoi ra ta c 1 tnh cht ca vng cc l: cho 3 im bt k chuyn ng trn cc ng cnh


ca tam gic ABC dng cc ng trn c ng knh l on thng ni 1 nh vi im chuyn
ng trn cnh i din th khi vng cc ca tam gic trc giao vi tt c cc ng trn .

II.12)im Gibert
Kt qu:: Cho tam gic
v im
- nh ca im
qua php
nghch o ng trn ngoi tip tam gic
. Gi
l im i xng vi im
qua cc ng cnh ca tam gic. Khi cc ng thng
v
ng quy ti im nm trn ng trn ngoi tip tam gic
Ch dn chng minh:

113

Gi giao im ca
v
l
th ta c:
M 1G j B M 1 AB M 2 BA MA1 B MB1 A MC1 B MC1 A AC1 B C
Vy
nm trn ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC.
Chng minh tng t vi
v
ta suy ra dpcm

II13/Trc Lemoine
nh l:
Cho tam gic ABC ni tip ng trn
.Tip tuyn ti A ca ng trn ct ng thng BC ti
X.nh ngha tng t cho Y,Z.Chng minh rng X,Y,Z thng hng v ng thng cha X,Y,Z
c gi l trc Lemoine ca tam gic ABC

114

Chng minh:
Khng mt tnh tng qut gi s hai vecto
ng dng vi nhau suy ra:

cng hng.Do hai tam gic ABX v CXA

Nhn hai ng thc trn vi nhau suy ra:


Do X nm ngoi tam gic nn suy ra:

Tng t ta c hai ng thc sau:

Nhn ba ng thc vi nhau ta c:

115

Theo nh l Menelaus th ba im X,Y,Z ng quy.


Chng minh (2):
Ta s chng minh ng i cc ca X,Y,Z i vi
ABC.
Edit later...

ln lt l ba ng i trung ca tam gic

II.14)Tm Morley
Kt qu::Tm
th nht c nh ngha l tm ng trn ngoi tip ca tam gic
Morley th nht. Tm
th hai c nh ngha l tm phi cnh ca tam gic
vi
tam gic Morley th nht.
Ch dn chng minh:

p dng nh l tri Xeva cho 3 ng thng ng quy l

ta c:

m
Suy ra

2
1
ABC sin BCA
sin BAA 1
3
3

.
1
2
sinCAA1
sin CBA sin ACB
3
3
sin

Tng t vi cc ng cn li ta c dpcm

II.15) Tm Spieker v ng thng Nagel


Kt qu:Cho tam gic
. Gi
ng trn ni tip tam gic

l tm

ln lt l trung im ca
v
. Tm
ca tam gic ABC.Khi 4 im tm

116

ng trn ni tip, trng tm, im


ca tam gic
Ch dn chng minh:

Ta c php v t tm

Xt im

t s

bin tam gic

v tm

cng nm trn ng thng

thnh tam gic

nn suy ra

(1)
c b s tm t c:

(2)
T (1) v (2) ta suy ra im
v
cng nm trn 1 ng thng.
Ngoi ra ta cn 1 vi tnh cht ca im Spieker nh n l tm ng phng ca 3 ng trn
bng tip tam gic ABC, tm Spieker, im Brocard th 3 v im ng c vi tm ng trn
ni tip thng hng...

II.16)Hai im Fermat
Kt qu:Cho tam gic
. Dng ra pha ngoi(vo trong) cc tam gic u
. Khi tm phi cnh ca tam gic
v tam gic
c gi l im
th nht(th hai) hay ngi ta cn gi l im
dng(m).
Ch dn chng minh:

117

Gi giao im ca

Tng t vi

ln lt vi

ta c:

ta c:

ZA XB YC
sin( AP; AC ) sin( BM ; BA) sin(CN ; CB )
.
.

.
.
ZB XC YA
sin( BP; BC ) sin(CM ; CA) sin( AN ; AB )

Mt khc:
( AP; AC ) ( AP; AB ) ( AB; AC ) ( AC ; AN ) ( AB; AC ) ( AB; AN ) mod 2

Tng t ta suy ra dpcm


Ngoi ra:

118

Trong :
l ln din tch tam gic
Xem them

The Fermat Point and Generalizations


P. Fermat (1601-1665) challenged Evangelista Torricelli(*) (1608-1647), the inventor of barometer with the
following question
Find the point such that the sum of its distances from the vertices of a triangle is a minimum.
Torricelli presented several solutions. In one he observed that the circumcircles of the equilateral triangles
constructed externally on the sides of a given triangle meet in a point. Many more have been found since.
I'll present several solutions and two quite surprising generalizations.

