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Phylum

Porifera

Cnidaria

Mollusk

Annelid

Fishes

Amphibian

Body
Plan

asymmetrical
nofrontor
backends
cells
(choanocytes)
movewater
through
sponge
waterleaves
throughlarge
holeontopof
sponge
(osculum)
simple
skeleton,
harder
spongeshave
havespiny
spicule(spiked
shaped
skeleton)
spicules
madeupof
specialized
cells
softer
spongeshave
internal
skeletonmade
upofprotein

radially
symmetrical
central
mouth
surrounded
bytentacles
thatextend
outward
startsasa
polypand
changes
formto
medusa
polyp:
cylindrical
bodywith
armlike
tentacles,
mouthattop
medusa:
bellshaped
bodywith
mouthat
bottom,
leglike
tentacles
gastrovasc
ularcavity
inside
layer:

themuscular
foottakes
manyforms
includingflat
structuresfor
crawlingspade
structuresfor
burrowing,and
tentaclesfor
capturingprey
themantleis
athinlayerof
tissuethat
coversmostof
themollusk's
body
theshellis
madeof
glandsinthe
mantlethat
secrete
calcium
carbonate
visceralmass
holdsthe
internalorgans

segmented
nnnnnnnnnnccccccstrongback
Fishesare
bodies
legs
aquatic
truecoelom
roughskin
vertebratesthat
linedwith
givesoilsoff
are
mesoderm
throughpores
characterizedby
bodyseparated strongbony
apairof
bysepta
internal
fins,scales,and
septaare
structure
gills.
internalwalls
Fishare
betweeneach
bilateraland
segment
containa
somebody
backbone
segmentshave Notonlydo
morethanone
theyhave
pairofeyes,
backbonebut
severalpairsof theyalsohave
antennae,and
smallerbonesin
othersense
theirfins
organs

setaeorbristles
areonmany
annelids
respirationis
alsoafunction
ofsegments

Feeding

fibers

gatrodum
outside
layer:
epidermis
middle
layer:
mesoglea
^^^where
digestion
takesplace

filterfeeders
filter
microscopic
foodfrom
water
digestion
takesplace
insideofcells
water
circulates
throughbody
cavityandis
trappedby
choanocytes
particlesthen
arepassedto
archaeocytes
thendigested
foodfoodis
releasedoutof
sponge

first
cnidarian
paralyze
theirprey
pullprey
through
mouthand
intoits
gastrovascul
arcavity
digestion
beginsin
thatcavity
takesplace
outsideof
cells
partially
digested
food
absorbed
into
gastroderm

canbe
herbivores,
carnivores,filte
rfeeders,
detritivores,or
parasites
slugsand
snailsfeed
through
tongueshaped
structure
knownas
radula
herbivores
useradulato
scrapealgae
ofrocks
carnivores
usetheradula
todrillthrough
shellsandtear
upand

manygetfood
usingapharynx
twotypesof
feeders:filter
feedingor
predators
predator:
extendspharynx
pressingagainst
surrounding
sediments
collectsfood
particles
filterfeeding:
waterpasses
throughpharynx
andtheycatch
foodinamucus
bag

herbivores
,carnivores,
parasites,filter
feeders,detritus
feeders
sometimes
changes
dependingon
foodavailable
someeat
algae,plants,
worms,
mollusks,
arthropods,
deadfish,and
detritus
somearehighly
specialized
carnivoreslike
barracudas

Earlyfrogs(tadpoles)are

herbivoresthatmostlyeat
algae.

Whentheybecomefrogs
theyarealmostcompletely
carnivorous.
Theyeatalmostanything
thattheycancatchand
swallow.

Fromthemouththefood
goesdowntheesophagus
andintothestomach.

Resp/Circ relyon
Excretion movementof
water
oxygenin
waterdiffuses
intocells
wastediffuses
intowater

digestionis
completed
intracellularl
y
anything
thatisnot
digestedis
passedout
throughthe
mouth

swallowpreys
softtissue
octopiuse
sharpjawsto
eatprey
alsouse
poisons
clams,oysters
,andscallops
arefilter
feedersusing
featherson
them

after
digestion,
nutrientsare
transported
throughout
theirbody
bydiffusion
respireand
eliminate
thewasteof
cellular
metabolism
bydiffusion
through
bodywalls

typically
breatheusing
gillsinside
theirmantle
cavity.When
waterpasses
throughthe
mantlecavity,
oxygenand
carbondioxide
diffuseover
thesurfaceof
theanimal's
gills.Respire
withmantle
cavitythatis
linedwith
bloodvessels.
Theoxygen
candiffuse

AquaticAnnelids
usuallybreathe
throughgills.
Landdwelling
Annelidsoften
takeinoxygen
andgiveoff
carbondioxide
throughtheir
moistskin.
Annelids
produceathin
layerofmucus
whichkeeps
theirskinsoft.
Annelids
typicallyhavea
closed
circulatory
system.The

Mostfish
exchangegases
throughgills
locatedoneither
sideofthe
pharynx.The
gillsaremadeof
filaments.Fish
thatexchange
gasesthrough
theirgillsdoso
bytakingin
oxygenrich
waterintotheir
mouth.They
takethewater
fromtheirgill
filamentsand
afterpush
pooroxygen

acrossthe
surface
becauseitis
moist.The
circulatory
systemis
eitheropenor
closed.In
open
circulatory
systemblood
ispumped
through
vesselsbya
simpleheart.
Oxygenand
carbondioxide
areexchanged
andbackto
theheart.