Solution 1
(Published by Joseph Ehrenfried Hofmann (1900--1973) in 1929. It was independently discovered by Tibor
Galai and others [Honsberger, p. 26].)
In ABC, select a point P and connect it with vertices A, B, and C. Rotate ABP 60 o around B into position
C'BP'. By construction, BPP' is equilateral, PB = P'B, and PA = C'P'. We thus have PA + PB + PC = C'P' + P'P +
PC. As the image of A under the rotation, position of C' does not depend on P. Also, PA + PB + PC

CC'

because the broken line CPP'C' is no shorter than the straight line CC'. Therefore, PA + PB + PC reaches its
minimum iff P lies on CC'. For this P,
that

BPC' = 60o. Had we rotated ABP around A, we would have found

APC' = 60o.

The result is clearly related to Napoleon's theorem. On the sides of ABC construct equilateral triangles
ABC', ACB', and BCA'. We know that the Fermat point P that minimizes the sum PA + PB + PC lies on CC'. By
the same token, it lies on AA' and BB'. Therefore, it lies on their intersection. As far as Napoleon's theorem
goes, the three lines AA', BB', and CC' are concurrent. (This was already known to Thomas Simpson (1710--

119

1761).) Not only that but they cross at angles equal 120 o. Furthermore, AA' = BB' = CC' since each of them
equals PA + PB + PC for the Fermat point P.
So the Fermat point is unique and lies at the intersection of three straight lines that connect vertices of
the triangle with opposite vertices of Napoleon's triangles. The construction fails if one of the internal
angles of ABC is 120o or more. In this case, the vertex corresponding to the largest angle of the triangle
solves Fermat's problem.
(There is a dynamic illustration pertinent to the above proof.)

Solution 2

This solution only works under the assumption that the Fermat point exists and is unique. Let for a given
ABC, P be that point. Let's move, say, A a little into position A1 on the ray PA. Will P move along into a
different position? Assuming it will and denoting its new position as P 1, we arrive at contradiction. Indeed,
for ABC,
PA + PB + PC < P1A + P1B + P1C
Also, by our assumption for A1BC,
P1A1 + P1B + P1C < PA1 + PB + PC
Summing up and cancelling, we get
PA + P1A1 < PA1 + P1A
Recollect that we selected A1 on the ray PA so that PA1 + A1A = PA. Which leads to

120

AA1 + P1A1 < P1A


which is of course absurd. Therefore, when A slides along the ray PA, point P does not change. Slide then
vertices A and B so as to make ABC equilateral. This is always possible. For example, start with sliding A
so as to make AB = BC. The triangle ABC becomes isosceles. It is obvious that, for an isosceles triangle, the
Fermat point lies on the axis of symmetry of the triangle. For this reason, the triangle remains isosceles
wherever B is located on that axis. Slide it so as to make all three sides of ABC equal. For an equilateral
triangle, its centroid that also serves as the incenter and the circumcenter, serves as the Fermat point as
well.

Solution 3
([Honsberger, p. 26] ascribes this solution to Torricelli himself and mentions that it was rediscovered
almost 300 years later by F. Riesz. In a private communication, Douglas Rogers mentioned that the solution
has been also proposed by J. Steiner. Thus the same object that is most frequently referred to as Fermat's
point, Torricelli's point and Fermat-Torricelli point, is sometimes also named after J. Steiner, as Steiner's
point, especially in the framework of Steiner's networks. [Tikhomirov, p. 31] and [Courant and Robbins, p.
354] even refer to Fermat's problem as Steiner's. [Johnson, p. 221] attributes the present solution to
Steiner.)
The following solution depends on explicit knowledge of the fact that, for Fermat's point,
=

AFB =

BFC

AFC = 120o. Without proving that such a point exists, it shows that, if it does, it solves Fermat's

problem.

121

At the vertices of ABC draw perpendiculars to lines AF, BF, and CF. The new lines form an equilateral
triangle RST. Let F1 be a point different from F. Drop perpendiculars F 1A1, F1B1 and F1C1 to the sides of RST.
It's a nice property (known as Viviani's theorem) of equilateral triangles that in RST,
FA + FB + FC = F1A1 + F1B1 + F1C1.
(The sum of the distances from a point inside an equilateral triangle to the sides of the triangle does not
depend on the point. )
On the other hand, obviously,
F1A1 + F1B1 + F1C1 < F1A + F1B + F1C
All that remains is to combine the two.
(Douglas Rogers made a delightful observation. RST is the largest equilateral triangle circumscribing
ABC. According to Viviani's theorem, FA, FB, FC add up to the altitude of RST. For any other equlateral
LMN curcumscribing ABC, at least one of FA, FB, or FC is not perpendicular to the side and hence is
longer than such perpenduclar. It follows that the sum FA + FB + FC is bound to be larger than the alititude
of LMN. This implies that the side of LMN is smaller than that of RST. In passing, RST is known as the
antipedal triangle of F with respect two ABC.)

122

Solution 4
(The proof by Lou Talman is found on one of the discussions at the mathforum. Still very simple, it uses a
little bit of analytic geometry and calculus. This is probably very close to one of Torricelli's original
proofs.)
One can see that the Fermat point does minimize FA + FB + FC as follows: Let z be the sum FA + FB, where
F is chosen to minimize FA + FB + FC, and consider the locus of points P that satisfy PA + PB = z. This locus
is an ellipse with foci at A and B. Because F minimizes z + FC, the line determined by C and F must be
normal to the tangent to this ellipse at F. By the reflection property of the ellipse, the angles AFC and BFC
must be equal. A similar argument shows that the angles AFC (say) and AFB must also be equal. From this it
follows that the three angles are all 120 degrees.

Solution 5
(The argument is similar to that in Solution 4, but from a different perspective. [F. G.-M., p. 442] credits
Lhuilier (1811) with the proof.)
Assume FC is constant. Then point F that minimizes FA + FB + FC, minimizes also FA + FB and lies on the
circle with center C and radius FC. The minimum is achieved for a point F on the circle for which the
angles AFC and BFC are equal.

123

For more detail, draw a tangent to the circle at F and choose any point G on the tangent other than F. Let
H be the intersection of HC with the circle. Then, assuming angles AFC and BFC equal,
FA + FB < GA + GB < HA + HB
(The latter inequality warrants extra attention. It follows from the fact the various ellipses with foci at A
and B do not intersect.) From here,
FA + FB + FC < HA + HB + FC = HA + HB + HC.
The argument can be repeated assuming either FA or FB constant. As a result, at Fermat's point F all three
angles AFC, BFC and AFB are found to be equal.

Solution 6
Fermat's point can be located with the help of Euler's generalization of Ptolemy's Theorem, see [Pedoe,
pp. 93-94].

124

Any triangle has at least two acute angles. Given ABC, let angles at B and C be acute. Form an equlateral
triangle BCD, with D and A on opposite sides of BC. Let (O) be the circumcircle of BCD.
For a point Q, by Ptolemy's inequality
BQCD + CQBD DQBC,
with equality only if Q lies on (O) and such that the quadrilateral BQCD is convex. Note that, by
construction, BC = CD = BD which reduces the above to
BQ + CQ DQ.
Therefore
AQ + BQ + CQ AQ + DQ AD.
Unless, Q lies on AD, AQ + BQ + CQ > AD. Let P be the intersection of AD with (O) other than D. BPCD is an
inscribed convex quadrilateral and P lies on AD. So in this (and only in this) case AP + BP + CP = AD. For any
other selection of Q,
AQ + BQ + CQ > AP + BP + CP.

125

Angle BPC is supplementary to

BDC = 60 so that

BPC = 120. Further, D is in the middle of the arc

BDC so that angles BPD and CPD are 60 making angles APC and APB both equal 120.
If the triangle is acute the same construction applies to the other two sides which brings up the framework
of Napoleon's theorem. The three circles intersect at Fermat's point and three lines joining the vertices of
ABC with the opposite vertices of the Napoleon triangles concur at the point P.
The latter fact can be used for a more direct proof.

Solution 7
(This was a part of a solution by Grimbal to a problem posted at the wu::forum.)

Construct Napoleon's equilateral triangles ABC', AB'C', A'BC externally on the sides of ABC. Let P be the
intersection of AA' and BB'. AA' is CC' rotated clockwise 60 about B, and BB' is CC' rotated
counterclockwise 60 about A, it follows that angle APB' is 60. Let X be the point on BB' making triangle
APX equilateral. Now, if BB' is rotated clockwise 60 about A, then X goes to P, B' to C, and B to C'. Hence
P, C, and C' are collinear; and so AA', BB', and CC' are concurrent, and any two of these lines make an angle
of 120.