bloodtravels
throughblood
vesselsthat
usually
circulatesfrom
headtotail.
Bloodinthetop
vesselmoves
towardthehead
oftheworm.
Bloodinthe
bottomvessel
runfromheadto
tail.Apairof
smallervessels
calledring
vesselsconnect
thedorsal(top)
andthe
ventral(bottom)
wheretheyalso
supplybloodto
theinternal
organs.Thetop
vesselfunctions
likeaheartand
helpspump
blood.Annelids
producetwo
kindsofwaste.
Theirdigestive
wastegoes
throughthe

waterout
through
openingsinthe
sideofthe
pharynx.The
gillsarehidden
beneatha
protectivebony
layercalledthe
operculum.They
haveaclosed
circulatory
systemthat
pumpsblood
aroundthebody
inasingleloop
usingtheheart.
Heathasfour
partssuchasthe
sinusvenosus,
atrium,ventricle,
andbulbus
arteriosus.The
sinusvenosusis
athinwalledsac
thatcollectsthat
collectsblood
fromthefishs
veinsbeforeit
flowsintothe
atrium.Itthen
entersthe
ventricle.Most

Respons
e

nonervous
systems
noresponse
tochangesin
environment
doprotect
themselves
withtoxins
when
dangerous
predatorsare
around

use
sensory
cellstogain
information
fromtheir
environment
nervenet
allows
cnidarians
todetect
stimulilike
touchof
foreign
objects
nervenetis
throughout
thebody
havea
groupof
sensory

nervous
systemsvary
usuallysmall
gangliarear
mouth
fewnerve
cords
senseorgans
chemical
receptorsand
eyespots

anusattheend
ofthedigestive
tract.The
cellularwaste
contains
nitrogenwhichis
eliminatedby
nephridiawhich
areexcretory
organsthatfilter
fluidinthe
coelom.

fishgetridof
wastethrough
theformof
ammonia.Some
wastegoes
throughthegills
andintothe
surrounding
water.Some
otherwasteis
movedfromthe
kidneys.

welldeveloped
nervoussystem
hasabrainand
severalnerve
cords
have
adaptationsfor
detectingstimuli:
sensory
tentacles,
chemical
receptors,
statocystshelp
detectgravity,
andtwoormore
pairsofeyes

nervous
systemsaround
thebrain
severalpartsto
nervoussystem
olfactorybulbs
areusedfor
senseofsmell
orolfaction
cerebrum
processessense
ofsmell
medulla
oblongata
controls
functionsof
manyinternal
organs
mostfishesthat
areactivein

Thebrainofafishis
almostthesameasthe
frog.Frogshavewell
developednervousand
sensorysystemslikethe
fish.
Anamphibianseyeare
largeandtheyitis
protectedbywater
damage.Alsowhenitison
landtheyeyeskeepmoist
onlandbyatransparent
nictitatingmembrane.
Althoughtheydonotsee
colorsaswellasfishdo.

cellsthat
allowfor
directionof
gravity
called
statocysts
eyespots
madeto
detectlight
Reproduc
tion

reproduce
eithersexually
orasexually.
1sponge
produceseggs
andsperm.
Useinternal
fertilization.
spermcarried
bywaterflow
untiltheyenter
theporesof
another
sponge.
Larvaisan
immature
stageofan
organismthat
looksdifferent
fromtheadult
form.
Theycan
reproduce
through

most
cnidarians
can
reproduce
both
sexuallyand
asexually.
theycan
alsobudby
beginning
witha
swellingon
thesideof
anexisting
polyp.
inmost
cnidarians,
sexual
reproduction
takesplace
withexternal
fertilization
inwater.
external

daylightsense
colors
sensegentle
currentand
vibrations

reproducein
manyways
reproduce
sexuallyby
external
fertilization
theyrelease
enormous
numbersof
eggsand
sperminto
openwater
eggsfertilized
inwaterand
developand
into
freeswimming
larvae
somemollusk
shave
fertilization
insidethe
body
acoupleof

reproduce
sexually
someuse
external
fertilization
someare
hermaphrodites
individuals
rarelyfertilize
theirowneggs
twowormswill
usuallyattachto
eachotherand
exchangesperm
andstorein
specialsacs
wheneggsare
readyfor
fertilizationa
clitellumorband
ofthickened
specialized
segmentscreate
amucousring

reproduce
sexully
externallyand
internally
dependingon
fish
layeggs
eggsthathtch
outofmoms
bodyare
ovoviviparous
eggsstayin
momsbodyare
viviparous

buddingin
whichthey
breakoffofthe
parentsponge,
settleonthe
seafloor,and
growintonew
sponges.

fertilization
mollusksare
takesplace hermaphrodite
outsidethe s
female's
body.
Althoughthe
sexesas
usually
separate.
females
release
eggsinto
thewater
andthe
male
releasesthe
sperm.
thezygote
growsintoa
freeswimmi
nglarva.
Thelarva
then
attachesto
ahard
surfaceand
developes
intoapolyp.
Thepolyp
buds
releasea
medusaand
thecycle

intowhicheggs
andspermare
released
fertilization
takesplacein
ring
oncetheringis
fertilizeditslips
offandyoung
wormsare
hatchedweeks
later

startsall
overagain.
Germ
layers

nogerm
layers

twogerm
layer

nogerm
layers

3germlayers

3germlayers

3germlayers

Cephaliz
ation

no
cephalization

no
cephalizatio
n

no
cephalization

has
cephalization

has
cephalization

hascephalization

Coelom

nocoelom

nocoelom

nocoelom

truecoelom
linedwithtissue
frommesoderm

truecoelom

truecoelom

Early
Develop
ment

noearly
development

noearly
developmen
t

noearly
development

protostome

embryo

tadpole