126

Searching for the Fermat point we discovered a nice property of Napoleon's triangles. I
found quite surprising generalizations of those properties in a column by David Gale in The Mathematical
Intelligencer which was kindly pointed out to me by Professor McWorter.
Two lines passing through a vertex of a triangle are called isogonal with respect to that vertex if they form
equal angles with its (internal) angle bisector. Following is the first generalization.

Theorem 1
As in the diagram, assume lines AB' and AC' are isogonal as are pairs CB', CA' and BA', BC'. Then three lines
AA', BB', and CC' are concurrent, i.e., meet at a common point.

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Napoleon's theorem is obtained when all three angles involved are equal to 30 o. The common point is then
known as the First Napoleon point. (The Second Napoleon Point is obtained when the equlateral triangles
are formed internally to the given triangle. Similarly, there are two Fermat's points, which are also known
as the first and second isogonic centers.) If the base angles are just equal between themselves, the
theorem bears the name of Ludwig Kiepert who replaced equilateral triangles with isosceles ones. An
interesting specification of the theorem is obtained when the three angles add up to 180 o. But the
theorem also admits further generalization.

127

In Theorem 1, pairs of (isogonal) lines were related to angle


bisectors. As is well known from elementary geometry, angle
bisectors meet at a single point (incidentally, the incenter of the
triangle.)
Two lines AB' and AC' through a vertex A of a triangle are said to be isotomic if they intersect the opposite
side BC in points equidistant from its midpoint Ma. Theorem 1 remains valid for isotomic lines as well. And,
in a certain sense, for any three concurrent lines.
A second generalization that I am about to formulate and then prove belongs to the realm of Projective
Geometry.

Theorem 2
Let p, q, r be concurrent lines through the vertices A, B, and C, respectively, of ABC. Let P A be the pencil
of lines at A and let TA be the (unique) projective mapping on PA which
1. interchanges lines AB and AC,
2. leaves p fixed.
Define PA, PB, and TA, TB similarly. For any line a in PA, let a' = TA(a). Similarly, for b in PB and c in PC, let
b' = TB(b) and c' = TC(c). Let C' = a'

b, B' = c'

a, and A' = b'

c.

Then AA', BB', and CC' are concurrent.

Note that (an apparently more general) Theorem 2 follows from Theorem 1 with a projective mapping that
leaves vertices A,B,C fixed but takes the incenter into any point P (the intersection of lines p, q, r.)
To prove Theorem 2, perform the projective mapping that carries C to the origin, A to the point at infinity
at y-axis, B to the point at infinity at x-axis, and P to the point (1, 1).
Lines p, q, and r are carried onto the lines x = 1, y = 1, and x = y, respectively. We thus have
PA is the set of all vertical lines,

128

PB is the set of all horizontal lines,


PC is the set of all lines through the origin.
Transformation TA preserves the vertical direction and, therefore, is in reality a 1-dimensional projective
transformation. So it's a Mbius transformation which, in general, has the form f(x) = (ax + b)/(cx + d).
Transformations that interchange x = 0 with the point at infinity are given by f(x) = a + b/x (c = 1 and
d = 0.) Among those, there is a single one that leaves x = 1 fixed: f(x) = 1/x. So TA maps x = a onto x = 1/a.
To simplify the notations, we will denote the vertical line with x = a by a, the horizontal line y = b by b,
and the line y = cx through the origin, by c. Then with similar definitions for TB and TC we have
a' = TA(a) = 1/a, b' = TB(b) = 1/b, and c' = TC(c)
Further

C' = a'

b = (1/a, b),

B' = c'

a = (a, a/c), and

A' = b'

c = (1/(bc), 1/b).

Thus AA' has equation x = 1/(bc), BB' has equation y = a/c, and CC' has equation y = (ab)x. Then, AA'

BB'

= (1/(bc), a/c) which lies on the line CC'.

II.17)im Parry reflection.


Kt qu:: Cho tam gic

. K qua

cc ng thng

song song vi nhau v

song song vi ng thng Euler ca tam gic. Gi


ln lt l cc ng i xng vi
qua
v
. Khi cc ng ny ng quy ti im Parry reflection ca tam
gic ABC.
Ch dn chng minh:

129

Gi

l trc tm tam gic


,
l nh ca
qua php i xng trc
v
. Php v t tm
t s bin tam gic
thnh tam gic
khi 2
ng thng
ca 2 tam gic ny trng nhau.
Gi
l giao im ca
vi
v
Ta c: HA2 AA 2 AH 2(AX OP) 2( AH HM OP) 2( HM MN ) 2 HN
Vy
cng l nh ca
qua php i xng trc
Da vo tnh cht ng dng ta suy ra c ng thng
qua trc

i xng vi ng thng

Tng t vi cc ng thng cn li ta suy ra 3 ng thng

ng quy theo nh l

(Xem them File FG200806.bdf)

130

II.18)ng trn Taylor ,tm Taylor


Kt qu:.Cho tam gic
cc ng cao
. T
k cc ng
vung gc vi cc cnh khi chn cc ng vung gc ny nm trn cng 1 ng trn gi l
ng trn
ca tam gic
Ch dn chng minh:

Ta c:
Vy 4 im
cng nm trn 1 ng trn.
Tng t vi 2 b 4 im
v
.
Ta c:
Vy 4 im

cng cng nm trn 1 ng trn hay ta suy ra c dpcm

II.19)im Bevan
Kt qu:. Cho tam gic
trn ngoi tip tam gic

l tm cc ng trn bng tip. Khi tm ng


c gi l im
ca tam gic
.

131

Sau y ta s n vi 1 vi tnh cht cua im


:
*Ta thy rng
l tm ng trn ni tip tam gic
chnh l trc tm ca tam gic
khi ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC l ng trn chn im ca tam gic
suy ra
l trung im ca
*Tm
l trung im ca on ni trc tm vi im
.
u tin ta chng minh 3 im ny thng hng.
Xt tam gic
ta c:
BI HO S p G
2 3 1
.
.
. . 1
1 2 3
BO HG S p I
Vy 3 im ny thng hng.
Xt tam gic
ta c 3 im

thng hng suy ra:

Vy ta c dpcm
*im
l trung im ca on ni im
v im
.
im
l im i xng ca trc tm qua tm ng trn ngoi tip.
Khi tng t nh trn ta cng c c dpcm

132

II.20)im Vecten
Kt qu:. Cho tam gic
. Dng ra pha ngoi(hay vo trong) cc hnh vung
v
. Khi ng ni 1 nh ca tam gic vi tm hnh vung dng
trn cnh i din ng quy ti im Vecten ca tam gic
.
Ch dn chng minh:

Theo nh l

th iu ny hin nhin v cng d dng suy ra c c 2 im

133

trong v ngoi(hay m v dng).


Ngoi ra ta cn c 1 tnh cht kh th v v im
thng hng.

: Tm ng trn chn im v 2 im

II.21)im Mittenpunkt
Kt qu: Cho tam gic
,
l tm cc ng trn bng tip,
trung im cc cnh
. Khi cc ng thng
im
ca tam gic
.
Ch dn chng minh:

ln lt l
ng quy ti

sin I c cos I a
sin I b cos I a
Ia Ic
Ia Ib
sin I b
sin I c
sin I b . cos I a
sin I b . cos I a
MC
MB 0
Chiu h thc theo phng
ln trc
ta c:
sin I c
sin I c
Ta c: 2 I a A1 I a B I a C

Tng t vi cc ng cn li ta suy ra dpcm


2
2
2
Ta c: M ((sin I a ) : (sin I b ) : (sin I c ) ) ((cos

A 2
B
C
) : (cos ) 2 : (cos ) 2 )
2
2
2

Ngoi ra ta cn c 1 vi tnh cht bn l kh th v: Vi gi thit nh trn gi


l im tip
xc ca ng trn ni tip tam gic
vi 3 cnh th
ng quy. Khi im
ny v im
l 2 im ng gic.

134

*im
*im
*im

, tm
v trc tm thng hng
, tm ng trn ni tip v im
thng hng.
, trng tm va im
thng hng vi

II.22)im Napoleon
Kt qu:.Cho tam gic
, dng ra pha ngoi( hay vo trong) cc tam gic u
v
. Khi ng ni 1 nh ca tam gic vi trng tm tam gic u dng
trn cnh i din ng quy ti im Napoleon ca tam gic
.
Ch dn chng minh:

p dng nh l
ngoi

ta suy ra dpcm cng d dng suy ra c 2 im

l trong v

II.23)ng trn Adam


Kt qu:Cho tam gic ABC vi im Gergonne G.ng thng qua G song song vi EF ct AB,AC
S,P.ng thng qua G song song vi DE ct AC,BC Q,M.ng thng qua G song song vi
DF ct BA,BC R,N.Khi cc im M,N,P,Q,R,S cng thuc mt ng trn gi l ng trn
Adam ca tam gic ABC.

135

Ch dn chng minh:

Gi (I) l ng trn ni tip tam gic ABC,tip im ca (I) trn BC,CA,AB ln lt l


D,E,F.ng thng qua A v G song song vi BC tng ng ct DE,DF (H,K),(V,T).
Ta thy:
.
Do AH=AK nn GT=GV.
By gi rng GTDN v GVDM l hai hnh bnh hnh nn ta cng c DM=DN.
Kt hp vi ID vung gc vi BC ta thu c IM=IN.
Tng t IP=IQ,IR=IS
Mt khc d thy :IM=IQ=IR.
T cc khng nh trn ta d nhn c iu cn chng minh.

II.24)Tam gic Fuhrmann ,ng trn Fuhrmann


Kt qu:Cho tam gic
ni tip ng trn tm
. Gi
l trung im cc
cung BC, CA, AB. Ly cc im trn i xng qua cc cnh tng ng ta c 3 im na l
v
.Khi y tam gic
c gi l tam gic
ca tam gic

136

ng trn ngoi tip tam gic

c gi l ng trn

Tnh cht:
1) S

( a 3 a 2 b 3abc) S ABC

(b c a )(a c b)(a b c)

(a b c )OI 2
4R

2)

3)Trc tm ca tam gic


trng vi tm ng trn ni tip ca tam gic
( chng minh ta c th s dng tch v hng)
4)Tm ng trn chn im ca tam gic
ng trn ngoi tip tam gic

v tam gic
c di bng

trng nhau. Bn knh

II.25)Hnh luc gic v ng trn Lemoine th nht


Kt qu:Cho tam gic
v im
cc cnh ct cc cnh cn li ti
gic
th nht ca tam gic

. Qua
k cc ng thng song song vi
. Khi y lc gic
c gi l lc
.

137

Tnh cht:
1)Lc gic
th nht l lc gic ngoi tip. ng trn ngoi tip lc gic ny c gi
l ng trn
th nht:
Do
l ng thng i trung i qua trung im ca
nn
l ng i song tng
ng cnh
. Suy ra t gic
l t gic ni tip.
2)Cc cnh b kp gia cc ng song song
t l vi ly tha bc ba cnh tng ng:
Gi x, y, z l khong cch t L ti 3 cnh tam gic. Khi :

3)3 on trn cng 1 cnh t l vi bnh phng cc cnh ca tam gic


4)Tm ca ng trn Lemoine th nht l trung im on ni im Lemoine vi tm ng
trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC:

vung gc vi
khi ta d dng suy ra c dpcm.
5)Bn knh
Ngoi ra ta cn c cch vit khc:
Trong

l bn knh ng trn Lemoine th hai(s c ni n trong phn sau)

138

II.26)Hnh lc gic v ng trn Lemoine th hai


Khi nim v ng i song:Cho tam gic
. Vi 2 im
bt k thuc cc cnh
v
ta c 2 kiu chn
sao cho tam gic
ng dng vi tam gic
. Th
nht l
song song vi
Th hai l t gic
ni tip nh hnh v. Khi y
v
c gi l cc ng i song tng ng vi gc
Tnh cht:ng i trung lun i qua trung im ca cc ng i song tng ng vi cng 1
nh.

Kt qu:Cho tam gic


v im
. Qua
vi cc cnh ca tam gic
ct cc cnh cn li ti
c gi l lc gic
th hai.

Tnh cht:
1)Lc gic

k cc ng i song tng ng
Khi lc gic

th hai ni tip 1 ng trn v ng trn ny c gi l ng trn


th hai ca tam gic ABC.

139

2)Bn knh
Thc cht lc gic
v ng trn

v ng trn
. Xem thm trong

ch l trng hp c bit ca lc gic

II.27)im Euler ca T gic ni tip


Kt qu:Cho t gic ni tip
. Gi
ln lt l trc tm cc tam gic
v
. Khi y th cc ng thng
v
ng
quy. im ng quy c gi l im
ca t gic ni tip.

Ch dn chng minh:
Ta c
song song v cng bng 2 ln khong cch t
ti
nn t gic
l hnh bnh hnh suy ra
giao nhau ti trung im mi ng.
Tng t ta suy ra bn ng thng ng quy ti trung im mi ng.
T y ta suy ra c nhiu tnh cht th v ca im
1)im
nm trn ng vung gc h t trung im mt cnh ti cnh i din(hoc
trung im ng cho ti ng cho cn li).
2)ng thng
cc nh cn li.

ca nh

vi tam gic

3)ng trn chn im ca cc tam gic

th i qua im

. Tng t vi

ng quy ti im

Xem thm

140

II.28)ng thng Steiner ca t gic ton phn


Kt qu:Cho t gic ton phn
Khi trc tm ca cc tam gic
v
cng nm trn 1 ng thng c gi l ng thng
ca t gic ton phn.

Ch dn chng minh:
Gi
ln lt l trc tm cc tam gic
Gi
l trung im cc ng cho
Khi :

Vy
nm trn trc ng phng ca 2 ng trn
v
Tng t ta cng c 3 trc tm cn li cng nm trn trc ng phng ca hai ng trn ny
suy ra dpcm.

II.29)ng thng Gauss ca t gic ton phn.


Kt qu:Cho t gic ton phn
mt ng thng c gi l ng thng

. Khi trung im cc ng cho cng nm trn


ca t gic ton phn.

141

Ch dn chng minh:
Gi
ln lt l trung im cc ng cho
l tam gic trung bnh ca tam gic
Khi cc im
nm trn cc cnh ca tam gic
Ta c:

v
.

Nhn cc v cc ng thc trn ta c:


MK NI PJ
EA FB DC
.
.

.
.
1
MI NJ PK
EC FA DB
Suy ra dpcm.
T 2 bi vit trn ta thy rng trong 1 t gic ton phn th ng thng Steiner vung gc vi
ng thng Gauss.

II.30) im Miquel ca t gic ton phn


Kt qu:Cho t gic ton phn
. Khi y ng trn ngoi tip ca cc tam gic
v
ng quy. im ng quy c gi l im
ca t
gic ton phn.

142

Ch dn chng minh:
Gi s ng trn ngoi tip cc tam gic
Khi ta c:

giao nhau ti im

khc

( MA; MC ) ( MA; ME ) ( ME ; MC ) ( FA; FE ) ( DE ; DC ) ( AF; AE ) ( AE ; FE ) ( DE ; DC )


( AF; AE ) ( EC ; ED ) ( DE ; DC ) ( AB; AC ) (CA; CB ) ( BC ; BA) ( AB; BC ) mod 2

Vy
nm trn ng trn ngoi tip tam gic
ra dpcm.

. Tng t vi ng trn cn li ta suy

II.31)ng trn Miquel ca t gic ton phn


Kt qu:Cho t gic ton phn
ngoi tip tam gic
ca t gic ton phn.

Khi im
v tm ca cc ng trn
cng nm trn 1 ng trn - ng trn

143

Ch dn chng minh:
Gi
v
ln lt l tm ng trn ngoi tip cc tam gic
.
Gi
ln lt l chn cc ng vung gc k t
ti
v
Do
l trung im ca
nn chng thng hng.
Theo nh l o v ng thng Simson ta c
cng nm trn 1 ng trn.
Tng t ta suy ra dpcm.

(Thm phn t gic ton phn km theo, File BDF)

II.32)Hnh bnh hnh Varignon ca t gic .


Kt qu:Cho t gic ABCD c M,N,P,Q ln lt l trung im ca AB,BC,CD,DA.Khi M,N,P,Q l
bn nh ca mt hnh bnh hnh gi l hnh bnh hnh Varignon ca t gic ABCD.
Ch dn chng minh:

144

Chng minh kt qu ny kh n gin,d thy MN,PQ tng ng l ng trung bnh ca cc tam


gic ABC v ACD th nn
Do vy MNPQ l mt hnh bnh hnh.

I.71)nh l Poncelet v bn knh ng trn ni tip,bng tip trong


tam gic vung.
nh l:Cho tam gic
c
ln lt l bn knh cc ng trn ni tip,
bng tip gc
.Chng minh rng: tam gic ABC vung ti A khi v ch khi
.

Chng minh::
Ta c:

tam gic

vung ti

(dpcm)

145